Necropsy SOP by banshisharma

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									Standard Operating Procedure for Necropsy Examination

1. Scope
The present SOP manual on necropsy examination outlines general procedure used for the gross anatomical study of carcass of animals and birds. This document is a reference document that may be used by various RVLs and DLLs working under department of livestock services. The general procedure involved in the postmortem study of a carcass outlined herein this manual shall be applied to the postmortem laboratory unit of central veterinary laboratory. This document only mentions the sequential steps involved in the examination of a carcass and the method of reporting the results of post mortem examination.

2. Introduction
In a living body, disease process starts at sub-cellular level. After that the cumulative effect of deteriorations in various cell organelles is precipitated at cellular level. If the causative agent is underwent unnoticed and could not be eliminated, and the process goes uninterrupted, the collective outcome would appear as a lesion at tissue level. If the etiological agent is not removed and the situation proceeds further, the lesion would appear at organ level and subsequently a particular organ or the whole system would start functioning in an unnatural way. Gross anatomical study of a dead animal or bird aims at evaluating such lesions to explore the cause on the way of disease diagnosis process. It never ensures confirmatory outcome rather it paves the way to trace out the factor/s responsible for particular disease/condition.

3. Purpose
  To outline the actual procedure of necropsy as well as post mortem examination. To make the post mortem laboratory unit as a reliable in-house source of specimen.

4. Responsibility
 Veterinary officer in-charge, PMLU qualified with the degree BVSc & AH shall be responsible for necropsy as well as post mortem examination and examination of tissue lesions.



Veterinary officer in-charge along with a veterinary technician and the helper staff shall maintain hygienic condition as well as biosecurity at post mortem laboratory room.

5. Biosecurity
5.1. Objectives     Preventing the unwanted exposure of our clients or any other person to the zoonotically important cases placed for post mortem examination. Minimizing the possibility of cross contamination of the specimen collected during necropsy for the purpose of various laboratory testings. Preventing the pollution of the laboratory environment from the possible hazards emerged from the post mortem room. Preventing the spread of microbes contained in the PMLU to the farmers houses and farms as well.

5.2. Requirements   A separate cabin with the provision of seats where the client can stay and observe the necropsy examination procedure. A secured type of door at the main entrance of the post mortem building.

5.3. Procedure    A laboratory staff (helper) shall be deployed at PMLU who will be responsible to inhibit the entrance of dogs, cats and other carnivores in the post mortem examination room. The entrance of rodents shall be prevented by improving the existing construction defaults in the post mortem building. The absence of ants, termites and other insects shall be ensured by adopting routine as well as periodic cleanliness and sanitation practices. The method of cleanliness and general sanitation measures shall be describes in a separate document (1). No clients as well as other personnel except CVL staffs shall be allowed to enter the post mortem room. They shall be restricted to the cabin area located in the post mortem room from where they can observe the process of necropsy examination. No residues of any post mortem cases shall be allowed to be retained in the post mortem room. The use of muscle parts, tendons, ligaments, feathers and offals procured from the examined carcass shall be strictly prohibited and doing such an activity shall be rather evaluated as an offence.


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6. General Sanitary Measures and Hygienic Condition

6.1. Objectives   To ensure minimal possibility of cross contamination to the specimen collected at post mortem room. To minimize the possibility of professional hazards.

6.2. Requirement Various things required ensuring the general sanitary measures and hygienic condition in a post mortem laboratory room shall be mentioned in a separate document (2) prepared with cross reference to this provision. 6.3. Procedure The various steps involved as general sanitary measures and hygienic conditions shall be dealt in a separate document (2) with cross reference to this provision.

7. Code of Conducts
7.1. Personal Hygiene 7.1.1. Purpose   To maintain a hygienic working environment in the post mortem laboratory room. To secure general health status of the personnel working in with the laboratory.

7.1.2. Requirements Personal protective equipments. Please refer to the annex for a detailed listing. 7.1.3. Procedure    Protective clothing should be worn all times while working in the laboratory. Carelessness would be considered not excusable. The personal protective equipments are not allowed to take away to home. These things would be kept in the laboratory after finishing the work. Eating, drinking, smoking, applying cosmetics will be strictly prohibited in the laboratory working area.


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Personal vices like handling contact lens/spectacles, poking nose/ear and finger trimming with mouth should be improved. No visitors would be allowed to meet the technician at the place working in the laboratory.

7.2. Occupational Health and Safety 7.2.1. Purpose To ensure occupational health by carefully exploring and adopting personal safety measures at various steps of procedures involved in the post mortem laboratory unit. 7.2.2. Requirements No specific equipment is required rather a laboratory staff requires to be well aware of possible injuries, accidents and other unsafe situation identified across the working place and procedure. 7.2.3. Procedure   Procedures will be stated in the guidelines of central veterinary laboratory for the technicians working in various laboratory units. A technician (preferably veterinarians) would be specified for the purpose. He/she would be responsible to formulate procedures involving identification, reduction, elimination and control of risk factors. If necessary technicians would be provided with necessary training package. The topics to be accommodated in the periodic training package are listed in the annex. Any sort of accident would be promptly learned by the supervisor and he/she would immediately inform chief of CVL to manage the injured person for immediate health care.



7. Necropsy and Post Mortem Examination Procedure
7.1. Receiving the specimen 7.1.1. Registration of the specimen


The dead animals or dead birds intended for necropsy examination shall be registered at PMLU of central veterinary laboratory. For this purpose, a client shall bear the post mortem examination charge per the prevailing financial norms of government of Nepal. 7.1.2. Recording the specimen Post mortem laboratory unit of CVL shall receive the specimen and record the case in its daily case register. A format for a post mortem report is given in annex.

7.1.3. Judging the specimen for post mortem examination The veterinarian pathologist deployed at PMLU shall physically examine the specimen and shall make appropriate decision as follow:    The dead animal or bird is decomposed or putrefied, and preservation technique is appropriate. When the general condition of the specimen is good, a necropsy procedure shall be succeeded. When the specimen is putrefied or decomposed, necropsy procedure shall not be carried out and the client shall be provided with a written report explaining why necropsy is not carried out with his/her specimen.

7.2. Necropsy procedure 7.2.1. Disinfecting the surface of specimen   Dead birds shall be emerged in the disinfectant solution. It is rather difficult to emerge a dead animal in a disinfectant solution. Therefore, part of the body surface of dead animal shall be disinfected while opening its body.

7.2.1. Surface examination of the specimen   External examination of the specimen of a dead animal or bird shall be carried out to explore the surface lesions. The anomalies observed during external examination of the specimen shall be recorded in the necropsy examination sheet.



The normal condition of the skin, external body coat, eyes, nose, mouth, ears, vulva/vent, anal opening and palpable lymph nodes shall also be mentioned in the necropsy sheet.

7.2.2. Visceral examination of the specimen   Disinfect the part, in case of large animal, where the incision is to be made to open the dead body. Examine all the systems and explore and record the lesions present in various internal organs.

7.2.3. Writing the necropsy report  All the findings of surface examination as well as the findings of visceral organs shall be maintained in the necropsy examination case register. A separate register shall be designed with reference to this provision (3). A client shall be provided with the report of necropsy examination in a loose sheet which shall be maintained in a separate filing on routine basis.


8. Treatment and Advice
  The veterinarian performing necropsy examination has the right to prescribe against the disease/condition he has tentatively diagnosed at necropsy. A client shall be provided with appropriate line of treatment and advice.

9. Feedback
   A provision shall be made to collect feedback from the clients. For this purpose a complaint box shall be made available in the post mortem laboratory room. The feedback received thereby shall be opened and studied once in a week. Necessary corrective measures and preventive action shall be instituted per the policy of CVL in handling a case of feedback.


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