APES - Air Unit by wuxiangyu

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 47

									APES - Air Unit
I. Air Background

   A. Air is a mixture
    • 78% N, 20% O

   B. Pollution has many effects
    • animals( us), plants, inanimate objects

   C. Natural Air Pollution
    • 1. Volcanoes         4. Pollen
    • 2. Fires             5. Decomposition
    • 3. Dust storms
    D. Pollution is affected
        by the weather
   1. Thermal
    Inversion
    • L.A.
    • Mexico City
    • Baltimore
    E. Pollution affects the
            weather
   1. Greenhouse
    Effect
   2. Sulfur oxides
   3. Particulates
   F. EPA Monitors 6 “Criteria
    Pollutants” as per the Clean Air
    Act
    •   1.   Particulates
    •   2.   sulfur dioxide
    •   3.   carbon monoxide
    •   4.   Nitrogen dioxide
    •   5.   Ozone
    •   6.   lead
II. Types of Air Pollution

   A. Particulates     = solid or liquid
    particles suspended in air
    • 1. Sources
       • a.   combustion
       • b.   dust storms
       • c.   Miscellaneous human activities
       • d.   natural sources
• 2. Effects
• a. in plants
   • clogs gas exchange
   • blocks light
• b. in animals
   • clogs lungs - lung disease
   • asbestos is a carcinogen
   • allergies
• c. Inanimate objects
   • discolors
B. Hydrocarbons and Volatile
    Organic Compounds

   1. Sources
    • a. evaporation of solvents and
      fuels
    • b. incomplete combustion of fuel
    • c. decomposition- sewage , swamp
    • d. aerosols - pesticides, industrial
      waste
   2. Effects
    • a. carcinogenic to animals (us)
    • b. can become secondary pollutants by
      reacting with other chemicals
       • ozone
       • PAN’s (peroxyacetyl nitrates)
       • photochemical smog
    • c. dissolves materials like rubber or
      plastic
     C. Carbon Monoxide

   1. Source
    • a. combustion


   2. Effects
    • a. cuts down oxygen in blood
         D. Nitrogen Oxides
                  NOx - NO, NO2, N2O4


   1. Source
    • combustion
   2. Effects
    •   a.   slows plant growth
    •   b.   aggravates lung problems
    •   c.   forms secondary pollutants
    •   d.   adds to eutrophication
    •   e.   forms acid rain
E. Sulfur Oxides
SOx- SO, SO2

   1. Sources
    • a. burning coal and heating oil
    • metal smelters
   2. Effects
    • a. odor of rotten eggs
    • b. forms acid rain
    • c. irritates lung disease
F. Heavy Metals

   1. Sources
    •   a.   coal
    •   b.   was gasoline
    •   c.   smelters
    •   d.   industries
   2. Effects
    • a. toxic
    • b. bioaccumulates
G. Ozone ( and other
photochemical oxidants) (O3)

   1. Sources
    • a. result when other chemicals
      react in the atmosphere when
      exposed to sunlight
   2. Effects
    • a. toxic
    • b. irritates mucus membranes -
      eyes, nose
NOx and SO2 levels are still a problem in
Europe and North America

                         60,000
    (1000 metric tons)




                         55,000
                         50,000
                         45,000
                         40,000
                         35,000
                         30,000
                                  1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
                                                    NOx         SO2
    III. Pollution Solutions

   A. Legislation - Standards
    • 1. Clean Air Act of 1970
      •   no visible emissions from industry
      •   reduce auto emissions
      •   tall smoke stacks
      •   permit system, allowances
    • 2. California
      • car types                  ban burning
    • 3. Maryland
      • vehicle emissions         ban open burning
SO2 emissions in Asia
     could triple

                                 120
(million metric tons per year)




                                 100

                                 80

                                 60

                                 40

                                 20

                                  0
                                       1990        2000          2010          2020
                                         Europe   United States and Canada   Asia
        Vehicle numbers are
         rising dramatically

700
             Cars      Buses and Trucks
600
500
400
300
200
100
 0
      1945      1955        1965          1975   1985   1995
Motor vehicle use is
highest in developed
     countries
 United States                                                              749.7
        Japan                                                 519
      Europe                              269.6
        Brazil               96.6
South America               88.3
  Hong Kong                 81
        Africa       22.4
        China        7.9
         India       6.7                   (Motor Vehicles Per 1,000 Persons)

                 0         100      200   300     400   500     600   700    800
   B. Cars
    • 1. New habits - drive less
      • car pools, mass transit
    • 2. New Cars
      • alcohol                   propane
      • electric                  hybrid
      • fuel cells                solar
    • 3. New Technology
      • already have catalytic converters and
        computerized ignition
• 4. Car Standards
  • MPG standards


• 5. Repair Practices
  • fuel evaporation
  • AC refrigerant containment
  • Painting
   C. Industry
    • 1. Technology
      • scrubbers
      • electrostatic precipitators
      • change processes
   D. Homes
    • 1. Education and awareness
    IV. Indoor Air Pollution

   A. Sick Building Syndrome
   B. Cigarettes and tobacco
   C. Radon
   D. Formaldehyde
   E. Asbestos
V. Noise Pollution

   A. Effects
   B. Causes
   C. Solutions
    VI. Global Warming or
    the Greenhouse Effect
   A. Definition:
    Predicted
    increase in
    average global
    temperature due
    to the trapping
    of heat (infrared
    radiation) in the
    atmosphere
       Surface temperatures
       have warmed over the
           past century
  Temperature (Fahrenheit)                                         Temperature (Celcius)


 60
                                                                                  154

59.5                                                                              152

                                                                                  150
 59
                                                                                  148
58.5
                                                                                  146

 58                                                                               144

                                                                                  142
57.5
       1860              1880   1900   1920   1940   1960   1980             2000
   B. Causes
    • 1. Greenhouse Gases
      • a. CO2
        • from burning fossil fuels and deforestation
      • b. Methane
      • c. CFC’s
      • d. NOx
Greenhouse gas
   warming
                    Other
                 Halocarbons
                     5%     CFC-12
                              6%
                          Nitrous Oxide
Carbon Dioxide
                               6%
     64%




                    Methane
                     19%
   C. Effects
    • 1. Raised Average Temperature (1.5 -
     5.0oC)
      • a Heat wave stress on humans and
        ecosystems
      • b. Coastal flooding
      • c. Change in rainfall distribution
      • d. Possible loss in total food production
Per capita CO2 emissions
 are small in developing
       countries
          United States
               Canada
    Russian Federation
              Germany
       United Kingdom
                 Japan
           Poland, Rep
               Ukraine
            Korea, Rep
          South Africa
                   Italy
                France
                Mexico
                 China
                  India
   Developed Countries

                           0   5       10      15   20   25
             (metric tons of carbon dioxide)
Developed nations have
altered the atmosphere
          most
              United States
            European Union
              Former USSR
                      China
                     Japan
                       India
                    Canada
               South Africa
                    Mexico
                  Australia
                      Spain
                      Brazil
           Iran, Islamic Rep
    Korea, Dem People's Rep
                Korea, Rep
       Developed Countries

                               0   100          200        300       400       500   600
                                         (billion metric tons of carbon dioxide)
Stabilizing CO2 means
 steep emission cuts
      eventually
   D. Solutions
    • 1. Burn less fossil fuel
      • conservation
      • alternate energy sources
    • 2. Stop deforestation
      • especially in developing countries
    VII. Acid Precipitation

   A. Sources
    • 1. H2SO4 from SOx and H2O
      • a. from electric power generation
      • b. industry
    • 2. HNO3 from NOx and H2O
      • a. cars
      • b. electric power generation
      • c. industry
   B. Effects
    • 1. Area Affected
       • worse in Eastern
         N. America,
         Central Europe,
         China
   2. Aquatic Ecosystems
    •   a.   stops reproduction
    •   b.   disrupts metabolism
    •   c.   carries Aluminum into water
    •   d.   leaves lake barren

   3. Forest Ecosystems
    • a. kills trees
         •   direct contact
         •   remove nutrients
         •   mobilize Al
         •   weaken for pathogens
   4. Humans
    • a. erodes limestone and marble
    • b. aluminum exposure through
      water
    • c. economic and aesthetic value of
      land (forests and lakefront)
C. Solutions

   1. Buffers
    • a. natural or artificial

   2. Reduce Power Plant
    Emissions
    •   a.Conserve electricity
    •   b. alternative fuels
    •   c. coal washing
    •   d. scrubbers with limestone

   3. Regulations
VIII. Upper Level Ozone
        Depletion

   A. The Problem-
    • Ozone (O3) in the upper
      atmosphere (20-60 km) acts as a
      shield against ultraviolet light (Uv)
    • “Holes” (thin regions) have been
      discovered and the total level of
      ozone is believed to be decreasing
B. Causes

   1. CFC’s
    (chlorofluorocarbons)
    • a. Used for:
        • refrigerants
        • foams
        • cleaners for
          electronics
        • aerosol
          propellants
   2. Other gases
    • halons, carbon
      tetrachloride, methyl
      chloroform
C. Effects

   1. Break down of O3
    • Chlorine catalyzes the breakdown of O3 into O2
    • One CFC molecule may break down hundreds of
      O3 molecules

   2. Effect on Humans
    • increased Uv exposure which leads to skin
      cancer, sunburn, skin damage
    • also damages algae, plant and animal life
D. Solutions

   1. Eliminate CFC’s
    • Montreal Protocol of 1986
    • many CFC’s have been replaced,
      often with HCFC’s
  Success story:
CFC production has
  fallen sharply
1,200
                         Industrialized Countries
1,000
                         Developing Countries
 800

 600

 400

 200

   0
    1986   1989   1990   1991   1992    1993   1994   1995
                       Backsliding: Halon
                       production is rising
                             again
                 200

                 150
(000 ODP tons)




                 100

                 50

                  0
                   1986        1989    1990    1991     1992     1993     1994     1995

                       China     Other Developing Countries    Industrialized Countries

								
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