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Slide 1 by HC111122213150

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									           United Arab Emirates University
                College of Engineering
                 Graduation Project 2


  Design of an Ethylene Plant from Natural
             Gas Derived Feed

Ismail Abdalla Al-Ali                        199900293
Mohamed Saeed Al-Ameri                       199905057
Hassain Naje                                 199900270

    Faculty Advisor Dr. Farid Benyahia
     Coordinator: Dr. Munjid Maraqa
  Content of presentation
• Introduction

• PID & HAZOP Study of Section of the Plant

• Project Costing & Economic Evaluation

• Mechanical Design of a Selection of Major
  Process Equipment

• Conclusion
               Objective
• To design, cost and evaluate safety and
  environmental impacts of an ethylene
  plant in the UAE.
              Introduction
• The work done in GP1
  – Ethylene marketing
  – Safety and environmental impact assessment
  – Process technologies of ethylene production
    (Licensed Petrochemical Processes)
    and make a comparison between technologies
  – Process description and representation by a PFD
  – The plant site location
  – Preliminary cost
  – Completed material balance
  – Completed energy balance
• The work done in GPII
  – Piping and instrumentation diagram (PID) and
    HAZOP study of section of the plant
  – Detail economic evaluation of the process
  – Mechanical design of a selection of major
    process equipment
    PID & HAZOP Study of Section of
              the Plant
•    The Piping and Instrument Diagram (PID) shows the
     engineering details of the equipment, instruments,
     piping, valves and fittings; and their arrangement.
•    Instruments are provided to monitor the key process
     variable during plant operation.
•    The primary objective of the designer when specifying
     instrumentation and control schemes are:
       •   Safe plant operation
       •   Production rate
       •   Product quality
       •   Cost
• The Piping and Instrument Diagram (PID) as in Figure 1
  without HAZAP study.
• Hazards and operability studies (HAZOP) involves a
  systematic study of the process or parts of it.
• It is applying special “guide words” to generate thought
  about the way deviations from the intended operating
  conditions can cause dangerous situations.
               Example of HAZOP study
HAZOP for cracking section
Table 1: HAZOP study in S1 for flow deviation

 Guide
                 Deviation                   Cause              oConsequences
 Word                                                           Action
 Line No. S1
 Intention - Transfer the feed to the heat exchanger number 1

                                                                oNo reaction
                                Tank empty (ST1)                oPlant shut down
 NO             Flow            valve failure (CV1)             oNo product
                                Pipe failure                    Repair CV1
                                                                Fill tank ST1
                                                                Repair pipe

                                                                oLess product
                                Valve CV1 blocked               oLess performance of plant
 Less           Flow            Pipe S1 blocked                 Clean valve
                                Pipe S1 leak                    Clean pipe
                                                                Repair leakage
                                                                Fit low flow alarm

                                                                oMore product
                                                                oMore fuel used
                                Valve CV1 failure
 More           Flow                                            oOverload heat exchangers, condensers, and compressors.
                                LC 1 failure                    Repair valve
                                                                Repair LC1
                                                                Fit high flow alarm
• The PID has been upgraded after the
  HAZOP study to improve the process
  safety as in Figure 2.
        Project Cost and
       Economic Evaluation
• Cost plays an active role for the engineering life.

• The design engineer needs to be able to make quick,
  rough, cost estimates to decide between alternative
  designs and for the project evaluation.

• Costing of the Project:
   – Preliminary (approximate) estimates, accuracy typically ± 30 %.
   – Authorization (Budgeting) estimates, accuracy typically ± 10-15 %.
   – Detailed (Quotation) estimates, accuracy typically ± 5-10 %.
                   Fixed Capital
• It is the total cost of the plant ready for start up.
• This cost doesn't return back when the project is
  finish and it paid one time.
• It includes the cost of:
   – Design and other engineering and construction
     supervision.
   – All items of equipment and their installation.
   – All piping, instrumentation and control systems.
   – Building and structure.
   – Auxiliary facilities, such as utilities, land and civil
     engineering work.
               Working Capital
• It is the additional investment needed
• includes the cost of:
  –   Start-up.
  –   Initial catalyst charges.
  –   Raw materials and intermediates in the process.
  –   Finish product inventories.
  –   Funds to cover outstanding accounts from customers.

• Most of the working capital is recovered by the
  end of the project.
• The total investment needed for a project is the
  sum of the fixed and the working capital.
     Step Counting Methods
The correlation of Timms, IChemE (1988) gives
  a simple equation for gas phase processes.

             C = 8000 N Q0.615

     • C = capital cost in US dollars
     • N = number of functional units
     • Q = plant capacity, tonne per year
  Number of      Number of       Number of        Number of
  Reactors      Compressor        Column          Separator            Total

      4              3                3                8                18

C = 8000 * 18 * (600000)0.615 = 515,140,282 US Dollars

This cost is valid for 1998 according to the correlation shown above

       Cost 2003 = (Cost Index 2003)/ (Cost Index 1998) * (Cost 1998)
                 = (398) / (390) * (515,140,282)
                 = 525,707,262 US Dollars

Cost of the plant in 2004 = 496501303 * 1.02 = 536,221,407 US dollars

Cost of the plant in 2005 = 496501303 * 1.02 = 546,945,835 US dollars
                or approximately 547 million US Dollars
                  Total Investment
• Investment is spread over 4 years:


   Year 1   0.10 * Capital cost   54,694,584 US Dollars    Design cost

                                                           Construction phase 1
   Year 2   0.35 * Capital cost   191,431,042 US Dollars      cost

                                                           Construction phase 2
   Year 3   0.35 * Capital cost   191,431,042 US Dollars      cost


   Year 4   0.20 * capital cost   109,389,167 US Dollars   Working capital

• Total investment = Year 1 + Year 2 + Year 3 + Year 4 =
  546,945,835 US Dollars
              Operating Cost
• Fixed Operating Cost
  – For each year up to year 10:
     Operating cost = 0.037 * Capital cost = 20,236,996 $
  – From year 10 up to year 17:
     Operating cost = 0.046 * Capital cost = 25,159,508 $
  – From year 17 to year 30:
     Operating cost = 0.055 * Capital cost = 30,082,021 $

• Variable Operating Cost
  – For each year up to year 17:
                  Variable cost = 17 $/tone
  – From year 17 to year 30:
                  Variable cost = 22 $/tone
                           7000
                                                                          Project cash-flow diagram
                                                                                                                                    E



                           6000




                           5000
Cumlative cash flow 6(10
                      $)




                           4000




                           3000




                           2000
                                                                                                                 Profit


                           1000
                                           Break - even point
                                       A

                              0            B
                                                                 D Maximum
                                   0             Debt        5                  10              15          20            25   30
                                                                   investment
                                                    C

                           -1000           Pay - back time
                                                                                     Project life (Years)
  Rate of Return (ROR) and Discount
      Cash Flow (r) Calculations
      Cummulativ e net cash flow at end of the project
ROR                                                   *100 %
          Life of project * original investment
Where: Cumulative net cash flow at end of the project = 6856.8 *106 $
                                  Life of the project = 30 year
                                Original investment = 546945835.2 $

                                    ROR = 41.79%
                                                   Estimated net cash flow in year n (NPW)
Net present worth (NPW) of cash flow in year n 
                                                                   (1  r) n

 The discount rate (r) = 33.74%
  Mechanical Design of a Selection of
  Major Process Equipment Economic

• The chemical engineer is normally required to specify the
  main dimensions of the pieces of equipment.

• The mechanical design is done to:
      • Shell and tube heat exchanger
      • Column of DET
      • Column of DEE
           Heat Exchanger
• The transfer of heat to and from process
  fluids is an essential part of most chemical
  processes.

• The shell and tube exchanger is far the
  most commonly used type of heat transfer
  equipment used in the chemical and allied
  industries.
     Results of calculation for different
              tube diameters
Table : The mechanical design result of HE 2 at different tube inside diameter (30, 25 and 16 mm).
Ui, W / (m2 oC)                                                  30.00               30.00            30.00
Provisional area, m2                                            7473.81            7473.81           7473.81
Tube outside diameter, mm                                        32.00               27.00            18.00
Tube inside diameter, mm                                         30.00               25.00            16.00
Tube length, m                                                   15.00               12.00             8.00
Area of one tube, m2                                              1.51               1.02              0.45
Number of tube                                                    4957               7343             16521
Bundle diameter, mm                                             2896.68            2936.33           2858.45
Shell diameter, mm                                                3023               3064             2984
L / Ds                                                            4.96               3.92              2.68
Tube cross sectional area, m2                                    706.86             490.87            201.06
Tube per pass                                                     4957               7343             16521
Total flow area, m2                                               3.50               3.60              3.32
Ethane mass velocity, kg / s m2                                  12.88               12.52            13.58
Ethane velocity, m/s                                              5.99               5.82              6.32
Re                                                             33834.29            27405.78          19031.79
Pr                                                                0.80               0.80              0.80
hi, W / (m2 oC)                                                  106.74             112.64            127.05
 No of baffles                                         25.00    20.00    13.00

 Baffles spacing, mm                                   604.53   612.69   596.67

 Tube pitch, mm                                        40.00    33.75    22.50

 Cross flow area, m2                                    0.37     0.38     0.36

 Steam mass velocity, kg / s m2                        15.17    14.77    15.58

 Equivalent diameter, m                                 0.02     0.02     0.01

 Re                                                     3.79     3.11     2.19

 Pr                                                     0.51     0.51     0.51

 hs, W / (m2 oC)                                       290.11   319.48   390.56

 Uo, W / (m2 oC)                                       72.08    76.02    84.31

 ΔPt, kPa                                               0.10     0.09     0.11

 ΔPs, kPa                                              339.5    317.3    373.1

Table 3: Insulation of HE 2 and the shell thickness.

 The insulation               79 mm
 The shell thickness          10 mm
                                                                                  Steam inlet    Feed inlet
                    Insulation    X = 78.52 mm           Shell   X = 9.79 mm




3m

                             78.52 mm




                                                           Saddles
     Steam outlet                                                                               Feed outlet



                                                         8m




                                      Figure 4.1: Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
                                 Figure : Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
                            2
         Distillation Columns
• The separation of liquid mixtures into their
  several components is one of the major
  processes of the chemical and petroleum
  industries, and distillation is the most
  widely used method of achieving this end.
        The result of DEE calculations
Table : Summary of the results for various plate spacing


Plate spacing (lt) m                               0.5      0.6      0.7      0.8      0.9      1.0
Velocity (uv), m/s                                0.1063   0.1255   0.1367   0.1399   0.135    0.1221
Column diameter, (Dc), m                          1.6823   1.5481   1.4833   1.4664   1.4925   1.5693
Column height (h), m                               11.5     13.8     16.1     18.4     20.7     23
Column area (Ac), m2                              2.2229   1.8822   1.728    1.6888   1.7496   1.9343
Downcomer area (Ad), m2                           0.2667   0.2259   0.2074   0.2027    0.21    0.2321
Net area (An), m2                                 1.9561   1.6563   1.5206   1.4861   1.5397   1.7022
Active area (Aa), m2                              1.6894   1.4305   1.3133   1.2835   1.3297   1.4701
Area of calming zone (Acz), m2                    0.2223   0.1882   0.1728   0.1689   0.175    0.1934
Area of waste periphery (Awz), m2                 0.1111   0.0941   0.0864   0.0844   0.0875   0.0967
Perforated plate area (Ap), m2                    1.356    1.1481   1.0541   1.0302   1.0673   1.1799
Total hole area (Ah), m2                          0.1356   0.1148   0.1054   0.103    0.1067   0.118
Number of holes (nh), hole                        6905.8   5847.4   5368.3   5246.6   5435.5   6009.4
Entrainment(Flooding vapour velocity) (uF),m/s    1.4092   1.4797   1.5971   1.7615   1.8789   1.9259
Weep point(minimum vapour velocity) (uh), m/s     1.5222   1.5222   1.5222   1.5222   1.5222   1.5222
Total thickness required of the column (t T),mm   3.170    3.1562   3.1497   3.148    3.1506   3.158
Thickness of insulation required (x),mm           0.032    0.0319   0.0319   0.0319   0.0319   0.032
           Number of stage = 20
                                   lt = 0.5 m




                                                h = 11.5 m
x = 0.032 mm




tT = 3.170 mm




                                  Dc = 1.68 m



   Figure : DEE Column
   The result of DET calculations

Table 5: The result of DET calculations


                                                        0.52    W/m2
                 Insulation polystyrene
   Column shell (thickness + corrosion allowance 3mm)   use 4   mm
       Check weeping actual min vapour velocity         6.42    m/s
           Check entrainment actual velocity            0.44    m/s

                Down comer length (Lw)                  1.53     m2

                 Down comer Area(AD)                    0.38     m2

                      Active Area                       4.01     m2

                      Total Height                       56      m
                 Column Diameter(DC)                    2.46     m
                              lt = 0.5 m




tT = 4 mm




                                           h = 56 m
  Number of stage = 53




                         Dc = 2.46 m




Figure : DET Column
                       Conclusion
• The HAZOP study was done to enhance the level of instrumentation in
  order to improve safety. This was comprehensively achieved by
  applying different guide words to process variable deviations like
  temperature, pressure and flow (No, Less and More).

• The economic evaluation of the project was carried out. The plant
  capital cost was found to be approximately 547 million US Dollars.

• The rate of return (ROR) was found to be 41.71 % and the discount
  cash flow (r) was 33.37 %.

• The project was found to be economically viable because ROR is
  larger than r. This means that the plant can be built and operated at a
  good profit.
•   Since our process was rather large, the main equipment considered for
    detailed mechanical design were heat exchanger number 2 (HE 2) in the
    cracking section, deethylenizer column (DET) and deethanizer column (DEE)
    in the purification section.

•   The design calculation of HE 2 showed that:
         •   Inside tube diameter = 16 mm,
         •   Shell diameter = 3 m,
         •   Ethane velocity = 6.32 m/s,
         •   Number of baffles = 13,
         •   The insulation thickness = 79 mm, and
         •   The shell thickness = 10 mm.

•   The design calculation of DET column showed that:
         • The diameter of column = 2.50 m,
         • The height of column = 56 m, and
         • The column shell thickness = 4 mm.

•   The design calculation design of DEE showed that (at plate spacing = 0.5 m) :
         •   The diameter of column = 1.70 m,
         •   The height = 11.5 m,
         •   The isolation = 0.032 mm, and
         •   The column shell thickness = 4 mm.
 Thank You
For Listening
                             The Diagram of Ethylene Process
                                        with PID

                                                      Cracking Section                                                                                                                                                           Charge Gas Compression Section                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ethylene Purification Section
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                      Recycle Ethane                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Recycle Ethane to Feed
                      from Deethanizer
                        The Diagram of Ethylene Process
                          with PID After HAZOP Study


                                                                        Cracking Section                                                                                                                                                                        Charge Gas Compression Section                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ethylene Purification Section
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   36                        LC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    S54
                                                                                                                                                                        PI 9                                                                                                                                                                           CV 26                         27                                      37                                                                                                                                                                TI                    S46.1                     TI
                                                                                                                                             HAC                                                                          P.3                            LC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    46                                 CV 46.1     46.2                                LAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         31.1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PC
       Storage Tank           LC 1                                                                            LAT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PI                                                  40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         PC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        S26 S27                                                                                                                39                                                                     CV 40                                                               LC                                             49
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        CV 37
           C2H6                                                                                                                                S14                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   S37                                                                                      S42                                                          S47                                           46.2
 F                                                                    S2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            CV 27          CV 36
          (S.T.1)                                                                                                                     TC                                              TI
                                                                                                                                                                                      14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     CI                                                                                                                    H.E.7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 CV 49         H.E.12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CV 47
                                                                                         Cracking
                                                                                                                                      14                                                                                                         S31.1               32
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           S49
                                                                                                                CV 7                                                                                                                                                                                PI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    S32
                                  CV 1                                                   Furnace                                                                                                                                                                                S21                                           PI                                                 S34                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         PC                                          TC
                                                                                                                                                         Quench Tower




                                                                                                                             TC 7                                                                                                                                                                   21                        25                 S25                                                                                                                                                                                            S40                                    TI                                    47                                          52
                             S1                                                            (C.F)                                                                                                         PI                            P.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PI                                                           TI                 TI                                                                                                                                                                  CV 52
Feed                                                                                                                                 CV 14   H.E.4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            34                                                           39                 42
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       47
                                                                                                                                                            (Q.T.)




                                                                                                                                                                                           TI            10
                                                   S19            HAT                                                                                                                                                                        CV 31.1
                                                                                                                                                                                           10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         TI                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LAP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    FC                                   S50
                                                                                                              S7                                                                                                                                                                                                         TI                                                                                     TI                                                                                                                                                                                                                  48
                                                                                                                                                   S8                      LC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         25                                                                                     34                                                                              LAF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 HAP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   FC




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   A.D.
                                                                        CV 6.1                                                                                             10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   HAF                                                                                41
                                                      Fuel
                                                                                                                   H.E.3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       DEE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               DET
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        FC
                                                           S6.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        S.1




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             S.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           S.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CI
                                                                         FC                                                                                                                Separator Tank                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           39
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        39                                                                                                                          CV 48.2
                                                                        C6
                                                                                                       TC 6
                                                                                                                                                                           CV 10               (SP.T )                                                                                                                         S23
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                S35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    TI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  CV 41.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         TC
                                                      Air                                                                                                               S10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       41           41                                                                                                   55
                                                                                                                                                                                                  S11
                                                               S6.2     CV 6.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                              LC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            S39       CV 39
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     CV 55
                                                                                                                                                                                                 CV 11                                                                                                                                                                                                      LC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DEM
                                                                                                                                                                                                              11                                                                                                                                                                                            33
                                                                                                                                             S13                                                                                                                                              20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   LC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             LC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             48
                                                                                                                                                                                S12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                41                        CV 48.1
                                                                                                                                                        P.1                                                                                                                      S20                                                                   LC           S33                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     TI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         H.E.11
                                                     TC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    H.E.5            S24    CV 24      24             CV 33
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         CV 41
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            48
                                                     19               CV 18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CV 22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PC                    CV 20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              S22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 H.E.8                                                                                              S55
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                22                                                                                                                                                                                                        PI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 CV 22                                                                                          PI                                                        52
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            H.E.9                S48     CV 48
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   TC                                       PI
                                                               H.E.2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               23                                       26                                  35
                                                                                               Water                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    S41                      CV 41.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TI
                                                                                             Treatment                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      52                                                     S52                                                            TC                                                                   SP.R
                                                                              S18             (W.T)                    S16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        48
                                                                                                                                                                          S15                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            S.T.2
                                                                                                                                    P.2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Compression                                                                    FC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   LC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Compression                                                               Compression                                                                                                   53
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   52         CV 52.1
                                                                                                S17                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Stage 2                        Stage 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Steam Trepan                                  Stage 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 CV 53               S53                                                                                                                                                                     S51
                      Recycle Ethane                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Recycle Ethane to Feed
                      from Deethanizer

								
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