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Geothermal - PowerPoint by 5VmnMn

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 Today’s Workforce
              Geothermal Workforce Education Development and Retention

• Glitnir Geothermal Research’s 2008 United
  States Geothermal Energy Market Report
  asserts that human capital will be a holdup
  to advancing geothermal energy technology
• Lack of labor could delay development of
  Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)

  Notes: The limited capability for meeting this need is further illustrated by the current lack of
  formal university degree programs. The Federal government and industry, together, must
  address the growing inadequacy of workforce competencies due to the small size of the
  existing geothermal industry and the competition for human resources, as the geothermal
  industry competes with the oil and gas industry for qualified personnel.
Steps to Increase Workforce
         • Educational scholarship program – Support
             student enrollment in programs with
          geothermal development and curricula for
            education, research and/or internships.
        These programs may apply to undergraduates,
               graduate students, and post-docs
            • Vocational training - Develop the next
               generation of skilled workers for
       widespread geothermal facility construction and
            • University cooperative education and
                professional internship program
               • University student competition
• Hold open houses at geothermal facilities.

• Improve communication with Indian Tribes and involve them in the decision
making process.


 Elaine Sison-Lebrilla, and Valentino Tiangco (2005), CALIFORNIAGEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF THE

                                MIT study, The Future of Geothermal Energy:

 Dept. of Interior Release regarding opening Federal landfor exploration:
Nation’s Potential Leader
                         •California has the largest geothermal production and
                         potential of any state in the
         •The State’s current installed gross capacity is 1,870 Megawatts (MW)
         with an estimated potential generation capacity of 4,732 MW
                                    •At1.7 jobs per megawatt, this means that the
                                    3,179 people employed in the industry could
                                    grow to 8,044
                                                                Geothermal Resources Council
                    Geothermal Association of Imperial County   (GRC)
                    (GAIC) Sergio Cabanas, President            Curt Robinson, Executive Director
                    947 Dogwood                                 P.O. Box 1350
                    Heber, CA 92249                             2001 Second Street, Suite 5
                    Tel: 760-353-8200                           Davis, CA 95617-1350
                    Fax: 760-353-9189                           Tel: 530-758-2360 Fax: 530-758-
                    Geothermal Education Office (GEO)           2839
                    Marilyn Nemzer, Executive Director          Email:
                    644 Hilary Drive                  
                    Tiburon, CA 94920                           Geysers Geothermal Association
                    Tel: 800-866-4436 or 415-435-4574
                                                                Ron Suess, President, RES Co.
                    Email: or
                                                                1275 4th St., Ste 105
                    Website:       Santa Rosa, CA 95404
                                                                Tel: 707-541-0975
                                                                Fax: 707-546-9139
Regulations and Legislation
0 alse

• The Department of Natural Resources, regulates drilling and related
  activities under Oil and Gas Conservation Act and the Department of
  Natural Resources rules

         authorities such as 42 U.S.C. Section 7381(b) of the Department of Energy
         Education Enhancement Act, and the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section
                 The Cost
• Depends on how you approach getting
  geothermal energy (heat w/in earth)
• Geothermal Power Plants
• Underground Pipes – Extracts heat energy
• Residential consumer—first few meters
• Industrial consumer—geothermal energy
  deep within the earth (expensive)
                 Division of Cost

• Main cost = labor, lots of
• Cost negligible to long term
• Costs overall for a
  geothermal power plant are
  labor charges, price of a
  heat pump, piping, and
  sometimes a backup boiler.
                Cost Comparisons
• An economically
  competitive geothermal
  power plant costs approx.
  $3400 per kilowatt installed
• High installation cost, lower
  cost in long run operation
  and maintenance costs.
• No fluctuation in cost like
  oil/gas, constant source of
  free fuel.
• Higher initial costs when
  compared with gas and coal
         Factors Influencing Cost
•   Size of Plant
•   Power Plant Technology
•   Temperature of Resource
•   Chemistry of Geothermal Energy
•   Resource Depth
•   Environmental Policies
•   Tax Incentives
•   Financial options and Costs
•   Time Delays
           International Context
• Geothermal Energy is
  found in reservoirs deep
  underground with no
  visible clues above
• Most active geothermal
  resources found in “Ring
  of Fire” – found along
  major plate boundaries
  where earthquakes and
  volcanoes are
  concentrated. Edges of
  the Pacific Ocean.
          Who uses the most?
• Iceland is best example of utilization of
  geothermal power, leads the world.
• Annual power supply at 500 MW for
• Germany at 100 MW, Italy not far behind
• Team of European Scientists plan on tapping
  localized geothermal reservoirs, totaling
  energy similar to what would be produced
  from 1,000 wind power plants.
• Integrated Geophysical Exploration
• International Conference held in 2008
  Potsdam discussing the potential for
  geothermal energy.
• Seven European Nations participate in this
• A substantial step towards a renewable energy
                  I-GET (2)
• The new techniques developed by I-GET will
  be felt worldwide.
• Although only 7 countries fully participated in
  the project, representatives from 20 countries
  attended, including Australia, Japan, and the
            Economic Benefits
• No “hidden costs”
• For every dollar invested in
  geothermal energy in the
  United States, the output
  into our economy is $2.50
• Creates thousands of new
  job opportunities for both
  skilled and unskilled
• Overseas geothermal
  projects positively affect
  the United States economy
  and balance of trade
  ie: Imperial County, California
• Poor rural area with a high minority population
• Geothermal activities provide a quarter of the
  tax revenue and twelve million dollars in
• Geothermal sector is the most stable part of
  the economy
• Revenue is often used to fund schools and
  more energy development
• Similar situations in Nevada, Idaho, New
  Mexico, Oregon, and Utah
           tourism benefits
• Blue Lagoon, Iceland
• Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming
• Mammoth Lakes, California
home benefits
     • Not as obviously beneficial
       and still not very popular
     • Cuts utility bills by half, 100%
       effective, and removes noisy
       air conditioning units
     • Homeowners must stay in
       the house for up to ten years
       to get all their money back
     • Appraisers have begun to add
       value to geothermally-heated
            national security
• Replaces natural gas in the electric sector and
  can be used to power hybrid vehicles, which
  reduces dependence on OPEC countries
• Abundance of geothermal power can be
  produced domestically
• Geothermal power plants are less likely to be
  terrorist targets than other power plants
• Nations with a lot of easily accessibly
  geothermal energy include Japan, Iceland,
  and New Zealand
                             role model: iceland
• Over half the country’s
  energy comes from
  geothermal resources
• Iceland Deep Drilling
• Geopressured reservoirs
  can yield both heat and
  chemical and hydraulic
• Requires both investment
  and government subsidies
• “Economic Benefits.” Geothermal Energy
• LaGesse, David. “Warm Up To
  Geothermal.” U.S. News and World
  Report, 31 December 2007.
• “National Security.” Geothermal Energy
• Smith, Julian “Going Underground: the
  deeper you go, the hotter it gets.” New
  Scientist, 11 October 2008.
                           Present Use
•   The United States currently produces 15 billion kilowatt hours of geothermal
    power per year.
•   In 2007, geothermal energy provided 4% of the United States’ renewable
    energy based electricity.
•   Geothermal energy currently accounts for only half of one percent of the
    electricity production in the United States.
•   There is enough potential from geothermal resources in the United States to
    provide for 20% of our electricity consumption.
•   The U.S. produces the most geothermal electricity in the world, comprising
    30% of the world total.
•   Geothermal power plants, concentrated in the west, provide the third largest
    domestic source of renewable energy.
•   The Three main uses of geothermal are:
     – Electricity Generation
     – Direct Use and District Heating Systems
     – Geothermal Heat Pumps
                    Electricity Generation
•   Geothermal power plants use
    hydrothermal resources that come from
    either dry steam wells or hot water
•   Geothermal plants require high
    temperature (300 to 700 degree
    Fahrenheit) hydrothermal resources.
•   There are three types of geothermal
    power plants:
     –   Dry Steam Plants
     –   Flash Steam Plants
     –   Binary Power Plants
•   The geothermal power production in
    the U.S. today provides enough
    electricity to meet the electricity needs
    of about 2.4 million California
•   As of August 2008, almost 4,000 MW of
    new geothermal power plant capacity
    was under development in the U.S.
      Direct Use and District Heating
•   Geothermal reservoirs of low-to moderate-temperature water — 68°F to 302°F —
    provide direct heat for residential, industrial, and commercial uses.
•   Direct-use systems typically include three components:
     –   A production facility — usually a well — to bring the hot water to the surface;
     –   A mechanical system — piping, heat exchanger, controls — to deliver the heat to the space or process; and
     –   A disposal system — injection well or storage pond — to receive the cooled geothermal fluid.
•   Direct use geothermal energy is produced for:
     –   Agriculture
     –   Aquaculture
     –   Industrial uses
     –   Balneology
     –   Residential and District Heating
•   In the U.S., more than 120 operations are using geothermal energy for district and
    space heating. District systems distribute hydrothermal water from one or more
    geothermal wells through a series of pipes to the communities being heated.
•   Direct uses applications of geothermal energy occur today in 26 states
•   Direct use of geothermal energy in homes and commercial operations is much less
    expensive than using traditional fuels. Savings can be as much as 80% over fossil fuels.
Geothermal Heat Pumps
          •   Almost everywhere, the upper 10 feet
              of Earth's surface maintains a nearly
              constant temperature between 50 and
          •   Geothermal heat pumps use the Earth's
              constant temperatures to heat and cool
              buildings. They transfer heat from the
              ground (or water) into buildings in
              winter and reverse the process in the
          •   According to the U.S. Environmental
              Protection Agency (EPA), geothermal
              heat pumps are the most energy-
              efficient, environmentally clean, and
              cost-effective systems for temperature
          •   Geothermal heat pump installations
              have been growing at an annual rate of
              15 percent.
                    Political Risks
• Geothermal energy avoids most of the political
  dissension as other sources of energy.
• Because geothermal energy requires no fuel and is
  virtually emissions free, there is hardly any
  environmental risks associated with it that could cause
  political unrest.
• Just as with expanding any other source of energy, the
  monetary cost of building geothermal plants and
  expanding direct heating programs will have to be
   – Geothermal plants cost $2,500 per kilowatt installed
     versus $1,500 per kilowatt installed for a natural gas plant.
• most active geothermal resources are found
  along major plate boundaries where
  earthquakes and volcanoes are concentrated.
• Also can be found:
  – geysers
  – Hot springs
              In the United States
• Most of geothermal reservoirs in the United States are
  located in
   – Western states
   – Alaska
   – Hawaii
• California dervises most of its electricity from Geothermal
• 2005: reported that geothermal capacity 2800 Mwe for
  electric utilities and 5400 Mwe for nonutility energy priducers
• “Ring of Fire” holds a lot of potential
   – Outlines continents around pacific ocean
• Spearding centers where plates are shifting
   – Iceland, the rift valleys of Africa, mid-Atlantic Ridge Basin
     and Range Province in the U.S
• Hot Spots that push magma to surface crust
   – New Zealand,
   – Italy, Iceland,
   – Mexico, the Philippines,
            Environmental Risks

•   Large amounts of water being extracted
•   Gaseous air emissions
•   Induced seismicity
•   Noise pollution
•   Hot water reservoirs

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