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Outline _10 Sovereignty_ Science_ and Enlightenment The theory of by gegeshandong


									                                         Outline #10
                           Sovereignty, Science, and Enlightenment

I.     The theory of Absolutism
       a. Jean Bodin
       b. Jacques Bossuet
II.    Absolutism in Western Europe
       a. France’s Absolute monarchy
                 i. Cardinal Richelieu’s centralization of power under Louis XIII
               ii. Cardinal Mazarin during the minority of Louis XIV
                         1. The reign of Louis XIV (1643 – 1715)
                                  a. “The Sun King”
                                  b. Control of state and church
                                  c. Finances and the Court at Versailles
                                  d. Louis’ wars
III.   Limited Monarchies and Republics
       a. England and the emergence of constitutional monarchy
                 i. Charles I and Civil War
                ii. Oliver Cromwell and the Commonwealth
               iii. The Stuart Restoration and Charles II
               iv. James II and the “Glorious Revolution”
                v. William and Mary and the Bill of Rights
               vi. Responses to the English Revolution
                         1. Hobbes and Leviathan
                         2. Locke and the Right of Revolution
IV.    Background to Scientific Revolution
       a. Medieval reliance on Classical Authority
       b. Renaissance Scholars and the discovery of Classical Disagreements
       c. The Artists and close observation of nature
       d. Early modern technological innovations
       e. New understandings in Mathematics
       f. The influence of the Hermetic Age
V.     Toward a New Heaven: Revolution in Astronomy
       a. The Ptolemaic model
                 i. Ptolemy and Aristotle
                ii. A Geocentric Universe
       b. The work of Copernicus
                 i. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
                ii. The heliocentric model
               iii. Early Christian reactions to Copernicus
       c. The role of Tyco Brahe
                 i. Detailed observations
       d. Johannes Kepler
                 i. The “Music of the Sphere”
                ii. The Three Laws of Planetary Motion
       e. Galileo and Controversy
                 i. Telescope
                ii. The Starry Messenger
               iii. Trial before the Inquisition
               iv. laws of motion
       f. Isaac Newton
                 i. the Principia
                 ii. Universal Law of Gravity
VI.     Advances in medicine
        a. Influence of Galen
                  i. Animal Dissection
                 ii. the four humors
        b. Paracelsus
                  i. Medicine as Chemistry
                 ii. “Like Cures Like”
        c. Vesalius
                  i. Human dissection
                 ii. Correction of Galen
        d. William Harvey and the blood system
VII.    Toward a New Earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a new view of mankind
        a. Descartes’ Discourse on Method
                  i. reject senses
                 ii. separation of mind and matter
        b. Implications of Cartesian Dualism
VIII.   The Scientific method
        a. Francis Bacon
                  i. Induction
                 ii. a practical science
        b. Descartes’ emphasis on deduction and mathematics
        c. Newton’s synthesis of Bacon and Descartes
IX.     Science and Religion in the 17th C
        a. The example of Galileo
                  i. a split between science and religion
                 ii. attempts at a new synthesis
        b. Spinoza
                  i. excommunication
                 ii. pantheism
                iii. a philosophy of reason
        c. Pascal
                  i. the limits of Science and reason
X.      The spread of Scientific Knowledge
        a. Scientific societies
                  i. the Royal Society of England
                 ii. the Royal Academy of France
        b. Science and Society
                  i. acceptance through practicality
                 ii. Science as a means of economic progress and social stability
XI.     The Enlightenment
        a. Dare to know
                  i. finding the laws that govern human society
                 ii. using them to create a better world
        b. the paths to enlightenment
                  i. popular understanding and acceptance of science
                 ii. a new skepticism of religion and tradition
                iii. travel and literature
                iv. John Locke’s Theory of Knowledge
                 v. Isaac Newton’s Laws of Physics
        c. The Philosophes and their ideas
                  i. Montesquieu’s critique of society and government
                 ii. Voltaire’s critique of justice and religion
                iii. Diderot’s Encyclopedia and a new way of thinking
        d. Toward a “Science of Man”
                  i. David Hume and the birth of the new Human Science
                ii. Adam Smith and The Wealth of Nations
       e.  The later Enlightenment
                 i. Condorcet and the 9 stages of history
                ii. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and the social contract
       f. The “woman’s question” in the enlightenment
                 i. Mary Wollstonecraft and feminism
       g. The social environment of the philosophes
                 i. the Salon
                ii. Secret Societies
XII.   Religion and the Churches
       a. the institutional church
                 i. church and state: the Jesuit example
                ii. toleration and religious minorities
               iii. the Jews: toleration or conversion?
       b. Popular religion
                 i. Catholic piety : the Saints
                ii. Protestant revivalism : Moravian Brothers and Wesleyans

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