Periodization - PowerPoint

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          Dan Wathen, MS; ATC; CSCS,*D; NSCA-CPT,*D; FNSCA
          Thomas R. Baechle, EdD; CSCS,*D; NSCA-CPT,*D
          Roger W. Earle, MA; CSCS,*D; NSCA-CPT,*D
            Chapter Objectives

• Understand the value, role, and application of
  periodization in strength and conditioning
• Describe the four periods of the traditional period-
  ization model.
• Describe the three phases of the preparatory
• Relate the four sport seasons to the four periods
  of the traditional periodization model.
• Apply program design variables to create a
  periodized training program.
                  Key Term

• periodization: Strategy to promote long-term
  training and performance improvements with
  preplanned, systematic variations in training
  specificity, intensity, and volume organized in
  periods or cycles within an overall program.
            Section Outline

• Responses to Training Stress
   Responses to Training Stress

• General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
  – Alarm
  – Resistance
  – Exhaustion
   General Adaptation Syndrome

• Figure 19.1 (next slide)
  – The slide illustrates the General Adaptation
    Syndrome (GAS).
  – Although the actual dimensions of the curve shown
    vary based on the individual athlete, the figure
    illustrates the three distinct phases of the body’s
    response to training stress.
                                              Figure 19.1

Reprinted, by permission, from Selye, 1956.
            Section Outline

• Periodization Cycles
                 Key Terms

• macrocycle: Typically an entire training year
  but may also be a period of many months up
  to four years (for Olympic athletes).
• mesocycles: Two or more cycles within the
  macrocycle, each lasting several weeks to
  several months.
• microcycles: Typically one week long but
  could last for up to four weeks, depending on
  the program.
               Section Outline

• Periodization Periods
  – Preparatory Period
     • Hypertrophy/Endurance Phase
     • Basic Strength Phase
     • Strength/Power Phase
  – First Transition Period
  – Competition Period
  – Second Transition Period (Active Rest)
         Periodization Periods

• Periodization involves shifting training
  priorities from non-sport-specific activities
  of high volume and low intensity to sport-
  specific activities of low volume and high
  intensity over a period of many weeks to
  prevent overtraining and optimize perfor-
 Matveyev’s Model of Periodization

• Figure 19.2 (next slide)
  – Matveyev’s model of periodization
  – Appropriate for novice athletes
                                          Figure 19.2

Adapted, by permission, from Stone and O’Bryant, 1987.
      Modification of Matveyev’s
       Model of Periodization

• Figure 19.3 (next slide)
  – A modification of Matveyev’s model of periodization
  – Tailored for advanced athletes
                                          Figure 19.3

Adapted, by permission, from Stone and O’Bryant, 1987.
          Periodization Periods

• Preparatory Period
  – The initial period is usually the longest and occurs
    during the time of the year when there are no
    competitions and only a limited number of sport-
    specific skill practices or game strategy sessions.
  – The major emphasis of this period is establishing a
    base level of conditioning to increase the athlete’s
    tolerance for more intense training.
          Periodization Periods

• Preparatory Period
  – Hypertrophy/Endurance Phase
     • Very low to moderate intensity (50-75% of the 1-repetition
       maximum [1RM]) and very high to moderate volume (three
       to six sets of 10-20 repetitions)
          Periodization Periods

• Preparatory Period
  – Basic Strength Phase
     • High intensity (80-90% of the 1RM) and moderate volume
       (three to five sets of four to eight repetitions)
          Periodization Periods

• Preparatory Period
  – Strength/Power Phase
     • High intensity (75-95% of the 1RM, depending on the
       exercise) and low volume (three to five sets of two to
       five repetitions)
         Periodization Periods

• First Transition Period
  – Between the preparatory and competitive periods to
    denote the break between high-volume training and
    high-intensity training
          Periodization Periods

• Competition Period
  – For peaking, athletes use very high intensity (≥93%
    of the 1RM) and very low volume (one to three sets
    of one to three repetitions).
  – For maintenance, athletes use moderate intensity
    (~80-85% of the 1RM) and moderate volume (about
    two to three sets of about six to eight repetitions).
          Periodization Periods

• Second Transition Period (Active Rest)
  – Between the competitive season and the next
    macrocycle’s preparatory period is the second
    transition period.
  – The second transition (active rest) period consists
    of recreational activity that may not involve resis-
    tance training.
Table 19.1
               Section Outline

• Applying Sport Seasons to the Periodization
  –   Off-Season
  –   Preseason
  –   In-Season
  –   Postseason
       Applying Sport Seasons
     to the Periodization Periods

• Off-Season
  – Between the postseason and six weeks (although
    this varies greatly) prior to the first contest of the
    next year’s season
       Applying Sport Seasons
     to the Periodization Periods

• Preseason
  – Leads up to the first contest and commonly contains
    the late stages of the preparatory period and the first
    transition period
       Applying Sport Seasons
     to the Periodization Periods

• In-Season
  – Contains all the contests scheduled for that year,
    including any tournament games
       Applying Sport Seasons
     to the Periodization Periods

• Postseason
  – After the final contest
  – Active or relative rest for the athlete before the start
    of the next year’s off-season or preparatory period
           Macrocycle for Tennis

• Figure 19.4 (next slide)
  –   H = hypertrophy/endurance
  –   BS = basic strength
  –   SP = strength/power
  –   P = peaking
  –   AR = active rest
                                            Figure 19.4

Adapted, by permission, from Chargina et al., 1983.
    Macrocycle for a Team Sport

• Figure 19.5 (next slide)
  – V = volume
  – I = intensity
  – Blue line = emphasis on sport technique training or
Figure 19.5
            Section Outline

• Undulating (Nonlinear) Versus Linear
  Periodization Models
                  Key Terms

• linear: Traditional resistance training period-
  ization model with gradually progressive
  mesocycle increases in intensity over time.
• undulating or nonlinear: A periodization
  model alternative that involves large fluctua-
  tions in the load and volume assignments for
  core exercises.
                Section Outline

• Example of a Macrocycle
  –   Preseason Mesocycle
  –   In-Season Mesocycle (Competition Period)
  –   Postseason Mesocycle (Active Rest Period)
  –   Off-Season Mesocycle
  –   Reviewing the Macrocycle Example
      Example of a Macrocycle

• Based on the preseason resistance training
  program for scenario A from chapter 15,
  which focuses on a female college basket-
  ball center
• Shows a continuation of the training program
  through the in-season, postseason, and the
  following year’s off-season
       Example of a Macrocycle

• Preseason Mesocycle
  – Increased intensity of sport-specific training
  – Resistance training three times per week, focused
    mainly on strength and power outcomes
  – Plyometrics and anaerobic training high priority
       Example of a Macrocycle

• In-Season Mesocycle (Competition Period)
  – Goal to maintain and possibly improve strength,
    power, flexibility, and anaerobic conditioning
  – Resistance training limited to 30 minutes one to
    three times per week, alternated with plyometric
  – Majority of the athlete’s time spent on skill and
    strategy development
       Example of a Macrocycle

• Postseason Mesocycle (Active Rest Period)
  – No formal or structured workouts
  – Recreational activities at low intensity and volume
• Off-Season Mesocycle
  – Testing at the beginning and end of the off-season
  – Resistance training higher priority (example
    progresses to a four days per week split program)
  – Aerobic endurance training and flexibility
       Example of a Macrocycle

• Reviewing the Macrocycle Example
  – For a model like this one to function optimally, the
    sport coach and the strength and conditioning
    professional must plan the program together and
    share goals and strategies.
  – Athletes and events will vary from the example

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