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					                                        George Washington
                                    st
                                  1 President of the United States
                                               In Office
                                    April 30, 1789-March 3, 1797
Vice President
John Adams
1st Cabinet
     Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson—1790-1793
     Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton—1789-1795
     Secretary of War: Henry Knox—1789-1794
     Attorney General: Edmund Jennings Randolph—1789-1794
1st Chief Justice—John Jay

Born
February 22, 1732
Pope’s Creek, Westmoreland County, Virginia
Died
December 14, 1799 (aged 67)
Mount Vernon, Virginia
Ancestry
English
Political Party
Federalist
Spouse
Martha Dandridge Custis
Occupation
Surveyor, soldier, planter, businessman
Religion
Episcopalian
Military Service
      Virginia Militia—1753-1758
      Commander in Chief of 1st Continental Army—1775-1783
Battles/Wars
      French and Indian War
      American Revolution
Government Career Before Presidency
      Member, Virginia House of Burgesses
      Delegate to 1st and 2nd Continental Congresses
      Justice of the Peace for Fairfax County
      President of Constitutional Convention
Elections of 1789 and 1792: Washington was the only President elected unanimously. In 1789, he won
all 69 electoral votes, although three states did not vote—North Carolina and Rhode Island had not yet
ratified the Constitution, and New York was unable to decide in time which electors to send. In 1792,
he won all 132 electors from the 15 states.
Precedents: As the first President, many of the powers/procedures that Washington instituted
automatically went to all future presidents such as setting up a Cabinet and only serving for two terms.
Notable Legislation/Events
    Judiciary Act of 1789
    Tariff of 1789
    1790—Capital temporarily moved from New York to Philadelphia
    1790—1st census
    1791+ Indian Affairs
    1791-1811—First Bank of United States
    1793—Proclamation of Neutrality
    1794—Whiskey Rebellion
    1795—Jay’s Treaty with England
    1795—Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain
    1796—Farewell Address

States admitted to the Union
Vermont 1791
Kentucky 1792
Tennessee 1796

Constitutional Amendments Ratified
1-11
                                         John Adams
                                 nd
                                2 President of the United States
                                            In office
                                  March 4, 1797-March 4, 1801

Vice President
Thomas Jefferson

Born
October 30, 1735
Braintree (Quincy), Massachusetts
Death
July 4, 1826 (aged 90)
Quincy, Massachusetts
Ancestry
English
Political Party
Federalist
Spouse
Abigail Smith
Occupation
Teacher, farmer, lawyer, essayist and political writer, diplomat
Religion
Unitarian
Government Career Before Presidency
     Lawyer for British soldiers in Boston Massacre—all but two (who were branded on the thumbs
        and released) were acquitted
     Representative to Massachusetts General Court
     Delegate to 1st and 2nd Continental Congresses
     Member of Provincial Congress of Massachusetts
     Commissioner to France
     Delegate to Massachusetts Constitutional Convention
     Minister to the Netherlands and Great Britain
     Envoy to the Court of St. James in London
     Vice President

Notable Legislation/Events
    1798—XYZ Affair
    1798—Alien and Sedition Acts
    1798—Kentucky (Jefferson) and Virginia (Madison) Resolutions
    1799—Fries Rebellion
    1801—Midnight Judges
    1801—John Marshall appointed Chief Justice (serves 1801-1835)
                                        Thomas Jefferson
                                   rd
                                  3 President of the United States
                                              In office
                                    March 4, 1801-March 3, 1809

Vice Presidents
Aaron Burr (1801-1805) and George Clinton (1805-1809)

Born
April 13, 1743
Shadwell, Albemarle County, Virginia
Death
July 4, 1826 (aged 83)
Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia
Ancestry
Welsh
Political Party
Democratic-Republican
Spouse
Martha Wayles Skelton
Occupation
Lawyer, inventor, author
Religion
No formal affiliation
Government Career Before Presidency
     Served in Virginia Legislature
     County Lieutenant
     County Surveyor
     Deputy Delegate to 2nd Continental Congresses
     Member of Virginia’s Delegation to Congress
     Governor of Virginia
     Commissioner to France
     Minister to France
     Secretary of State
     Vice President
Election of 1800: As originally written, the Constitution awarded each elector two votes with the
winner being elected President and the candidate who came in second being elected Vice President. All
Democratic-Republican electors voted for Jefferson and Burr so each received 73 votes. Even though
Jefferson was the candidate for President and Burr was the candidate for Vice President, the vote was
thrown into the House of Representatives because Burr refused to concede. It took 36 ballots to resolve
the deadlock.
Notable Legislation/Events
     1801 Judiciary Act
     1801-1805 Tripolitan War
     1802 Judiciary Act and Excise Tax repealed
     1803 Louisiana Purchase
      1803 Marbury v. Madison
      1804 Burr Hamilton duel
      1804 Jefferson reelected
      1804-1806 Lewis and Clark Expedition
      1807 Aaron Burr conspiracy and trial: Jefferson is subpoenaed to testify and bring papers related
       to the case. He declines to appear and releases only the information he chooses to thus
       establishing the precedent of executive privilege.
    1807-1809 Embargo Act
    1808 Abolition of slave trade
    1808 First national highway construction authorized
    1809 Non-Intercourse Act
States admitted to the Union
Ohio 1803

Constitutional Amendments Ratified
12
                                        James Madison
                                  th
                                 4 President of the United States
                                             In office
                                   March 4, 1809-March 4, 1817

Vice Presidents
George Clinton (1809-1812) and Elbridge Gerry (1813-1814) Both died in office

Born
March 16, 1751
Port Conway, Virginia
Death
June 28, 1836 (aged 85)
Montpelier, Virginia
Ancestry
English
Political Party
Democratic-Republican
Spouse
Dorothea (Dolley) Payne Todd
Occupation
Farmer, lawyer, author
Religion
Episcopalian
Government Career Before Presidency
    Delegate to Virginia Convention
    Member of Virginia House of Delegates
    Member of Council of State
    Member of Continental Congress
    Member of Virginia House of Delegate
    Delegate to Annapolis Convention
    Father of the US Constitution
    US Representative from Virginia
    Virginia Resolutions
    Member of Virginia House of Delegates
    Secretary of State

Notable Legislation/Events
    1809-1810 Non-Intercourse Act
    1810 Macon’s Bill No.2
    1811+ Various battles with Native Americans
    1812-1814 War of 1812
    1814 Treaty of Ghent
    1814-1815 Hartford Convention
    1815 Battle of New Orleans
    1816-1836 Second Bank of the United States
      1816 First Protective Tariff

States admitted to the Union
Louisiana 1812
Indiana 1816
                                       James Monroe
                                th
                               5 President of the United States
                                           In office
                                 March 4, 1817-March 3, 1825

Vice President
Daniel D. Tompkins

Born
April 28, 1758
Westmoreland County, Virginia
Death
July 4, 1831 (aged 73)
New York, New York
Ancestry
Scottish
Political Party
Democratic-Republican
Spouse
Elizabeth Kortwright
Occupation
Lawyer, senator, diplomat
Religion
Episcopalian
Government Career Before Presidency
     Member of Virginia Assembly
     Member of Continental Congress
     US Senator
     Minister to France
     Governor of Virginia (1799-1802 and January-March 1811)
     Special Envoy (Louisiana Purchase)
     Minister to Great Britain
     Secretary of State
     Secretary of War
Notable Legislation/Events
     Era of Good Feelings
     1817 Construction of Erie Canal start
     1817-1818 First Seminole War
     1818 Rush-Bagot Agreement
     Convention of 1818
     1819 Acquisition of Florida from Spain
     1819 Transcontinental or Adams-Onís Treaty
     Panic of 1819
     1820 Missouri Compromise
     1823 Monroe Doctrine
     1824 Sectional Tariff
Supreme Court decisions
      1819 McCulloch v. Maryland
      1819 Dartmouth College v. Woodward
      1824 Gibbons v. Ogden
States admitted to the Union
Mississippi 1817
Illinois 1818
Alabama 1819
Maine 1820
Missouri 1821
                                       John Quincy Adams
                                   th
                                  6 President of the United States
                                              In office
                                    March 4, 1825-March 3, 1829

Vice President
John C. Calhoun

Born
July 11, 1767
Braintree (Quincy), Massachusetts
Death
February 23, 1848 (aged 80)
Washington, DC
Ancestry
English
Political Party
Federalist, Democratic-Republican 1808-1825, and then National Republican
Spouse
Louisa Catherine Johnson
Occupation
Lawyer, professor, writer, foreign negotiator
Religion
Unitarian
Government Career Before Presidency
     Minister to Netherlands
     Minister to Prussia
     Massachusetts State Senator
     US Senator
     Minister to Russia
     Chief Negotiator of Treaty of Ghent
     Minister to Great Britain
     Secretary of State
Election of 1824: Andrew Jackson won a plurality of both the popular and electoral votes but not the
required majority so the election went into the House of Representatives. The House chose Adams as
President, allegedly because of the “corrupt bargain” that he and then-Speaker of the House Henry Clay
negotiated which gave Clay the office of Secretary of State in exchange for his support of Adams as
President.
Notable Legislation/Events
     Corrupt Bargain
     1825 Erie Canal
     1826 Panama Congress
     1828 Tariff of Abomination
     1828 Calhoun’s Exposition and Protest
     1829 Construction starts on Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
                                          Andrew Jackson
                                  7th President of the United States
                                               In office
                                     March 4, 1829-March 3, 1837

Vice Presidents
John C. Calhoun (1829-1832, resigned) and Martin Van Buren (1833-1837)

Born
March 15, 1767
Waxhaw, South Carolina
Death
June 8, 1845 (aged 78)
Nashville, Tennessee
Ancestry
Scottish Irish
Political Party
Democratic
Spouse
Rachel Donelson Robards
Occupation
Lawyer, soldier, congressman
Religion
Presbyterian
Military Service
    Judge Advocate of Davidson County Militia c. 1791
    Major General of Tennessee Militia 1802-1812
    Major General of US Army 1814-1821

Battles/Wars
    American Revolution (age 13)
    Burr Conspiracy 1805-1806
    War of 1812
    First Seminole War, 1817-1818

Government Career Before Presidency
    US Representative
    US Senator 1797-1798 and 1823-1825
    Justice of Tennessee Superior Court
Misc. Information
    1806—In a duel with another lawyer Charles Dickinson, over Dickinson’s smear of Mrs.
       Jackson and a misunderstanding over a horse race, Jackson was shot in the chest and then killed
       Dickinson. The bullet in Jackson’s chest could not be removed so it was lodged there for the rest
       of his life.
    Election of 1824
Notable Legislation/Events
    Jacksonian Democracy
    1829 Kitchen Cabinet
    Spoils System
    Tariffs of 1832 and 1833
    1832 US Bank Recharter Bill vetoed
    1833 Deposits removed from Bank of US
    1833 Whig Party Formed
    1836 Texas declares independence; Siege of Alamo
States admitted to the Union
Arkansas 1836
Michigan 1837
                                      Martin Van Buren
                               8th President of the United States
                                            In office
                                  March 4, 1837-March 3, 1841

Vice President
Richard M. Johnson

Born
December 5, 1782
Kinderhook, New York
Death
July 24, 1862 (aged 79)
Kinderhook, New York
Ancestry
Dutch
Political Party
Democratic
Spouse
Hannah Hoes
Occupation
Lawyer, senator
Religion
Dutch Reformed
Government Career Before Presidency
     New York Senator
     US Senator
     Governor of New York
     Secretary of State
     Vice President
Notable Legislation/Events
     Panic of 1837
     1838 Caroline Affair
     1839 Aroostook War
     1839 Ten-hour work day established
     Second Seminole War
     Specie Circular, no Bank of US
     Unsound financing by state governments
                                    William Henry Harrison
                                  th
                                 9 President of the United States
                                            In office
                                   March 4, 1841-April 4, 1841

Vice President
John Tyler

Born
February 9, 1773
Berkeley, Virginia
Death
April 4, 1841 (aged 68)
Washington, DC
Ancestry
English
Political Party
Whig
Spouse
Anna Tuthill Symmes
Occupation
Soldier, congressman, governor
Religion
Episcopalian
Military Service
Professional soldier 1791-1798 and 1812-1814 eventually rose to Major General
Major Battles/Wars
    Indian Wars in Northwest Territory
    Defeated Tecumseh at Battle of Tippecanoe
    War of 1812
Government Career Before Presidency
    Secretary of Northwest Territory
    Delegate to US House of Representatives
    Governor of Indiana Territory
    US Representative
    Ohio State Senator
    US Senator
    US Minister to Columbia
Notable Legislation/Events
    First President to die in office
                                            John Tyler
                                   th
                                10 President of the United States
                                             In office
                                   April 6, 1841-March 3, 1845

Vice President
None

Born
March 29, 1790
Greenway, Virginia
Death
January 18, 1862 (aged 71)
Richmond, Virginia
Ancestry
English
Political Party
Whig
Spouse
Letitia Christian then Julia Gardiner
Occupation
Lawyer, governor
Religion
Episcopalian
Military Service
Captain of Volunteer Company in Richmond, Virginia 1813
Government Career Before Presidency
     Member of Virginia House of Delegates
     US Representative
     Member of Virginia House of Delegates
     Governor of Virginia
     US Senator
     Member of Virginia House of Delegates
     Vice President—1st to assume office of President
Notable Legislation/Events
     1841 Vetoed two bills to create a 3rd Bank of the US and Mass Cabinet Resignation
     1841 Dorr’s Rebellion
     1841 Preemption Act
     1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty set Canadian border at 45th parallel
     1844 Princeton Explosion
     1844 Treaty of Wanghia
     1845 Annexation of Texas
States admitted to the Union
Florida 1845
                                      James K. Polk
                                th
                              11 President of the United States
                                          In office
                                March 4, 1845-March 3, 1849

Vice President
George M. Dallas

Born
November 2, 1795
Mecklenburg County, North Carolina
Death
June 15, 1849 (aged 53)
Nashville, Tennessee
Ancestry
Scottish-Irish
Political Party
Democratic
Spouse
Sarah Childress
Occupation
Lawyer
Religion
Presbyterian
Government Career Before Presidency
    Member Tennessee House of Representatives
    US Representative
    Speaker of the House
    Governor Tennessee
Notable Legislation/Events
    Original “Dark Horse” candidate
    Manifest Destiny
    1845 Texas becomes a state
    1846 Oregon Treaty
    1846 Wilmot Proviso
    1846 Acquisition of California
    1847 Brigham Young settles Mormons in Salt Lake City
    1846-1848 Mexican-American War
    1848 Gold discovered in California
    1848 Treaty of Guadeloupe-Hidalgo
States admitted to the Union
Texas 1845
Iowa 1846
Wisconsin 1848
                                          Zachary Taylor
                                     th
                                  12 President of the United States
                                              In office
                                     March 5, 1849-July 9, 1850

Vice President
Millard Fillmore

Born
November 24, 1784
Montebello, Orange County, Virginia
Death
July 9, 1850 (aged 65)
Washington, DC
Ancestry
English
Political Party
Whig
Spouse
Sarah Dabney Strother Taylor
Occupation
Soldier, farmer
Religion
Episcopalian

Military Service
Career military officer rising to Major General
Major Battles/Wars
War of 1812
Black Hawk War of 1832
Second Seminole War
Mexican-American War

Election of 1848: First presidential election in which voting took place on the same day across the
country.
Notable Legislation/Events
    1849 Hawaiian Islands Treaty
    1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
    Opposed Fugitive Slave Law and extension of slavery even though slave owner himself
                                        Millard Fillmore
                                 th
                               13 President of the United States
                                            In office
                                  July 10, 1850-March 3, 1853

Vice President
None

Born
January 7, 1800
Locke, New York
Death
March 8, 1874 (aged 74)
Buffalo, New York
Ancestry
English
Political Party
Whig
Spouse
Abigail Powers, Caroline Carmichael McIntosh
Occupation
Lawyer, teacher, congressman
Religion
Unitarian
Government Career Before Presidency
    New York State Assemblyman
    US Representative
    Comptroller of New York State
    Vice President
Notable Legislation/Events
    Compromise of 1850
    1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
    1851 French attempt to annex Hawaii
    1852 Uncle Tom’s Cabin
States admitted to the Union
California 1850
                                           Franklin Pierce
                                     th
                                   14 President of the United States
                                               In office
                                     March 4, 1853-March 3, 1857

Vice President
William R. King (died in office)

Born
November 23, 1804
Hillsboro, New Hampshire
Death
October 8, 1869 (aged 64)
Concord, New Hampshire
Ancestry
English
Political Party
Democratic
Spouse
Jane Means Appleton
Occupation
Lawyer, soldier
Religion
Episcopalian
Government Career Before Presidency
     Member of New Hampshire Legislature; Speaker
     US Representative
     US Senator
Notable Legislation/Events
     Popular sovereignty
     Underground Railroad
     1853 Gadsden Purchase
     1853 Japan opened to world trade
     1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act
     1854 Ostend Manifesto
     1855-56 Recognized new government in Nicaragua after a proslavery soldier of fortune led a
        revolution
     1856 Bleeding Kansas
                                        James Buchanan
                                   th
                                 15 President of the United States
                                             In office
                                   March 4, 1857-March 3, 1861

Vice Presidents
John C. Breckenridge

Born
April 23, 1791
Near Mercersburg, Pennsylvania
Death
June 1, 1868 (aged 77)
Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Ancestry
Scottish-Irish
Political Party
Democratic
Spouse
Only bachelor President
Occupation
Lawyer, author
Religion
Presbyterian
Government Career Before Presidency
    Member Pennsylvania House of Representatives
    US Representative
    US Minister to Russia
    US Senator
    Secretary of State
    Minister to Great Britain
Notable Legislation/Events
    1857 Dred Scott v. Sandford
    1857 Lecompton Constitution called for admission of Kansas as a slave state, and it was
        overwhelmingly rejected in two referenda.
    Panic of 1857
    1858 Lincoln-Douglas debates
    1859 John Brown’s raid at Harper’s Ferry
    1860 Lincoln elected; South Carolina secedes
    1861 Confederacy formed
States admitted to the Union
Minnesota 1858
Oregon 1859
Kansas 1861
                                        Abraham Lincoln
                                    th
                                  16 President of the United States
                                              In office
                                    March 4, 1861-April 15, 1865

Vice Presidents
Hannibal Hamlin 1861-1865 and Andrew Johnson 1865

Born
February 12, 1809
Hogenville, Hardin County, Kentucky
Death
April 15, 1865 (aged 56)
Washington, DC
Ancestry
English
Political Party
Republican
Spouse
Mary Todd
Occupation
Lawyer, merchant
Religion
No formal affiliation
Military Service
Volunteer in Black Hawk War
Government Career Before Presidency
     Postmaster of New Salem, Illinois
     Member of Illinois Legislature
     US Representative
     Nominated by Republican Party for US Senate; in his acceptance speech he said “H house
        divided against itself cannot stand”
     Lincoln-Douglas Debates: In his debates with Stephen Douglas for US Senate, Lincoln argued
        for white supremacy, but stated “there is no reason in the world why the Negro is not entitled to
        all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence.” Douglas argued for
        popular sovereignty and the Freeport Doctrine—anti-slavery territorial residents could decline to
        enforce it. Douglas won the election but was hurt in the 1860 presidential election by the views
        he expressed in the debate.
Election of 1860: Because of the conflict over slavery, there were four major candidates in the 1860
election: Lincoln (Republican), Stephen Douglas (Democrat), John C. Breckenridge (National
Democrat—pro-slavery southerner), and John Bell (Constitutional Union—pro-slavery but opposed its
extension in territories and supported the Union). The popular vote results were Lincoln 40%; Douglas
29%; Breckenridge 18%; Bell 13%. However, the electoral vote results were Lincoln 180; Breckenridge
72; Bell 39; Douglas 12.
Notable Legislation/Events
      1861-1865 Civil War: Lincoln curbed civil liberties through extraordinary wartime measures
       that were later approved by Congress. He suspended the writ of habeas corpus, permitted
       military arrest and court-martial of civilian antiwar activists, and spent war funds prior to
       congressional appropriation.
    April 12, 1861 Fort Sumter fired upon beginning Civil War
    1862 Homestead Act
    1862 Morrill land-grant college act
    1863 Emancipation Proclamation
    1863 Gettysburg Address
    1864 Lincoln reelected
    April 9, 1865 Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse
    1865 Lincoln assassinated
States admitted to the Union
West Virginia 1863
Nevada 1864

Constitutional Amendments Ratified
13

				
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