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					                                                                                                   CORE CHARACTERS [cranial] — 1/8
analysis          C#  character                      state 0                          state 1                               state 2                  state 3   compl order
                                                                                                                                                               s                type     region (gen) region
                  o                                                                                                                                            exity
                                                                                                                                                               t                                      (spec)
Curry Rogers &     16 Occipital region of skull,     anteroposteriorly deep,          flat, paroccipital processes          —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
Forster (2001)        shape                          paroccipital processes           oriented transversely
                                                     oriented posterolaterally
Curry Rogers &    24 Crista prootica, size           rudimentary                      expanded laterally into               —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
Forster (2001)                                                                        "dorsolateral process"
Curry Rogers &    25 Basipterygoid processes,        short, approximately twice       or elongate, at least four times      —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
Forster (2001)       length                          basal diameter                   basal diameter
Curry Rogers &    26 Basipterygoid processes,        approximately 45 degrees         less than 30 degrees                  —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
Forster (2001)       angle of divergence
Curry Rogers &    27 Basal tubera, anteroposterior   approximately half               sheetlike, 20% dorsoventral           —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
Forster (2001)       depth                           dorsoventral height              height
Curry Rogers &    28 Basisphenoid depression         absent                           present                               —                        —         binary unordered pres/ab cranial       braincase
Forster (2001)                                                                                                                                                                  s
Curry Rogers &    29 Basipterygoid processes,        perpendicular to skull roof.     angled ~45˚ to skull roof             —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
Forster (2001)       orientation
Curry Rogers &    186 Distal end of parocciptal      is slightly expanded, with a     is not expanded, and has a            elongated and slender    —         3-state unordered shape   cranial      braincase
Forster (2001)        process                        straight distal margin           rounded ‗tongue‘-like distal
                                                                                      margin
Curry Rogers &    187 Occipital condyle;             is caudoventrally directed       is ventrally directed                 —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
Forster (2001)
Curry Rogers &    188 Area between the bases of      is shallowly concave             is deeply excavated into a long       —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
Forster (2001)        the basipterygoid processes                                     narrow pit extending caudally
                                                                                      beneath the rostral part of the
                                                                                      braincase
Curry Rogers &    189 Parasphenoid rostrum           is triangular in lateral view and is a long, slender, strongly         —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
Forster (2001)                                       possesses a groove along its laterally compressed process
                                                     dorsal midline                    which lacks the dorsal groove


Wilson (2002)     43 Supraoccipital, height          twice height of fm               subequal to or less than height of —                           —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
                                                                                      fm
Wilson (2002)     50 Basioccipital depression        absent                           present                               —                        —         binary unordered pres/ab cranial       braincase
                     between foramen magnum                                                                                                                                     s
                     and basal tubera
Wilson (2002)     51 Basisphenoid/basipterygoid      present                          absent                                —                        —         binary unordered pres/ab cranial       braincase
                     recess                                                                                                                                                     s
Wilson (2002)     52 Basisphenoid–quadrate           absent                           present                               —                        —         binary unordered pres/ab cranial       braincase
                     contact                                                                                                                                                    s
Upchurch et al.   51 Basipterygoid processes         elliptical or subtriangular in   subcircular in cross section          —                        —         —
                                                                                                                                                               binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
(2004)                                               cross section
Curry Rogers      55 Supraoccipital–parietal         supraoccipital has broad         supraoccipital underlies parietal     —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
(2005)               articulation                    contact with caudal border of    via two midline, anterior
                                                     parietal                         processes
Curry Rogers      56 Supraoccipital, formation of    formed from single midline       results from joining of two lateral   —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
(2005)               nuchal crest                    prominence                       prominences, separated by
                                                                                      median trough
Curry Rogers      60 Exit for cranial nerve (CN) I   faces anteriorly                 faces dorsally                        —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
(2005)
Curry Rogers      61 Laterosphenoid, openings for    single opening between           double opening, one between           —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
(2005)               trigeminal nerve (CN V)         prootic and laterosphenoid       prootic and laterosphenoid, one
                                                                                      between laterosphenoid and
                                                                                      orbitosphenoid
Curry Rogers      66 Basipterygoid angle             shallow U-shaped division        V-shaped division                     deep U-shaped division   —         3-state unordered shape   cranial      braincase
(2005)
Curry Rogers      67 Basipterygoid processes,        faces dorsolaterally             faces ventrally                       —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
(2005)               orientation of distal ends
Curry Rogers      71 Basal tubera, angle of          wide, greater than or equal to narrow, less than 45                    —                        —         binary unordered shape    cranial      braincase
(2005)               divergence                      60
                                                                                                     CORE CHARACTERS [cranial] — 2/8
Curry Rogers      72 Basal tubera, posterior extent   tubera project away from      tubera lie in same plane as              —                          —   binary unordered shape     cranial   braincase
(2005)                                                basicranium with considerable basicranium
                                                      relief
Curry Rogers      73 Basal tubera, position of        occurs approximately level        occurs well below occipital          —                          —   binary unordered shape     cranial   braincase
(2005)               divergence                       with occipital condyle or         condyle
                                                      slightly below
Curry Rogers      74 Paroccipital processes, distal   slightly expanded with a          elongated with a rounded             elongated at distal tip    —   3-state unordered position cranial   braincase
(2005)               end                              straight distal margin            ―tongue‖-like distal margin
Curry Rogers      75 Paroccipital processes,          narrow (ratio of space            wide (ratio of space between         —                          —   binary unordered shape     cranial   braincase
(2005)               transverse projection from       between occipital condyle and     occipital condyle and lateral
                     basicranium                      lateral extreme of proximal       extreme of proximal paroccipital
                                                      paroccipital process to           process to occipital condyle
                                                      occipital condyle height 0.5)     height 0.8)


Upchurch (1998)   67 lingual surface of the tooth     convex                            concave                              flat                       —   binary unordered shape     cranial   dental
                     crown
Curry Rogers &    39 Tooth rows, shape of anterior    broadly arched, anterior          rectangular, tooth-bearing portion —                            —   binary unordered shape     cranial   dental
Forster (2001)       maxillary portions               portion of tooth rows U-          of jaw perpendicular to jaw rami
                                                      shaped
Curry Rogers &    40 Tooth rows, length               restricted anterior to orbit      restricted anterior to subnarial     —                          —   binary unordered shape     cranial   dental
Forster (2001)                                                                          foramen
Curry Rogers &    42 Tooth crowns, orientation        aligned slightly anterolingually, aligned along jaw axis, crowns do —                             —   binary unordered shape     cranial   dental
Forster (2001)                                        tooth crowns overlapping          not overlap


Curry Rogers &    43 Tooth crowns, cross-sectional elliptical                           D-shaped                             cylindrical                —   3-state unordered shape    cranial   dental
Forster (2001)       shape at mid-crown


Curry Rogers &    45 Dentary teeth, number            17 or fewer                       greater than 20                      —                          —   binary unordered number cranial      dental
Forster (2001)
Curry Rogers &    47 Teeth orientation                perpendicular (0) or              oriented anteriorly rel to jaw       —                          —   binary unordered position cranial    dental
Forster (2001)                                                                          margin.
Curry Rogers &    196 Prominent grooves near the       present                          absent                               —                          —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial     dental
Forster (2001)        mesial and distal margins of                                                                                                                           s
                      the labial surface of each tooth
                      crown


Curry Rogers &    197 SI Values for teeth             are less than 4.0                 are greater than 5.0                 —                          —   binary unordered shape     cranial   dental
Forster (2001)
Upchurch et al.   78 Largest teeth occur              at midlength in the maxilla       at the rostral end of the jaws       —                          —   —
                                                                                                                                                            binary unordered position cranial    dental
(2004)
Upchurch et al.   79 Tooth crown enamel               smooth                            wrinkled because of fine ridges      —                          —   —
                                                                                                                                                            binary unordered shape     cranial   dental
(2004)                                                                                  and grooves
Upchurch et al.   90 Number of replacement teeth      3 or fewer                        4 or more                            —                          —   —
                                                                                                                                                            binary unordered number cranial      dental
(2004)               per alveolus
Upchurch et al.   92 Tooth crown shape in labial      spatulate, i.e., constricted at   parallel-sided, i.e., little expansion —                        —   —
                                                                                                                                                            binary unordered shape     cranial   dental
(2004)               view                             the base relative to the          above the root and rapidly
                                                      midheight of the crown            tapering toward the tip
Curry Rogers      103 Teeth, shape of wear facets     V-shaped facets (interlocking) high-angled planar facets               low-angled planar facets   —   3-state unordered shape    cranial   dental
(2005)
Curry Rogers &    1   Posterolateral processes of     without midline contact           with midline contact forming         —                          —   binary unordered shape     cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)        premaxilla and lateral                                            marked narial depression,                                                                                skull
                      processes of maxilla, shape                                       subnarial foramen not visible
                                                                                        laterally
Curry Rogers &    2   Preantorbital fenestra          absent                            present                              —                          —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial     dermal
Forster (2001)                                                                                                                                                               s                   skull
Curry Rogers &    3   Subnarial foramen, shape        circular                          slit-shaped, more than two times     —                          —   binary unordered shape     cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)                                                                          longer than broad                                                                                        skull
                                                                                                       CORE CHARACTERS [cranial] — 3/8
Curry Rogers &   4    Max w/ a-p elongate post pr,     much shorter than                 subequal to                        longer than orbital diameter. —   binary unordered shape     cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)        creating an antorbital fenestra,                                                                                                                                             skull
                      maximum diameter


Curry Rogers &   5    External nares, position          retracted to level of orbit      retracted to a position between    —                           —     binary unordered position cranial    dermal
Forster (2001)                                                                           the eyes                                                                                                  skull
Curry Rogers &   6    External nares, maximum           shorter than orbital maximum longer than orbital maximum            —                           —     binary unordered shape     cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)        diameter                          diameter.                    diameter                                                                                                      skull
Curry Rogers &   7    Jugal-ectopterygoid contact       present                          absent                             —                           —     binary unordered pres/ab cranial     dermal
Forster (2001)                                                                                                                                                                 s                   skull
Curry Rogers &   8    Jugal, contribution to antorbital very reduced or absent           large, bordering approximately     —                           —     binary unordered shape     cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)        fenestra                                                           1/3 perimeter                                                                                             skull
Curry Rogers &   9    Prefrontal anterior process       absent                           present                            —                           —     binary unordered pres/ab cranial     dermal
Forster (2001)                                                                                                                                                                 s                   skull
Curry Rogers &   10 Prefrontal, posterior process       small, not projecting far        elongate, approaching parietal     —                           —     binary unordered shape     cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)      size                                posterior of frontal nasal                                                                                                                 skull
                                                        suture
Curry Rogers &   11 Frontal contribution to             absent                           present                            —                           —     binary unordered pres/ab cranial     dermal
Forster (2001)      supratemporal fossa                                                                                                                                        s                   skull
Curry Rogers &   12 Frontals, midline contact           sutured                          fused                              —                           —     binary unordered pres/ab cranial     dermal
Forster (2001)      (symphysis)                                                                                                                                                s                   skull
Curry Rogers &   13 Parietal, contribution to           present                          absent                             —                           —     binary unordered pres/ab cranial     dermal
Forster (2001)      posttemporal fenestra                                                                                                                                      s                   skull
Curry Rogers &   14 Postparietal foramen                absent                           present                            —                           —     binary unordered pres/ab cranial     dermal
Forster (2001)                                                                                                                                                                 s                   skull
Curry Rogers &   15 Parietal, distance separating       <twice transverse diam STF       twice transverse diam STF          —                           —     binary unordered shape     cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)      supratemporal fenestrae                                                                                                                                                        skull


Curry Rogers &   17   Supratemporal fenestra,           much longer than fm              subequal to fm.                    <<1/2 fm                    —     3-state ordered    shape   cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)        maximum diameter                                                                                                                                                             skull
Curry Rogers &   19 Squamosal-quadratojugal             absent                           present                            —                           —     binary unordered pres/ab cranial     dermal
Forster (2001)      contact                                                                                                                                                    s                   skull
Curry Rogers &   20 Quadrate, posterior fossa           shallow                          deeply invaginated                 —                           —     binary unordered           cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)      depth                                                                                                                                                                          skull
Curry Rogers &   171 Rostral rim of external naris      lies in front of the rostral     lies caudal to the rostral margin of —                         —     binary unordered shape     cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)                                          margin of the antorbital         the antorbital fenestra                                                                                   skull
                                                        fenestra
Curry Rogers &   172 External nares                     face laterally or rostrolaterally face dorsally or rostrodorsally   —                           —     binary unordered shape     cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)                                                                                                                                                                                     skull
Curry Rogers &   173 Subnarial foramen (on              faces laterally                  faces dorsally                     —                           —     binary unordered shape     cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)       premaxilla-maxilla suture)                                                                                                                                                    skull
Curry Rogers &   174 ‗Muzzle‘-like region on snout      absent                           present                            —                           —     binary unordered pres/ab cranial     dermal
Forster (2001)                                                                                                                                                                 s                   skull
Curry Rogers &   175 Ascending process of the           is directed caudodorsally        is directed dorsally               absent                      —     3-state unordered shape    cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)       premaxilla                                                                                                                                                                    skull
Curry Rogers &   177 Caudolateral process of the        present                          absent                             —                           —     binary unordered pres/ab cranial     dermal
Forster (2001)       premaxilla                                                                                                                                                s                   skull
Curry Rogers &   178 Maxillary flanges                  do not contact each other on     contact each other on the midline —                            —     binary unordered shape     cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)                                          the midline                                                                                                                                skull
Curry Rogers &   179 ‗Shelf‘-like area lateral to the   present                          absent                             —                           —     binary unordered pres/ab cranial     dermal
Forster (2001)       external naris, extending onto                                                                                                                            s                   skull
                     the rostral end of the maxilla


Curry Rogers &   180 Maxilla-quadratojugal contact      absent                           present                            —                           —     binary unordered pres/ab cranial     dermal
Forster (2001)                                                                                                                                                                 s                   skull
Curry Rogers &   181 Rostral process of the             is straight or curves gently    has a ‗step‘ like change of        —                            —     binary unordered shape     cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)       quadratojugal                      upwards towards its rostral tip direction at mid-length, such that                                                                         skull
                                                                                        the rostral half of the process
                                                                                        runs rostroventrally
                                                                                                      CORE CHARACTERS [cranial] — 4/8
Curry Rogers &    182 Angle between the rostral and is 90° or less                      is approximately 130° or more      —                          —             binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)        dorsal rami of the                                                                                                                                                                skull
                      quadratojugal
Curry Rogers &    183 Rostral margin of infratemporal lies below the mid-point of the extends as far as beyond, the        —                          —             binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)        fenestra;                       orbit, or more caudally         rostral margin of the orbit                                                                                       skull
Curry Rogers &    184 Supratemporal fenestra           faces dorsally or dorsolaterally faces laterally                    —                          —             binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)                                                                                                                                                                                          skull
Curry Rogers &    185 Dorsal margin of                 includes the squamosal           squamosal is excluded              —                          —             binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)        supratemporal fenestra                                                                                                                                                            skull
Curry Rogers &    194 Long-axis of the quadrate shaft is oriented approximately      is directed caudodorsally             —                          —             binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
Forster (2001)                                        perpendicular to the long axis                                                                                                                    skull
                                                      of the skull
Wilson (2002)     A   Symphyseal eminence on          —                                 —                                  —                          —             binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
                      external aspect of premaxillae.                                                                                                                                s                  skull


Wilson (2002)     A   Premaxilla and maxilla with      —                                —                                  —                          —             binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
                      sinuous contact.                                                                                                                                               s                  skull
Wilson (2002)     A   Anterior process of the maxilla —                                 —                                  —                          —             binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
                      dorsoventrally deep.                                                                                                                                                              skull


Wilson (2002)     A   Tooth bearing portion of snout —                                  —                                  —                          —             binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
                      highly vascularized, delimited                                                                                                                                 s                  skull
                      by transverse groove.


Wilson (2002)     A   Prefrontal diverges laterally;   —                                —                                  —                          —             binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
                      skull roof broadest across                                                                                                                                                        skull
                      prefrontals.


Wilson (2002)     A   Postorbital, prefrontal, and     —                                —                                  —                          —             binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
                      frontal with orbital                                                                                                                                           s                  skull
                      ornamentation.
Wilson (2002)     A   Postorbital with deep posterior —                                 —                                  —                          —             binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
                      process.                                                                                                                                                       s                  skull
Wilson (2002)     A   Quadratojugal with sinous        —                                —                                  —                          —             binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
                      ventral margin.                                                                                                                                                s                  skull
Wilson (2002)     2   Premaxillary anterior margin,    without step                     w/ marked step                     —                          —             binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
                      shape                                                                                                                                                                             skull
Wilson (2002)     6   Antorbital fenestra, maximum     <<orbit                          `= to orbit                        —                          —             binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
                      diameter                                                                                                                                                                          skull
Wilson (2002)     11 Lacrimal, anterior process        present                          absent                             —                          —             binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
                                                                                                                                                                                     s                  skull
Wilson (2002)     21 Parietal occip process, dv        short, < diam fm                 deep, 2x diam fm                   —                          —             binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
                     height                                                                                                                                                                             skull
Wilson (2002)     35 Quadrate fossa, orientation       posterior                        posterolateral                     —                          —             binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
                                                                                                                                                                                                        skull
Upchurch et al.   8   Subnarial foramen lies           outside                          within the external narial fossa   —                          —             —
                                                                                                                                                                    binary unordered position cranial   dermal
(2004)                                                                                                                                                                                                  skull
Upchurch et al.   9   Lateral plate of bone lying      absent                           present                            —                          —             —
                                                                                                                                                                    binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
(2004)                labial to the teeth on the                                                                                                                                     s                  skull
                      premaxilla, maxilla, and
                      dentary
Upchurch et al.   11 Ascending process of the          curves caudodorsally             projects mainly dorsally           greatly reduced, so that the —           —
                                                                                                                                                                    3-state unordered shape   cranial   dermal
(2004)               premaxilla in lateral view                                                                            internarial bar is absent                                                    skull


Upchurch et al.   13 Angle between the midline         greater than 20°                 less than 20°                      greater than 10°           10° or less   —
                                                                                                                                                                    binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)               suture and the premaxilla-                                                                                                                                                         skull
                     maxilla suture in dorsal view
                                                                                                  CORE CHARACTERS [cranial] — 5/8
Upchurch et al.   15 Caudolateral process of the     present                         absent                               —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
(2004)               premaxilla                                                                                                                          s                  skull
Upchurch et al.   16 Contact between the maxillary above the midpoint of the         at the caudodorsal corner of the     —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered position cranial   dermal
(2004)               ascending process and the     antorbital fenestra               antorbital fenestra                                                                    skull
                     lacrimal
Upchurch et al.   17 Platelike projection of bone    absent                          present                              —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
(2004)               directed rostromedially from                                                                                                        s                  skull
                     the edge of the maxillary
                     ascending process


Upchurch et al.   18 Maxillary ascending process     do not                          contact each other on the midline —            —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
(2004)               medial platelike projections                                                                                                        s                  skull


Upchurch et al.   22 Jugal contribution to the       none or small                   large, similar to the contribution   —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)               margin of the antorbital                                        made by the lacrimal                                                                   skull
                     fenestra
Upchurch et al.   23 Rostral process of the          subequal in length to the       at least twice as long as the        —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)               quadratojugal                   dorsal process                  dorsal process                                                                         skull
Upchurch et al.   24 Maxilla-quadratojugal contact   absent                          present                              —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
(2004)                                                                                                                                                   s                  skull
Upchurch et al.   25 Rostral process of the          tapers to an acute tip          expands dorsoventrally toward its —            —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)               quadratojugal                                                   tip                                                                                    skull
Upchurch et al.   26 Rostral process of the          straight or curving slightly    bent downward toward its rostral     —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)               quadratojugal in lateral view   upward toward its tip           tip                                                                                    skull


Upchurch et al.   27 Angle between rostral and       ca. 90°                         greater than 90°, approaching        —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)               dorsal processes of the                                         130                                                                                    skull
                     quadratojugal
Upchurch et al.   28 Ventral process of the          has subequal rostrocaudal       compressed rostrocaudally and        —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)               postorbital                     and transverse diameters        widened transversely                                                                   skull
Upchurch et al.   29 Rostroventral corner of the     lies entirely behind the caudal projects below the orbit,        —             —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered position cranial   dermal
(2004)               infratemporal fenestra          margin of the orbit             terminating beneath the midpoint                                                       skull
                                                                                     of the latter
Upchurch et al.   30 Rostroventral corner of the     terminates below the midpoint terminates below the rostral           —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered position cranial   dermal
(2004)               infratemporal fenestra          of the orbit or more caudally margin of the orbit                                                                      skull


Upchurch et al.   31 Ventral process of the          separated from the ventral       contacts the lacrimal and           —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)               postorbital                     end of the lacrimal by the jugal excludes the jugal from the                                                           skull
                                                                                      margin of the orbit
Upchurch et al.   33 Caudal end of the prefrontal in broadly rounded or square       acute, having a subtriangular        —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)               dorsal view                                                     outline                                                                                skull
Upchurch et al.   35 Rostrocaudal length of the      greater than their combined     less than their combined width       —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)               frontals                        width                                                                                                                  skull
Upchurch et al.   36 Midline contact between the     sutured                         fused                                —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)               frontals                                                                                                                                               skull
Upchurch et al.   37 Fossalike excavation of the     present                         absent                               —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
(2004)               frontal and parietal around the                                                                                                     s                  skull
                     margin of the supratemporal
                     fenestra
Upchurch et al.   38 Supratemporal fenestra          obscured in lateral view by the visible in lateral view because of   —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)                                               upper temporal bar              a ventral displacement of the                                                          skull
                                                                                     upper temporal bar


Upchurch et al.   39 Supratemporal fenestrae         face dorsally or dorsolaterally face laterally                       —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)                                                                                                                                                                      skull
Upchurch et al.   40 Long diameter of the            directed rostrocaudally         directed transversely                —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)               supratemporal fenestra                                                                                                                                 skull
Upchurch et al.   41 Rostrocaudal diameter of the    more than 10% of the occiput less than 10% of the occiput            —         —   —
                                                                                                                                        binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2004)               supratemporal fenestra          width                        width                                                                                     skull
                                                                                                  CORE CHARACTERS [cranial] — 6/8
Curry Rogers   1   Short, deep snout                absent                           present                            —                              —   binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2005)                                                                                                                                                                                         skull
Curry Rogers   7   Dorsal ascending process of      contributes less than one-half contributes over one-half of its     —                              —   binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2005)             maxilla                          of its maximum length to the maximum length to articulation                                                                                skull
                                                    articulation with the          with the contralateral maxilla
                                                    contralateral maxilla
Curry Rogers   9   Maxilla, jugal process           maxilla contacts jugal via a     maxilla contacts jugal via         —                              —   binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2005)                                              blunt posterior process at       elongate posterior process that                                                                           skull
                                                    level of maxillary body          extends posterodorsally from
                                                                                     maxillary body
Curry Rogers   10 Maxilla–nasal contact             present                          absent                             —                              —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
(2005)                                                                                                                                                                      s                  skull
Curry Rogers   18 External nares, maximum           shorter than orbital maximum or longer than orbital maximum         —                              —   binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2005)            diameter                          diameter                     diameter                                                                                                      skull
Curry Rogers   20 External naris                    divided by contact between    undivided, nasals do not contact      —                              —   binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2005)                                              maxilla and/or premaxilla and maxilla or premaxilla                                                                                        skull
                                                    nasals
Curry Rogers   21 Nasal, medial and lateral         medial nasal process             medial and lateral nasal           lateral nasal process longer —     3-state unordered shape   cranial   dermal
(2005)            processes                         substantially longer than        processes equivalent in            than medial nasal process                                              skull
                                                    lateral nasal process            maximum length
Curry Rogers   23 Jugal–maxillary process           jugal bluntly overlaps posterior jugal has tongue-in-groove         —                              —   binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2005)            structure                         border of maxilla                articulation with elongate                                                                                skull
                                                                                     maxillary process
Curry Rogers   24 Jugal-quadratojugal contact       jugal has broad articulation     jugal has narrow articulation only —                              —   binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2005)                                              with quadratojugal               along dorsal portion of                                                                                   skull
                                                                                     quadratojugal
Curry Rogers   26 Lacrimal                          posteriorly inclined             vertically oriented                —                              —   binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2005)                                                                                                                                                                                         skull
Curry Rogers   27 Lacrimal contribution to          absent                           present                            —                              —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
(2005)            external naris                                                                                                                                            s                  skull
Curry Rogers   28 Postorbital, contact with jugal   postorbital articulates with     postorbital articulates with several —                            —   binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2005)                                              jugal in simple overlapping      deep pits on posterior wing of                                                                            skull
                                                    contact                          jugal
Curry Rogers   29 Postorbital contact with          absent                           present                            —                              —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
(2005)            laterosphenoid                                                                                                                                            s                  skull
Curry Rogers   33 Frontal, medial convexity in      absent                           present                            —                              —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
(2005)            dorsal view                                                                                                                                               s                  skull
Curry Rogers   35 Frontoparietal suture             on same plane as midline         depressed relative to midline      elevated relative to midline   —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
(2005)                                              suture of each respective        suture of each element‘s           sutures                                             s                  skull
                                                    bone to its counterpart          counterpart
Curry Rogers   36 Parietal, anterior inclination    absent                           present                            —                              —   binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2005)            with wide caudodorsal                                                                                                                                                        skull
                  exposure of crest
Curry Rogers   37 Parietal, elongate lateral        absent                           present                            —                              —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
(2005)            process                                                                                                                                                   s                  skull
Curry Rogers   42 Supratemporal fenestra            faces dorsally or dorsolaterally faces laterally                    faces anterodorsally           —   3-state unordered shape   cranial   dermal
(2005)                                                                                                                                                                                         skull
Curry Rogers   44 Infratemporal fenestra, rostral   lies below midpoint of orbit or extends as far as, or beyond,       —                              —   binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2005)            margin                            more caudally                   rostral margin of orbit                                                                                    skull
Curry Rogers   49 Squamosal, general                dorsally convex hook in lateral shaped like inverted ―L‖ in lateral —                              —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial    dermal
(2005)            morphology                        view                            view                                                                                    s                  skull
Curry Rogers   50 Squamosal–postorbital suture postorbital has overlapping     deep anterodorsal notch in head          —                              —   binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2005)                                         contact with lateral surface of of squamosal to receive                                                                                         skull
                                               squamosal                       postorbital


Curry Rogers   53 Quadrate head, orientation        directly dorsal to lateral       extends lateral to lateral margin of —                            —   binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2005)                                              margin of quadrate body          quadrate body                                                                                             skull
Curry Rogers   54 Quadrate–quadratojugal            via single sutural scar          via V-shaped bifid scar            —                              —   binary unordered shape    cranial   dermal
(2005)            articulation                                                                                                                                                                 skull
                                                                                                     CORE CHARACTERS [cranial] — 7/8
Curry Rogers &    30 Dentary, depth of anterior end 150% minimum depth                  slightly less than that of dentary   —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
Forster (2001)       of ramus                                                           at midlength
Curry Rogers &    31 Dentary, anteroventral margin gently rounded                       sharply projecting triangular        —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
Forster (2001)       shape                                                              process or "chin"
Curry Rogers &    32   Dentary, posterodorsal groove absent                             present                              —                 —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial     lower jaw
Forster (2001)                                                                                                                                                      s
Curry Rogers &    33 External mandibular fenestra     present                           absent                               —                 —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial     lower jaw
Forster (2001)                                                                                                                                                      s
Curry Rogers &    34 Surangular depth                 <2x depth of ang                  > 2.5x depth of ang                  —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
Forster (2001)
Curry Rogers &    35    Adductor fossa, medial wall   deep, prearticular expanded       shallow                              —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
Forster (2001)         depth                          dorsoventrally
Curry Rogers &    36 Splenial posterior process,      overlapping angular               separating anterior portions of      —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
Forster (2001)       position                                                           prearticular and angular
Curry Rogers &    37 Splenial posterodorsal process present, approaching margin         absent                               —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
Forster (2001)                                      of adductor chamber


Curry Rogers &    38 Splenial, participation in medial present                          absent                               —                 —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial     lower jaw
Forster (2001)       wall of adductor chamber                                                                                                                       s


Curry Rogers &    195 Angle between the long-axis of is approximately 45°               is approximately 90°                 —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
Forster (2001)        the mandibular symphysis and
                      the long axis of the mandible


Wilson (2002)     A    Dentary with weak,             —                                 —                                    —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
                       anteroposteriorly narrow
                       symphysis.
Wilson (2002)     A    Dentary teeth smaller in       —                                 —                                    —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
                       diameter than premaxillary and
                       maxillary teeth.
Wilson (2002)     A    Intercoronoid partially fused to —                               —                                    —                 —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial     lower jaw
                       dentary                                                                                                                                      s
Upchurch et al.   72 Rostral end of the splenial      terminates caudal to the          participates in the symphysis        —                 —   —
                                                                                                                                                   binary unordered pres/ab cranial     lower jaw
(2004)                                                mandibular symphysis                                                                                          s
Curry Rogers      85 Dentary tooth rows               teeth distributed one-half of  teeth restricted to anterior one-       —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
(2005)                                                dentary‘s total length or more third of dentary


Curry Rogers      87 Dentary, relative length of      dorsal and ventral rami           dorsal ramus significantly shorter —                   —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
(2005)               posterior rami                   approximately same length         than ventral
Curry Rogers      92 Surangular, shape                laterally convex                  almost vertical                      —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
(2005)
Curry Rogers      93 Coronoid process, elevated       absent                            present                              —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
(2005)               relative to surangular


Curry Rogers      94 Surangular–dentary suture        nearly horizontal with respect concave with respect to long axis —                       —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
(2005)                                                to long axis of mandible       of mandible


Curry Rogers      95 Surangular–angular suture        nearly horizontal                 dorsally convex                      —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
(2005)
Curry Rogers      96 Surangular, lateral exposure     surangular exposure is            surangular exposure is less than —                     —   binary unordered shape     cranial   lower jaw
(2005)               (depth)                          significantly greater than that   that of the angular
                                                      of the angular
Curry Rogers &    22 Pterygoid flange, position       posterior of orbit                posterior of antorbital fenestra     anterior to aof   —   3-state ordered   position cranial   palate
Forster (2001)
Curry Rogers &    23   Palatine, lateral ramus shape plate-shaped (long maxillary       rod-shaped (narrow maxillary         —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   palate
Forster (2001)                                       contact)                           contact)
Curry Rogers &    190 Ectopterygoid process of the    lies below the lacrimal or more lies rostral to the lacrimal, under    —                 —   binary unordered shape     cranial   palate
Forster (2001)        pterygoid                       caudally                        the antorbital fenestra
                                                                                                 CORE CHARACTERS [cranial] — 8/8
Curry Rogers &   191 Ectopterygoid process of the    is robust and projects below    is reduced and does not project —                       —   binary unordered shape    cranial   palate
Forster (2001)       pterygoid                       the level of the jaw margin     below the margin of the upper jaw


Curry Rogers &   192 Breadth of main sheet of        is less than 20% of the total   is approximately 30% of the total —                     —   binary unordered shape    cranial   palate
Forster (2001)       pterygoid                       length of the pterygoid         length of the pterygoid


Wilson (2002)    A   Palatal shelf on maxilla        —                               —                                 —                     —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial    palate
                     enclosed to form ‗maxillary                                                                                                                  s
                     canal‘.
Wilson (2002)    A   Pterygoid with tongue-and-      —                               —                                 —                     —   binary unordered shape    cranial   palate
                     groove articulation with
                     ectopterygoid–palatine.
Wilson (2002)    A   Ectopterygoid and palatine      —                               —                                 —                     —   binary unordered pres/ab cranial    palate
                     fused (or one element has                                                                                                                    s
                     been lost)
Wilson (2002)    36 Palatobasal contact, shape       PT w/ small facet               dorsomedial hook                  rocker-like surface   —   3-state unordered shape   cranial   palate

Wilson (2002)    38 Pterygoid, quadrate flange size large, palatobasal and           small, palatobasal and quadrate   —                     —   binary unordered shape    cranial   palate
                                                    quadrate articulations well      articulations approach
                                                    separated
Curry Rogers     78 Pterygoid, basipterygoid fossa deeply excavated dorsal fossa excavation shallow and faces          shelflike             —   3-state unordered shape   cranial   palate
(2005)                                             with basipterygoid hook       medially
                                                   present on posterodorsal wing
                                                   of pterygoid


Curry Rogers     79 Pterygoid                        anterior wing of pterygoid      anterior wing of pterygoid        —                     —   binary unordered shape    cranial   palate
(2005)                                               contacts opposite element in    contacts opposite element in
                                                     narrow suture                   broad sheet
Curry Rogers     80 Pterygoid                        pterygoids meet at angle of 30 pterygoids meet at angle of 45 in —                      —   binary unordered shape    cranial   palate
(2005)                                               in ventral view                ventral view

				
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