UNIT – 4

    Pre-independence period
    After independence
    Government role in providing finance

                 MBA0933   Sources of Finance   1

     Short Term Finance – Funds required for a period of less than

      one year. These funds are usually required to meet variable,

      seasonal or temporary working capital requirements.

                   - borrowings from banks

                   - trade credit

                   - installment credit

                   - customer advance

                       MBA0933   Sources of Finance              2
   Medium Term Finance – The period of one year to five years
    may be considered to be medium term finance. This is usually
    required for permanent working capital, small expansions,
    replacements, modifications etc.,

                  - issue of shares / debentures

                  - borrowing from banks and other financial

                   - ploughing back of profits.

                       MBA0933   Sources of Finance                3
   Long term Finance – The period exceeding 5 years is termed as
    long term finance. Long term finance is required for procuring
    fixed assets, establishment of new businesses.,
                - Issue of shares,

               - Issue of debentures,

               - Loans from financial institutions,

                - Ploughing back of profits (for existing concerns)

                       MBA0933   Sources of Finance                   4
Sources Of Finance:

   SSU – the personal funds of entrepreneurs form a substantial
         proportion of the total assets. Most of the units are not
    corporate units. They run a considerably higher risk.
   Sources of Finance is classified into two categories as-

      Fixed – State Governments (SFC-State Financial Corporations)

              Corporations (SSIC – State Small Industries
    Corporation,SIDC – Small Industries Development Corporation)

              State Bank Of India

              Commercial Banks

                          MBA0933   Sources of Finance               5
Working Capital - Commercial Banks

                  Special Agencies ( SIICOM – State Industrial &
   Investment Corporation of Maharashtra, GIIC – Gujarat
   Industrial Investment Corporation)

                   Co-operative Banks

    Broadly speaking the various sources from which an
   entrepreneur can raise funds are enumerated in its balance

                      MBA0933   Sources of Finance                 6
It is grouped under the following heads:

Internal Source Of Capital –

         A. Paid Up Capital – Ordinary shares, Preference Shares,

             Deferred Shares and forfeited shares.

          B. Reserve Surplus – Capital Reserves, Development

             rebate reserves and others.

          C. Provisions – Taxation and Depreciation.

                       MBA0933   Sources of Finance                 7
   External Source of Capital –

        D. Borrowings – from banks, from term lending institutions

           like IDBI,IFCI,ICICI,Industrial Development

           Corporations etc., from government agencies.

         E. Trade Dues and Other Current Liabilities- Sundry

           Creditors and others.

                       MBA0933   Sources of Finance              8
          The share distribution of source and of all
 companies and profit making companies is the the
companies dependencies on all financial institutions and
banks is to the extent of 40 percent of its total funds and
60 percent on internal sources.

      The funds which an industry can raise depends on
its productive activity and its uses ( Gross Fixed Assets ,
Working Capital ).

                  MBA0933   Sources of Finance                9
Analysis Of Financial Ratios –

         Debt Equity ratios, Turnover to net worth ,return on

       capital employed, net profit as a percentage of net worth,

       dividend paid to shareholders , ratio of current assets to

       current liabilities.

                         MBA0933   Sources of Finance               10
Norms for inventory and receivables:

           For an efficient management of assets, this committee
  suggested norms for Ram Materials, Stock in Progress, Finished
  Goods and Receivables.
          These norms represent the maximum level of holding
inventory and receivables in each industry.

Coverage: Applicable to all industrial borrowers including SSI with

          aggregate limits in excess of Rs.10 lacs.

                        MBA0933   Sources of Finance              11
   The norms for the 4 kinds of CA are related to –
                         Cost Of Production
                         Cost Of Sales, and

   If the carryover of any one kind of asset is higher than the
relative normal level, the surplus is treated as excess and any
shortfall is treated as deficit.

                       MBA0933   Sources of Finance               12
Scientific Approach to Working Capital:

         Factors that affect the need for Working Capital

             - terms offered by suppliers

             - terms offered to customers

             - lead time for inventory

             - seasonal fluctuations in sales

             - level of stock.

                      MBA0933    Sources of Finance         13
    These factors may be used to relate the Balance Sheet items
to sales volume.

   It is the relationship that exists between the amount of CA and
   CL and the volume of sales.

   To develop the model the steps involved to analyze the
   working capital are –
         1. Analyse the relevant factors of a companies situation.
          2. Improvement through observation and experience.
           3. Tool for the assessment of the size of WC.

                       MBA0933   Sources of Finance               14

Effective Financial Management is based on three factors:

1.Analysis of past performance.

2.Planning for future activities.

3.Control of current activity.

       The WC has therefore to be managed properly especially by
     the SSI’s, because over or under circulation may create
     volatile problems.

                         MBA0933    Sources of Finance        15
               PROJECT FINANCING

          Project finance means the arrangement of
 sufficient funds to finance the development and
construction of a specific project. The ways and means of
financing a project depends upon the type and
development and will vary from project to project.
Project finance is both short term and long term.

Project Financing:
It was a fairly simple banking exercise. Of late, the
changes in the economic environment is mainly considered
for financing.
      The figures for total investment, technical
 innovation, inflation changes brings forth the importance
of a national approach to project financing.
                  MBA0933   Sources of Finance               16
             The figures for total investment, technical innovation,
    inflation changes brings forth the importance of a national
    approach to project financing.

           The gamut of “feasibility” covers the following areas:
     Technical feasibility
     Commercial feasibility
     Economic viability
     Cost of the project
     Financial viability
     Organisational and management structure.

                       MBA0933   Sources of Finance                 17
Paradigm Shift in Project Finance:

   Equity (Old-Ordinary Shares) – Ordinary shares, Preference
    shares, Non-voting shares, Global Depository Receipts,
    American Depository Receipts.

   Debt (Old – Term loans, Debentures) – Term Loans,
    Debentures, Non-Recourse Finance, Zero Coupon/Deep
    Discount Bonds, Euro Bonds etc.,

   Convertibles( Old – Convertible Debentures) – Convertible
    Debentures, Redeemable Cumulative Convertible Preference
    Shares, etc.,

   Leasing (Old – Financial Leases) – Financial Leases, Operating
    Leases, Vendor Leases etc.,

                       MBA0933   Sources of Finance              18

           It refers to the total investment of money, tangible
assets like buildings and intangible assets like goodwill. It is, in a
 way aggregate wealth of a unit or a company.

            Net Capital refers to excess of total assets to total

             It is the sum total of all long term securities issued by
a company and the surpluses not meant for distribution, it
includes only term loans and retained profits.

                         MBA0933   Sources of Finance                19
Overcapitalisation Vs Undercapitalisation:

     If a company raises more capital than is warranted by the
 figure of capitalisation or its earning power, it is said to be
    A company is under-capitalised when its capital is lower than is
 warranted by its earning capacity.
Difference between OC and UC-
1.     Rate of Return
2.     Earning capacity-Low/high
3.     Utilisation- Inefficient/efficient
4.     Financial position- Weak/strong.
5.     Mkt value of share – less/more.

                        MBA0933   Sources of Finance               20
Capital Structure:

Capital Structure of a Company: This is broadly classified into two
       Ownership Securities and Creditorship Securities
       -Equity Shares              - Debentures
       - Preference Shares              -Simple, Registered,
            -Cum/Non-cum,               -Secured, Unsecured,
             -Reducible/Irred,          - Reducible, Irreducible

                        MBA0933   Sources of Finance              21
Finance for Large Scale Industries:

•   By the issue of shares of different types and debentures,

•   By ploughing back a part of the profits made by an industry,

•   By inviting long term deposits from the public,

•   By raising long term loans from public financial institutions.

    Equity Shares – It means ownership interest or the interest of
    shareholders as measured by capital and reserves.
    Debentures – A document under the company’s seal which
    provides for the payment of a principal sum and interest at
    regular intervals.

                        MBA0933   Sources of Finance                 22
Preference Vs. Equity Shares:

•   Right of receiving dividend

•   Right of receiving back their capital

•   Rate and magnitude of dividend

•   Voting rights

•   Face Value

•   Redeemability

•   Capital

                        MBA0933   Sources of Finance   23
Shareholders Vs Debentureholders:

•   Nature Of Capital

•   Status

•   Income

•   Repayment

•   Position at winding up

•   Rights and privileges

•   Taxation

•   Issues

                             MBA0933   Sources of Finance   24
Lease Financing:

     Lease financing is the easiest way of financing capital
 expenditure without going through the time consuming process of
obtaining term loan assistance from financial institutions and
   - Lessor

  - Manufacturer of Asset

  - Lessee

                      MBA0933   Sources of Finance             25

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