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Does Calling It College Make It So

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					                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Does Calling It College Make It So?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Walter S. Smith
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Austin, TX, October 30, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Charles A. Dana Center’s Annual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mathematics and Science Higher Education Conference


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Introduction
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 Austin 1 0.08


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          I’m glad to be here from Lubbock, the Giant Side of Texas . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ....


    Lubbock Garden and Art s Center. www.l ubbockgac.org/Parks%20Pho to%20Contest.htm.  Vi ewed 10.16.08.                                                                                                                                           WSS




 Austin 1 0.08
                          Budd y Holl y True Love Ways  http://www .xvps.co.uk/buddy.html .  V iewed 10 .3.08. ves/2006/09/dixi e_chicks_fl.html.  Vi ewed 10.3.08.
                                                             Moonbattery. http:/ /www.moonbattery.com/archi ear Thinkers. htt p://bl og.kir.com/archi ves/cat_sports_general.as pl.   Vi ewed 10.3.08.
                                                                                                    Houston’s Cl


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Home of Buddy Holly . . . . Natalie Maines of the Dixie
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Chicks . . . . Bobby Knight (even though he’s not our head
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          coach now) . . . . King Cotton . . . . Lots of wind and wind
                        The Cotton Foundat ion. http :// www.cotton.org/ foundation/2006‐07/Projects/.  V iewed 10.3.08.
                                                                           LI Biz  Blog. htt p:/ /li biz blog.wordpres s.com/2007/12/11/ britain‐l ikes‐offshore‐wind‐power/.  V iewed 10.3.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          energy . . . . and Texas Tech University . . . .
               Geography.com. http://geology.com/ satell ite/ci ties /l ubbock‐satelli te‐image.s html .  Vi ew ed 10.3.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    WSS




 Austin 10.08


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  And Saturday’s game . . . . for which I have this prediction.
   Jones  AT &T T  Sta dium.  http:// footba ll .ba llpa rks.c om/N CAA/Big 12/Te xa sT ec h/inde x.htm.    Vie wed  10.24.08.          W ik ipe di a.  http: //e n. wiki pe dia .org /wik i/inde x. htm l?c urid=12453533.   Vie wed 10.24.08.




                                                                                                                                Double‐T  N ati on.  http: //www.doubl etna ti on. com/story /2007/11/27/72542/247.
         Bev oart.  www. be voa rt.com/i nde x .php?m ai n_ pa ge = inde x& cPath= 1.   Vie wed  10. 24. 08.                    Vie wed  10.24.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  It’s good to be in Austin and to have a chance to talk with you
Austin 10.08

                                                                                                                               T ex as  La crosse.  
                                                                                                                               www.utla crosse .com/c oa c
                                                                                                                               hes .htm l.
                                                                                                                               Vie we d  10. 24.08.




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                                                                                                                                                                                                        m /product/20/10.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Vi ewe d 10.24.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  about a number of issues about which I hope we share mutual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  interest, if not concern. . . .
      Wa ter  Se cre ts  Blog.  http: //wa te rse cre ts bl og .c om/a rchiv es/2008/07/i nde x. htm l.   V iewe d 10.24.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  WSS




 Austin 1 0.08



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I think my mission tonight is to ask . . . . questions, such as: . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  What is a college education? When we assert that someone is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  “college educated,” what does that mean?
           Matrix  Busi ness Coaching. www.matri xbusines scoaching.com/ faq.html.  Vi ewed 10.3.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    WSS
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



Asking questions doesn’t necessarily mean something is wrong. We just need to be
sure that what we’re doing is right . . . .

A big theme of my remarks tonight will be “increasing access to higher education,”
for America is changing. The make-up of our population is different. Our
economy is different. On the one hand, I will ask us tonight to question some new –
and old – practices in higher education; but at the same time I want us to be mindful
that we have a huge obligation to broaden access to higher education for all people
in our state and nation. So “how do we address inequities in access to higher
education” . . . .

And in a world changing before our very eyes, “how do we educate for the 21st
century?” . . . .

                         In the end, I don’t have answers, I only have questions.
 Austin 1 0.08




                         I hope that inside the academy and outside in the halls of
                         our legislature, around the water cooler at the office, and
                         at night around the family dinner table, people will step
                         back and ask . . . . “Does Calling It College Make It
         Yankeerev. http://yankeerev.wordpress.com/2 008/06/24/would‐you‐l ike‐
         to ‐vis it‐the‐gates ‐of‐hell/ .  Viewed 10.4.08.
                                                                                                              Muddl ed  Monkey. http://w ww.themuddl edmonkey.co m/.  Viewed 
                                                                                                              10.4.08.




                         So?” In a sense I’m playing a semantics game as did                                                                                                    WSS




Shakespeare 400 years ago when he . . . .

 Austin 1 0.08



      JULIET:
                              had Juliet tell Romeo that “a rose by any other name
         What's in a name? That which we call a rose
                              would smell as sweet;” but I’m asking “does calling
         By any other name would smell as sweet;


             Does Calling     something a rose make it a rose?” Or tonight the
              It College 
               Make It 
                              question is “does calling something a college make it a
               College?       college?” I hope we – and by “we” I mean students,
                              faculty members, parents, legislators, bosses, and
        Pi cturesocial. htt p:/ /www.pi ctures oci al .com/photo/photo/li stForContri butor?screenName=1qoc6r5dbqm6x .  Vi ew ed 10.16.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                WSS




taxpayers – will ask . . . . “Does Calling It College Make It So?” . . . .



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Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



 Austin 10.08

                           As we consider that question, let me reiterate three   ‐
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                           themes for tonight. The first is access . . . . The second
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                           theme is quality . . . . and the third theme is change.
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                           A-Q-C – Access, Quality, and Change . . . . .
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                           First, increasing access to college is good for students and
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                           for our nation. I think that statement is a given. . . . .
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                                                                                              Cav ia r  ire ct O nl ine.  www.c av ia r‐dire ct.c om /.   Vie we d  10. 24. 08.

                                                                                                                                                                                  WSS




Second, maintaining and even improving the quality of a college education is good
for students and the nation. I believe that that is also a given. . . . . And third,
change is inevitable in higher education. We must not fear change . . . .

                                                                                                                                                                                              These issues are not addressed in a vacuum. As Friedman
 Austin 1 0.08



                   Context to Think About Questions

                                                                                                                                                                                              reminded us in 2005, “The World is Flat,” and in 2008 he
                                                                                                                                                                                              is telling us that the world is flat . . . . but it also is hot and
                                                                                                                                                                                              it’s crowded. And these three factors – hot, flat and
                          Book Review Summaries. 
                          bookreviewsummaries.wordpress.com/.  V iewed 10.4.08.
                                                                                          Sergelen’s  Blog. www.sergel en.net/ blog/?tag=worl d‐is‐flat.  
                                                                                          Vi ewed 10.4.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                              crowded – are interacting synergistically to greatly and
                                                                                                                                                                                              perhaps gravely affect our public and private lives . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                  WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                In this new world, all people are connected together;
 Austin 1 0.08




                                                                                                                                                                                                but more than that they are . . . . dependent on each
                                                                                                                                                                                                other.

                            Even in West Texas I tune to AM 900 from Floydata
                            that is the flagship of the “all ag all day” network to get
                            local weather and international news. I listen along
         http:// www.jas on‐is m.com/onli nestoreas ia.html.   Viewed 10.4.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                        WSS




with cotton farmers in my area and wheat farmers in Kansas and corn farmers in
Iowa to weather reports from Argentina and Australia and the cotton prices in
China, because the Texas, Kansas and Iowa economies are all deeply affected by
what’s going on around the world . . . .

And the world is also hot. Increasingly so. Among the vast majority of scientists
the question is no longer “is there climate change.” The question is “how fast is it
happening” and “is there anything we can do about it?” . . . .

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Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



And the world is crowded . . . .

                                                                                                                                                         It took us thousands of years to populate the Earth
 Austin 10.08
                       Bea con Pre ss Books.  http: //www.ha rva rdsqua rel ibrary .org/be a con/?s ort= a uthor& pag e =7.   V iewe d 10.22.08.




                      10s of Thousands
                                                                                                                                                         with the first billion people. At that point our country
                                                                                                                                                         was new, Thomas Jefferson was president, and a bit
                             1804                                                                                                                        over 5 million or less than one percent of the world’s
                                                                                                                                                         one billion folks were living in the U.S. . . .
                            1 Billion
                                                                                                                                                   WSS




  Austin 10.08
                        Fl apper  Costume   and Acc es sori es.  http://www.fla ppercostum e. ne t/.   V iewe d 10.22.08.
                                                                                                                                                         Then it took well over one hundred years to add the
                                                                                                                                                         next billion. The U.S. and its flappers were really
                            123 Years Later                                                                                                              growing with 123 million people or more than five
                                                                                                                                                         percent of the world’s population . . . .
                              1927
                             2 Billion
                                                                                                                                                   WSS




  Austin 10.08
                        Si gna lAlpha. com.  www.si gna la lpha .c om /html/c old_wa r.html .   Vie we d  10. 22.08.
                                                                                                                                                         The world hit three billion about the time I graduated
                                                                                                                                                         from high school and John Kennedy was president.
                                 34 Years Later                                                                                                          And then we really took off . . . .

                               1961
                              3 Billion
                                                                                                                                                   WSS




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Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008


 Austin 10.08
                        Losttoy . l osttoy. liv e journa l.c om/tag /e ditoria l.   Vi ewe d 10.22.08.                                                   In 13 short years the world’s population hit four
                                                                                                                                                         billion and I started teaching at the university . . . .
                                        13 Years Later


                               1974
                              4 Billion
                                                                                                                                                   WSS




 Austin 10.08
                       Fr. D av id’s  Blog.  http: //www.stma rym ag dal ene church.org /inde x.php? /ca teg orie s/7‐F r‐D av ids‐Blog.
                       Vie wed 10.22.08.
                                                                                                                                                         The world reached five billion by the time our son
                                                                                                                                                         graduated from high school. And President Reagan
                                13 Years Later
                                                                                                                                                         said “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!” . . . .

                             1987
                            5 Billion
                                                                                                                                                 WSS




 Austin 10.08
                       FoxS ports.  http: //comm unity .foxsports.c om /blog s/ks p113/2007/10/12/ He y_ Cards_ If_i t_ Ai nt_ Broke _ Dont_F ix _It.
                       Vie wed 10.22.08.
                                                                                                                                                         The population explosion was on a roll and got to six
                                                                                                                                                         billion about the time our son was married and
                                12 Years Later
                                                                                                                                                         Britney Spears sang “Baby one more time.” . . . .

                              1999
                             6 Billion
                                                                                                                                                  WSS




  Austin 10.08
                         The  W al lstrip Bl og .  www. wal lstrip.c om /2008/09/08/j et‐blue‐g oe s‐eba y/ .   Vie we d  10. 22.08.                     We’re at 6.7 billion today. With 305 million of those
                                                                                                                                                         in the U.S.
                                      9 Years Later


                       Today
                     6.7 Billion
                                                                                                                                                   WSS




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Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008


 Austin 10.08
                                                                                 The  W al lstrip Bl og .  www. wal lstrip.c om /2008/09/08/j et‐blue‐g oe s‐eba y/ .   Vie we d  10. 22.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     The world will hit seven billion when my grandson
                                                                                                                                                                                                     enters pre-school . . . .


                                                                                        2011
                                                                                       7 Billion
                                                                                                                                                                                               WSS




 Austin 10.08
                                                                                 Ne il:  M y Profile .  ne il saty am .hi5.com/ .   Vie we d  10. 22.08.                                             And to eight billion when our grandson starts to drive
                                                                                                                                                                                                     a car . . . .
                                                                                          13 Years Later


                                                                                        2024
                                                                                       8 Billion
                                                                                                                                                                                               WSS




 Austin 10.08
                                                                                 Le ssons  F rom  Ali ce . wa ve snsands.wordpres s.com /.   Vi ewe d 10.22.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     And nine billion when I die. In a bit over one century
                                                                                                                                                                                                     the world’s population will have quadrupled from two
                                                                                          18 Years Later
                                                                                                                                                                                                     billion in 1927 to nine billion in 2042. I note that the
                                                                                                                                                                                                     rate of increase is projected to slow down; but, still,
                                                                                        2042                                                                                                         nine billion people is a lot of people. . . .
                                                                                       9 Billion
                                                                                                                                                                                               WSS




 Austin 1 0.08
                                                                                                                                                                                                     More people mean we’ll need . . . . more food . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                     and more housing . . . .


       Core Customer Metric. www.corecustomermetric.com/.  
       Vi ewed 10.16.08.




                            Al an  Kearney Photogr aphy. htt p:// www.alankearney.com/large/environmental/ wheat.html.   Vi ewed 10.16.08.




                                                          Oakl and, Cal ifornia. w ww.busi ness2oakland.com/main/centralcityeast.htm.   Viewed 10.16.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                               WSS




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 Austin 10.08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  With more people there will be more cars. Remember
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the world is flat which is leading to a greater
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  proportion of the world’s people being able to afford
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the American way of life. So there’s not only more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  people; but more of these people will want to have
      MS NBC.  www. msnbc.m sn. com/i d/14137896.   
      Vie wed 10.16.08.




                             Me g aM art.  www.me ga ma rt.com. eg /ite mde tail s.a spx? code =756.   Vie we d  10.16. 08.




                                                        E le ctrici ty  and M a gne ti sm.  http: //www.li ghta ndma tter. com/html _books /4em /ch02/ ch02. htm l.   Vi ewe d 10.16. 08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  cars . . . . and other amenities of the American life.
                                                                               T ex as  Te ch E ngl ish/Philosophy  Building .  fli ck r.com/photos /73146151@ N00/2560315842.  Vi ewe d 10.16. 08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            WSS




. . . . And they will need more energy . . . . the production of which affects our
atmosphere . . . . and in turn affects our climate . . . . And all of this – more people
and increasingly more complex problems – means more people will need more
education. They’ll not only need more education if we are to properly address these
problems but they’ll also want more education as they seek the American way of
life . . . .
                                If I learned anything in my three and a half weeks in
 Austin 1 0.08




                                China last summer, it was that they had learned the
                                “American Dream” in spades . . . . Many Chinese
                                families and their one child are fixated on that child
       Li venews. http://www.li venews.com.au/ arti cles/2 008/03/10/Chinas_onechil d_pol icy_to_stay.  
       Vi ewed 10.17.08.




                                getting a good education which will lead to doing well
                             Tr ans ition sAbroad.com. 
                             http://ww w.trans itionsabroad.com/publ ications /magaz ine/060 1/teachin g_engl ish_overs eas_how_to_be_su ccessf
                             ul_teacher .shtml.  V iewed 1 0.17.08.




                                on the test which will lead to getting into a good
                                                               Daylife. www.dayli fe.com/photo/ 0d1Vf7ie8cej4.  V iewed 10.17.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      WSS




                                college which will lead to gaining access to a good job
. . . . which will lead to being able to afford the American way of life . . . .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In this context of change, we need to ask as we
 Austin 1 0.08




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  contemplate new policies and practices, “How do we
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  provide Texas students . . . . with a quality college
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  education” . . . . And with that question, we also need
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  to ask “What do we mean by a quality college
       http:// www.jas on‐is m.com/onli nestoreas ia.html.   Viewed 10.4.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        WSS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  education – something that is worth something and not
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  just be a label . . . .


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Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008




                                                                                                                                                                                                          As I talk about these issues, I don’t want to be
 Austin 1 0.08




                                                                                                                                                                                                          perceived as whining. Change is happening. It’s all
                                                                                                                                                 Sprou ts for Change. s proutsforch ange.com/.  
                                                                                                                                                 Viewed 10.4.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          around us. As any baby knows . . . . change is
       Forei gn Policy. blog.foreignpoli cy.com/ no de/ 8129.   Viewed 10.4.08.


                                                                                                                                                                                                          inevitable. But will it be good change?
                                                                                                                                                  Rightyblogs.com. 
                                                                                                                                                  http://w ww.rightybl ogs.com/Vi rgin ia/feed.ph
                                                                                                                                                  p?channel=122&y=2008&m=06&d=26.  
                                                                                                                                                  Vi ewed 10.4.08.




       The B antas. www.thebantas.us /06%20‐%20June%202004.h tm.  V iewed 10.4.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                          Now I’d like to change gears.
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                    W hat is  Colleg e




                                                   Change Gears




                                   i StockPhoto. http://www.istockphoto.com/fi le_closeup/ techno logy/gad gets/mechanical/ 3546840_mixed_gears .php?id=3546840.  
                                   Viewed 10.16.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   WSS




 Austin 1 0.08




                                                                                                                                                                                                          And look at the history of higher education, so we can
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ask, “How did we get to where we are today and
                                                                                               Office of the American Secretariat Rhodes Trust. www.rhodess chol ar.org/  Vi ewed 10.12.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          where we are heading tomorrow?”
       Past Thinking. 
       http:// www.pastthinking.com/bl og/2006/10/11/h istory‐matters‐
       campaign‐mass ‐bl og‐day/  Vi ew ed 10.12.08.




                                                                                               University of Heidelberg.
                                                                                               w ww.kip.uni‐hei delberg.de/medphys /  Vi ewed 10.12.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                          Colleges have been around a long time. Even longer
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                     W hat is  Colleg e


                     Colleges Have Been Around a Long, Long Time

                                                                                                                                                                                                          than what these pictures would seem to indicate.
                 Macalester Col lege. http:/ /commons .wi ki media.org/wi ki/ Image:Old_
                 Main,_Macal es ter_Col lege.JPG.   Viewed 10.4.08.




                                                                                                London Fog. http:// artis mypas sion.w ordpres s.com/2007/11/ 06/ oxford‐
                  Nitt anymemories.com. www.nittanymemories.com/omai n.htm.                     u nivers ity‐oxford‐england/ .  V iewed  10.4.08.
                  V iewed 10.4.08.

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Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The earliest evidence we have of something we might
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                                 W hat is  Colleg e




                  Shang Xiang –                                                                       23rd                      Century BCE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    call college appeared over 4000 years ago in China.
                                                                                                                        No Pix;
                                                                                                                       Only Sun 
                                                                                                                    Shang Xiang.
                                                                                                                     Daughter of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    . . . . I looked for a picture of Shang Xiang . . . . but
                                                                                                                      a warlord.                                                                                    could find only “Sun Shang Xiang,” . . . . who was the
                                                                                                                    Game warrior.
                  Games pot. http://www.games pot.com/us ers /Axel_77/view_image?id=a9Va4k9w7hqd7BzlkQ.   Viewed 10.3.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    daughter of a warlord, not all that important a figure;
                                                                                                                                                                                                           WSS




 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                                 W hat is  Colleg e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    but today . . . . she has become a warrior for gamers.
                                                         Plato’s Academy                                                                                                                                            . . . . Moving to something more familiar to a western
                                                          4th Century BC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    culture, . . . . we find Plato’s Academy nearly 2500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    years ago. From the Academy we derive much of our
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21st century worldview. . . .
                                                                                                                     Introductory Phi losophy. www.fr eewebs.com/cpa_li brary/.   Viewed 10.3.08.




                        P.A.P. Bl og – Phi losophy, Art and Poli tics . http://fil ipspagnoli.wordpress.com/ 2008/06/ 24/ plato ‐democracy‐and‐human‐rights‐3‐viol ence/ .  Viewed 10 .3.08.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    But then while western Europe went into academic
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                                 W hat is  Colleg e



                                      Dark Ages – Higher Learning Continued

                                                                                                                 University of                                                                                      hibernation, learning continued in the Middle East and
                                                                                                                 Al-Karaouine
                                                                                                                (Fez, Morocco)                                                                                      northern Africa. . . . . The first institution that we
                                                                                                                 Founded 859
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    might identify as the precursor of the modern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    university was founded . . . . in Fez, Morocco, . . . .
        Wi ki ped ia. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wi ki/ Uni versity_o f_Al _Karaouine.  
        V iewed 1 0.5.08.
                                                                                                                          Goway.com. www.goway.com/afri ca/morocco/ .  
                                                                                                                          Vi ewed 10.5.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    in 859 . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                          WSS




 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                                 W hat is  Colleg e



                              Maimonides (1135-1204) Studied at the
                                   University of Al-Karaouine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    One of its more famous alums, Maimonides, went to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fez in the 12th century . . . . from Spain to study and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    then became one of the most influential Jewish
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    thinkers of the Middle Ages . . . .
                                                                                              Medi eval Astoria. www.fordham.edu/halsal l/medny/halsall 7.html .  Vi ewed 10.5.08.



            Wikipedia. ht tp:/ /en.wi ki pedi a.org/ wiki /Maimon ides.  V iewed 10.5.08.


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Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                                                                                                                                                                                       Finally in the 11th century institutions that look like
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                    W hat is  Colleg e


                   Medieval University – Came to Europe

                                                                                                                                                                                       an institution we might recognize as college began to
                                                                                                                                                                                       pop up around Europe . . . . For example, the
                                                                                                                                                                                       University of Bologna was established in Italy in the
                                                                                                                                                                                       13th century . . . .
                                                                                        EEFS Con ference in Bol ogna. www.ro ie.org/bol .htm.  V iewed 10.5.08.




                 University of Bologna – founded in 1200’s

                                                                                                                                                                                       If we went inside the medieval university, we would
                                                                                                                                                                             WSS




  Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                    What is  College


                    Medieval University – Came to Europe                                                                                                                               find some very familiar sights . . . . the lecturer . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                       and his notes . . . .




                                                                                                             About 1350
                        N a ti onma ste r.com.  http://www.na tionmas te r.c om/e ncyc lope di a/U niv ersi ty .   Vi ewe d 10.3.08.
                                                                                                                                                                             WSS




  Austin 10.08


                    Medieval University – Came to Europe
                                                                                                                                                                   What is  College
                                                                                                                                                                                       The students in the front row paying more or less rapt
                                                                                                                                                                                       attention . . . .




                                                                                                              About 1350
                        N a ti onma ste r.com.  http://www.na tionmas te r.c om/e ncyc lope di a/U niv ersi ty .   Vi ewe d 10.3.08.
                                                                                                                                                                              WSS




  Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                    What is  College
                                                                                                                                                                                       But a couple rows back we have two students talking .
                    Medieval University – Came to Europe
                                                                                                                                                                                       . . . and a student sneaking into the room late . . . .




                                                                                                             About 1350
                        N a ti onma ste r.com.  http://www.na tionmas te r.c om/e ncyc lope di a/U niv ersi ty .   Vi ewe d 10.3.08.
                                                                                                                                                                             WSS




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  Austin 10.08


                                      Medieval University – Came to Europe
                                                                                                                                                                                            What is  College
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 here close to us is a student who was up too late last
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 night – I wonder whether he was working his way
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 through school, like our students are doing today.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Maybe he worked late last night and now he’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 pooped. Or was he doing too much partying with his
                                                                                                                                          About 1350
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 friends; also something known to our students in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2008.
                                                     N a ti onma ste r.com.  http://www.na tionmas te r.c om/e ncyc lope di a/U niv ersi ty .   Vi ewe d 10.3.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 . . . . If we fast forward about 300 years we find the
 Austi n 10.08                                                                                                                                                                             Wh at  is  Coll ege




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 same lecture when we re-visit the university.

       N ationmas ter.com. htt p:// www              r                        er . 
                                       .nat ionmast e .com/encyclop edia/U niv sit y  
       V iewed 10.3.08.




             Is Change 
            Inevitable?
                                                                                                 Project Gut enberg. htt p:// www.gut enber g.org/ files/ 22500/22500‐ h/22500‐h.ht m.  Viewed 10.3.08.




                                                                                                                                                                                                          WSS




 Austi n 10.08                                                                                                                                                                             Wh at  is  Coll ege




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 And if we jump this time to today, we find the same
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 lecture found back in medieval universities.
                                                                                                              Lyon College. 
       N ationmas ter.com. htt p:// www              r                        er . 
                                       .nat ionmast e .com/encyclop edia/U niv sit y                          http:/ /www.lyon.edu/webdata/ groups /gr eensheet /greens heet05/ 2‐
       V iewed 10.3.08.                                                                                            r
                                                                                                              18_g eensheet.ht m.  Viewed 10.4.08.




             Is Change                                                                                                                                                                                           One thing about universities. Universities’ ideas may
            Inevitable?                                                                                                                                                                                          be engines of change; but our methods evolve slowly.
                                                                                                                                       r
                                                                                                              Univers ity of Manchest e . htt p:// www.campus .manches ter .ac. 
                                                                                                                /
                                                                                                              uk st udents upport andser v                               V wed 10.4.08.
                                                                                                                                          ices/ newslet ter/ index.htm.    ie
                                                                                                                                                                                                          WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Even here tonight, I am practicing the same methods
 Austi n 10.08                                                                                                                                                                             Wh at  is  Coll ege




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 employed over the years . . . .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Something I always remind my students is that when
                                                                                                                                Texas Tech Univers ity. 
                                                                                                                                www.depts .ttu.edu/ provos t/ facult ybios/ w_s
       N ationmas ter.com. htt p:// www              r                        er . 
                                       .nat ionmast e .com/encyclop edia/U niv sit y  
       V iewed 10.3.08.                                                                                                         mit h.php.
                                                                                                                                V iewed 10.4.08.




             Is Change 
            Inevitable?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 someone points a finger, there are three fingers
                                                                                                         Dyehard’s  Guitar s. 15mmvs f.bagofmice.com/ Hob by guitar_o .htm.
                                                                                                         Viewed  0. .08.
                                                                                                               1 4
                                                                                                                                                            /
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 pointing back. Tonight I am lecturing even as I
                                                                                                                                                                                                          WSS




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Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



complain about the glacially slow pace of change in collegiate teaching methods.

                                . . . . The medieval curriculum, which has evolved
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                            What is  College




                 Trivium        into today’s liberal arts curriculum, was divided into
               •Grammar         two main parts, . . . . the first of which was called the
               •Rhetoric
                                Trivium. Not trivial, but rather Trivium meaning
               •Dialectic
                                three parts . . . . . . The Trivium started with Grammar,
     Me die va l Curric ul um. www. csupom ona .e du/~ plin/ls 201/a stronomy .html .   Vie we d  10.5.08.




    Medieval Curriculum         the study of language – how does language work . . . .
                                Then there was Rhetoric and its concentration on oral
                                                                                                                                   WSS




argument . . . . And finally the Dialectic or logic . . . .

                                                                                                                                            In contemporary parlance we might say that the
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                            What is  College




                                                                                                               Trivium                      Trivium was composed of the study of Language . . . .
                                                                                                              •Language
                                                                                                              •Persuasion
                                                                                                                                            Persuasion . . . . and Logic . . . .
                                                                                                              •Logic
      Me die va l Curric ul um. www. csupom ona .e du/~ plin/ls 201/a stronomy .html .   Vie we d  10.5.08.




                                  Medieval Curriculum
                                                                                                                                   WSS




                                The second major part of the medieval curriculum, the
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                            What is  College




                Quadrivium      Quadrivium, focused more on what we now might
                •Arithmetic
                •Astronomy      call math and science. . . . . First, there was Arithmetic
                •Geometry       with attention to computational mathematics . . . .
                •Music          Then Astronomy which included a good dose of what
         Me die va l  Me dicine .  www.ma g gi etron.com/m ed/.    Vie wed 10.5.08.




     Medieval Curriculum        we now would call Astrology . . . . And then the third
                                                                                                                                   WSS


                                component was Geometry . . . . And finally, Music,
which one could think of in medieval terms as applied mathematics . . . . So
between the Trivium and the Quadrivium you can see the roots of the 3 R’s –
readin’, ‘ritin’, and ‘rithmetic with special emphasis on . . . . the readin’ and
‘rithmetic portion of the 3 R’s . . . .


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The university came to the Americas quickly after
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                        What is  College




                              Carried to New World
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Columbus’s voyage in 1492 . . . . The University of
                                                                                                             University of
                                                                                                             San Marcos
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        San Marcos, the first university in the Americas, was
                                                                                                                1551                                                                                                    established in Lima, Peru, in 1551 and was relatively
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        quickly followed 85 years later . . . .
         Lite rature  Confe re nce .  http: //www.proye ctoperua nos .org/c onel it/ma ps.html.    Both  ima ge s v ie wed  10. 5. 08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               WSS




 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                        What is  College



                                                                                                         Harvard College                                                                                                by Harvard College in 1636 . . . . now Harvard
                                                                                                              1636
                                                                                                         (now University)                                                                                               University . . . .


       Fe llowship  at H arv ard. 
       http:// funce ji. wordpre ss.c om /2008/09/19/ fe llowships‐a t‐ha rva rd‐                                     Wi ki pe dia  Commons. 
       uni ve rsity/  .   Vie wed 10.5.08.                                                                            http:// commons.wik im edia .org /wik i/Im ag e :H arv ard_ Ya rd,_ Ha rva r
                                                                                                                      d_ U ni ve rsity. JPG .   Vie wed  10.5. 08.




                              Carried to New World
                                                                                                                                                                                                               WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and then by Yale . . . . Princeton . . . . what is now
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                        What is  College




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Columbia . . . . and Thomas Jefferson’s University of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Virginia.

                               Even though these new universities were located far
     Carried to New World      from their European roots, . . . . the curriculum
                                                                                                                                                                                                               WSS


                               remained relatively unchanged . . . . the student body
represented only a fraction of the total population and those who were students were
primarily from the upper class . . . . And the teaching methods continued to be
reading the classics along with lectures and recitations . . . .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        After America’s independence, the colonization of
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                        What is  College




                                  Early Expansion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        western lands was quickly followed by the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        establishment of new colleges. Places such as . . . .



                                                 O hio H istory Ce ntra l.  http: //ohi ohi story ce ntra l. org /e ntry.php?r ec =609& nm= M orav ia n‐Church.    Vie we d 10.5.08.

                                                                                                                                                                                                               WSS




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Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Transylvania in Kentucky . . . . and Grinnell in Iowa.
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                         What is  College




                               Early Expansion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          But these institutions are only representative of many,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          many small colleges. It would seem that every town
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          worth its salt needed a college; . . . . and certainly
                          Transylvania                                                                                                     Grinnell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          every religious denomination needed a source of
                T ransy lv ania  U ni ve rsity.  
                http: //www.g ohi ghe rky .org/Ca mpusT our/ unde rgra duate /548/T ra ns ylv ani
                a _U nive rsity /Tra nsyl va nia _U ni ve rsity1. htm l.   Vi ewe d 10.5.08.
                                                                                                                   S ta teU nive rsi ty .com.  
                                                                                                                   http: //www.sta teuniv ersi ty .com/ uni ve rsitie s/I A/Gri nne ll _Coll eg e .html .   
                                                                                                                   Vi ewe d 10. 5.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ministers which was one of, if not the prime reason
                                                                                                                                                                                                                WSS


                                                                                                                                                                                                                          for having colleges.

Although access to a college education was enhanced by so many colleges being
established in frontier towns, . . . . still college was for the elite and the curriculum
revolved around the liberal arts.

I hope you are hearing some of the themes that I want to emphasis tonight, but let
me make the ideas more explicit:

            1. Colleges have been around a long time – indeed, for centuries.
            2. For many, many years there was little change in what was taught, who was
               taught and how they were taught. The liberal arts taught to the few in what
               we now think of as a passive mode of learning reigned over the centuries.
            3. Access to education was rather limited; but that was OK, for only a relatively
               few people required a college education for the world to work . . . .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Let’s fast forward now to the time of the Civil War
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                          What is  College




                                                                 Civil War
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and note along the way that we were well into the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Industrial Revolution; and the roots of modern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          theoretical and applied science were growing
       The  Advoca te .com.  www. 2the advoca te .com/ ne ws/2524336.html.   V ie we d 10.12.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          strongly.
                                                                                                    U ltim ate  Productions.  www.top2bottom .ne t/ Ultim ate _ Productions. htm l.   V iewe d 10.12.08.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In Washington, DC, along with fighting a war . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 WSS




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                                                                                                                             The Morrill Land Grant Act was passed . . . . in 1862.
 Austin 10.08                                                                                             What is  College




                Morrill Land Grant
                               The Act established a revolutionarily new kind of                    1862
                               college. A college that didn’t forget the liberal arts            Agriculture
                               but for the first time included the study of two applied          Engineering
              One per State
            W ik ipedi a. 
                               sciences . . . . – agriculture and engineering – in the
            http: //e n. wik ipedia .org /wik i/Im ag e: Justi n_S mi th_ M orri ll_ ‐_Bra dy‐
            H andy. jpg.   Vi ewe d 10.5.08.
                                                                                                                    WSS


                               curriculum. . . . . One of these new-fangled
institutions was established in each state . . . .

For the first time American pragmatism was front and center at the Academy . . . .
and the stranglehold the liberal arts had held for centuries was broken.




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                                                                  Soon we had new institutions such as Ohio State
 Austin 10.08                                 What is  College




                Morrill Land Grant
                                                                  University . . . . and Cornell University, my alma
                       “I would found an
                       institution where                          mater where I graduated from the College of
                       any person can                             Agriculture.
                       find instruction in
                       any study.”
                             - Ezra Cornell
                                 Cornell’s founder, Ezra Cornell, an upstate New York
                                                        WSS



                                 hard-headed businessman, stated . . . . “I would found
an institution where . . . . any person can find . . . . instruction in any study.” . . . .

                                                                  After the war southern institutions such as Auburn . . .
 Austin 10.08                                 What is  College




                Morrill Land Grant
                                                                  . and Texas A&M came into existence . . . .




                                                        WSS




                                                                  And in 1890 institutions that we now include among
 Austin 10.08                                  What is  College




                Morrill Land Grant                                the Historically Black Colleges and Universities were
                                                                  brought into the land grant mix of institutions.
                                                                  Universities such as Tuskegee where George
                                                                  Washington Carver did his research . . . . and
                                                                  Tennessee State University took their place alongside
                                                                  Purdue and the University of California – Davis and
                                                         WSS




others . . . .

To reiterate but modify two themes: . . . .

          1. What was called “college” no longer was limited only to the liberal arts.
             It was now OK to go to college for unabashedly practical reasons . . . .
          2. And the second theme is that access to college was expanded . . . .
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                                                                                                                                                                                     When we hear the words high school and college and
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                     What is  College



                                                                                            1900
                                                                                                                                                                                     university, we view those words through our 21st
                                                                                                                                                                                     century lenses. . . . . Let’s remember that in 1900 only
                                                                                                                                                                                     10 to 15 percent of adolescents attended secondary
                                                                                                                                                                                     schools and fewer than 10% graduated from high
                                                  Hoove r I ns ti tution.  http:/ /www.hoov er. org /public ations/ edne xt/3212486. htm l.   Vi ewe d 10.5.08.


                                                                                                                                                                                     school.
                                                                                                                                                                            WSS




The 20th century was a story of vastly expanding school attendance and graduation.

                               The next significant event that occurred in our look at
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                     What is  College



                Standardization of Credit Hour
                               the history of higher education that I am outlining in
             Andrew Carnegie   some detail because I think it puts in context the
             TIAA-CREF         question of “what is a college education” was the
              Carnegie Unit
                  1906         standardization of the concept of a “credit hour,”
                               which we still use as a measurement of how much
                H oov er  Instituti on. 
                http: //www.hoove r.org/publi cati ons/ edne xt/3212
                486.htm l.   Vie wed 10.5.08.




                               college work a student has done. Finally we were
                                                                                                                                                                            WSS




getting serious in a way that resonates with our 21st century ears about defining
what is college.
The idea of the credit hour was created in a backdoor sort of way through the
philanthropy of the steel magnate, . . . . Andrew Carnegie, the man whom you might
associate along with me with “Carnegie Libraries” created across the country.

In 1906 through he wanted to set up the Carnegie Foundation a fund to support the
retirement of academics, so he established something we now call . . . . TIAA-
CREF. Perhaps you are a member and have worried the last few weeks with me
about the state of our retirement funds. But who should be eligible to become
members of TIAA-CREF?

To answer that question, the Carnegie Foundation established a committee who
defined the . . . . Carnegie Unit which is the basic unit of measure for high school
studies. And in turn, American higher education’s “credit hour” was defined . . . .
17 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                                                                                                                                 The basic building block of the college curriculum
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                 What is  College



                Standardization of Credit Hour
                                                                                                                                 became the “three semester credit hour course” . . . .
                                                                                                Three Semester
                                                                                                  Credit Hour                    which was defined as 40 hours in class over about a . .
                                                                                                    Course                       . . 15 week period . . . . accompanied by twice as
                                                                                               40 Hours in Class
                                                                                                  ~ 15 Weeks                     much – that is, 80 hours – study outside of class.
            H oov er  Instituti on. 
            http: //www.hoove r.org/publi cati ons/ edne xt/3212
            486.htm l.   Vie wed 10.5.08.
                                                                                               80 Hours Outside
                                                                                                                        WSS


                               Actually the definition initially focused on how much
a faculty member taught, so people could figure out who was eligible to be included
in the new TIAA-CREF retirement system; but soon it was extended to define the
effort put into the course by a student . . . .

                                                                                                                                 Note that the credit hour as a measure of college work
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                 What is  College



                Standardization of Credit Hour
                                                                                                                                 and thus as a basic building block of our definition of
                                                                                                 Measured as
                                                                                                 Time on Task                    “what is college” was defined in terms of . . . . “time
                                                                                                      Not                        on task” . . . . and not in terms of what was taught or
                                                                                               What Was Taught
                                                                                                  or Learned                     learned . . . . or the credentials of who did the teaching
                                                                                                or Who Taught
                                                                                                                                 or, for that matter, of . . . . who did the learning . . . .
                H oov er  Instituti on. 
                http: //www.hoove r.org/publi cati ons/ edne xt/3212
                486.htm l.   Vie wed 10.5.08.




                                                                                                                        WSS




                              Let’s move forward by nearly a half century to the
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                 What is  College




                                       G.I. Bill – 1944
                              Second World War. As an aside, it’s interesting to
               51% WWII       me to see the correlation with if not the effect of war
              Vets Used G.I. 
              Bill Education 
                              on education policy. War affected educational policy
                 Benefits     and in turn affected people. My grandfathers were a
                 W ic hi ta E a gle  Bl og .  bl ogs. ka ns as. com/we blog /2008/05/08/.   




                              farmer and a coal miner whose son, my dad,
                 Vi ewe d 10.5.08.




                              completed college on the G.I. Bill. Ten years later
                                                                                                                        WSS




Sputnik when up and we got the National Defense Education Act and I stand before
you as a science educator. When someone says the federal government and policy
emanating from Washington has no effect, I vociferously beg to differ. For
evidence I simply refer to my family and me. But back to my point . . . .

Lots of vets, mostly men, took advantage of the G.I. Bill’s education benefits . . . .
18 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



The G.I. Bill enabled lots of offspring of blue collar workers like my father to
further their education and change their lifestyle . . . . Going to college became
more commonplace. Unlike my dad who was very smart in school but had little
idea as he grew up of how he could go to college, there was never a question in my
home about whether my sister and I would go to college. We never talked about
whether we’d go to college. We only talked about where we’d go to college and
what we would study once we got there.

As the government was paying for more and more schooling, a logical question
arose . . . . . “Are we getting our money’s worth?” . . . .

                                                                                                                  And that kind of questioning gave rise to
 Austin 10.08                                                                                  What is  College




                                                                               ACCREDITATION                      Accreditation, the idea that someone outside of the
                                                                                 Post-WWII
                                                                                                                  Academy should give their “seal of approval” to what
          UT E P  Prog ram  Admis sions.  htt p: // ac ademi cs . utep. edu/




                                                                                                                  was going on inside the Academy.
          Vie we d  10. 7. 08.




                              I’m most familiar with SACS and NCATE as regional
          Ba ylor U ni ve rsity . www. bay lor.e du/s oe/ ncat e/
          Vie we d  10. 7. 08.




                                                                                                         WSS



                              and professional accrediting bodies respectively, so
I’ve shown their logos; but there also are dozens of other accrediting agencies . . . .

                                                                                                                  Whereas the notion of a “credit hour” measured
 Austin 10.08                                                                                  What is  College




                                                                               ACCREDITATION                      college in terms of . . . . “time on task,” the
                                                                                  So, you’re
                                                                                spending time,                    accrediting bodies asked colleges to do more . . . .
                                                                               but is it worthy of
          UT E P  Prog ram  Admis sions.  htt p: // ac ademi cs . utep. edu/




                                                                                                                  they wondered whether what was going on at the
          Vie we d  10. 7. 08.




                                                                                 being called
                                                                                    “college”                     institution was worthy of being called “college.”
          Ba ylor U ni ve rsity . www. bay lor.e du/s oe/ ncat e/
          Vie we d  10. 7. 08.




                                                                                                         WSS



                                 In a twist on the words of Shakespeare who had Juliet
state, in effect, that a rose by any other name would smell as sweet, the accrediting
bodies asked “Does this institution smell sweet enough to be called a “college?”



19 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



Accreditation became so pervasive and so important in American higher education
that the issue arose, “We have the fox in the guise of the accrediting body guarding
the chicken coop which is the college; but how do we know that the fox knows how
to properly guard the chickens?” . . . .

    Austin 10.08                                                                        What is  College

                                                                                                           So the Council of Higher Education Accreditation,
                                                                             CHEA                          better known as CHEA, came into existence to . . . .
                                                                         Accreditation of
                                                                          Accreditation                    accredit the accreditors; and CHEA’s questions help
                                                                                                           us conceptualize how we should go about deciding
                                                                                                           whether a particular practice meets the definition of
                Counc il  for H ig he r E duc ation  Accre ditation. 
                http: //www.che a. org /de fa ult.a sp 
                Vie we d  10. 7. 08.
                                                                                                           college . . . .
                                                                                                  WSS




                                 CHEA asked accrediting bodies whether they had
 Austin 10.08                                                                          What is  College




                                                                    • Standards
                                 standards, what was the basis for those standards and
                                                                    • Self Study
                                 how were they selected . . . . CHEA looked at
                                                                    • Outside Evaluators
                                                                    • Are Standards Met?
                                 whether accrediting bodies had institutions do a self
                                                                    • Publication
                                                                    • On-going Monitoring
                                 study and what was included in those studies . . . .
                                                                    • Reevaluation
                                 and CHEA looked for outside evaluators and
          Counc il  for H ig he r E duc ation  Accre ditation. 
          http: //www.che a. org /de fa ult.a sp 
          Vie we d  10. 7. 08.




                                 wondered who they were and how they were trained
                                                                                                  WSS




and whether they were biased in their efforts . . . . then CHEA was concerned about
how the accrediting body decided that standards were met or not met. They looked
at who was involved in that decision-making process and how the process was
conducted . . . . Next CHEA wanted to know how the accrediting body had their
institutions publish the results of the accreditation process so the public could be
made aware of the status of the institutions in the eyes of the accrediting bodies . . .
. Then CHEA wanted to make sure this was not a one-shot operation. They wanted
to be certain that the accrediting body made sure that self study and so forth were
on-going propositions . . . . and finally, CHEA made sure that the accrediting body
returned on a timely basis to re-evaluate institutions so they wouldn’t drift into non-
compliance . . . .


20 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                                                                                                        Over the years accreditation has changed . . . .
 Austin 10.08                                                                        What is  College




                                                                  Evolution of Standards
                                                                   • Resources – Books,
                                                                     Buildings, Faculty,                At first, accrediting bodies focused on nuts and bolts
                                                                     Students
                                                                   • Coherent, Rational                 sorts of issues. Who were the faculty and what were
                                                                     Program
                                                                   • Results
                                                                                                        their credentials? What were the facilities like? Were
                                                                                                        there up-to-date classrooms, labs and libraries? What
          Counc il  for H ig he r E duc ation  Accre ditation. 
          http: //www.che a. org /de fa ult.a sp 
          Vie we d  10. 7. 08.




                                                                                               WSS


                                                                                                        resources such as books were available to students?
And similar issues . . . .

Then about 20-25 years ago people realized that these nuts and bolts issues were
important but what was more important was what was going on in the college or
university. So the accrediting standards evolved to include questions about the
instructional programs that were expected of students. In my own discipline, the
National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education, which is better known
as NCATE, started to ask questions like:
   • “Is there a strong theoretical rationale for the program and is there coherence
      among the various parts of the program?”
   • “Are the students who are preparing to be teachers given a chance to learn
      how to teach the diversity of learners who are in the schools?” and
   • “Are the students getting practical field experience as part of their training?”

About the same time 15-20 years ago – the late 1980’s to early 1990’s – K-12
schools were required to test their students to show that their students were actually
learning something. In effect, governments were saying, “We could care less about
the school buildings and related variables and don’t care too much about how you
do it, but we want to know that when junior and sis get out of school they know
something. And we’ll base that judgment on whether they can pass certain tests.” . .
...

Not in 1990 but since the turn of the century university accrediting bodies have
gotten the same itch. They’re adding new accreditation standards that ask
universities to demonstrate they are producing results.
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Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



In our current political campaign we’re hearing . . . . “drill, baby, drill” but on
campus we’re just beginning to hear the same drumbeat the K-12 schools have been
hearing for nearly two decades . . . . “test, baby, test.” Accrediting bodies are
asking the question, “what is a college education,” and they are expecting answers
in terms of test scores . . . . They’re looking for results . . . .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    So there has been an evolution of standards from . . . .
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                    What is  College




                                                                  Evolution of Standards
                                                                   • Input Variables                                                                                                                           .
                                                                                                                                                                                                               8
                                                                                                                                                                                                               0
                                                                                                                                                                                                               .
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                                                                                                                                                                                                               .
                                                                                                                                                                                                               0
                                                                                                                                                                                                               1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                                                                               d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    emphasis on what I would call input variables such as
                                                                                                                                                                                                               e



                                                                  • Throughput Variables                                                                                                                            number of books in the library . . . . to throughput
                                                                                                                                                                                                               w
                                                                                                                                                                                                               e
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                                                                                                                                                                                                               p
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                                                                  • Output Variables
                                                                                                                                                                                                               f
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    variables such as what are the students studying . . . .
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                                                                                                                                                                                                               .




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    to output variables such as can students perform on
                                                                                                                                                                                                               w
                                                                                                                                                                                                               w
                                                                                                                                                                                                               w
                                                                                                                                                                                                               /
                                                                                                                                                                                                               /
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    tests.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                                                                               s
                                                                                                                                                                                                               r
          Counc il  for H ig he r E duc ation  Accre ditation.                                                                                                                                                 o
                                                                                                                                                                                                               n
                                                                                                                                                                                                               o
          http: //www.che a. org /de fa ult.a sp                                                                                                                                                               H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                
          Vie we d  10. 7. 08.                                                                                                                                                                                 h
                                                                                                                                                                                                               c
                                                                                                                                                                                                               e
                                                                                                                                                                                                               T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                                                  Spa rta n Da il y.                                                    T exa s  Te ch T oday .                                                s
                                                                                                                                                                                                               a
                                                                                                                                                                                                               x
                                                                  http:// medi a. www. the spa rta ndai ly. com/m e di a/ pa per852/s   http: //www.depts.ttu.e du/comm uni ca ti ons/ne ws /stori es/ 0       e
                                                                                                                                                                                                               T
                                                                  ec ti ons/ 20080507Ne ws.html                                         8/01‐provost‐roa st.php 
                                                                  Vie wed 10.7.08.                                                      Vie we d  10. 7. 08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           WSS




If you don’t think these output variables are important, let me introduce you to three
men who used to be top administrators at Texas Tech. . . . . Our former president is
now president at San Jose State . . . . Our former provost left the post to return to the
faculty . . . . and our former senior associate provost also returned to the faculty.
Regardless of whether Texas Tech’s problems with SACS caused these job
changes, certainly all three men, all of whom were exceedingly well respected
administrators, know that accreditation now means that universities have to be able
to answer the question, “what have you done for me lately” or in other words, “how
well can your students perform as a result of going through your institution?”

                                We are just on the cusp of adding a new round of
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                    What is  College




                                                                  Evolution of Standards
                                variables that I would call . . . . “effect variables.”
                                                                   • Input Variables
         • Throughput Variables
         • Output Variables
                                Accrediting bodies are just beginning to think that it’s
         • Effect Variables     not sufficient to show that students can perform while
                                they’re still on campus. What’s more important is . . .
                                . . . . “Can they perform on the job when they get out
          Counc il  for H ig he r E duc ation  Accre ditation. 
          http: //www.che a. org /de fa ult.a sp 
          Vie we d  10. 7. 08.




                                                                                                                                                                                                           WSS


                                of college?” In my own field of education, NCATE
would like for institutions to measure how effective our graduates are in having
22 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



their students learn. In other words, institutions’ accreditation, in part, will hinge on
the test scores of the K-12 students of teachers who were once our students. We’re
definitely not there yet; but we’re moving in that direction . . . .




23 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Let’s hold on to these ideas but . . . .
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                               What is  College




                                               Hold Those Ideas




                                                  Randy  Pa usch’s  U pda te  Pa g e.  www.cs .cmu. edu/~ pausc h/ news/i ndex .html.    Vie wed  10.9.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             WSS




 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                               What is  College




                           Return to Early 1900’s                                                                                                                                                                                  Return to the early 1900’s and our review of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   history of this institution we call “college.”



                                                                                                                        Storie s from PA H istory.  
        Car Body  De sig n. http: //www.ca rbody des ign. com/a rchiv e /2008/05/13‐ford‐mode l‐                        http: //www.e xplorepa history. com/dis pl ay g all ery .php?g al le ry_ id= 70& bcol or= re d& li
        t‐c once pt‐de sig n‐c hall e ng e /.   Vi ewe d 10.7.08.
                                                                                                                        st= 1.   Vie we d  10. 7. 08.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   In 1900 colleges came in two varieties or a
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                             What is  College




                          Return to Early 1900’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   combination thereof. . . . . There were liberal arts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   colleges offering a curriculum derived from the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   medieval curriculum . . . . and the land grants offering
                                  Liberal Arts                                                                                           Land Grants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   a more pragmatic curriculum.
                       http://oc w. nd. edu/phil os ophy /a nc ie nt‐wis dom ‐m odern‐                                         F anta stic Cook.  
                       love /the ‐ha irdre sse rs‐husba nd‐                                                                    http://fa na ticc ook .blog spot. com/2008/ 03/m ilk ing‐
                       sum ma ry/philosophy/Phil osophy %20Re ig ning%20O ve r%2                                               s chedule .html.    Vie wed 10.7.08.
                       0the %20S ev en%20Libe ra l%20Arts.g if.   Vie wed 10.7.08.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             WSS




 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                             What is  College




                          Return to Early 1900’s                                                                                                                                                                                   As an Aussie acquaintance once explained to me
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   about Australian education, . . . . at liberal arts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   colleges students learn how to drink beer . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   whereas at land grant institutions, what the Aussies
                                  Liberal Arts
                       Exc use  me,  do y ou  Spe ak  E ngl ish. http://toma su.c o. uk/.   
                       Vie wed 10.7.08.
                                                                                                                                         Land Grants
                                                                                                                               Re a lly  Si mple  Be er. 
                                                                                                                               http://www.be eri na tor.com/ bee rfee ds2/inde x. php? pag e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   call Colleges of Advanced Education, students learn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   how to make beer . . . .
                                                                                                                               = 187.   Vie we d  10. 7. 08.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             WSS




24 | P a g e
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                               In 1901 a new kind of institution, the community
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                              What is  College



             First Community College – 1901
                                                                                                                                Expanding Access                                                                               college, appeared on the horizon.
                                                                                            Joliet CC
                             Please recall one of the themes of my remarks tonight.          Illinois



       25 in 1910
                             Access to college education. Community colleges
                             brought education closer to more people at a more
        Ame rica n Assoc iati on  of  Com muni ty   Col le ge s.  http:// www. aa cc .nche. e du/Conte nt/N a vig a ti onMe nu/AboutCom munityColl eg e s/Hi stori ca lInforma ti on/ CCG rowth/CC_ Growth_1901‐
        1910.htm.   Vie wed  10.5. 08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WSS


                             modest price . . . . Joliet Community College was
established in 1901 as America’s first community college; . . . . and by 1910 there
were 25 community colleges around the country . . . . expanding access to college
for more people.

Were community colleges really offering something that should be labeled as
“college” or was it something less than college? The question we ask today about
new practices was relevant 100 years ago. And one of today’s emerging
accreditation thrusts, how well can graduates perform at the next level, became a
very relevant standard to use.
                                 When asking that performance question, remember
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                               What is  College



   Community Colleges’ Graduates
                                 that community colleges are producing . . . . two
                                 flavors of graduates . . . . those who will continue to a
                                 four year institution to pursue the bachelor’s degree . .
                                 . . and a second group who will move directly into the
                  5 Sta r Adve nture s. 
                  http: //e isa ac .blog spot.c om/2007/05/offic ia lly ‐c olle ge ‐
                  g radua te .html .   Vie wed  10.18.08.




                                 workforce . . . .                                       E ngl ish9‐2008‐Re iM . http: //e ngli sh9‐2008‐
                                                                                         re im .blogspot.com/ 2008/08/ choc anil la .html.    Vie wed  10. 18.08.  www.247nurs ing. com/.   Vi ewe d 10. 18. 08.
                                                                                                                                          Univ ersi ty  of  Phoe nix.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      WSS




                                From 1901 through the years of the Great Depression
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                              What is  College


              Community College Growth – 1901 to 1940
                   250

                                community colleges slowly but surely continued to
       238 in 1940 200




                   150          grow in number so that . . . . by 1940 there were 238
                                                                                                                                                                                                        New



                                community colleges scattered around the nation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Total
                   100




                     50




                       0
                                During the Great Depression the expansion of
                                           1901‐10                                     1911‐20                              1921‐30                                1931‐40




                                community colleges decelerated; but even in those
        Ame rica n Assoc iati on  of  Com muni ty   Col le ge s.  http:// www. aa cc .nche. e du/Conte nt/N a vig a ti onMe nu/AboutCom munityColl eg e s/Hi stori ca lInforma ti on/ CCG rowth/CC_ Growth_1941‐
        1950.htm.   Vie wed  10.5. 08.




                                tough economic times over 50 new community
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WSS




colleges were established . . . .
25 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                                                                                                                                                                                                                           And through the Second World War and its aftermath
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                           What is  College



                         Community Colleges – 1950
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           community colleges grew to 330 by 1950 . . . .



                                  330 in 1950

        Ame rica n Assoc iati on  of  Com muni ty   Col le ge s.  http:// www. aa cc .nche. e du/Conte nt/N a vig a ti onMe nu/AboutCom munityColl eg e s/Hi stori ca lInforma ti on/ CCG rowth/CC_ Growth_1941‐
        1950.htm.   Vie wed  10.5. 08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   WSS




 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                         What is  College


               Community College Growth – 1901 to 2000
           .
           8
           0
           .
           7
           .
                     1400
                                The years up through the 1950’s were sort of a lull
           0




                                before the storm with more community colleges
           1
           l
           m
           t
           h
           .         1200
           d
           e
           d
           n
           a
           r
           b
           /
           7
           0
           0         1000
           2
           _
           y
           a
           M




                                coming on line each decade but at a fairly flat rate of
           /
           e
           v
           i
           h           800
           c
           r
           a
           /
           r
           e
           t                                                                                                                                                                                       New
           t
           e
           l
           s
           w
           e           600                                                                                                                                                                         Total
           n
           /
           m
           o
           c
           .

                    909 in 1970
                                50 to 100 new ones every ten years . . . . Then there
           k
           n
           i
           l
           a
           i
           d
                       400
           e
           m
           .
           w
           w
           w
           /
           /
           :           200
           p
           t
           h
            
           .
           k
           n




                                was an explosion in the 1960’s as . . . . the baby boom
           i
           L
           a
           i
           d
           e              0
           M
                                 1901‐10        1911‐20         1921‐30        1931‐40        1941‐50        1951‐60        1961‐70        1971‐80        1981‐90         1991‐ 00




                                children matured to college age and the children of the
        Ame rica n Assoc iati on  of  Com muni ty   Col le ge s.  http:// www. aa cc .nche. e du/Conte nt/N a vig a ti onMe nu/AboutCom munityColl eg e s/Hi stori ca lInforma ti on/ CCG rowth/CC_ Growth_1901‐
        2000.htm.   Vie wed  10.5. 08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   WSS




G.I. Bill soldiers who had developed a taste for higher education thought that going
to college was the natural thing to do . . . . The number of community colleges
doubled between 1960 and 1970 . . . .
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                          What is  College



                         Community Colleges – 2000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           And by 2000 . . . . the number of community colleges
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           had climbed to 1155 . . . .

                                 1155 in 2000


        Ame rica n Assoc iati on  of  Com muni ty   Col le ge s.  http:// www. aa cc .nche. e du/Conte nt/N a vig a ti onMe nu/AboutCom munityColl eg e s/Hi stori ca lInforma ti on/ CCG rowth/CC_ Growth_1991‐
        2000.htm.   Vie wed  10.5. 08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   WSS




 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                          What is  College



                Community Colleges – Enrollment
                                 Presently across all states . . . . there are 6.87 million
                                 community college students . . . . with about 2 out of
                                                                      2804305
                                                                                                                                                                                 210589




                                 every 5 being fulltime students . . . . and 3 out of
                                 4061687
                                                                                                                                           362446




                                 every 5 being part-timers . . . . In Texas we have
        All States     Texas
      6.87 Million
      41% Fulltime
                    0.57 Million
                   37% Fulltime
                                 similar proportions . . . . Of our half million . . . .
     59% Parttime  63% Parttime
                                 community college students . . . . 37% are fulltime . . .                                                                                                                         WSS




. and 63% attend college part-time . . . .
26 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                                                                                                                                                                                                    After the broadening of college to include two year
 Austin 10.08




                                                                                                                                                                                                    institutions, . . . . the next big change in higher
                                                                                                                                      Sprouts for  Cha nge .  sproutsforchang e. com/.    
                                                                                                                                      Vie we d  10. 4. 08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    education . . . . .
       Fore ign Poli cy.  blog .fore ig npol icy .com/ node /8129.    Vie wed 10.4.08.




                                                                                                                                        Rig hty blogs .com.  
                                                                                                                                        http: //www.rig htyblogs .com/V irgi nia/ fe ed. ph
                                                                                                                                        p?c ha nnel= 122& y =2008& m= 06&d= 26.    
                                                                                                                                        Vie we d  10. 4. 08.




       The  Ba nta s.  www.the banta s.us/06%20‐%20June%202004.htm.   V iewe d 10.4.08.

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 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                               What is  College



                           New Institutions Providing
                        Moving College Away From College
                                   was the creation of new instruments that moved
                            Multiple Delivery Modes
                          To Home, Office, High School                                                                                                                                          .
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                                   college away from a physical location called a college
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                     Founded 1976
                                                                                                                                                                                                e
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                        345,000 
                                                                                                                                                                                                p
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                                   . . . . to make the fruits of college more accessible to
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                        Students
                                                                                                                                                                                                _
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                    • Capella
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                                   new students found at home or the workplace or as
                                                                                                                                                                                                l

                    • Nova
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                      Southeastern
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                                                                                                                                                                                                .
                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                 
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                    • Regis
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                                   close to home or work as possible by providing
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                    • Walden
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                    • Western
                      Governors
                                   college credit in new ways . . . . with the for profit
                       Na tionmas te r.c om .  http:/ /www. nationma ster. com/e ncy clope dia /Uni ve rsity.    Vie wed  10.3. 08.




                                                                                                                                                                                              WSS




institution, the University of Phoenix, leading the way . . . . starting a bit over 30
years ago in 1976 . . . . and growing to 345,000 students enrolled today.

                                   The University of Phoenix today even has its own
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                 What is  College


                           New Institutions Providing
                        Moving College Away From College
                            Multiple Delivery Modes
                          To Home, Office, High School
                     Founded 1976
                                   football stadium – no football team and no campus as                                                                                                         .
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                                   such; but they do have a stadium . . . . And other
                                                                                                                                                                                                p
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                        345,000 
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                        Students
                                                                                                                                                                                                _
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                                   institutions have followed their lead . . . . Capella . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                u
                                                                                                                                                                                                i
                                                                                                                                                                                                d

                    • Capella
                                                                                                                                                                                                a
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                                                                                                                                                                                                o
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                                                                                                                                                                                                s
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                    • Nova
                                                                                                                                                                                                a
                                                                                                                                                                                                n
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                                                                                                                                                                                                r
                                                                                                                                                                                                a
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                                                                                                                                                                                                z
                                                                                                                                                                                                a
                                                                                                                                                                                                .

                      Southeastern
                                                                                                                                                                                                w
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                                   Nova Southeastern . . . . Regis . . . . Walden . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                w
                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                .
                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                .
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                    • Regis
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                                                                                                                                                                                                n
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                    • Walden
                                                                                                                                                                                                o
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                    • Western
                      Governors    Western Governors and the like . . . . What is
                       Na tionmas te r.c om .  http:/ /www. nationma ster. com/e ncy clope dia /Uni ve rsity.    Vie wed  10.3. 08.




                                   significant for tonight’s consideration is that the
                                                                                                                                                                                              WSS




University of Phoenix and their fellow travelers make something called college
more accessible . . . .




27 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                                                                                                                                                                                               It’s not just the University of Phoenix moving into our
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                           W hat is  Colleg e



            Moving College to the Bedroom
                                                                                                                                                                                               bedrooms . . . . If it’s inconvenient for you to go to
                                                                                                                                                                                               Harvard, Harvard will come to you. Their website
                                                                                Univers ities .com. h ttp://ww w.univer sities.com/On‐
                                                                                Campus /University_Of_Phoenix__Sacramento _V al ley_Campus.html  .  V iewed 10.19.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                               states “Can’t make it to the Harvard campus? Our
                                                                                Harvard Univers ity Extension School . http://www.exten sion.harvard.edu /.   Viewed 10.19.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                               online courses allow you to take Harvard classes at a
        Pajama Geneal ogy. http:/ /pajamagenealogy.com/.   Vi ewed 10.19.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                               distance . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                      WSS




 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                            W hat is  Colleg e



            Moving College to the Bedroom                                                                                                                                                      If the Big Red of Harvard is not for you, then you can
                                                                                                                                                                                               head to the blue of Yale . . . .


                                                                                Candyfavo rites.com. http:/ /www.can dyfavori tes.com/ Wrigleys ‐Big‐Red‐pr‐712.ht ml.  Viewed 10.19.08.




        Pajama Geneal ogy. http:/ /pajamagenealogy.com/.   Vi ewed 10.19.08.

                                                                                                                                                                                       WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                               Which has opened its doors so you can take online
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                            W hat is  Colleg e



            Moving College to the Bedroom
                                                                                                                                                                                               courses such as . . . . Astronomy, Classics,
                                                                               Open Yale Cours es . http:// oyc.yale.edu/ .  V iewed 10.19.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                               Economics, Physics, Political Science, Psychology,
                                                                                                    • Astronomy
                                                                                                    • Classics
                                                                                                                                                                                               and many more . . . .
                                                                                                    • Economics
                                                                                                    • Physics
                                                                                                    • Political Science
                                                                                                    • Psychology
        Pajama Geneal ogy. http:/ /pajamagenealogy.com/.   Vi ewed 10.19.08.                        • And More
                                                                                                                                                                                       WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                               If you are more of a west coast person, Leland
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                           W hat is  Colleg e



            Moving College to the Bedroom
                                                                                                                                                                                               Stanford’s institution has online courses for you . . . .



                                                                                Online Universiti es . http://w ww.onli neunivers ities‐
                                                                                weblog.co m/ 50226711/take_stanford_university_classes_onli ne.php.   Vi ewed 10.19.08.




        Pajama Geneal ogy. http:/ /pajamagenealogy.com/.   Vi ewed 10.19.08.

                                                                                                                                                                                      WSS




28 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                                                                                                                                                                                                But if you are a loyal daughter or son of Texas, you
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                             W hat is  Colleg e



            Moving College to the Bedroom
                                                                                                                                                                                                can go on line from Big Springs, Uvalde, Muleshoe,
                                                                                                                                                                                                Marfa or Texarkana to . . . . UT-Austin to take your
                                                                                                                                                                                                courses . . . .
                                                                               Uni vers ity of Texas – Aus tin. http:/ /www.ci adverti sing.org/SA/summer_03/michelle/vmr.html.  
                                                                               Viewed 10.19.08.




                                                                               http:/ /www.utexas.edu/conted/.  Viewed 1 0.19.08.




        Pajama Geneal ogy. http:/ /pajamagenealogy.com/.   Vi ewed 10.19.08.

                                                                                                                                                                                      WSS




 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                             W hat is  Colleg e



            Moving College to the Bedroom                                                                                                                                                       However, if teaching your newborn in the first few
                                                                                                                                                                                                hours of life to hook ‘em horns isn’t your thing . . . .



        Pajama Geneal ogy. http:/ /pajamagenealogy.com/.   Vi ewed 10.19.08.

                                                                                                                                                                                      WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                Then head to Texas Tech University . . . . and our new
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                            W hat is  Colleg e



            Moving College to the Bedroom
                                                                                                                                                                                                College of Outreach and Distance Education . . . .




        Pajama Geneal ogy. http:/ /pajamagenealogy.com/.   Vi ewed 10.19.08.

                                                                                                                                                                                     WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                Whether we’re talking about the University of
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                             W hat is  Colleg e



            Moving College to the Bedroom
                                                                                                                                                                                                Phoenix, Harvard, Yale, Stanford, UT-Austin or
                                                                                                                                                                                                Texas Tech, the issue is Access . . . .



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29 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                                                                                                                                                                                                               In a flat world . . . . more and more people need
 Austin 1 0.08




                                                                                                                                                                                                               access to higher education and they need it not just at
                                                                                                                                                                                                               18 but also at 38 and 58 . . . .



       http:// www.jas on‐is m.com/onli nestoreas ia.html.   Viewed 10.4.08.                                                                 Book Review Summaries. 
                                                                                                                                             bookreviewsummari es.wordpress.com/ .  Vi ewed 10.4.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       WSS




 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                         W hat is  Colleg e



                                                       Always a Balance                                                                                                                                        However, we have to balance the desire and need to
                                                                                                                                                                                                               increase . . . . access to education with questions about
                                                                                                                                                                                                               the quality of that education . . . . .


                                          Space of Real ity. http:// spaceofreali ty.blogspot.com/2008/02/jus ti ce‐i s‐bli nd‐reall y.html.  Viewed 10.19.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       WSS




                                 Is whatever these students are doing in their jammies
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                            W hat is  Colleg e



                                                             Is This College?
                                 at 3 AM something called “college?” . . . .
                                 Or when these studies are squeezed into the juggle of
                                 home, work and family, . . . .
                                 are these studies something that should be called
                                 college? Said in different words, should these roses
                    Informati on Empori um. http:// www.i nformati on‐
                    empori um.info/Publ ish_Your_Own_Work.html .  Vi ewed 10.5.08.
                                                                                                                   As soci ated Cont ent. 
                                                                                                                   http:// www.associatedcontent.com/arti cle/232649/ new_st
                                                                                                                   udy_says_stay_at_home_moms _w orth.html ?cat=7.  
                                                                                                                   Vi ewed 10.7.08.




                                 be labeled college? . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                        WSS




Should they be accredited? . . . .
But if these students cannot access college in this way, then how can they get a
college education? . . . .
We should also ask whether these students are better off than if they hadn’t
undertaken this instruction? Even if we don’t call it college, are they better off? . . .
....
And finally, “Are they as well off as they would have been if they had traveled to
campus for instruction?” . . . .



30 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                                                                                                                                                                                                             There are lots of questions to think about with regard
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                       W hat is  Colleg e



           Lots of Questions to Think About
                                                                                                                                                                                                             to access and quality . . . .




           Newsday.com.                                                                                     Yankeerev. http:/ /yankeerev.word press .co m/2008/ 06/24/w oul d‐you‐li ke‐
           ht tp:/ /weblogs.news day.com/ sports/ watchdog/blog/2007/12/wfan_feels _s trongl y              to‐vi sit ‐the‐gates‐of‐hell /.  Vi ewed 10.4.08.
           _b oth_ways .html.  Viewed 1 0.19.08.                                                                                                                                                       WSS




 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                      W hat is  Colleg e



              But It’s Even More Complicated                                                                                                                                                                 But it’s even more complicated . . . . than simply
                                                                                                                                                                                                             wondering whether courses offered by colleges at a
                                                                                                                                                                                                             distance are doing what they need to do to be called
                                                                                                                                                                                                             “college.” . . . .

                                                                                               The Secret of th e Maze. b obscrafts.com/bobs tuff/maze.htm .  Vi ewed 10.19.08.


        Muddl ed  Monkey. http:// www.themuddl ed monkey.com/.  Vi ewed 10.4.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                             Besides moving college to home and the workplace,
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                       W hat is  Colleg e



                 Moving College to High School
                                                                                                                                                                                                             college is moving to . . . . high school . . . . But is it
                                                                                                                                                                                                             appropriate for something that goes on in high schools
                                                                                                                                                                                                             to be called college? . . . .
                                                                                                        Soundtrack Col lector. 
                                                                                                        ht tp:/ /www.soundtrackcollector.com/catalog/ soundtrackdetail.php?movi
                                                                                                        ei d=67239 .  Viewed  10.7.08.


                      Kids .aol.com. http://kids.aol.com/KOL/ 2/ Mo viesAndTV/Articl e/high‐
                      school‐musical .  Viewed 10.7.08.



                                                                                                                                                                                                       WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                             The first movement of college courses into high
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                       W hat is  Colleg e



        First Movement of College to High School
                                                                                                                                                                                                             schools – the first crack in the wall between high
                                                                                                                                                                                                             school and college, if you will . . . . was the initiation
                                                                                                                    Phoenix Desert AP Summer Institut e. phoeni xdeserts i.com/.   Vi ewed 10.19.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                             of Advanced Placement . . . . a bit over 50 years ago .
                                                                                                                                     1950’s                                                                  ...
      Sto ckxpert.com. www.s tockxpert.com/browse.p html?f=vi ew&i d= 67799.  Viewed 10 .19.08.




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31 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008




                                                     AP grew out of a committee of representatives from
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                              W hat is  Colleg e



                 Moving College to High School
                               1950’s                three elite private high schools – Andover, Exeter and
  Spurred by committee of educators from             Lawrenceville . . . . and three select universities –
  Andover, Exeter and Lawrenceville,
  and                                                Harvard, Yale and Princeton . . . . They agreed that
  Harvard, Yale and Princeton.
  • High schools and colleges should cooperate.
  • High schools offer rigorous courses to best and 
                                                     high schools and colleges should cooperate . . . . And
    brightest.
  • Colleges accept courses for advanced standing.
                                                     that high schools could offer rigorous courses that
                                                                                                                                                                        WSS



                                                     would be equivalent to college instruction to their best
and brightest students . . . . And finally that colleges should award college credit for
these rigorous courses to students who could pass a tough examination.
 Austin 1 0.08



                 Moving College to High School
                                                                                                                                                             W hat is  Colleg e

                                                                                                                                                                                  AP courses have become quite popular with a quarter
                                                                                                                                                                                  of 2007 high school graduates taking at least one AP
                                                 % of                                                                  % of                                                       exam . . . . And about one out of six or seven 2007
                                              Graduates                                                             Graduates
                                              Taking Test                                                            Rec’d = 3
                                                                                                                                                                                  high school graduates received at least three college
                 2002                            18.1                                                                  11.7                                                       credits from their AP studies . . . .
                 2007                            24.9                                                                  15.2
          Fourth Annual AP Report to the Nation. Released 2.13.08.
                                                                                                                                                                         WSS




 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                              W hat is  Colleg e



                 Moving College to High School                                                                                                                                    Over one-fifth . . . . of Texas high school students are
                                                                                                                                                                                  taking at least one AP exam . . . . placing Texas
          Today
    > 1/5th of Texas                                                                                                                                                              among the states with the highest rate of AP
    students took an 
    AP exam in 2004.                                                                                                                                                              participation. Notice on this map that Texas is a dark
                                                                                                                                                                                  purple state along with California, Florida, New York
                                                                Sci ence and Engineering Indicators 2006. 
                                                                http:// www.ns f.gov/statistics/s ei nd06/ c8/c8.cfm?opt=1&selected=yes &action=map&col name=811.   
                                                                Vi ewed 10.10.08.                                                                                      WSS        and others . . . .

                                                                                                                                                                                  While the availability of AP courses blanketed
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                              W hat is  Colleg e



                 Moving College to High School
                                                                                                                                                                                  America for the best and brightest students, a new
                                                                                                                                                                                  delivery vehicle began to catch on and grow.
                                                                                                                                                                                  As opposed to AP courses which require a rigorous,
                                                                                                                                                                                  nationally-administered end-of-course test in order to
                         Howard  College. www.ho wardcoll ege.edu/di stance_learning/.  Vi ewed 10.12.0 8.
                                                                                                                                                                                  earn college credit, dual credit courses are college
                                                                                                                                                                        WSS




32 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



courses generally offered in high schools by faculty who are college faculty or who
are judged to have met the minimum qualifications to be a college faculty member .
...
 Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                    What is  College
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Nearly a quarter of dual credit courses . . . . are taught
             Where Dual Courses are Taught
                                                                                                                                                                                                         on a college campus, thus requiring the high school
                                                                                                                                                                                                         student to travel to the college for their class. A few .
                                                                                                                                                                                                         . . . about 4% of the dual credit courses are taught via
                                                                                                                                                                                                         distance education. But the vast majority . . . . nearly
                                                                                                                                                                                                         three-quarters of the dual credit courses are taught at
                                                                                                                                                                                                         the high school the students attend . . . .
                               Na tional  Ce nte r for  Educa tional  S ta tistic s. http://nce s.e d.g ov/ss br/pa g es/ dua lc redi t. as p? IndI D=25.   V iewe d 10.12.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                            WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                         Dual credit courses may be accredited by the National
  Aus tin  1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                   W hat is  Colleg e



            Accreditation of Dual Enrollment
                                                                                                                                             Founded 1999
                                                                                                                                               Curriculum
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Alliance of Concurrent Enrollment Partnerships . . . .
                                                                                                                                              Accreditation
                                                                                                                                                 Faculty
                                                                                                                                               Standards
                                                                                                                                                Students
                                                                                                                                                                                                         which was founded nearly 10 years ago in 1999 . . . .
                                                                                                                                             Adopted 2002
                                                                                                                                              Assessment
                                                                                                                                                Program
                                                                                                                                                                                                         and which approved standards for dual credit courses
                                                                                                                                               Evaluation                                                in 2002 . . . . The standards address . . . . Curriculum .
                                                                                                                                                                                                         . . . Faculty . . . . Students . . . . Assessment . . . . and
          Universi ty of Min nes ota ‐ Crookston. www.umcrookston.edu/ cihs/.  Vi ewed 10.19.08.




                                                                                                                                                                                                         Program Evaluation . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                               WSS




                                                  Dual credit accreditation standards . . . . begin with the
  Aus tin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                 W hat is  Colleg e



             Dual Credit Accreditation Standards
  • High School and College Courses Are As Close 
    To Identical as Possible
                                                  idea that the courses offered for college credit to high
  • High School Faculty are Equal to College 
    Faculty and Are Part of the Team
                                                  school students should be as equivalent as possible to
  • High School Students are Treated As If They 
    Are College Students                          their college counterpart in syllabus, textbook,
  • High School Students are Assessed the Same 
    Way as College Students                       assignments, and so forth . . . . and the high school
  • Graduates of Dual Enrollment Courses are
    Evaluated in College                          faculty should be equal in quality to the college
                                                                                                                                                                                            WSS



                                                  faculty . . . . Moreover, the high school students
should be treated as if they are college students . . . . and the high school students
should be assessed in the same way they would be assessed in college . . . . and
finally, graduates of high school dual credit courses should be evaluated in college
in their first year and senior year to be sure that they had received the foundation for
success in college . . . .

33 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                                   The NACEP standards are designed to find out
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                   W hat is  Colleg e



                                       If High School = College
                                   whether what is going on in the high school is
                                   equivalent to what is going on at the partner college.
                                   If the answer is that the high school courses are
                                   equivalent to the college courses . . . . the accreditors
                                   would reach the conclusion that the high school
                                   courses have risen to the level of college courses and
                                             W omen Lawyers – Back on Tr ack. nylawblog.typepad.co m/ women_lawyers/gen_x_y/.  Viewed 10.20.08.                                                 WSS




thus are worthy of being labeled “college.” But a second conclusion is also possible
and that is that . . . . what is going on at the college has fallen to the high school
level . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board’s
 Aus tin  1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                 W hat is  Colleg e



              THECB – Chapter 4 (Dual Credit)
                                                                                                                                                                                                      standards for dual credit programs are similar to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                      NACEP standards . . . . except that Texas doesn’t
                      Si psearch. www .si psear ch.com/ texas/  V iewed 10.9.08.                                          University of Minneso ta ‐ Crookston. ww w.umcrookston.edu/cihs/.  
                                                                                                                          Vi ew ed 10.19.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      require an every five year assessment of how well
        Texas standards – similar to NACEP’s                                                                                                                                                          dual credits graduates performed in their upper
        except for not requiring follow-up with
        dual program grads as college seniors.                                                                                                                                                        division courses in colleges . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                WSS




 Austin 1 0.08

                                                                                                                                                                                                      The most recent big change . . . . in the migration of
                                                                                                                                                                                                      college into high schools was the launching of . . . .
                                                                                                                                            Sprou ts for Change. s proutsforch ange.com/.  
                                                                                                                                            Viewed 10.4.08.




        Forei gn Policy. blog.foreignpoli cy.com/ no de/ 8129.   Viewed 10.4.08.




                                                                                                                                              Rightyblogs.com. 
                                                                                                                                              http://w ww.rightybl ogs.com/Vi rgin ia/feed.ph
                                                                                                                                              p?channel=122&y=2008&m=06&d=26.  
                                                                                                                                              Vi ewed 10.4.08.




        The B antas. www.thebantas.us /06%20‐%20June%202004.h tm.  V iewed 10.4.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                WSS




34 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                                                                                                                                                                           15 Texas Early College High Schools . . . . According
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                       W hat is  Colleg e



             Texas Early College High Schools
                                                                                                                                                                           to their self-description, the “Early college high
                   Early Col lege High School  Initi ati ve. http:/ /earl ycolleges.org/Download s/accelerated%20learni ng.pdf.  Vi ew ed 10.9.08.
                                                                                                                                                                           school is a bold approach, based on the principle that
          “Early college high school is a bold
         approach, based on the principle that
                                                                                                                                                                           academic rigor, combined with the opportunity to
          academic rigor, combined with the
       opportunity to save time and money, is a
                                                                                                                                                                           save time and money, is a powerful motivator for
      powerful motivator for students to work hard
       and meet serious intellectual challenges.                                                                                                                           students to work hard and meet serious intellectual
                                                                                                                                                                WSS



                                                                                                                                                                           challenges . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                           The Early College High School Initiative goes on to
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                       W hat is  Colleg e



             Texas Early College High Schools
                                                                                                                                                                           say that “Early college high schools blend high school
                   Early Col lege High School  Initi ati ve. http:/ /earl ycolleges.org/Download s/accelerated%20learni ng.pdf.  Vi ew ed 10.9.08.
                                                                                                                                                                           and college in a . . . . rigorous yet supportive program,
      Early college high schools blend high school
        and college in a rigorous yet supportive
                                                                                                                                                                           . . . . compressing the time it takes to . . . . complete a
        program, compressing the time it takes
           to complete a high school diploma
                                                                                                                                                                           high school diploma and . . . . the first two years of
            and the first two years of college.
                                          - Early College High School Initiative                                                                                           college.” . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                 WSS




 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                        W hat is  Colleg e



             Texas Early College High Schools                                                                                                                              Continuing in the words of the ECHS Initiative, “The
                                                                                                                                                                           schools are designed so that . . . . low-income youth, .
                   Early Col lege High School  Initi ati ve. http:/ /earl ycolleges.org/Download s/accelerated%20learni ng.pdf.  Vi ew ed 10.9.08.
                                                                                                                                                                           . . . first-generation college goers, . . . . English
               The schools are designed so that
         low-income youth, first-generation college
        goers, English language learners, students
                                                                                                                                                                           language learners, . . . . students of color, and other
           of color, and other young people under-
        represented in higher education can simul-
                                                                                                                                                                           young people under-represented in higher education
            taneously earn a high school diploma
                                                                                                                                                                  WSS      can simultaneously earn a high school diploma . . . . .

                                            and an Associate’s degree or up to two years of credit
 Aus tin  1 0.08                                                                                                                                      W hat is  Colleg e



             Texas Early College High Schools
                                            toward a Bachelor’s degree — tuition free” . . . . The
                                            Early College High School is designed for success for
                   Early Col lege High School  Initi ati ve. http:/ /earl ycolleges.org/Download s/accelerated%20learni ng.pdf.  Vi ew ed 10.9.08.



        and an Associate’s degree or
       up to two years of credit toward
                                            the students least likely to complete high school and
     a Bachelor’s degree — tuition free.
                       - Early College High
                                            continue to college – contrast this motivation with
                         School Initiative
                                            that of AP and dual credit . . . . The approach to
                                                                                                                                                                  WSS


                                            keeping students in high school . . . . is to move
college down Into the high school . . . .


35 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



                               I truly believe the Early College High School
 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                                          W hat is  Colleg e



                                                     Heart in Right Place
                               people’s hearts are in the right place, and I applaud
                               them for that. They are addressing an egregiously
                               pervasive problem blanketing our state and nation . . .
                               . But I can only wonder whether their hopes and the
                               hopes and dreams of the students they are serving will
                                            Wikimedia Commons. h ttp://commons.wi ki media.org/wiki /Image:Heart_left ‐hi ghl ight_jon_01.svg.   Viewed 10.20.08.




                               be dashed, if in the end the experience provided to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   WSS




these students in high school does not rise to the level that prepares them for
success in upper division courses . . . .

 Austin 10.08



                                                     Heart in Right Place
                                                                                                                                                                                                     What is  College

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             I suppose I am asking the question, “is it better to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             have loved and lost than never to have loved at all.”
                                                                                                                     E ng li sh 
                                                                                                                     Clubhttp: //www.wrig ht. edu/cola /D ept/e ng/e ng lish_ cl ub/ pre vi ous ev e nts. ht
                                                                                                                     ml .  Vi ewe d 10.21.08.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Will these students be better off and better able to find
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             their way to a better life for having had the Early
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             College High School experience? . . . .
          Stre et T al k.  www.mha gstl. org/S T‐O ct06. htm.    Vie wed 10.21.08.




                                                                                      Univ ersi ty  of Sa sk atche wan.  www.usa sk. ca /communic ati ons/oc n/06‐july ‐07/14.php.   Vie we d  10. 21. 08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 WSS




 Austin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                                        W hat is  Colleg e



              Texas Early College High Schools
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The 15 Early College High Schools are clustered in . .
                                                                                                                                                        15 Schools
                                                                                                                                                        Seven Sites
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             . . . . seven areas . . . . They work cooperatively . . . .
                                                                                                                                                        Partners:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             with seven community colleges . . . . and six four-year
                                                                                                                                                         • 7 Two-Yr.
                                                                                                                                                           Colleges                                                          institutions . . . .
                                                                                                                                                         • 6 Four-Yr.
                                                                                                                                                           Colleges

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  WSS




  Aus tin  1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                                       W hat is  Colleg e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The Early College High School Initiative has been
                       Evaluation of Early College HS                                                                                                                                                                        evaluated over the years by two external evaluators,
                                                                                                                       “Overall, still
                                                                                                                       they are while
                                                                                                                       schools are the
                                                                                                                       grappling with                                                                                        American Institutes for Research and SRI
                                                                                                                       uncertainty of
                                                                                                                       enrolling the
                                                                                                                       intendedthese
                                                                                                                       whether target                                                                                        International . . . . In their most recent report which
                                                                                                                       students will
                                                                                                                       population —be
                                                                                                                       which is essential
                                                                                                                       able to be
                                                                                                                       to the mission of
                                                                                                                       successful in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             was published in spring 2008 they found that . . . . the
                                                                                                                       the ECHSI —
                                                                                                                       earning college
                                                                                                                       credit.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Early College High Schools were enrolling the at-risk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             students they were designed to serve; that’s a positive
                 2003‐07 Early Col lege High School  Initi ati ve Evaluati on. 
                 http:// www.gat esfoundation.org/l earning/Documents /ECHSI_Evaluation_2003‐07.pdf.  
                 Vi ewed 10.9.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   WSS




36 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



result with regard to increasing access to college . . . . but the jury is out with regard
to whether their graduates will be successful in college . . . . So the question about
quality still remains – are the Early College High Schools able to get their students
to the point where they can take courses in high school that are equivalent to college
courses and are ready to move to the college to succeed in upper division courses? .
...
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             In all of this conversation about what college is,
 Aus tin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                                        W hat is  Colleg e



                To What Extent is College . . . .?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             college is implicitly being defined as a series of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             courses. Sort of a pile of textbooks to be studied . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             and a transcript. It reminds me of a shopping list. As
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             soon as you check off the items on the list, you
                 @ San Diego State. www.sa.sdsu.edu /atstate/ 2005‐
                 12/ spotli ght6.html.  Viewed 10.9.08.




                                                                                                                  Di ploma Center. www.nd‐center.com/ .  Viewed 10.9.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             receive a college degree. I believe college is more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       WSS



                                                                                                                                                                                                                             than a checklist . . . .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             I wonder about the opportunity to bury oneself in the
 Aus tin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                                        W hat is  Colleg e



                To What Extent is College . . . .?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             rich resources of a first rate library; to be engaged in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             independent research, forming hypotheses and
                     Uni vers ity of Br istol . www.bristo l.ac.uk/un iversity/gallery/ people.  
                     Viewed 10.9.08.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             checking them out . . . . or immerse oneself in a well-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             equipped laboratory; to collect and interpret data; to
                     Fred Hutchi nson Canter Research Ins titute. 
                     http:/ /www.fh crc.org/s ci ence/ bmrcp/ pilot_projects /.  Viewed                           Di ploma Center. www.nd‐center.com/ .  Viewed 10.9.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             analyze conflicting explanations; to reconcile
                     10.9.0 8.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             competing points of view with evidence and logic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       WSS




rather than opinion. . . . .

  Austin 10.08



                                         Treated as Young Adult
                                                                                                                                                                                                        What is  College

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             To be treated as a young adult, independent of one’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         .




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             home, making decisions on one’s own . . . . rather
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0



                                         Rather Than a Big Child
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         .
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                             than as a big child reined in by family and other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         d
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                             constraints . . . . Living with a variety of people and
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                             learning to get along together and growing from all
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         p
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                         h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                             those interactions. Being homesick and finding out
        Col le ge  Hunters  Blog . http://www.c ol le ge hunte rblog .com/ti ps/why‐do‐y ou‐wa nt‐to‐go‐to‐c ol le ge .   
        Vie wed 10.28.08.

                                                                                                                             T win Riv ers  Sma ll  Groups. 
                                                                                                                             http: //trwcsma ll groups.com/ joomla /inde x. php? opti on= c om _ content&ta sk =v ie
                                                                                                                             w& id= 99& Ite mid= 26.   Vi ewe d 10.28. 08.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             you can survive and even prosper on your own.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       WSS




37 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



  Austin 10.08                                                                                                                                                                                                What is  College
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        And what about out of class activities? To some
                   To What Extent is College . . . .?
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              WSS




for a reason . . . .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        To what extent is college the opportunity to develop
 Aus tin 1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                                              W hat is  Colleg e



                  To What Extent is College . . . .?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        group interaction and leadership skills in a variety of
               Sout hern Illi nois  Uni vers ity Edwardsvill e. www.s iue.edu/ki mmel /sg/photos.shtml.  Vi ewed 10.9.08.
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        organizations . . . . including sororities and fraternities
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        . . . . to hear and debate ideas from scholars, political
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        leaders, scientists and others who can introduce
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        students to ideas in ways not possible to duplicate in
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                                                                                                                 Blooming Babies. http://www .blooming‐babies .com/sorori ty‐stamps.html.  Vi ewed 10.9.08.                   WSS



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        classes . . . .

                                   Is college only college if it builds memories like
 Aus tin  1 0.08                                                                                                                                                                                            W hat is  Colleg e



                                    Is It Only College, If . . . .?
                                   warm images I have of walking across my                                                                                                                                                          .


                   Music echo
                   Andanwith
                   ‘Tis the
                   When the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8
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                                   undergraduate campus, looking at the oranges, pinks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    w
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    e
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                   fromfadesthe
                   the twilightfar
                   voices of
                   sun the
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    .
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                   falls.
                   away.
                   day.
                   walls.
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                                   and reds of a gorgeous sunset over the lake as the
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    /


                   Murmur
                   In our low
                   O’er the
                   Of the own,
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                   dreaming
                   and sink
                   crimson to
                   our fair of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    i
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    o
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    o




                                   carillon played . . . . “When the sun fades far away / in
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    .
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                   rest. and
                   lake
                   the west.
                   Cornell. dell.
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                                   the crimson of the west . . . . and the voices of the day
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    o
            Living in Ithaca. www.eeb.cornell.edu/ field/i thaca.htm.   Viewed 10.9.08.                                                                                                                                             o
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    l
            w ww.atmo s.albany.edu/s tud ent/eric/cuhockey.html                                                                                                                                                                     B




                                                      Eric’s Corn el l Hockey Page. www.atmos.al ban y.edu/ student/eri c/ cuhockey.html V iewed 10.9.08. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              WSS



                                   / murmur low and sink to rest . . . . Music with the
twilight falls / O’er the dreaming lake and dell . . . . ‘tis an echo from the walls / of
our own, our fair Cornell.”

Although I hope all students will experience similar opportunities to build beautiful
memories of their college days, I know the memories I just shared are simply one
person’s fond recollections. We all have those mental images of, quote, “This is
how I did it, so that must be what college is,” unquote, but there’s more than one
way to obtain a college education. New times call for new solutions . . . .
38 | P a g e
Does Calling It College Make It So? Austin, TX, October 30, 2008



 Austin 1 0.08
                               As Texas and the nation struggle to develop new                                                                                                     W hat is  Colleg e



                                                      Always a Balance
                               approaches to address the issues that confront us in a
                               rapidly changing world that is, as Friedman has
                               reminded us, hot, flat and crowded, we must strike a
                               balance . . . . between access and quality. We
                               absolutely are morally and pragmatically right to be
                               increasing access to higher education; but increasing
                                         Space of Real ity. http:// spaceofreali ty.blogspot.com/2008/02/jus ti ce‐i s‐bli nd‐reall y.html.  V iewed 10.19.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                              WSS




access by putting high school courses on steroids and broadcasting college into the
home and workplace via the Internet must be done with caution to ensure we
deliver a product that has the quality that allows us in the end to properly call what
we create – “college.” . . . .

 Austin 1 0.08

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Best wishes as you grapple with these questions about
                                                                                                                                                                                                        access and quality.




         Matrix  Busi ness Coaching. www.matri xbusines scoaching.com/ faq.html.  Vi ewed 10.3.08.
                                                                                                                                                                                             WSS




                                                                                                                                                                                                        Thank you.
                                                                                                                                                                 .




         .
             .




                                                       Bos ton.com. http:// people.boston.com/forums/news/ politics/general/ ?p =di scussi ondetail s&activityid=8207078272440398449  .
                                                       Vi ewed 10.12.08.
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