United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia
v.1.0 March 9, 2003
This peacekeeping mission was set up in 1993 and began operations in 1994. Its
objective is to ensure compliance with 12-km restricted zone between Akhbazia and
Georgia, and to monitor the CIS peacekeeping force in Georgia. The CIF force is
composed exclusively of Russian Federation troops, approximately 1700 in early
2003, with HQ at Sukhumi. UNOMIG maintains headquarters in Akhbazia and in
114 military observers in January 2003; more usually 106
195 local civilians
Chief Military Observer
Major General Kazi Ashfaq Ahmed [Bangladesh]
2 helicopters [a third induction is on hold]
38 Mine Protected Vehicles [25 Scout and 13 Nyala]
Liaison Office [Political Office]: Tbilisi
- Special representative of the Secretary General is headquartered here.
- 13 international civilians, 18 local civilians, 3 military observers.
Military HQ: Sukhumi [Abkhazia] [CMO, 36 military observers, 56 international
civilians, 75 local civilians.]
Sector HQ: Gali
- Three observation teams
- Medical team [if necessary, evacuation to Zugdidi or Sukhumi]
- 37 observers; 9 international civilians, 37 local civilians
- Patrol Akhbazia side of the border, use Mine Protected Vehicles
Sector HQ: Zugdidi
- Two observation teams
- Logistics base; communications workshop; engineering section
- 31 observers, 15 international civilians, 34 local civilians
- One observation team of several observers. Sent as needed from other
sectors, no staff are based here.
The observers mount daily patrols in Gali and Zugdid, and weekly patrols in the
Kodari Valley which separates secessionist Akhbazia from Gerogia [fortnightly in the
winter]. A patrol consists of 4 observers and an interpreter. In Gali 3 observer teams
are deployed; in Zugdidi, two observer teams are deployed. Kodari Valley patrols
take 3-4 days. A report from a typical patrol is given below, to show the format of
the mission’s reports.
Joint UNOMIG/CIS PKF Patrol to the Kodori Valley
28 February 2003
A joint UNOMIG/CIS PKF patrol returned from a four-day deployment to the Kodori
Valley on Friday 28 February 2003. The patrol reported that the situation in the
Upper Kodori Valley remains calm and found no evidence of any strangers or
restocking of weapons and ammunition. In the Lower Kodori Valley the patrol did
not observe any unusual or increased military activity.
A Day in the Life of a United Nations Military Observer (UNMO) in UNOMIG:
Patrolling the Georgian-Abkhazian Cease-Fire Line
By Major Jannich LUND
UNMO, Danish Army
The day started at 07.10 hrs when the duty officer made radio checks with all
personnel to ensure everything was in order, ready for another day’s work. The
morning briefing started at 08.00 hrs when the operation officer provided a bulletin
of the latest developments and the day’s patrol programme.
After that I gave my briefing to the team that would be out patrolling with me that
day. The patrol team consisted of UNMOs from Egypt, Poland, Russia, and a locally-
employed interpreter. In the briefing I highlighted the day’s tasks and gave a
rundown of the latest developments in our assigned area.
At 09.00 hrs the patrol left Sector HQ in two bullet-proof cars. We headed for our
first destination -- a small village near the Cease-Fire Line (CFL). In the village we
talked with the mayor, as well as with the local population. They were well disposed
towards the U.N., and we were able to get a clear picture of the situation in the
village. When we were about to continue with our patrol a radio call came in from
our Sector Commander. The local Georgian authorities had given him information
that the Commonwealth of Independent States Peace-Keeping Forces (CIS PKF), --
made up exclusively of 1,700 soldiers from the Russian Federation, -- had observed
an Armoured Personnel Carrier (APC) on the Georgian side of the Security Zone. If
this were the case a serious violation of the ceasefire agreement had occurred.
Therefore the Sector Commander ordered us to proceed to the spot without further
ado. However, when we passed through the area we found no sign of an armoured
vehicle. We then proceeded to the CIS PKF checkpoint which reported the APC
presence on the Georgian side. But the commander of the checkpoint stated that he
had not caught sight of any APC there, although he stated that he had observed six
APCs on the Abkhazian side of the CFL. At this point everyone was really confused
about what constituted facts and what represented misinformation. Therefore a
meeting was arranged at the particular site on the CFL at 19.00 hrs.
Representatives from Georgia, Abkhazia, the CIS PKF forces, and from both
UNOMIG Sectors, Gali (located on the Abkhaz side of the CFL) and Zugdidi, (located
on the Georgian side) all participated. The meeting started with the Abkhazians
claiming that they had observed an APC on the Georgian side - if no one could
explain the reasons for its presence there, they would open fire upon it. If one of the
parties in the conflict zone were to commence firing across the CFL it would
represent a very serious development: the repercussions - a possible resumption of
hostilities. The UNOMIG Sector Commander explained that if any APC was present in
the Security Zone, it was the job of the UN and CIS PKF soldiers to ensure it was
removed as rapidly as possible. Under no circumstances should the parties engage
in firing across the CFL. Also he was able to confirm that the UNOMIG patrol had
been at the site and no evidence had been found of any APC presence on the
Georgian side of the CFL. Later during the interchange the CIS PKF soldiers stated
that the checkpoint commander had caught sight of their own APC - final proof that
no APC from the parties present in the Security Zone had been there.
When the meeting finished and we went back to the Sector HQ the tense situation
had abated. A measured calm had been restored thanks to UNOMIG’s presence, for
the patrol had helped avert any possible escalation of the conflict.
So that night I slept soundly knowing that today our presence had made a
11 October 2001
United Nations Military Observer Group India Pakistan (UNMOGIP)
V. 1.0 January 7, 2001
The oldest of the United Nations' peacekeeping missions, UNMOGIP has been
deployed since 1949 to monitor the cease-fire between India and Pakistan following
the first Kashmir War (1947-48). Since 1972, India has refused to accept the
legitimacy of UNMOGIP, but it continues to be deployed because the United Nations
believes its mandate can be terminated only by the consent of both parties. While
the movement of observers on the Indian side is restricted, India continues to
provide the needed wherewithal for the Group to operate on the Indian side.
The Cease-Fire Line between the two adversaries was demarcated from NW605550
near Chaamb in the southwest to NJ980420 at the foot of the Saltoro Range in the
northeast. An intriguing discrepancy in deployments is that the Group has seven field
stations in Pakistan Kashmir, and only four in Indian Kashmir. Further, the Group has
no field stations in North Kashmir on the Indian side. After 1971, fighting between
the two adversaries has taken place primarily in North Kashmir, with the Siachin
Glacier confrontation dating from 1984 to the present and the Kargil conflict in 1999.
The Chief Military Observer, Major-General Manuel Saavedra (Uruguay), heads the
The Group's strength as of December 1, 2000 consists of 124 personnel:
45 military observers
28 international civilian personnel
51 local civilian staff
The military observers are from:
Republic of Korea
The Group's HQ is at Islamabad, Pakistan between November and April, and at
Srinager, Kashmir, India between May and October. Field Stations are at:
* Gilgit and Skardu are the main towns of the Northern Territories, a region of
Kashmir that was put under Pakistan's direct rule and is considered, by Pakistan, to
be no longer part of the disputed state.
A map of the deployment is available at
v.2.0 February 4, 2001
This copyright article is by Mr. Philip Boshier. Kindly read the NOTE carefully.
NOTE: The main difficulty with providing an Order of Battle for KFOR is that the unit
is essentially changing all the time as national contingencies are re-deployed and
deployed as per the policy of each individual contributing state. Therefore, the
following Order of Battle includes dates in brackets against the main brigades and
commands; these dates show the time of the latest available information on the
make-up of that force. Even so, national contingents will still continue to rotate
independently of the multi-national brigade HQ and this means that although every
effort has been, and will be made to keep this Order of Battle up-to-date, their may
well be subtle differences in the make-up of KFOR as when you read this. However,
even though individual regiments and battalions may come and go, a battalion or
company or any such other, will normally be replaced by a unit of the same size and
composition; for example when 45 Commando rotates out, its place will be taken by
another infantry battalion.
To provide a summary of KFOR, we reproduce below KFOR V.1.0 from the December
17, 2000 issue.
KFOR November 2000
The principal ground forces in KFOR are:
HQ KFOR Pristina
Multinational Brigade North (France) Kosovska
Multinational Brigade West (Italy) Pec
Multinational Brigade Center (UK) Pristina
Multinational Brigade East (US) Urosevac
Multinational Brigade South (Germany) Prizren
Airborne Battalion (Reserve)
Headquarters Kosovo Force (MAIN) – Pristina, Kosovo (February 2001)
On 16 October 2000, Kosovo Force 4 came into being under the command of the
Italian Lieutenant General Carlo Carbigiosu. The HQ comprises some 350 staff from
Canada, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, the
United Kingdom and the United States. The staff personnel themselves come from
two Joint Sub Regional Commands: Joint Command South (JCSOUTH) and Joint
Command South East (JCSOUTHEAST). Both are under command of Commander-in-
Chief Allied Commander Southern Europe (or CINCSOUTH). Previously, command
staffs have been rotated at six-month intervals: The first KFOR HQ was drawn from
the HQ Allied Rapid Reaction Corps (or ARRC under the British Lieutenant General Sir
Mike Jackson), then HQ Land Forces Central Europe (or LANDCENT under the
German General Klaus Rheinhardt), and then in April 2000, HQ Euro Corps (or
EUROCORPS under the Spaniard Lieutenant-General Juan Ortuno) deployed to be
replaced by the present command.
Hungary: (1) HQ Platoon; (2) Guard Companies; (1) Logistic Company.
Ireland: Irish Transport Company comprising: (1) Company HQ; (1) Transport
Platoon; (1) Repair and Recovery Section; (1) Security Section; National Support
Headquarters Kosovo Force (REAR) – Gazella Shoe Factory, Skjope, FYROM (March
HQ KFOR (REAR) has the responsibility of sustaining KFORs so-called Communication
Zones in Albania, Greece, FY Macedonia and to a lesser extent Bulgaria. The mission
of the HQ is the reception, staging, onward movement and integration of KFOR
contingents on their way to Kosovo through the Communication Zones from ports
and airfields in Albania and Greece. The commander in March 2000 was Major
General Volker Lowe from Germany.
Communications Zone-West (COMMZ-W) – Durress, Albania (July 2000)
Communication Zone West provides secure Lines of Communication through Albania
and along the Albanian/Kosovo border. The command is directly under HQ KFOR
(REAR) and the commander is one Brigadier General Amilcare Casalotto from the
Italian Army. Contributing countries follow: Italy (lead nation) – Budget and
Administration Section; Logistic Command including a Field Hospital; 3rd Heavy
Artillery Regiment; 26th Air Cavalry Squadron ‘Giove’; 72nd Italian Air Force Wing;
HQ Support Battalion; and a Carabienri (Provost) Company. Plus: Turkey, Greece,
United States, Germany and Denmark.
Communications Zone-South (COMMZ-S) – Thessanoliki, Greece (February 2001)
Communication Zone South accomplishes essentially the same mission as
Communication Zone West but in Greece. The commander is Colonel Sarris from the
Greek Army. Sadly information is scarce at the moment on this formation.
Contributions may range from formed units to single staff-officers. The contributing
units are as follows: Greece (lead nation), Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark,
Finland, Norway, United Kingdom and the United States.
Greek Force Support Unit (GFSU) – Kosovo Polje, Camp Alexander the Great
The HQ of this brigade sized unit is provided by the Greek 34th Mechanised Brigade
which comes directly under the command of HQ KFOR (MAIN); the force comprises
some 1676 personnel, nearly all Greek. The commander is Brigadier General Christos
Vafiadis. The formations comprising this unit follow (all are Greek):
HQ Company; Medical Battalion; Signals Company; Provost Company; Engineer
Company; Combat Service Support Battalion; TFC Company; 507th Mechanised
Main Support Unit (MSU) – Pristina, Kosovo (February 2001)
This is a small 320-man unit that comes directly under HQ KFOR (MAIN). Its mission
is essentially one of law enforcement in Kosovo and its commander is one Colonel
Leonardo Leso of the Italian Army.
Italy (lead nation): (1) Regiment of Italian Carabinieri (provost).
Estonia: (1) Platoon.
Multi-National Brigade (Centre) (MNB (C)) – Pristina, Kosovo (September 2000)
3 Commando Brigade, of the British Royal Marines provides the HQ of this brigade.
The commander is Brigadier Robert Fry MBE.
United Kingdom (lead nation): HQ and HQ Signal Squadron Royal Marines; 1st
Battalion Princess of Wales’ Royal Regiment; 45 Commando Royal Marines; Battery
and HQ of 1 Regiment Royal Horse Artillery; 26 Engineer Regiment; Medical
Squadron, Commando Logistic Regiment; Royal Marine Police Troop; Royal Marine
Czech Republic: (1) Reconnaissance Company comprising: (2) Long Range Recce
Platoons, (1) Armoured Recce Platoon, (1) EOD Team, Signal Detachment, Staff
Section, Logistic Detachment, Military Police Unit, Medical Support, CMO Section; 2
National Support Element.
Canada: 1st Battalion, Royal Canadian Regiment (1 infantry bn); Royal Strathcona’s
Horse Recce Squadron; Kosovo Rotary Wing Aviation Unit – 408 Tactical Helicopter
Squadron; (1) Security Company.
Finland: FINBAT comprising: (1) Bn HQ; (1) HQ and Combat Support Company; (1)
Logistic Company; (3) Motorised Companies; (1) EW Team; National Support
Latvia: (1) Platoon sized element.
Norway: NORBN II comprising: (1) Battalion HQ; (3) Motorised Companies; (1)
Combat Support Company; (1) Combat Service Support Company; (1) ARING
Sweden: KS O3 (Bn sized unit). (1) Battalion HQ; 1, 2 and 3 Mechanised Companies;
(1) Logistics Company. A British Company is under OPCON (from PWRR).
MNB (West) – Pec, Kosovo (November 2000)
The Italian Airborne Brigade ‘Folgore’ under Brigadier General Pierluigi Torelli
provides the HQ for this NATO brigade. There are some 4679 Italian, 902 Spanish,
308 Portuguese and 54 Argentine personnel under command.
Italy (lead nation): Logistic Battalion: FOLGORE; Task Force FALCO: 66th Mech
TRIESTE Regiment; Task Force AQUILA: 18th Bersaglieri Regiment; Task Force
SAURO: 132nd Tank Regiment; Task Force SAURO: 4th Genova Cavalry Group; Task
Force ISTRICE: TERAMO Group, 11th Artillery Regiment; 1st Signal Regiment,
TRASIMENO; Task Force ISTRICE: 6th Engineering Regiment; Btn ORSA MAGGIORE,
211th Army Air Corps Regiment; Italian Military Field Hospital Unit, 9th Parachutist
Assault Regiment Special Forces Detachment, 1st Air Force Detachment.
Argentina: (1) Field Hospital.
Portugal: Task Force Pegasus comprising: (1) Company from 13th Infantry Regt; (1)
Cavalry Troop (Coy) from 6th Cavalry Regiment; (1) Combat Service Support
Spain: Task Force Galicia comprising: (1) Infantry Battalion from the Zamora
Battalion, Principe Regt, Galicia Brigade; (1) Light Cavalry Troop from Light Cav Regt
MNB (East) – Urosevac, Kosovo (September 2000)
The HQ for this NATO brigade is provided by the composite US Task Force Falcon – a
brigade sized formation. The commander is Brigadier General Kenneth Jr Quinlain
obviously of the US Army. The Brigade comprises some 8,800 personnel.
United States (lead nation): Task Force Falcon comprising: First Armoured Division,
2nd Brigade: 1/35 Armour; 2/6 Infantry; 1/6 Infantry; 40th Engineers; 4/27 Field
Artillery; 47th Forward Support Battalion; 1/501 Aviation; 2/501st Military Police
Company; 793 Military Police Battalion; 1/4 Air Defence Artillery; 141 Signal; 2-327
Infantry; 22nd Mobile Public Affairs Detachment; 1/44th Target Acquisition Battery;
4/10th Civil Affairs Detachment; 9th Psychological Operation Detachment; 10th
Special Forces Group; Special Weather Operations.
Greece: 34th Mechanised Brigade (see Greek Support Unit)
Italy: (units drawn from main Italian contingent (see MNB (W))
Lithuania: (1) Platoon sized element.
Poland: 18th Air Assault Battalion (although it is possible that this unit has rotated
out, nonetheless one expects another infantry unit should have replaced it).
Russia: 13th Tactical Group – presumably a polyglot of units at Battalion strength.
Equipped with BDM and BTR vehicles.
Ukraine: Ukrainian part of UKRPOLBAT comprising: (2) Special Companies
comprising military police and engineering troops; 14th Helicopter Squadron.
United Arab Emirates: (1) Battalion (-) apparently with AH-64s!
MNB (North) – Mitrovica, Kosovo (late 2000)
The French Framework Brigade ‘Leclerc’ under Brigadier General Christian-Charles
Falzone provides the HQ for this NATO Brigade.
France (lead nation): Headquarters Nantes Ground Forces; (1) Motorised Rifle
Battalion; (1) Mechanised Infantry Battalion; Gendarmerie; (1) Helicopter Battalion;
Medical Units; (1) Engineer Battalion; (1) Command and Support Battalion.
Belgium: Battalion HQ; (1) Reconnaissance Company; (1) Tank Company; (1)
Mechanised Infantry Company; (1) Combat Support Company; (1) Field Hospital; (1)
Helicopter Detachment (A109); National Support Element.
Denmark: (2) Infantry Companies; (1) Tank Squadron; (1) Military Police
Detachment; (1) Engineer Company.
Morocco: (1) Field Medical Battalion.
Russia: 14th Company Team / 14th Battle Group comprising: (3) Airborne
Companies; (1) Mortar Company; (5) Force and Logistics Platoons.
United Arab Emirates: (1) Battalion (+) with 14 Leclerc MBTs.
MNB (South) – Prizren, Kosovo (December 2000)
An unknown German Brigade, no doubt from the German Rapid Reaction Troops,
provides the HQ. The 12th Panzer Brigade was the formation that entered into
Kosovo in June 1999. The current commander is Brigadier Wolf-Dieter Langheld. The
Brigade is organised into a number of task forces all named after their area of
responsibility – the national formations that comprise each task force are unknown
at the moment and in all likelihood the make-up of each task force changes from
time to time; they are as follows: TF Prizren (German), TF Zur (German/Turkish), TF
Dragas (Turkish/Azerbaijan), TF Dulje (Austrian/Swiss) and TF Malisevo (Russian).
Germany (lead nation): Information on the present day German contingent is
incredibly scarce, at least using the author’s sources. However, we include the OOB
of the German contingent that originally entered Kosovo in June 1999; it will give
some idea and is better than nothing: KFOR national contingent headquarters;
Brigade HQ with headquarters and service company; (1) signal battalion; (1)
headquarters and service company; (1) Signal company; (1) mixed army aviation
unit; (1) military police company; (1) Field camp service company; (1) combat
Service Support regiment; (1) Light Infantry battalion; (1) Paratrooper battalion; (1)
mechanised battalion; (1) engineer battalion; (1) armoured engineer company; (1)
service battalion; (1) Drone battery; (1) Security company; (1) field camp
installation company; (1) light SAM battery; (1) Port and Maritime Company; (1)
Medical combat support unit; (1) PsyOps Platoon; (1) Luftwaffe Defence Company.
Netherlands: 11th Armoured Field Artillery Battalion.
Austria: (1) Armoured Infantry Battalion (-).
Azerbaijan: (1) Motorised Platoon under the Turkish Battalion
Bulgaria: (1) Engineer Platoon under the German Engineer Battalion.
Georgia: (1) Motorised Platoon under the Turkish Battalion.
Russia: a small, yet unknown military presence, probably drawn from other Russian
units in KFOR.
Slovakia: (1) Engineer Platoon under Austrian contingent.
Switzerland: The Specialised Swiss Army Company under the Austrians – seems to
be mainly devoted to engineering tasks.
Turkey: (1) Reinforced Mechanised Battalion
United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC)
v.1.0 February 25, 2001
This United Nations mission began on November 30, 1999. Its current mandate runs
to June 15, 2001.
Though authorized 5,537 troops, up to 500 military observers, and various civilian
specialists and support personnel, as of January, 2001, only the following had
183 military observers
216 international civilian personnel
142 local civilian personnel
This was because neither the indigenous rebel movements nor foreign interventionist
forces had withdrawn despite being bound to do so under the 1999 Lusaka
agreement. Latest reports in February 2001 indicate that foreign troops will start
withdrawing in March.
Both the mission and the conditions that led to its deployment are unusual. No fewer
than eight neighbor states deployed troops to the DRC to fight for or against the
government. The war involves every state with which the DRC has a border except
for Tanzania. Never in the history of modern Africa had so many countries been
involved in the same war at one time. The mission is unusual in that while it has its
HQ in Kinshasa, it has also deployed liaison missions in seven neighboring countries
to monitor the withdrawal of those countries' contingents. There is no mission in
The liaison missions are in:
Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)
The force commander is Major-General Montaga Diallo of Senegal, and Kamel
Morjane of Tunisia is the UN Secretary General's representative and Chief of mission.
Approximately $141 million was committed as financing for the mission for the year
ending June 15, 2001.
As of February 2001, observers from 34 countries within the DRC were stationed at
Military Liaison Offices in the following provinces (observers in parentheses):
Kinshasha (HQ) (2)
A map is available at http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/dpko/monuc.pdf
and details of the mission are available at
UNMEE: United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea
v.2.1 July 7, 2002
Special Representative of the Secretary General and Head of Mission
Legwaila Joseph Legwila [Botswana]
Deputy Special Representative
Cheikh-Tidiane Gaye [Senegal]
Asmara, Eritrea/Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
The mission is currently authorized through September 15, 2002.
Strength as of March 15, 2002
218 military observers
253 local civilians
Commander: Major-General Patrick C. Cammerth (Netherlands)
Deputy Commander and Chief Military Observer: Brigadier General Peter Manyara
UNMEE patrols a Temporary Separation Zone 1000-km long and 25-km wide
between Ethiopia and Eritrea. The TSZ is divided into three sectors. A total of four
infantry battalions and three engineer companies for demining are deployed as the
core of the force. Observers function in 15-man teams from bases in the TSZ, with
small parties in the mission capitals. The observers and troops come from 30
Note: Before the arrival of the INDBAT in June 2001, one company of 12th Marattha
Light Infantry and an engineer construction company were sent to UNMEE, the
former as a force reserve. In June the full INDBAT (a battalion group of 988 troops)
replaced the Netherlands/Canadian Battalion. NECBAT was from SHIRBRIG, a
multinational force committed to UN peacekeeping operations. It was intended to
serve an initial six months to give other troops a chance to settle in, after which the
SHIRBRIG troops would be withdrawn.
HQ troops: include Guard and Administration Company (approximately 230 troops)
Level II hospital: (Jordan)
Aviation Support Unit: approximately 150 (Italy), based at Asmara
Construction Engineers: approximately 150 (India)
Infantry battalion: Jordanian Battalion (about 850)
Engineer company: Slovakia (about 210)
Infantry battalion: Indian Battalion, 27th Rajput (about 850); total Indian
Engineer Company: Bangladesh (about 170)
Logistics Base: Dek'emhae (approximately 800 troops; countries in current
Observers: Approximately 90 plus support staff
Infantry battalion: Kenyan Battalion (about 600)
Engineer Company: Kenya
United Nations Mission Observers Prevlaka
v.1.0 April 14, 2002
Set up in 1996 to monitor demilitarization of Prevlaka Peninsula, which lies along the
southern border between Croatia and Yugoslavia. The HQ is at Cavtat. Strength as
of January 31, 2002, is 27 military observers; supported by 3 international civilian
personnel and 6 local civilian staff.
United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus
v.1.0 December 8, 2002
Established in 1964, UNFICYP is one of the oldest peacekeeping operations. The
force patrols a 180 km long zone, which extends from 20 meters to 7,000 meters
wide. The force has suffered 170 fatalities in 38 years.
Commander: Major General Jin Ha Hwang [ROK]
Mobile Force Reserve Company
UN Flight [Argentine Contingent]
35 civilian police [Australia, Ireland; man five civilian police stations]
43 international civilian personnel
104 local civilian personnel
Sector 1 [western Cyprus]
[The ARGCON includes several personnel from other South American countries]
Sector 2 [Nicosia, central Cyprus]
Sector 3 [Famagusta, eastern Cyprus]
1 Slovakian Company
1 Hungarian Company
Note on Sector 3
This sector was permanently disestablished in 1993 when the Canadian contingent