Diversity & Development: Promoting Early Literacy Skills of ELLs by 67thco

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									Diversity & Development:
Promoting Early Literacy Skills of ELLs

           Nonie K. Lesaux, PhD
          Reading First Conference
              Sturbridge, MA
            August 16-17, 2006
Outline

•K-12 Population Demographics
•Pressing Issues
•Preventing Reading Difficulties: Relevant Findings
•Misconceptions & Implications
America’s Kindergartners
            2%
                 2%
           1%


     19%
                            White, non-Hispanic
                            Black, non-Hispanic
                            Asian
                            Hispanic
3%                          Hawaiian Native
                            American Indian
                      58%
                            More than one race

 15%



                                   NCES, 2000
Freshman Statistics
                 3%
             2%
            1%
                            White/Caucasian
        4%
       1%                   African American/Black
  7%
                            American Indian/Alaska
  1%                        Native
                            Asian American/Asian
 9%
                            Native Hawaiian/Pacific
                            Islander
                            Mexican
                            American/Chicano
                            Puerto Rican
                      72%
                            Other Latino
    Ch ildren wh o Speak a Lan g u ag e Oth er Th an
                   En g lish at Home

                                                       1999
                                                       1989
                                                       1979




0           2           4            6      8
                num b er (in m illions )
Three Pressing Issues

1. Expanding our notion of ELL
     -size of population
     -language backgrounds

2. Expanding our notion of Early Intervention

3. Expanding our notion of vocabulary
Native Language Background
   20%


    440 languages
                                 Spanish
                                 Other




                    80%
                             NCES, 2004
Who is a Language Minority Learner?

    No single operational definition of ELL
    No universal classification criteria
    Significant proportion of children from homes
     where a language other than English is
     spoken are not classified as ELL
    Individuals from homes where a language
     other than English is actively used
        limited English proficiency, bilingual or even
         monolingual in English.
 Children            Children from
    with                diverse
 reading             backgrounds
difficulties




           Children from
            low-income
           backgrounds
Literacy Rates
    Americans in international reading assessments:
      4th graders among the top-scoring students internationally

      8th graders score in the middle of the pack

      12th graders third from the bottom



    In urban high-poverty schools, the majority of incoming 9th
     graders read at or below 7th grade level.

    Nationally, less than a quarter of Latino and less than a fifth of
     African-American adolescents can read and understand complex
     academic text.


                                                   Biancarosa & Snow, 2004
Context for Instruction

   Development of literacy skills and successful reading
    ability begins long before children enter school

   Ability to prevent reading difficulties by focusing on
    the early years
       Language development and experience with print

   Vocabulary knowledge in kindergarten is a
    significant predictor of reading comprehension in
    middle and secondary school


                                       Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998
                        •Language
                                       •Vocabulary
        •Concepts of    Processing
                                                       Metalinguistic Skills
           Print           Skills
                                                     Word learning
•Reading                                Size Depth   strategies
& Decoding
                                                •Background
•Spelling    LITERACY SKILLS                     Knowledge
& Writing
                                           •Interest
      •Book or text
                                       •Motivation
      type            •Understanding
                      of Purpose
                                                          Accuracy
             Phonological          Word
              Awareness           Reading                 Efficiency


                        READING                            • Background
  •Oral Language     COMPREHENSION                           Knowledge
                                                            •Interest
Vocabulary                                               •Motivation
  Word       Knowledge Metalinguistic                •Understanding of
  Learning of word        Skills       •Text         Purpose
  Strategies function or           Characteristics
             type

                             Organizational   Sentence
                             structure        structure
First Grade

• 78% (n=53) of sample still had English
  vocabulary scores 2 or more standard
  deviations below the mean at first grade.
English Vocabulary

 120
 100
  80
  60
  40
  20
   0
       Pre-K     Kdgn     First grade

  Low Vocabulary group   Full Sam ple
Word Reading – English

  120
  100
   80
   60
   40
   20
    0
        Pre-K     Kdgn        First
                             grade

   Low Vocabulary group   Full Sam ple
                                        Standard Score




                              70
                                   80
                                            90
                                                   100
                                                         110
                                                                           120


                  Accuracy


                  Decoding


                Automaticity




Word Reading
                 Expressive
                   Vocab

                  Receptive


                  List. Comp




Oral language
                    Passage
                     Comp
                                                               5th grade
                                                                             4th grade




Comprehension
                                                    5th grade

             100
             90
             80
             70
Percentile




             60
             50
             40
             30
             20
             10
               0

                   Gates macginitie comprehension
The Role of Vocabulary in Reading
Comprehension

Robust relationship between vocabulary and
  comprehension:

  1. When father heard that Lisa had ripped up the letter
     from Steve, father commended her for it.

  2. The mother made him get out and he ran off.

  3. Directions. Make and record three observations.
Current Body of Research

   Lack of converging lines of evidence of the
    developmental trajectories of literacy
       Implications for expectations, developing
        instructional methods

   No consensus about circumstances under
    which learning best happens
       Contextual and demographic information missing

   Paradox of research findings and
    achievement
Children from Diverse Backgrounds
     Low socioeconomic status further compounds the
      challenges of learning to read in a language in which
      they are not proficient.

     Difficult to disentangle the risk associated with
      poverty from the risk associated with limited
      proficiency.

     Neighborhoods and schools
Why Early Literacy Screening?

     For Children
          self-esteem

          reading   development


     For Schools
          lessintervention
          decreased learning assistance time



     For Society
          schooldropout, unemployment, antisocial
          and criminal behaviour.
Firm Foundations
        Firm Foundations
Step 1 – Circle skills teaching (I teach the skills sequentially as described in
        Firm Foundations).

Step 2 – Centre skills practicing (using games at the literacy centre).

Step 3 – Performance assessment (only the students I observe as less able).

Step 4 – Home and school intense guided play (time to involve the parents –
        playing the games individually or in small groups at school and at
        home.

Step 5 – Screening assessment (the whole class completes the
        TOPA test in January.

Step 6 – Intense intervention (Launch into Reading Success with a
classroom teacher, learning assistance teacher or aide).
  Firm Foundations
  Early Literacy Teaching and Learning


          Circle Time
Teach one skill at a time to the whole class
using direct instruction with songs, poems,
books, modeling and games.
        Firm Foundations
        Early Literacy Teaching and Learning

                        Circle Time
•Wishy Way Day (big book)              •Higglety Pigglety
•Alphabet Book                         •Take Home: Phonological
•Alpha Deck Cards                      Awareness

•A Big Book of Rhymes & Rhymes         •Rhyming Words Activity Kit
                                       •Beginning Sounds Activity Kit
•Kindergarten Teachers Resource Book
 Firm Foundations
 Early Literacy Teaching and Learning


       Centre Time
Practice the skill at the literacy centre with an
appropriate game or activity.
Firm Foundations
Early Literacy Teaching and Learning

      Performance
      Assessment
Assess selected students after the skill
has been taught and practiced.
 Firm Foundations
 Early Literacy Teaching and Learning


Home & School Intense
    Guided Play
   Send a literacy game home with the
   student who needs more practice.
     Firm Foundations
     Early Literacy Teaching and Learning


  Screening Assessment
In January test all the students in small groups
using a screening measure such as the TOPA.
Firm Foundations
Early Literacy Teaching and Learning

 Intense Intervention

Work with the at-risk students (below 25th
percentile) in very small pull out groups
using an intervention program such as
Launch into Reading Success.
The Development of Reading

   5 year longitudinal study
   North Vancouver, BC
   October, 1997 (Kindergarten)
   30 schools
   197 ESL and 1040 L1 speakers
   Varying SES
   Firm Foundations Early Literacy Curriculum
Grade 4 Longitudinal Sample



                n=860




         L1             ESL
        n=728           n=132
Languages in the Study
    Arabic          Italian
    Armenian        Jakartin
    Bulgarian       Japanese
    Chinese         Korean
    Croatian        Kurdish
    Czech           Norwegian
                     Polish
    Dutch
                     Punjabi
    English
                     Romanian
    Farsi           Russian
    Finnish         Serbian
    French          Slovak
    German          Spanish
    Greek           Swedish
    Hindi           Tagalog
    Hungarian       Tamil
    Indonesian      Turkish
Rhyme Identification
Syllable Identification
Phoneme Identification
Frequency of Reader Type by
Language Group
     L1 Speakers - Kindergarten                                ESL Speakers - Kindergarten

             3.80%
                           22.60%                              18.79%
                                                                                      30.45%
                                       At-risk                                                    At-risk
                                       Not at-risk                                                Not at-risk
                                       Borderline                                                 Borderline

    73.60%
                                                                 50.76%


    L1 Speakers – Grade 4                                         ESL Speakers – Grade 4


             1.78% 3.57%
                                                                                  3.79%
                                                                          3.03%



                                    Poor reader                                                Poor reader
                                    Typical reader                                             Typical reader
                                    Borderline                                                 Borderline


               94.65%                  Lesaux & Siegel, 2003                 93.18%
   Measures of Reading
                  90
                  80                                                      English typical
                                                                          reader
                  70
Mean percentile




                  60                                                      ESL typical
                                                                          reader
                  50
                  40                                                      Poor reader

                  30
                  20
                  10
                   0
                        WRAT       WJ w ord         WJ w ord
                       reading   identification      attack
                                                  Lesaux & Siegel, 2003
                  Reading Comprehension
                  60
                                          English typical
                                          reader
                  50
Mean percentile




                                          ESL typical
                  40                      reader


                  30                      Poor reader


                  20

                  10

                   0
                       Stanford reading
                       comprehension
                                                                       ic
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                                                              Sl                (L
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                                                                     is
                                                                   gl
                                                              En
                                                                              h
                                                                         is
                                                                   an
                                                              Sp
                                                                     i
                                                                   rs
                                                              Fa
Syntactic Awareness




                                                                         g
                                                                      lo
                                                                   ga
                                                              Ta
                                                                                se
                                                                         ne
                                                                   pa
                                                              Ja
                                                                         se
                                                                    ne
                                                                  hi
                      9                                       C
                          8
                              7
                                  6
                                      5
                                          4
                                              3
                                                  2
                                                      1
                                                          0
Implications of 5-Year Study

   ESL students and reading acquisition
         Achievement
         Identification
         Intervention

   Emphasis on oral language & phonological
    awareness
         Reading readiness and acquisition
         Decreased reading difficulties
Global Strategies

   Previewing and pre-reading strategies
   Repetition and routine
   Extending language
   Use of media
   Cooperative learning
   For ELLs: visuals, gestures, and
    promoting/working with first language
Vocabulary

   Emphasize the words over time and in different
    contexts
   Multiple exposures to build depth of knowledge
   Use stories as contexts for vocabulary learning
       Questioning, predictions, summary and reflections
   To the extent possible, choose readings containing
    only a limited number of new words.
   Readings should be considered comprehensible
    input i.e. at or just slightly above the student’s
    present level.
Selecting books
   At, or slightly below, ability level
            Ratio of new: known words
   Alliteration, rhyme, repetition
   Informational, concrete experiences
       Build background knowledge
   Relevant content
   Considers supports and scaffolds in the home
       Parents, older siblings
Second Language Acquisition:
Addressing Misconceptions

     Age differences
         Learning situation; time on task
     Localization vs. levels of learning
     Amount of language
         Demands of the environment
     Teaching methods
     Pronunciation/Accent
Lack of Exposure vs. Disorder

   Questions to consider
       Length and intensity of exposure
       Characteristics of native language
       Opportunities to learn
       Individual factors
           Schooling experience
           Social-emotional factors
       Assessment tools
Implications to consider…
   Great majority of learners from diverse
    backgrounds–including language minority learners
    –are not receiving any special support
   Sources of low achievement not limited to
    disability
   Opportunities to learn and instruction for all
    students a pressing issue
   Early intervention, beyond word reading, efforts a
    pressing issue
       oral language and vocabulary
Nonie K. Lesaux, PhD
Harvard Graduate School of Education
lesauxno@gse.harvard.edu

								
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