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									                                                                                   SIDS Intervention Device
                                                 James R. Lawrence, III ▪ Chase Buckner ▪ Jacob King ▪ Shawn Campbell ▪ Steven Decker ▪ Mao Mao Yu

                                                                          North Carolina State University Department of Biomedical Engineering

               Identifying a Medical Problem                                                                     Mechanics of the Intervention                                                                             Sole Housing
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) kills an estimated 2,000                                                                                       The Babinski Reflex
infants a year in the United States. During a SIDS event, the infant                                                                                                                            Due to the unique nature of our approach to
                                                                                                                                    Elicited when the sole of foot is                         SIDS prevention, no piece was on the market to
experiences apnea and hypoxia which ultimately lead to death.
                                                                                                                                   stimulated with force                                       satisfy our needs. Therefore, we designed the
There is no known cause for SIDS and thus no pharmacologic cure.
Current medical devices on the market provide monitoring to detect                                                                  Commonly tested at most physical                          piece pictured to the right to house the pulse
the symptoms of SIDS and have an auditory alarm to alert nearby                                                                    exams when a physician strokes the                          oximeter, solenoid, and Sun SPOT®.
parents, but offer no action to disrupt the event and save infant life.                                                            bottom of the foot                                           We used FDM Rapid Prototyping to fabricate
To address this apparent need in the marketplace, our product                                                                                                                                  the sole housing.
                                                                                                                                    The first step in EMT protocol to rouse
features a monitoring device and an active intervention element.
                                                                                                                                   an unresponsive infant                                       The ribs detailed in the picture were necessary
                                                                                           DC Push Frame Solenoid
                                                                                                                                    Our device stimulates the Babinski                        to provide support and to eliminate excess
                                                                                                                                   reflex using a DC push frame solenoid                       material.
                  Components of our Design                                                                                         connected to a wireless microcontroller.

  Pulse Oximeter sensor to detect infant vital signs                                                                                                                                                                             Results
                                                                                                            Sun SPOT®
  Solenoid to elicit Babinski Reflex                                              Because restrictive wires pose an obvious                                                                   Proof of concept design
                                                                                  risk to the infant, we chose a wireless
  Sun SPOT® Microcontroller to process signal from pulse oximeter                microcontroller to monitor the infant’s status                                                                Bread board circuit
   and to fire                                                                    as well as provide power to the solenoid.                                                                     Functioning electrical circuit
                                                                                   A Sun SPOT® microcontroller was donated                                                                     Design history file to satisfy FDA
  Sole Housing to hold pulse oximeter, solenoid, and Sun SPOT®
                                                                                  for learning purposes by Sun Microsystems.                                                                   Quality System Regulations
   on the infant’s foot
                                                                                   The Sun SPOT® contains not only wireless
                                                                                  transmission capabilities, but also has the
                         Pulse Oximetry                                           Java based processing power needed to                                                                                                               Used oscilloscope to detect
                                                                                  calculate the SpO2 level and the battery                                                                                                           pulsations
  Pulse Oximetry uses                                                            power output needed to fire the connected
 alternating red and infrared                                                     solenoid.                                                                                                                                           Used basic pulse oximeter
 light shining through the skin                                                                                                                             Sun SPOT ®                                                               data processing algorithm to
 onto a photodiode to measure                                                                                                                                                                                                        fire solenoid
 the oxygen content of
 hemoglobin in the blood.
  Most pulse oximeters shine                                                                                      Overall Electronic Design                                                                                Next Steps
 through the finger as shown                                                              Process (1)                                Process (2)               Process (3)                      Develop a more sophisticated pulse oximeter processing algorithm
 below. However, in the case of            Pediatric Pulse Oximeter                                                                                                                             Miniaturize breadboard circuit onto a printed circuit board
 infants, the light waves can be               Sensor in Action                                          Filter/                                                       Read                     Embed circuitry and pulse oximeter sensory system into a sock
                                                                                 Sensor                               Sun SPOT®               A/D Conversion
 shone through an entire                                                                                Amplify                                                       Values                   that can be comfortably worn by an infant
 appendage as illustrated to the                                                                                                                                                 Process (4)
                                                                                                                                                                                                Incorporate a wireless base station model to provide an auditory
                                                                                                                     Process (6)
 right.                                                                                                                                                No
                                                                                                                                                                                               alarm to wake nearby parents
                                      For infants, the typical SpO2
                                                                                                                                        Yes                          Calculate
                                                                                                        Infant           Solenoid              Intervention?
                                     (blood oxygen level) value is
                                     100% due to newly developed                                                                                                 Process (5)                                           Acknowledgements
                                     and undamaged vasculature.                Process (1) – An operational amplifier receives the pulse oximeter signal and it is filtered through a 1
                                                                              to 6 Hz band-pass filter.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dr. David Lalush, Project Sponsor
                                      In the event of an apneic                                                                                                                                  Dr. Bart Greene, NCSU Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering
                                     episode, the oxygen content of            Process (2) and (3) – The onboard A/D Converter on the Sun SPOT® converts pulse oximeter sensor
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dr. Ola Harrysson, NCSU Dept. of Industrial & Systems Engineering
                                     the infant’s blood rapidly falls         signal into a readable digital output.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  David Simmons, Sun Microsystems
                                     below normal levels.                      Process (4) and (5) – A Java program algorithm uses the real-time sensor signal to detect a SIDS                  Nancy J. Dulin, Carolinas Medical Center
                                                                              event. If no event is detected, the program continues to run and monitor the infant’s vital signs.
Pulse Oximetry Operating Principle                                                                                                                                                                Andrew DiMeo, Senior Design Instructor
                                                                               Process (6) – If a SIDS event is detected, the program sends a signal to fire the solenoid which                  Our Parents
                                                                              passes through a transistor. The solenoid strikes the infant’s foot and elicits the Babinski Reflex.

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