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Guided Reading with Advanced Readers


									                        Guided Questioning with Advanced Learners

                  Prepared by Paula Kienapple-Summers, Itinerant Teacher of the Gifted
                                           September 2009

Characteristics of Advanced Learners

      Extensive and markedly superior oral/written vocabulary
      Very superior reasoning and problem solving skills
      Learns quickly; comprehends readily; retains and integrates information
      Grasps mathematical concepts quickly
      Persistent intellectual curiosity; gets excitement and pleasure from intellectual challenge
      Shows creative ability; initiative and originality
      Sustains concentration for long periods
      Shows outstanding responsibility and independence
      Reads avidly and absorbs books well beyond their years
      Communicates easily with adults; shows social poise
      Shows an alert and subtle sense of humour
      Is sensitive, empathetic, emotional

Atypical Characteristics of Advanced Learners

      Easily bored; impatient with chronological age group; dislikes drill; produces inaccurate
       or sloppy work
      Little or no patience with regular math lessons or homework
      Disruptive; lack of interest in “mundane” work; resists sameness or routine tasks
      Non-conformist; have difficulty working with others or accepting help
      Sets unrealistically high goals; perfectionist; fears failure; avoids taking risks
      Has difficulty finishing assignments, making decisions or organizing work
      Sees too much; all possible connections
      Difficulty communicating with age peers
      Uses humour inappropriately to criticize others or gain attention
      Easily hurt; keenly aware of others’ perceptions; has trouble handling criticism

Questioning Models for Advanced Learners

      Bloom’s Taxonomy - focusing on the higher order thinking skills of analysis, evaluation
       and synthesis
      Williams’ Taxonomy – focusing on fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration, risk
       taking, complexity, curiosity, imagination
      Socratic Seminar - focusing on developing thinking through asking questions
      SCAMPER - focusing on creative ideas development - (SCAMPER) substitute,
       combine, adapt, modify/magnify/minify, put to other uses, eliminate, reverse/rearrange or
       (Callahan’s Questions) adaptation, modification, magnification, minification,
       substitution, rearrangement, reversibility, combination, transformation
      Thinking Hats – focusing on objective thinking, intuitive thoughts and feelings,
       viability, consequences, creative alternatives, conclusion/consensus

Questioning Tips for Advanced Learners

      Increase pace of questioning
      Be prepared with key questions from models
      Increase back and forth dialogue
      Decrease modelling
      Incorporate questions

When Students Need Specific Guidance

              Student Behaviour                                Teacher Response
Offers an opinion without evidence from the      “Where in the text can you find support for
selection                                        your opinion?”
Vague, unclear explanation for reasoning         “What do you mean by [restate vague phrase]
Provides a long explanation                      “Are you saying that [puts student idea in a
                                                 concise statement]?”
Heads down the wrong path                        “How can you support that with evidence from
                                                 the text?” or “Does anyone disagree with this
                                                 point of view? Why?”
Engages in circular thinking, arriving nowhere   “Can you rethink your ideas and offer a point?”
Makes a generalization                           “Why do you say that?”

(from Questioning Strategies for Teaching the Gifted. Elizabeth Shaunessy. Texas: Prufrock
Press, 2005.)
                                     Bloom’s Taxonomy
                       Focus on the higher order thinking skills (HOTS)
                         Pose questions based on these trigger verbs


analyze     point out        categorize     classify     experiment       scrutinize
discover    deduce           take apart     select       distinguish      separate
question    interpret        sequence       dissect      differentiate    subdivide
research    contrast         inspect        inventory    discriminate     test
examine     survey           investigate    compare      probe            inquire
detect      order            arrange


appraise    validate         score          justify      critique         decide
rate        assess           summarize      weigh        recommend        argue
judge       debate           consider       infer        tell why         rank
value       defend           support        reject       conclude         relate


combine      develop         organize       role-play    manage           propose
concoct     construct        formulate      originate    forecast         pretendconnect
imagine      create          invent         plan         compose          arrangeblend
compile      design          hypothesize    produce      assemble         generalize
predict     generate         modify         what if?     invent           substitute
integrate   rewrite
                         Samples of Questioning for Fiction
                           Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy

Analysis: analyze, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, infer,
contrast, critique, categorize, solve, deduce, examine, differentiate, appraise, distinguish,
investigate, question, brief statement conveying your viewpoint and feelings on an issue,
character analysis, questionnaire

Skills demonstrated: -sees patterns                          -organization of parts
                     -recognition of hidden meaning          -identification of components

   1)  Explain what the characters would prefer for Christmas and why.
   2)  Explain what the characters would prefer for dinner and why.
   3)  Explain what the characters would prefer to wear and why.
   4)  Explain what and where the characters would prefer to vacation and why.
   5)  Pretend you are inviting a celebrity to a party for the main character(s) and explain your
   6) For a film of your book, which actress or actor would you choose for the leading role and
   7) Compare where you live to the neighbourhood/town/city in your book.
   8) Compare this story with another book you’ve read.
   9) Compare this story with a movie or T.V. show of the same kind.
   10) Tell me some discussion questions that could be used for a “Book Club Discussion”
   11) Would you want the main character for a friend? Why or why not?
   12) What did ------ (the main character) do to make things worse?
   13) What did ------ (the main character) do to make things better?
   14) Explain how --------(the antagonist) tried to cause problems for ------ (the main
   15) How are --------(the antagonist) and ------ (the main character) alike?
   16) How are --------(the antagonist) and ------ (the main character) different?
   17) Do you think the author did a good job?
   18) What qualities does ------ (the main character) have that make him/her an interesting
   19) Choose one of the characters and tell me how they could have been more interesting.
   20) Etc.

Evaluation: assess, decide, rank, grade, debate, recommend, convince, judge, discriminate,
support, conclude, justify, prioritize, determine, evaluate, forecast, estimate, present your opinion
in such a way to convince others to agree with you, determine trends and prioritize actions

Skills learned: -compares and discriminates between ideas          -assesses value of theories,
                -makes choices based on reasoned arguments         -verifies value of evidence
               -recognizes subjectivity

   1) If you were able to talk to the author how would you explain your reaction to his/her
   2) If you were able to talk to the author how would you explain why his/her book appeals to
       your age group.
   3) Can you defend why you think the story begins as it does?
   4) Can you defend why you think the story ends as it does?
   5) Quote a passage of good description and good dialogue and discuss why you have
       assessed them as excellent.
   6) If this book were in the library how would you talk to the librarian either congratulating
       her/him for choosing it or asking her/him to order it and justify your reasons for doing so.
   7) What newspaper classified ads would be of interest to the character and explain why.
   8) From the “yellow pages” (business advertisement) what businesses you think the main
       character would be interested in and explain why.
   9) How did this book change your way of thinking in any way?
   10) Explain what the main character would be least likely to do and explain why.
   11) Would you like the main character as a friend? Why?
   12) Defend: This book should be read by everyone who hates reading.
   13) Describe and defend where and why you would like to take a field trip because of this

Synthesis: combine, integrate, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, compose, formulate,
prepare, generalize, hypothesize, develop, refine, transform, produce, develop an action plan,
create lyrics to teach facts on your topic

Skills demonstrated: -uses old ideas to create new ones
                    -generalizes from given facts
                    -relates knowledge from several areas
                    -predicts, draws conclusions

   1) Pretend you’re the author and explain why you chose the title of your book and which
      aspect was the most difficult to write.
   2) Pretend you’re the author and tell about your life and how this book fits into it.
   3) Pretend you’re the author and describe what contributed to the ideas to develop the story
      and what you hoped the reader would gain from reading your book.
   4) How would your main characters act if the story took place 100 years earlier?
   5) If your main character is from the past, how would he/she act if the story took place
   6) Compose a song, using a familiar tune, about the story that will teach someone the
      lesson/moral of this story.
   7) Tell me what you think happened to the main character(s) after the story ended and
      explain why.
   8) Think about whom the narrator is; then tell me one scene from the point of view of
      another character and explain the switch.
9) As a psychiatrist analyze and tell me about the conflicts and problems of any of the
10) Why do you think the author chose to have the story take place where it did?
11) Why do you think the author chose to have the story take place in the time it did?

                                                    Prepared by: Maureen Orso – Itinerant Teacher of the Gifted
                                                     Student Services - Waterloo Catholic District School Board
                                                                                                 February 2007
                  Samples of Questioning for Informational Texts
                           Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy

(Resource: Ministry of Education Guide to Effective Literacy Instruction)

Analysis: analyze, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, select, infer, categorize,
solve, deduce, examine, differentiate, appraise, distinguish, investigate, question, brief statement
conveying your viewpoint and feelings on an issue, compare/contrast, deconstruct, deduce,

Skills demonstrated: - sees patterns
                     - organizes parts
                     - recognizes hidden meaning
                     - identifies components

    1) Classify the information in terms of pros vs. cons for different stakeholders.
    2) Classify the information in relation to a teacher determined criteria.
    3) What decisions did the authors or editors consider in presenting the information in the
        most effective way to educate the audience?
    4) Relate the information to the perspective of different audiences and stakeholders (e.g.
        environmentalist, politician, employee, unemployed).
    5) What prior knowledge would someone need to understand this information better?
    6) Compare this information with the same information presented in a different format.
    7) What are different ways could you categorize this information?
    8) Which text features are most prominent in this text and why?
    9) Which text features are minimally displayed and why?
    10) What is the sequence of the information presented?
    11) Connect to this information to another situation …
    12) Connect this information to a community issue …
    13) Show how this (person, idea, issue, data) changed our lives …
    14) Use hindsight to explain how this (problem, war, shortage, waste) could have been
    15) Use the data to suggest a change …
    16) Show how this information can help future generations.

Evaluation: assess, decide, rank, grade, debate, recommend, convince, judge, discriminate,
support, conclude, justify, prioritize, determine, evaluate, forecast, estimate, present your opinion
in such a way to convince others to agree with you, determine trends and prioritize actions,
critique, judge, test

Skills demonstrated: - compares and discriminates between ideas
                      - assesses value of theories, presentations
                      - makes choices based on reasoned arguments
                      - verifies value of evidence
                      - recognizes subjectivity
   1) Debate the pros and cons of the issue presented in the text.
   2) Would you set up this web page or text page the same way as the author and why?
   3) What features should be eliminated or enhanced to convey the information intended?
   4) Rank the importance of the text features presented in this text in relation to the intended
      importance of the information.
   5) Relate this information to other forms of communication such at web pages, TV,
      newspapers, magazines, etc.
   6) Decide if any information is left out of this text. Why was this information left out?
   7) How could this information be adjusted to suit a different audience?
   8) What are the key conclusions we can make from the information presented?
   9) Is there a balance in the layout of the text in terms of the overall text features (graphics,
      print, illustrations)? Is the layout appropriate for the intended audience?
   10) Decide if there any moral or ethical issues presented in the information.
   11) Is the sequence of the information presented effective to intended message?
   12) Persuade us to take your stand or position on this information.

Creation/Synthesis: combine, integrate, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, compose,
formulate, prepare, generalize, hypothesize, develop, refine, transform, produce, develop an
action plan, create, invent, construct, produce

Skills demonstrated: - uses old ideas to create new ones
                    - generalizes from given facts
                    - relates knowledge from several areas
                    - predicts, draws conclusions

   1) What substitutions could be made to a process presented in the information?
   2) How would you redesign the layout of the text in terms of the overall text features
      (graphics, print, illustrations) to suit a different audience (e.g. young children, seniors,
      gender, persons with reading disability or a developmental disability)
   3) Extract the most important information and describe how it could be reformatted in a
      different medium.
   4) If you were a stakeholder related to this information or issue, present the information
      from you particular point of view.
   5) How would this information be presented or considered in a different scenario (e.g. time
      period, place, gender, conditions)?
   6) How would this information be presented differently for someone who has little
      background knowledge of the topic or someone who has a great deal of background
   7) Discuss any action needed in relation to the information presented.
   8) Describe how the sequence of information presented could be redesigned to be more

                                                 Prepared by: Paula Kienapple-Summers – Itinerant Teacher of the Gifted
                                                              Student Services - Waterloo Catholic District School Board
                                                                                                              May 2009
                                     William’s Taxonomy

A model to develop the following creative and divergent thinking skills:

      Fluency – measured by the number of responses to a theme
      Flexibility – measured by the variety of changes or categories
      Originality – measured by degree of unusual or uncommon responses
      Elaboration – embellishment or expansion of the ideas
      Risk-taking – willingness to try different or difficult things
      Curiosity – ability to seek many alternatives, depth of study
      Complexity – capacity to explore or discover
      Imagination – power to visualize, dream or conceive form of action symbolically

Example of Williams’ Taxonomy using Oh, the Places You’ll Go by Dr. Suess:

 Fluency               List all of the roads and places you can o in life, according to this book.
 Flexibility           How would this story be different if it were call “Oh, the Places You’ve
                       Been”? Create your own book with that title, including a theme it can
                       teach children, events in your life, and rhymes!
 Imagination           Imagine you lived in a world of Dr. Suess characters. Would your life
                       be more difficult or easier? Why? Create a poem or draw a cartoon of
                       your life in a Suess world. What places would you go then? Where
                       could you have possibly been?
 Risk-taking           What risks do you feel you have taken in life to reach your goals? Make
                       a list of them. Then, evaluate each one and state whether or not your
                       goal is worth that risk.
 Curiosity             This book is about the adventures your will have in your life. If you
                       could ask a fortune teller about your future, what three questions would
                       you ask? Why?
 Complexity            Using examples from this story, create a “How to Prepare for Your
                       Future” handbook.

(Resource: Postcards from Dr. Suess, Book 2 by Christi Parker)
                                      Socratic Seminar
                 Pose debatable, open-ended, provocative questions to students
                                  without providing answers

Teacher takes facilitator role; neutral position is important in construction and delivery of the
questions; teacher does not give own values or position; teacher guides pace, questions, and
textual choices

Students dominate the discussion; dynamic exchange of ideas; become more skilled in speaking
and listening; provide logical reasons to support their views; share opposing viewpoints; develop
constructive criticism

     Opening question
Use colloquial phrasing; broad and open ended to foster debate and can be supported by
evidence from a variety of places within the text

     Core questions
3-8 core questions that focus on specific lines or quotes from the text that are targeted for
analysis and interpretation; teacher provides location in the text; teacher facilitates by listening
carefully to students’ responses and shape follow-up questions based on the ideas presented;
build upon partial responses

     Closing question
Aims to connect an issue from the selection with the experiences of the students; question should
be applicable to all students
                              SCAMPER & Callahan’s Questions
                                 for informational content


Substitute – what object or person can take the place of another?
Combine – what items can be united to improve a product?
Adapt – what alterations can be made to convert the use of the object for a particular function or
Modify/magnify/minify – can the form be enlarged or reduced in size or shape? What changes
can be made in terms length, weight, density, speed, height or scope?
Put to other uses – how can the object be reconsidered for its function?
Eliminate – how can the object be reconceived without a facet or dimension included?
Reverse or rearrange – what are variations in the layout, vision or concept of the idea or object?
Are there other purposes or improvements the can be made?

Callahan’s Questions:

Adaptation – What else is like it?
Modification – What new twist could be made?
Magnification – What could be added?
Minification – What could be omitted?
Substitution – What else can do it?
Rearrangement – Can you use a different sequence?
Reversibility – Can you do the opposite?
Combination – Can items be blended?
Transformation – Can you change its form in any way?

                               SCAMPER technique for fiction

Example of SCAMPER using Hooray for Diffendoofer Day by Dr. Suess

How would this story be different if the setting was in an office with adults and the goal was to
get them to work better? Create a new children’s book with that plot. Try to using rhyming in it.

Combine Diffendoofer School with great things from your own school to make “The Perfect
School”. Create a commercial to show the perfect school Act it out for the class.

Imagine that Diffendoofer School only had paper and pencils to teach the children. How could
the teachers still do an effective job? Write an advice column to the teachers, giving them advice
about how to teach the class with such limited resources.
What if the students had done poorly on the test? How might that have affected the way the
teachers taught? List ways the teachers would have to change. What would they have to start

Put to Other Uses
The principal worried about how his school would do on the test. List other things he could do to
take his mind off of the test.

If tests were eliminated, how do you feel students would do on homework and listening in class?
Create an editorial, stating your feelings. Should tests be eliminated? Would students still learn
without them?

Reverse the role of the teachers into boring, dull teachers. What effect would that have on the
students? Draw cartoons of the students’ thoughts and what they have learned with these “new”

(Resource: Postcards from Dr. Suess by Christi Parker)
                                   DeBono’s Thinking Hats
                         Challenge students to view concepts differently
                    by reconstructing the pattern of thinking and perceiving

     White Hat
Objective thinking about facts, figures, and information. Wearers consider the origin of the
information and the comprehensiveness of the information and whether other information is
needed or missing

     Red Hat
Represents intuitive thoughts and feelings. Participants briefly discuss feelings associated with
ideas but do not investigate the origin of these feelings or the merit of these feelings. This hat
allows for a “gut” reaction to ideas.

    Yellow Hat
Wearers consider why particular suggestions may be viable and what the possible outcomes and
consequences might be. The reasoning behind each positive value statement is also discussed to
support the suggested benefits of the concept or idea.

    Black Hat
Examinees consider why a particular solution or concept may not be workable, citing reasons to
support this line of thinking. Participants examine the pitfalls, potential negative repercussions,
and faults of the issue at hand.

     Green Hat
Thinkers examine how to creatively overcome Black Hat concerns. Alternatives, new ideas and
possibilities are generated with the goal of overcoming the Black Hat issues and working toward
preserving or solidifying the Yellow Hat concerns.

    Blue Hat
Wearers identify the focus of their plan, summarize the ideas and concepts generated, and
provide action plans for the intended outcome, and move to a resolution.

(Resource: Six Thinking Hats by Edward DeBono)
Genre Analysis: Open-ended Questions

    Are there primary sources, photographs, or narrative elements? How do these help you
       better understand the person’s life and times?
    How does the author differentiate between fact and opinion?
    Did your opinion of this person change as you read the book? Point out the change and
       explain what caused it?
    Why is this person important?
    Identify and discuss three challenges this person overcame.
    Explain how two or three key events and people influenced this person’s life.
    Evaluate some of the key decisions this person made, and explain how each decision
       influenced his or her life.
    In what ways did the person adapt his or her personal dreams and hope?
    Has the book affected or changed your way of thinking? Explain how.
    Which personal qualities led to success in his or her life?

Historical Fiction
    Show how events and people in the past are similar to those in the present.
    Compare and contrast family relationships and people’s values in the novel to your own
        family life and values.
    Do you believe that the same situation(s) could occur today? Explain your position.
    How do people cope with economic problems, such as scarcity of food, finding a job,
        obtaining housing?
    Explain the differences in culture from then and today?
    How are you like a specific character? Do you face similar problems? Do you solve them
        in similar ways?
    Do the events in the book create social, political, and economic change? Discuss the
    How are women and minorities portrayed? Are they stereotyped? Give examples to
        support your opinion. Why does the author portray women and minorities in this way?

Science Fiction
     Point out the scientific advances in society. How do these advances in technology affect
       the characters’ decisions and actions?
     Compare the problems the characters face in the story with problems people face today.
       Show how they are alike and/or different.
     Evaluate life in the future as described in your book. Would you live there? What are the
       advantages and disadvantages?
     Does the story offer hope for humanity or is it a warning? Explain.
     Why might you consider this future world alien?
     How do people fit into this futuristic society? Are they subordinate to machines? Has
       democracy vanished? See if you can identify changes and offer reasons for these changes.
      How is this society similar or different from a society of a different time period (e.g.
       ancient Roman society)
      Which field of science is predominant in this story? What adaptations to the science
       would change the outcome of the story?

Informational Texts
     Does the author try to persuade you in anyway? How?
     How can you identify the facts vs. the opinions?
     How do statistics and data support the author’s perspective?
     Are there perspectives that are not represented by the data?
     Do you find the author’s evidence convincing? Explain.
     How can you apply new information you learned to an issue or problem in today’s
     How did this new information change your way of thinking about this subject?
     What words, phrases, statement does the author use that caught your attention? Why?
       How did they make you feel? What did they make you think?
     Did the author weave opinion and fact statements into the piece? Find examples of each.
     Were there any photographs, illustrations, charts, graphs or diagrams that were
       important? Select two or three and show what you learned from them and explain why
       you believe each one was important.
     Did the reading leave you with unanswered questions? What are these?
     How did you connect to the piece? Was it personal? Was it an issue that affects your
       community and the world? Explain.

Fantasy Texts
    Evaluate the ending.
    Discuss the fantastical elements in this world. Which had the most impact on the ending
       of the story? On the development of the plot?
    Discuss the ways good and evil are represented in the story. What event do you believe
       was the turning point in the battle of good vs. evil? Why?
    Is fantasy a means of escape or a lesson in reality? Discuss, referring to two fantasy
       novels you have read.
    How is a fantasy story like finding your way through a maze?
    Which magical elements would be useful in your life? How and why would you use
    Weigh the advantages and disadvantages of possessing certain abilities of characters in
       the story?

(Source: Teaching Reading in Social Studies, Science and Math by Laura Robb)

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