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					Module 1
First Nations in their own Words: The Early History of Canada to 1500
Maureen Lux
First Nations societies are the focus in an era before Europeans arrived in what would become
Canada. In their own words, Elders tell their faithfully preserved and sacred creation stories
which explain the intimate relationships with landscape and place. Images explore how First
Nations communicated across time and space, while a recreation of North American societies at
the turn of the first millennium engages students to consider connections between the ancient and
the modern.

Primary sources:
   1. Photograph: Wampum Belt (c. 18th/19th century)
   2. Photograph: Petroglyph (ancient)
   3. Photograph: Inukshuk 1 (ancient)
   4. Photograph: Inukshuk 2 (ancient)
   5. Sculpture: Bill Reid‟s Spirit of Haida Gwaii, The Black Canoe (1991)

Secondary sources:
   1. Robert McGhee. „Canada Y1K: The First Millennium.‟ The Beaver (Dec 1999/Jan 2000)
   2. The Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996)


Module 2
Contact zones from the 16th to the 18th century: How did Aboriginal people perceive European
newcomers?
Colin Coates
When Europeans arrived in the New World, they wrote many accounts describing the new
peoples they encountered. This encounter also represented the moment when Aboriginal peoples
in what is now Canada “discovered” Europeans. They were not always impressed with what they
saw. This module looks at Aboriginal reactions to the newcomers and at how the European
arrival fit into a longer history of change in Aboriginal societies that stretched long before this
disruption of their communities.

Primary sources:
   1. Text: Chrestien LeClercq. „A Micmac Responds to the French‟ (c.1677)
   2. Text: Baron de Lahontan. „Of Laws‟ (1703)
   3. Text: How the Squamish Remember George Vancouver, Louis Miranda as told by Chief
      Philip Joe. (published 1992)
   4. Map (detail): „Deffaite des Yroquois au lac Champlain‟ by Samuel de Champlain (1609)
   5. Painting: Marc-Aurèle Suzor-Côté. The Encounter between Jacques Cartier and the
      aboriginal peoples at Stadaconé, 1907.




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Secondary sources:
   1. Neil Salisbury. „The Indians‟ Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of
      Europeans‟ William and Mary Quarterly (1996)
   2. Ramsay Cook. (ed.) „Donnaconna discovers Europe: Rereading Jacques Cartier‟s
      Voyages‟ The Voyages of Jacques Cartier (2003)
   3. Cornelius Jaenen. „The Other in Early Canada‟ Historical Papers (1989)


Module 3
Fur Traders and their Prey from the 17th to the 19th centuries: Why did Aboriginals
participate in the fur trade?
Colin Coates
The fur trade involved an economic transaction where Aboriginal peoples exchanged animal
pelts for European products. But it was much more than a simple transaction. There were many
economic, social and political features involved in the fur trade, as well as environmental
considerations. The module examines the significances that Aboriginal peoples ascribed to the
fur trade and looks in particular at the ways in which the enterprise was much more than a mere
economic exchange.

Primary sources:
   1. Text: Accounts of Montagnais (Innu) hunting from the Relations des Jésuites, Father
      Paul Le Jeune, 1634
   2. Text: Andrew Graham „Indian Trade at York Factory, 1769-1771‟
   3. Map (detail): „A Map of the Inhabited Part of Canada from the French Surveys; with the
      Frontiers of New York and New England from the Large Survey by Claude Joseph
      Sauthier.‟ (1777)
   4. Text: Translation of letter in Montagnais from René Pituabanu (c. 1785)
   5. Image : Letter written in Montagnais from René Pituabanu (c.1785)
   6. Text: „David Thompson‟s Narrative‟ (c. 1850)

Secondary sources
   1. Bruce M. White. „The Trade Assortment: The Meanings of Merchandise in the Ojibwa
      Fur Trade‟ in Sylvie Dépatie et al. (eds.) Vingt ans après Habitants et Marchands (1998)
   2. Shepard Krech III. „Beaver‟ in The Ecological Indian: Myth and History (1999)




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Module 4
Seigneurial Tenure in Early Québec, 17th to the 19th century: What was the meaning of
land ownership?
Colin Coates
For contemporaries, the differences between English freehold land tenure and French seigneurial
tenure seemed striking. British settlers in Quebec after the British Conquest (1759-1760) claimed
that seigneurial tenure restricted economic development. Seigneurial tenure seemed to imply
particularly strong types of class distinctions, as tenants owed a number of symbolic and
economic obligations to their seigneurs. Given the centrality of land-holding to the social
structure of agricultural societies, what were the implications of seigneurial tenure for both
seigneurs and their tenants? By looking at how people argued over the nature of seigneurial
tenure, we can see some of the tensions in this land-holding system.

Primary sources
   1. Text: Claude Thomas Dupuy, Intendant of New France „Ordinance of
   2. Text: „A Contemporary Account of the Disorders…‟ (1775)
   3. Texts: Petition to Governor Lord Dorchester, from Charles de Lanaudière, 26 January
      1788; Petition to Governor Lord Dorchester, from many seigneurs, including religious
      orders and individual seigneurs, 10 March 1791, Quebec Gazette / Gazette de Québec,
      (Thursday, March 24, 1791)
   4. Text: Charles de Lanaudière, „To Mr. Bedard, Director of the Seminary of Quebec‟
      Supplement to the Quebec Gazette (Thursday, April 28, 1791)
   5. Text: Philippe Aubert de Gaspé, „Seigneurs and Censitaires‟ (1866)
   6. Map: Batiscan, 1720s
   7. Map (detail): Charlesbourg, by de Catalogne, 1709
   8. Photograph: Manor house, Louis-Joseph Papineau‟s Montibello (present-day photograph,
      exact date unknown)

Secondary sources:
   1. Allan Greer. Peasant, Lord and Merchant: Rural Society in Three Quebec Parishes, 1740-
      1840 (1985)
   2. Colin Coates. The Metamorphoses of Landscape and Community in Early Quebec (2000)


Module 5
On the Edge of Empires: Acadians and Mikmaq in the 18th century
Daniel Samson
The colonial world introduced people to new relationships with new peoples. This was
especially so in smaller colonies on the edges of larger empires. Acadia was one such place
where day-to-day life routinely brought together French Catholics, protestant New Englanders,
and Mikmaq. This culturally plural and politically complex world compelled the Acadians to
attempt to negotiate a neutral place for themselves in the larger struggle between Britain and
France. Though these attempts failed dramatically with the Expulsion of 1755, for over half a
century Acadians managed to carve out a successful place for themselves.




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Primary sources:
   1. Map: „A new and exact map of the Dominions of the King of Great Britain on ye
      continent of North America Containing Newfoundland, New Scotland, New England,
      New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and Carolina.‟ (1715)
   2. Map (detail): A British view of the limits of Acadia. From „Carte des pays connus sous le
      nom de Canada, dans laquelle sont distinguées les possessions françoises, & angl? Dédiée
      et présentée à Monseigneur le comte D'Argenson, pour le Département de la guerre, par
      le Sr. Robert de Vaugondy fils, géographe ordinaire du roi.‟ (1732)
   3. Map: A French view of the limits of Acadia (c.1735)
   4. Map: French interpretation of a British proposal (1751)
   5. Image: Longfellow‟s Evangeline, illustration by F.O.C Darley (1897)
   6. Text: Declaration sent to the French Acadians for Signature (1717)
   7. Text: Answer to the above Declaration [Translated from the French] (1717)
   8. Text: Governor Paul Mascarene‟s Report on the conduct of „our French Inhabitants‟ and
      „their Clanns of Indians‟ (1745)
   9. Text: Anon. Report on the “Nature and State of the Province [Nova Scotia] (c.1752)

Secondary sources:
   1. Francis Parkman. Montcalm and Wolfe (1884).
   2. Geoffrey Plank. An Unsettled Conquest: The British Campaign Against the Peoples of
      Acadia (2001)
   3. John Mack Farragher. A Great and Noble Scheme: The Tragic Story of the Expulsion of
      the Acadians from their American Homeland (2005)
   4. Naomi F.S. Griffiths. „Mating and Marriage in Early Acadia‟, Renaissance and Modern
      Studies (1992)


Module 6
The 14th Colony: Nova Scotia and the American Revolution
Daniel Samson
The American Revolution made Canada. Most people understand this, but forget that Nova
Scotia and Canada were also British North American colonies. Though few Canadians joined
the revolution, there were outbreaks of rebellion and military operations in Nova Scotia. This
module explores the different explanations historians have offered for why Nova Scotia
ultimately failed to become the 14th state.

Primary Sources
   1. Text: Simeon Perkins, Diary (1776)
   2. Text: Nova Scotia Petition, Robert Hanson Harrison to Washington, Cambridge Mass.,
      (27 March 1776)
   3. Text: Resolutions of the Inhabitants of Maugerville (May 1776)
   4. Mikmaq Chiefs Decline America‟s Invitation to War against Britain (1776)
   5. Map (detail): Southwestern Nova Scotia, from Jno. Mitchell, „A map of the British and
      French Dominions‟ (1755)
   6. Map: „Sketch of Halifax, Nova Scotia, with notes.‟ A spy‟s map of defences at Halifax,
      American Intelligence (25 September 1780)



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Secondary Sources
   1. J.B. Brebner. The Neutral Yankees of Nova Scotia: A Marginal Colony During the
      Revolutionary Years (1937)
   2. Gordon Stewart and George Rawlyk. A People Highly Favoured of God: The Nova
      Scotia Yankees and the American Revolution (1968)
   3. John G. Reid. „Pax Britannica or Pax Indigena? Planter Nova Scotia and Competing
      Strategies of Pacification‟ Canadian Historical Review (2004)
   4. Elizabeth Mancke. The Fault Lines of Empire: Political Differentiation in Massachusetts
      and Nova Scotia, CA. 1760-1830. (2006)


Module 7
Gender and Evangelical Protestantism in Early Upper Canada
Lynne Marks
In the first half of the century in Upper Canada/Canada West questions of gender, sexuality and
often race were very much part of religious debates and religious practices. Popular and often
emotionally explosive Methodist camp meetings attracted far flung settlers, as well as many
aboriginals, and were denounced by Anglicans as creating sexual chaos and overturning all
social and gender hierarchies. This module includes a range of contemporary perspectives on
camp meetings, and also addresses the ways in which evangelical denominations maintained
sexual order within their own communities, using church discipline to impose a rigid single
standard of sexual conduct on men and women alike.

Primary sources:
   1. Image: Circuit Rider with Bible in hand (published 1968, exact date unknown)
   2. Text: Nathan Bangs, „Hay Bay Camp Meeting‟ (September 1805)
   3. Image: Nathan Bangs. (1820-28)
   4. Image: Early Ninteenth-Century Camp Meeting, Anonymous engraving. (exact date
      unknown)
   5. Text: The Life, History and Travels of Kah-Ge-Ga-Gah-Bowh (George Copway) (1847)
   6. Text: Susannah Moodie. Life in the Clearings (1853)
   7. Text: Church Discipline Letters. Session minutes of various Ontario Presbyterian
      Churches (1820-54)
   8. Image: Circuit Rider (1880)

Secondary sources:
   1. Cecilia Morgan. „Familial Celebrations: Gender and Religious Discourse‟ from Public
      Men and Virtuous Women: The Gendered Languages of Religion and Politics in Upper
      Canada, 1791-1850 (1996)
   2. Lynne Marks. „No Double Standard?: Gender and Sin in Upper Canadian Church
      Discipline Records, 1800-1860‟ from Kathryn Macpherson, Cecilia Morgan, and Nancy
      Forestell (eds.), Gender in Canada (1999)




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Module 8
Worlds of Work: Pre-Industrial Work, 1880-1860
Daniel Samson
Against a tendency to imagine colonial settlers as forging independent lives on the land,
historians paint a much messier picture. „Work‟ in colonial Canada could mean the ancient
customs of pre-industrial urban craft work, the drudgery of female domestic service, the
uncertainty of farm-based waged-work, and the many dangers of life in the fur trade. This
module offers a window on that complexity, showing a much richer world than most have
imagined.

Primary Sources:
   1. Text: John Franklin. „Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea in the years
      1819-20-21-22‟ (1822)
   2. Text: „Albion Mines Locomotive Steam Engine Celebration.‟ Mechanic and Farmer (25
      September 1839)
   3. Text: Correspondence of Strikes at the Welland Canal, Upper Canada (1845)
   4. Text: Agricultural and Domestic Wages, Quebec Mercury (28 June 1831)
   5. Image: The New Urban Workplace: St John‟s Burns (1837)
   6. Image: Chinese Miners washing gold (1862)
   7. Painting: Voyageurs (1863)
   8. Painting: Voyageurs (1870)

Secondary Sources:
   1. T. H. Acheson. Saint John: The Making of a Colonial Urban Community (2006)
   2. Carolyn Podruchny. Making the Voyageur World: Travelers and Traders in the North
      American Fur Trade (2006)
   3. Elizabeth Jane Errington. Wives and Mothers, Schoolmistresses and Scullery Maids:
      Working Women in Upper Canada 1790-1840 (1995)
   4. Rusty Bittermann. „Farm Households and Wage Labour in the Northeastern Maritimes in
      the Early 19th Century. Labour / Le Travail (1993)



Module 9
The Rebellions of 1837-8 in Lower and Upper Canada: Why did people take up arms
against the government?
Colin Coates
In 1837 and 1838, rebels in both Lower and Upper Canada attacked state authorities in an
attempt to change the political structure. This module looks at the revolutionary rhetoric as well
as the later explanations of individuals who became caught up in the rebellion. We explore the
motivations of individuals who choose this political stance and the difficulties that historians
have in determining the motivations of people in the past.




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Primary Sources
   1. Text : Address by the Sons of Liberty of Montreal to the young people of the North
       American Colonies (October 4th, 1837)
   2. Text: Declaration of Independence of Lower Canada (1838)
   3. Painting: Jane Ellice, Rebels at Beauharnois (1838)
   4. Text: The Diary of Jane Ellice (1838)
   5. Text: Testimony from the court martial of some of the rebels in Report of the State Trials,
       Before a General Court Martial Held at Montreal in 1838-1839 (1839)
   6. Text: Address Of Touchette, Rochon, Goyette, Chevrefils, and Laberge in Report of the
       State Trials, Before a General Court Martial Held at Montreal in 1838-1839 (1839)
   7. Text: W. L. Mackenzie on Resistance to Oppression, Constitution, Toronto (22
       November 1837)
   8. Text: John Powell‟s Account Of Events, Toronto (14 February 1838)
   9. Text: Petition of John A. Tidey To Sir F.B. Head, from the London Gaol (8 March 1838)
   10. Images: The Rebellion Box of Martin Switzer (1838)

Secondary Sources
   1. Allan Greer. „Two nations warring‟ from The Patriots and the People: The Rebellion of
      1837 in Rural Lower Canada (1993)
   2. H. Colin Read and Ronald J. Stagg. (eds.) The Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada: A
      Collection of Documents (1985)


Module 10
Race, Class, and Gender: The Limits of Victorian Liberalism, 1830-1860
Daniel Samson
Responsible government and the achievements of the reform era improved British North
America‟s democratic character, but many people were still denied fuller roles. This was
particularly evident for women, members of ethnic minorities, and the poor. This module
explores how historians have sought to understand the place of race, class, and gender in colonial
Canada‟s age of reform.

Primary Sources
   1. Text: S.G. Howe, The Refugees from Slavery in Canada West: Report to the Freedmen’s
      Inquiry Commission (1864)
   2. Text: Peter Jones, History of the Ojebway Indians with Especial Reference to their
      Conversion to Christianity (1862)
   3. Text: William Canniff, History of the Settlement of Upper Canada (Ontario), with special
      reference to the Bay Quinte (1869)
   4. Painting: „Britannia greets her Multicultural Loyalists‟ (1812)
   5. Image: „White Buyers and Black Sellers at the Halifax Market‟ (1872)
   6. Photograph: Robinson Treaty (1850)




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Secondary sources:
   1. David Sutherland. „Race Relations in Halifax, Nova Scotia, During the Mid-Victorian
      Quest for Reform‟, Journal of the Canadian Historical Association / Revue de la Société
      historique du Canada (1996)
   2. J.R Miller. Shingwauk’s Vision: Native Residential Schools in Canada (1996)
   3. Daniel Samson. The Spirit of Industry and Improvement: Liberal Government and Rural-
      Industrial Society, 1790-1862 (2008)
   4. Gail C. Campbell. „Disfranchised but not Quiescent: Women Petitioners in New
      Brunswick in the Mid-19th Century‟, in Janet Guildford and Suzanne Morton. (eds.),
      Separate Spheres: Women’s Worlds in the 19th-Century Maritimes (1994)


Module 11
The Métis and Red River Society: Change, Adaptation, and Resistance, 1830s to 1870s
Maureen Lux
Social, economic, and cultural change marked Red River society in the middle decades of the
19th century west. Although newcomers did not bring all the changes that transformed the Metis
homeland, new notions of class and race created dangerous divisions in society. The buffalo
robe trade drew some Metis entrepreneurs further west, while others stood with Louis Riel in
1870 to protect their homeland and to resist Canadian efforts to remake the west in Ontario‟s
image.

Primary Sources
   1. Text: My First Buffalo Hunt by Norbert Welsh (1939)
   2. Text: Nova Britannia: or Our New Canadian Dominion Foreshadowed (1884)
   3. Photograph: Métis Couple, Red River, MB (c.1870)
   4. Photograph: Mrs. Nellie Isbister and daughter, Red River, MB (c.1870)
   5. Photograph: Ox and Red River Cart, MB (c.1870)
   6. Photograph: St. Andrew's Anglican Church, Red River, MB (1858)
   7. Photograph: Thomas Scott (c.1870)

Secondary Sources
   1. Sylvia Van Kirk. „The Impact of White Women on Fur Trade Society‟ in Susan Mann
      Trofimenkoff and Alison Prentice (eds.), The Neglected Majority: Essays in Canadian
      Women's History (1977)
   2. Gerhard Ens. „Dispossession or Adaptation? Migration and Persistence of the Red River
      Métis, 1835-1890‟ in R. Douglas Francis and Howard Palmer (eds.) The Prairie West:
      Historical Readings, 2nd edition (1992)
   3. Gerald Friesen. „The Métis and the Red River Settlement‟ from The Canadian Prairies:
      A History (1987)




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Module 12
Schools, Prisons, and Asylums in mid-19th-century British North America: What did
institutional reforms have in common?
Colin Coates
In the mid-nineteenth century, a number of reforms to key government institutions took place in
the British North American colonies. Education became widely available to young children.
Governments invested great amounts of money in building asylums and prisons with the hope of
changing the individuals who would be placed there. This module queries whether we can see
commonalities between the different institutional reforms in this period.

Primary Sources
   1. Text: Charles Duncombe, „Report of the Commissioners on the Subject of Prisons,
      Penitentiaries, etc.‟ Journal of the House of Assembly of Upper Canada (1836)
   2. Text: Rev. Egerton Ryerson, „Part I of the Report on a System of Public Elementary
      Education for Upper Canada‟ (1846)
   3. Text: Gordon McCall Theal, „Schooldays, Schooldays… Cocagne Academy in the
      1840s‟
   4. Painting: Robert Harris, „A Meeting of the School Trustees‟ (1885)
   5. Text: Susanna Moody, Life in the Clearings Versus the Bush (1853)
   6. Painting: William James Thomson, untitled painting of the Provincial Asylum in Toronto
      (1890)
   7. Image: Return of Lunatic Asylum, Toronto (1851-2)

Secondary Sources
   1. Daniel Francis. „The Development of the Lunatic Asylum in the Maritime Provinces‟
      Acadiensis (1977)
   2. Janet Miron. „“Open to the Public”: Touring Ontario Asylums in the Nineteenth Century‟
      in James E. Moran and David Wright, eds., Mental Health and Canadian Society:
      Historical Perspectives (2006)
   3. Robert Lanning. „Awakening a Demand for Schooling : Educational Inspection‟s Impact
      on Rural Nova Scotia, 1855-74‟ Historical Studies in Education (2000)

Module 13
Gender, Race, and Sexuality in Colonial British Columbia
Lynne Marks
During the colonial period, from 1849-1871, B.C. more closely resembled other British frontier
settler colonies than it did much of the rest of British North America. In this module Adele
Perry discusses how the scarcity of white women in the colony led to the identification of two
major „social problems‟ among colonial promoters: a rough homosocial male culture of the
backwoods, as well as frequent intermarriages between white men and First Nations women.
 The documents, which present eye-witness accounts from a working-class gold miner, an upper
class Anglican woman, a naval officer and a local minister, reveal different perceptions of these
and other „social problems‟ in the West Beyond the West.




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Primary Sources
   1. Text: Matthew Macfie, The Far Western Frontier: Vancouver Island and British
       Columbia, Their History, Resources and Prospects (1865)
   2. Text: Richard Arthur Preston (ed.) For Friends at Home: A Scottish Emigrants Letters
       From Canada, California, and the Cariboo (published 1974)
   3. Text: Allan Pritchard, ed., Vancouver Island Letts of Edmund Hope Verney, 1862-65
       (published 1996)
   4. Text: The British Colonist, September 19, 1862.
   5. Text: Lady Franklin Visits the Pacific Northwest: Being Extracts from the Letters of Miss
       Sophia Cracroft, Sir John Franklin's Niece (February to April 1861 and April to July
       1870)
   6. Photograph: Male household in the backwoods. (c. 1865)
   7. Photograph: Evening at a wayside house. (c. 1862-3)
   8. Photograph: Lekwammen group (1858)
   9. Photograph: Lekwammen people in Victorian Dress (1868)
   10. Photograph: Sir James Douglas and Amelia Connolly Douglas (c. 1863 and c. 1862)

Secondary Source:
   1. Adele Perry. On The Edge of Empire: Gender, Race, and the Making of British
   Columbia, 1849-1871 (2001)


Module 14
Immigrants and Immigration: The Case of the Irish, 1830-1860
Daniel Samson
Canada may be a nation of immigrants, but just as today some were received more warmly than
others. Thousands of Irish immigrants arrived in British North America in the mid-19th century.
Most, especially after the great famine, arrived poor and with limited abilities to support
themselves. This module explores the many problems (both real and imagined) these immigrants
caused, the response of the receiving communities, and the immigrants‟ different strategies for
supporting themselves.

Primary Sources
   1. Image: The Medical Inspector‟s Office, Liverpool, UK (c.1850)
   2. Image: Sectarian Mutual Benefit Societies in Montreal (c. 1860)
   3. Photograph: Memorial at the Irish Memorial National Historic Site, Grosse-Île, Quebec
      (contemporary photograph)
   4. Text: William Haliburton to Nathaniel Atcheson (20 August 1812)
   5. Table: Immigrants arriving in British North America, 1847, Eighth General Report of
      Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners (June 1848)
   6. Text: Report of Moses H. Perley, Her Majesty‟s Emigration Officer, Saint John, New
      Brunswick (31 December 1847)
   7. Text: „The Riot on Stanley Street‟ Globe (Toronto) (15 July 1857)




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Secondary sources:
   1. H.C. Pentland. „The Development of a Capitalistic Labour Market in Canada,‟ The
      Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science (1959)
   2. Donald H. Akenson. The Irish in Ontario (1984)
   3. Brian P. Clarke. Piety and Nationalism: Lay Voluntary Associations and the Creation of
      an Irish-Catholic Community in Toronto, 1850-1895 (1993)
   4. Rosalyn Trigger. „Irish Politics on Parade: The Clergy, National Societies, and St.
      Patrick‟s Day Processions in Nineteenth-century Montreal and Toronto‟ Histoire
      sociale/Social History (2004)


Module 15
Confederation: What Kind of Country are We to Have?
P.E. Bryden
In the years before 1867, leaders in the colonies of British North America struggled to find
solutions to their various financial, legislative and military crises; once the idea of a broader
union began to gain support as a way out of the colonial dilemmas, people began to debate the
utility of federalism as an organizing framework for the new country. This module introduces
students to the debate over federalism in the words of the participants, and the debate that
scholars have been engaged in ever since.

Primary sources:
   1. Text: Quebec Resolutions, 1864
   2. Text: Debates of the Nova Scotia House of Assembly, 1865
   3. Text: Debates of the New Brunswick House of Assembly, 1865 and 1866
   4. Text: Debates of the United Canadas Legislative Assembly, 1865
   5. Maps: Canada 1862 and Canada 1867

Secondary sources:
   1. Peter Russell. Constitutional Odyssey: Can Canadians Become a Sovereign People? 3rd
      edition (2004)
   2. P.B. Waite. The Life and Times of Confederation, 1864-1867: Politics, Newspapers and
      the Union of British North America (1962)
   3. Christopher Moore. 1867: How the Fathers Made a Deal (1997)


Module 16
Industrialization and Women’s Work, 1870s to 1920s
Lynne Marks
This module demonstrates the impact that industrialization had on working-class women, both
inside and outside the home. Documents and articles reveal the difficult working conditions and
long hours endured by women and girls in early factories and addresses the question of child
labour. The module also explores the limited alternative options available to women in the paid
workforce and looks closely at the backbreaking and crucial labour of women in the home,
labour which made the difference between survival and destitution for so many working-class
families of the industrial era.



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Primary Sources
   1. Text: Videre. „A Little Independence: Factory Girls‟ Toronto Star (1912)
   2. Text: „The Sweating System in Canada,‟ Mackenzie King, Globe (1898)
   3. Text: „Letter from a servant to the Globe‟ (1886)
   4. Photograph: Domestic servants (early 20th century)
   5. Text: „Laundry.‟ Oral history excerpt from Meg Luxton, More than a Labour of Love:
      Three Generations of Women’s Work in the Home (1978)
   6. Text: The Royal Commission on the Relations of Labour and Capital, 1889.
   7. Photograph: Toronto Textile Factory (1908)
   8. Photograph: Mothers and Children at Home, Toronto (1913)
   9. Photograph: Children gathering Coal cinders from a Toronto Rail Yard Public (no date)

Secondary Sources
   1. Ruth Frager and Carmela Patrias. Discounted Labour: Women Workers in Canada, 1870-
      1939 (2005)
   2. Bettina Bradbury. „The Home as Workplace‟ in Paul Craven (ed.) Labouring Lives:
      Work and Workers in Nineteenth-Century Ontario (1995)


Module 17
Secularization in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century English Canada
Lynne Marks
While most Canadians would agree that Canada is now more secular than it was 100 years ago,
exactly when secularization started is a subject of major dispute among English Canadian
historians. This module features the work of David Marshall, Nancy Christie and Michael
Gauvreau, and Catherine Gidney, some of the major scholars on either side of „the secularization
debate‟. The role of the social gospel in either furthering secularization or strengthening the
churches‟ social and cultural influence is integral to the debate and this module features
documents by social gospel leader Salem Bland, as well as by Ralph Connor, whose religious
novels were wildly popular in early twentieth century Canada.

Primary sources:
   1. Text: Black Rock, by Ralph Connor (Charles William Gordon) (1898)
   2. Photograph: Rev. Dr. Charles W. Gordon (no date)
   3. Photograph: A Melbourne, Australia Newsstand (no date)
   4. Text: Salem Goldworth Bland, The New Christianity: Or, The Religion of the New Age
      (1920)
   5. Painting: Lawren S. Harris Dr. Salem Bland (1925)
   6. Photograph: Children at All People‟s Mission, Winnipeg (1909)




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Secondary Sources
   1. David B. Marshall. Secularizing the Faith: Canadian Protestant Clergy and the Crisis of
      Belief. (1992)
   2. Nancy Christie and Michael Gauvreau, A Full-Orbed Christianity: The Protestant
      Churches and Social Welfare in Canada, 1900-1940 (1996)
   3. Catherine Gidney „The Athletics–Physical Education Dichotomy Revisited: The Case of
      the University of Toronto, 1900–1940‟ Sport History Review (2006)


Module 18
Immigrants and Sojourners in the late 19th and early 20th Century Canada
Lynne Marks
Between 1896 and 1930 almost 4.5 million people immigrated to Canada. These immigrants
were crucial to the economic development of the country, but depending on their ethnic
background, some were more welcome than others. This module includes the voices of a
number of these immigrants: many reflect on the intense racism they faced, while other speak of
survival strategies, and of continued links to the old country. Harney‟s article examines the
„sojourners‟, men who came to Canada for a few months or a few years to make money
desperately needed in their home villages. Stanley explores how Chinese immigrants in Victoria
dealt with the racism of school segregation, while excerpts from the debate over the Chinese
Exclusion Act demonstrate the depth of anti-Asian racism in B.C.

Primary Sources
   1 Photograph: British immigrant children from Dr. Barnardo‟s Homes at landing stage,
      Saint John, NB (pre-WWI)
   2 Photograph: Immigrant boy ploughing at Dr. Barnardo‟s Industrial Farm (c. 1900)
   3 Interview: Margaret Chan from Jin Guo: Voices of Chinese Canadian Women (1992)
   4 Interview: Mrs Wappel and Mr. Yla from Polyphony: The Bulletin of the Multicultural
      History Society of Ontario (1977)
   5 Photograph: Canadian, American, Swedish, Italian and Scottish male immigrant workers
      in a CNR construction camp (1913)
   6 Interview: Armenian Organizations: Jack and Anna Kaprielian, Pilag Takouhi Evarian,
      Hygus Alice Torosian from Polyphony (1979)
   7 Photograph: Arrival of immigrants at Union Station, Toronto (1910)
   8 Interview: Japanese-Canadians: John Madokoro, Harold Kimoto, Tommy Kimoto from
      Settling Clayoquot (1981)
   9 Interview: Immigrants to Vancouver: George Nitta, Yun Ho Chang, Myer Freedman,
      Fred Soon from Opening Doors (1979)
   10 Text: Debate regarding the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1923, known as „An Act Respecting
      Chinese Immigration‟ Hansard (1923)
   11 Photograph: Chinese children in front of the Chinese School in Victoria (1901)
   12 Photograph: Chinese railway worker (1922)
   13 Photograph: Ruthenian settlers, Alberta (1911)




                                                                                             13
Secondary Sources
   1. Timothy J. Stanley. „White Supremacy, Chinese Schooling, and School Segregation in
      Victoria: The Case of the Chinese Students‟ Strike, 1922-1923‟ from Histories of
      Canadian Children and Youth Nancy Janovicek and Joy Parr, (eds.) (2003)
   2. Robert Harney. „Men Without Women: Italian Migrants in Canada, 1885-1930‟ from
      The Italian Immigrant Woman in North America Betty Boyd Caroli, Robert F. Harney
      and Lydiio F. Tomasi (eds.) (1978)
   3. Anne B. Woywitka. „A Roumanian Pioneer‟ from Alberta Historical Review (1973)


Module 19
As Long as the Sun Shines and the Waters Flow: Treaties and treaty-making in the 1870s
West
Maureen Lux
The „Numbered Treaties‟ in the southern prairies embodied the newly formed Canadian
government‟s desire to colonize the lands and peoples, while First Nations sought to establish a
relationship to ensure their future livelihood. The quickly disappearing bison herds provided a
sense of urgency, but First Nations and Crown representatives negotiated agreements that were
to be mutually beneficial. The written texts of those negotiations however, did not always reflect
the true „spirit and intent‟ of the discussions.

Primary Sources
   1. Map: Historical Indian Treaties from Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996)
   2. Image: „Conference with the Chiefs (Treaty One) September 9, 1871‟, Canadian
      Illustrated News
   3. Photograph : Page one of Treaty Six signed at Fort Carlton and Fort Pitt (23 August and
      28 August, 1876)
   4. Photograph: Influential Treaty Six Chiefs at Fort Carlton (1876)
   5. Photograph: Mistahimusqua (Big Bear) (1885)
   6. Image: „Herd of Buffalo in foothills of the Rocky Mountains‟ (c.1860)
   7. Photograph: Pile of buffalo skulls at the railway siding at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
      (August 9, 1890)
   8. Text: Treaty Seven (1877)

Secondary Sources
   1. Derek Whitehouse. „The Numbered Treaties: Similar Means to Dichotomous Ends‟ Past
      Imperfect (1994)
   2. Sarah Carter. „Canada‟s Colony and the Colonized‟ in Aboriginal People and Colonizers
      of Western Canada to 1900 (1999)
   3. Treaty Seven Elders and Tribal Council et al. The True Spirit and Original Intent of
      Treaty 7




                                                                                               14
Module 20
What did it mean to be Canadian? Conflicting views on nationalism and identity (1880s-
1920s)
Marcel Martel
Canadians have debated the meaning of their identity for years. Between 1880 and 1920,
English-speaking citizens strongly believed that they constituted the dominant group and pressed
politicians to adopt a policy of assimilation intended to deny the multicultural character
emerging in Canada. These nationalists tolerated French Canadians as long as they did not try to
impose their nationalist project outside of Quebec. However, French Canadians articulated a
nationalism based on the notion of the coexistence between English Canadians and French
Canadians treated equally. These conflicts over the meaning of a common identity have shaped
Canadian cultural, social and political institutions.

Primary Sources
   1. Cartoon: „John A. McDonald and Louis Riel‟ Grip (May 1885)
   2. Cartoon: Depiction of French Canadian perceptions the war in South Africa Les Débats
      (Montréal) (January 1900)
   3. Cartoon: „Immigration Policy „The Daukt Herald, Calgary (January 1907)
   4. Cartoon: „Answering the Call‟ The Vancouver Daily Province (August 1914)
   5. Text: Henri Bourassa. „French Canadians and Canadian Nationalism‟(June 1902)

Secondary Sources
   1. Phyllis Senese. „Weeds in the Garden of Civic Nationalism‟, in Michael D. Behiels and
      Marcel Martel (eds.), Nation, ideas, identities: Essays in Honour of Ramsay Cook (2000)
   2. H.V. Nelles. „Historical Pageantry and the “Fusion of the Races” at the Tercenternary of
      Quebec, 1908,‟ Histoire sociale/Social History (1996)
   3. Sylvie Lacombe. „Henri Bourassa: A Nationalist Leader Against British Imperialism‟,
      Journal of Indo-Canadian Studies (2002)

Module 21
The Early Canadian Women’s Movement and the Struggle for the Vote, 1870s-1918
Lynne Marks
Women‟s rights were a much debated topic in early twentieth century Canada, and this module
includes arguments for women‟s suffrage by famous suffragist Nellie McClung, as well as the
anti-suffrage arguments of humourist Stephen Leacock. The battle for women‟s rights was
closely linked to social reform efforts, as revealed in the work of the Women‟s Christian
Temperance Union. The WCTU, like other feminists, used a range of arguments in advocating
for women‟s rights, including arguments about women‟s special moral abilities, as well as
arguments that we see as racist today. Historians have disagreed about how to understand the
racism of the early women‟s movement, and in this module we see two quite different
perspectives on this issue, from Janice Fiamengo and Mariana Valverde.

Primary Sources
   1. Text: Vancouver Branch of the British Columbia Political Equality League, „Points in the
      Laws of British Columbia Regarding the Legal Status of Women‟ (1911)
   2. Text: Nellie McClung In Times Like These (1915)



                                                                                              15
   3.   Photograph: Nellie McClung, c. 1910
   4    Cartoon: „Canada Needs a Clean Up Week‟ (1915)
   5    Text: Stephen Leacock. „The Woman Question‟ (1915)
   6    Women‟s Christian Temperance Union excerpts (1880, 1888, 1900, 1911)
   7    Cartoon: „Everybody Votes But Mother‟ (1914)
   8    Cartoon: „The Door Steadily Opens‟ (1910)
   9    Cartoon: „A Nice Mess You Men Folks Make of Running a House‟ (date unknown)

Secondary Sources:
   1. Mariana Valverde. 'When the Mother of the Race is Free': Race, Reproduction, and
      Sexuality in First-Wave Feminism in Gender Conflicts: New Essays in Women's History,
      Franca Iacovetta and Marianne Valverde (eds.) (1992)
   2. Janice Fiamengo. „Rediscovering our Foremothers Again: Racial Ideas of Canada's Early
      Feminists, 1885-1945‟ in Rethinking Canada: The Promise of Women's History, Edited
      by Mona Gleason and Adele Perry (eds.) (2006)


Module 22
The Great War: Leaders, Followers and Record-Keepers
P.E. Bryden
 „History is written by the victors,‟ or so they say. This module, which examines Canadians in
the First World War, pays particular attention to the various types of leadership – both political
and military – and to different ways that people have remembered the war, either through art,
oral histories, or the work of the Canadian War Records Office. Just who was writing the
history, and why, is left for students to consider.

Primary sources:
   1. Painting: A.Y. Jackson, House of Ypres
   2. Painting: Kenneth Keith Forbes, Canadian Artillery in Action
   3. Painting: Alfred Theodore Joseph Bastien, Canadian Gunners in the Mud, Passchendaele
   4. Painting: Richard Jack, The Battle of Vimy Ridge, 1917
   5. Painting: Gyrnth Russell, The Crest of Vimy Ridge
   6. Interviews: from The Great War and Canadian Society: An Oral History (1978)
   7. Text: Robert Laird Borden: His Memoirs (1938)

Secondary sources:
   1. Terry Copp. „The Military Effort, 1914-1918‟ in Canada and the First World War: Essays in
      Honour of Robert Craig Brown David Mackenzie, (ed.) (2005)
   2. Tim Cook. „Documenting War and Forging Reputations: Sir Max Aitken and the
      Canadian War Records Office in the First World War‟ War in History (2003)




                                                                                                 16
Module 23
Protest, parties, and politics between the wars, 1919-1939
P. E. Bryden
Between the First and Second World Wars, Canada‟s political system changed in fundamental
ways. New parties developed to challenge the dominance of the Liberals and Conservatives at
both the national and the provincial level, ending forever the two-party system in Canada. This
module explores how the traditional parties responded to these new threats, as well as examining
some of the goals and strategies of the new parties themselves.

Primary Sources
   1. Text: The Diaries of William Lyon Mackenzie King (1921)
   2. Text: Bennett‟s New Deal radio addresses (1935)
   3. Cartoon: „The Tempter‟ (1925)
   4. Cartoon: „CCF Platforms‟ (1933)
   5. Cartoon: „The Old Medicine Man and the New Cure-All‟ (1935)

Secondary Sources
   1. Walter D Young. „The Regina Manifesto‟ in The Anatomy of a Party: The National CCF
      1932-61 (1968 )
   2. H. Blair Neatby. The Politics of Chaos (1972)


Module 24
Canada in the 1930s: Surviving Canada’s Great Depression
P. E. Bryden
The economic collapse of the 1930s affected Canadians across the country. This module uses
oral history, quantitative data and images to explore the different ways in which people reacted
to the Depression, and the various strategies they adopted for weathering the crisis.

Primary Sources
   1. Interviews: Barry Broadfoot. Ten Lost Years 1929-1939: Memories of Canadians who
      Survived the Depression (published 1975)
   2. Photograph: On to Ottawa Trek (1935)
   3. Cartoon: „A Martimer Speaks His Mind‟ (1933)
   4. Cartoon: „Relief Camps‟ (1935)

Secondary Sources
   1. Lara Campbell. „A Barren Cupboard at Home: Ontario Families Confront the Premiers
      during the Great Depression‟ from Ontario Since Confederation: A Reader (2000)
   2. Denyse Baillargeon. Making Do: Women, Family, and Home in Montreal during the
      Great Depression (1999)
   3. Maps and graphs: The Impact of the Great Depression on People, from Donald Kerr,
      Deryck W. Holdsworth, and Geoffrey J. Matthews (eds.), Historical Atlas of Canada,
      Volume III (1990)




                                                                                                   17
Module 25
A National Crime: Residential Schools in Canada, 1880s to 1960s
Maureen Lux

Primary Sources:
   1. Text: Nicholas Flood Davin, Report on Industrial Schools for Indians and Half-Breeds
      (14 March 1879)
   2. Photo: Anglican Indian School, Siksika (Blackfoot) reserve (c.1901-1910)
   3. Photo: Students filling mattresses with straw, Kanai (Blood) Anglican school (c. 1916)
   4. Text: Dr. Peter Henderson Bryce, The Story of a National Crime: Being an Appeal for
      Justice to the Indians of Canada (1922)
   5. Photo: Sarcee Anglican School, Tsuu T‟ina (Sarcee) Reserve (1912)
   6. Photo: School boys from Sarcee (Tsuu T‟ina) School (1920)
   7. Photo: Bed-time prayers at the girls‟ dormitory, Old Sun School, Siksika (Blackfoot)
      reserve (c. 1955)
   8. Photo: Class in session at the Residential School on Stoney reserve, Morley, Alberta (c.
      1949)

Secondary sources:
   1. John Milloy. „The Tuition of Thomas Moore‟ in A National Crime: The Canadian
      Government and the Residential School System, 1879-1986 (1999)
   2. John Milloy. „The Charge of Manslaughter: Disease and Death, 1879-1946‟ in A National
      Crime: The Canadian Government and the Residential School System, 1879-1986 (1999)
   3. J.R. Miller. „You Ain‟t My Boss: Resistance‟ in Shingwauk’s Vision: A History of Native
      Residential Schools (1996)


Module 26
World War II and the Internment of Enemy Aliens: Circumscribing Personal Freedoms
Marcel Martel
When Canada declared war on Germany on September 10, 1939, Canadians were resigned to the
fact that this new era of war would cause them to make sacrifices and bring limits to personal
freedoms. Contrary to what happened during WWI, the internment process of enemy aliens was
more selective, except in the case of Japanese Canadians. Japanese Canadians were the ethnic
group that faced the greatest injustice during WWII and this module looks back at this episode.

Primary Sources
   1. Text: David Suzuki, The Autobiography (2006).
   2. Cartoon: „Right on the Job‟, The Toronto Daily Star (13 June 1940)
   3. Cartoon: „Strategic Withdrawal to Prepared Positions‟, The Toronto Daily Star (21
      January 1942)
   4. Cartoon: „Let Canada Answer This‟, The Halifax Herald (11 March 1942)
   5. Cartoon: „Japanese Canadians signing a petition to stay in Canada‟ The Daily Colonist,
      Victoria (20 December 1945)
   6. Text: The Defence of Canada Regulations (Consolidation) (1942)




                                                                                               18
Secondary Sources
   1. Pamela Sugiman. „Passing Time, Moving Memories: Interpreting Wartime Narratives of
      Japanese Canadian Women‟, Histoire sociale/Social History (2004)
   2. Patricia Roy et al. „Behind the Barbed-Wire Fence: Internees and POWs in Japan,
      Japanese-Controlled Territory, and Canada‟ from Mutual Hostages: Canadians and
      Japanese During the Second World War (1990)
   3. Reg Whitaker and Gregory S. Kealey. „A War on Ethnicity? The RCMP and Internment‟,
      from Franca Iacovetta, Roberto Perin, and Angelo Principe (eds.), Enemies Within.
      Italian and Other Internees in Canada and Abroad (2000)


Module 27
Peacekeeping Missions, 1956 to the 1990s: Canada’s Real Contribution to World Affairs?
Marcel Martel
In their attempt to define Canada‟s role in the world, Canadians often refer to their country‟s
record of peacekeeping. Although Canadians are still proud of their country‟s role, over the last
decade our contributions to peacekeeping missions have declined both in terms of human
resources involved and the number of missions that Canada has taken part in. Those who have
led them, however, such as Romeo Dallaire and Lewis MacKenzie, or have studied them are
very critical and this module offers contrasting views on peacekeeping missions

Primary sources:
   1. Text: Roméo Dallaire. „Check Out Rwanda and You‟re in Charge‟ from Shake Hands
      with the Devil. The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda (2004)
   2. Text: Lewis MacKenzie Peacekeeper: The Road to Sarajevo (1993)
   3. Cartoon: „Support in the Nick of Time‟. The Toronto Daily Star (8 November 1956)
   4. Cartoon: „End of the Debate‟. The Toronto Daily Star (16 October 1957)
   5. Song lyrics: The Blue Berets By T.C. Connors (1993)

Secondary Sources
   1. Costas Melakopides. „The Golden Age, 1945-1957‟ from Pragmatic Idealism: Canadian
      Foreign Policy 1945-1995 (1998)
   2. J. L. Granatstein. „Peacekeeping: Did Canada Make a Difference? And What Difference Did
      Peacekeeping Make to Canada?‟ in John English and Norman Hillmer, (eds.), Making a
      Difference?: Canada’s Foreign Policy in a Changing World Order (1992)
   3. Joseph T. Jockel. „“The „Committed Peacekeeper” from Canada and International
      Peacekeeping (1994)




                                                                                                19
Module 28
Constructing a Canadian Icon: The Medicare Debate to the 1960s
Maureen Lux
For many Canadians Medicare is central to national identity because it sets us apart from, and
perhaps a bit superior to, the Americans. This is surely an exaggerated role for an insurance
scheme, but in a recent poll Canadians named a politician, Tommy Douglas, as the „Greatest
Canadian‟ for his role as the „father‟ of Medicare. But the history of the Medicare debate, and
the Saskatchewan doctors‟ strike in 1962, suggest that health insurance was not always held in
such warm regard.

Primary sources:
   1. Speech: „Mouseland‟ Tommy Douglas (c. 1944)
   2. Photograph: „To Our Patients‟ (1962)
   3. Photograph: All Doctors are Out (1962)
   4. Text: The Doctor‟s Position (June 1962 )
   5. Photograph: Hanging TC Douglas in Effigy (July 1962)
   6. Photograph: Rally in Support of Doctors (July 1962)
   7. Photograph: Rally in Support of Doctors (July 1962)

Secondary Sources:
   1. Robert S. Bothwell and John R. English. „Pragmatic Physicians: Canadian Medicine and
      Health Care Insurance‟ in University of Western Ontario Medical Journal (1976)
   2. Gerald W. Boychuk. „National Health Insurance in the United States and Canada‟ in
      National Health Insurance in the United States and Canada: Race, Territory, and the
      Roots of Difference (2008)
   3. Alvin Finkel. „The Medicare Debate‟ in The Medicare Debate, 1945-80: Social Policy
      and Practice in Canada: A History (2006)

Module 29
The Sixties: A Youth Revolution or A Few Angry Baby Boomers?
Marcel Martel
The sixties was a period rich in ideological turmoil, political events and social and cultural
changes. Looking back at this time period, can it be said that baby boomers triggered a
revolution that changed society forever? Or was society confronted by a few angry individuals
who were successful in speaking on behalf of their generation? Specialists are still debating the
causes, meaning and legacy of the sixties, and this module illustrates these debates.

Primary sources:
   1. Text: Jerry Farber‟s manifesto „The Student as Nigger‟, Senate Debates (1968)
   2. Text: Alderman Harry Rankin. „What Makes a Hippie?‟ The Georgia Straight
      (September 8, 1967)
   3. Text: „Turn on, Tune In, Take Over!!!,‟ The Georgia Straight (September 8, 1967)
   4. Cartoon: „RCMP and Hippies‟, The RCMP Quarterly (1972)
   5. Cartoon: „Hippies‟, Saturday Night (1969)




                                                                                                  20
Secondary Sources:
   1. Stuart Henderson. „Toronto‟s Hippie Disease: End Days in the Yorkville Scene, August
      1968‟, Journal of the Canadian Historical Association 2006
   2. Bruce Douville. „“And We‟ve Got to Get Ourselves Back to the Garden”: The Jesus
      People Movement in Toronto‟, Historical Papers 2006: Canadian Society of Church
      History

Module 30
Neoliberalism, Globalization, and Productivity: The New Economic Mantra in the late 20th
century
Marcel Martel
In reaction to economic problems in the 1970s, Canada embraced neoliberalism. The federal
government and the provinces pursued an economic policy based on the notions of balancing the
budget, cutting social spending, and restricting the eligibility of individuals for social programs.
Parallel to spending cuts, governments cut business taxes and shifted the burden of taxation
towards consumption. However, the 2008 collapse of the housing and financial markets in the
United States and its impact on the world economy have led many to question neoliberalism.

Primary Sources
   1. Text: The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (1 January 1994)
   2. Text: „What We Think: Researching Today‟s Critical Issues‟ Fraser Institute (no date)
   3. Text: „In Defence of Red Tape. Regulations absolutely essential for Canadians‟ health
      and safety‟ Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (1 May 2007)

Secondary Sources
   1. Ann Porter. „Contained and Redefined: Women‟s Issues in the Mulroney Era,‟ in
      Raymond B. Blake (ed.), Transforming the Nation: Canada and Brian Mulroney (2007)
   2. Stephen Clarkson. „The (Un)sustainable State: Deregulating the Environment,‟ in Uncle
      Sam and Us: Globalization, Neoconservatism, and the Canadian State (2002)


Module 31
The Era of Mega-constitutionalism in Canada, 1968-1992
P.E. Bryden
For many Canadians today, it seems that we are in a perpetual state of looming constitutional
crisis. In addition to explaining how the constitution came to be such an important issue for
Canadians, this module explores the roots of some of the late 20th century debates, including
those over the Meech Lake and Charlottetown Accords, by looking at different versions of what
happened behind closed doors.




                                                                                                  21
Primary Sources
   1. Text: Constitutional Patriation: The Lougheed-Levesque Correspondence (1981-82)
   2. Text: Brian Mulroney. Behind Closed Doors (1987)
   3. Cartoon: John Collins, Unfinished Symphony (c.1968)
   4. Cartoon: „Reworking the Constitution‟, Aislin (alias Terry Mosher) (September 28, 1977)
   5. Cartoon: „Trudeau Attacks Mulroney on Meech Lake‟, Aislin (alias Terry Mosher) (May
      28, 1987)

Secondary Sources
   1. Kenneth McRoberts. „Bringing Quebec into the Constitution: Missing Two Chances‟ in
      Misconceiving Canada: The Struggle for National Unity (1997)
   2. Patrick J. Monahan. „The Sounds of Silence,‟ in The Charlottetown Accord, the
      Referendum and the Future of Canada (1993)




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