Christine Pasquire (C.L.Pasquire@lboro.ac.uk)
Alistair Gibb (A.G.Gibb@lboro.ac.uk)
Nick Blismas (N.G.Blismas@lboro.ac.uk)
Dept. of Civil & Building Engineering
Loughborough, LE11 3TU, United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)1509 222884
This toolkit should not be confused with one similarly named Imprest® (Information Management for PRojects and
ESTates). Imprest® is software from DataVisibility for The Strategic Analysis and Control of Capital Projects. For
further information please refer to their website at www.datavisibility.com
Overview of toolkit
Tool A – Information and Instruction Tool
Tool B – Interactive Benefit Indicator Tool
Tool C – Benefit Measurement Tool
Key to symbols:
idea or tip
The research and resultant toolkit were possible contributions from the following funding and
collaborating organisations. Many more organisations, than those listed below, contributed
with their time and personnel. We wish to extent our thanks to all of them for their
Dept. of Civil & Building Engineering, Loughborough University
Funding & Coordinating Bodies
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
Department of Trade and Industry (DTi)
Davis Langdon Everest (LINK Coordinators)
Bovis Lend Lease
Colledge Trundle Hall (CTH)
Crown House Engineering
Donald Smith Seymour & Rooley (DSSR)
John Lewis Partnership
Turner and Townsend
IMMPREST (Interactive Method for Measuring Pre-assembly and Standardisation benefits in
construction) is an interactive CD toolkit designed to facilitate benefit assessment when a
decision needs to be made between two methods or systems of construction exhibiting
various degrees of standardisation and pre-assembly.
The toolkit is designed for use by anyone within the construction supply-chain, although
primarily for those assessing the value attributable to some aspect of the construction
process. Quantity surveyors and designers would benefit most, although clients and other
suppliers would find it equally useful in determining the real value of any option selected.
The toolkit has not been designed to replace the functions of any member of the supply-
chain, but rather to serve as a common checklist of items to be investigated when assessing
different options in a building. It allows for a common understanding of a project‟s priorities
by the whole supply-chain. In addition, it provides a method for justifying and recording
project decisions. Reviewing past project decisions and learning from them is a practice that
is not readily embraced by the construction industry. The toolkit offers a system whereby
organisations and their personnel can learn and improve as they reflect and measure
performance against the decisions made before and during the project.
We hope IMMPREST proves useful to you and your organisation. Improvements to the toolkit
will be incorporated in forthcoming versions. Please see our website for news on the latest
software release. Any comments on the content of the toolkit can be sent to the research
team using the details provided on the cover page of this manual.
Running IMMPREST from the CD
The CD should start automatically, however if this fails follow these steps:
1. Insert CD into computer,
2. Click START on the Windows toolbar,
3. Click Run…
4. Browse for the drive that is holding the CD (usually D: drive). After selecting the
appropriate drive, search for and select the IMMPREST file. Press OK,
5. This should launch the Toolkit, which provides on-screen instructions,
Always ENABLE macros when prompted.
Running IMMPREST from your hard disk
To run the Toolkit from the C: dive:
1. Create a Toolkit folder on C: drive,
2. Copy all files and folders from the CD into the newly created folder,
3. Browse for the Toolkit folder on the C: drive and double-click the IMMPREST file,
4. This should launch the Toolkit, which provides on-screen instructions,
Always ENABLE macros when prompted.
IMPORTANT NOTE: Your computer must have the following licensed software to operate
the toolkit properly:
Web-Browser (e.g. Microsoft Internet Explorer)
Microsoft Excel (version 2000 or later). The toolkit will not function on earlier versions of
Overview of toolkit
Structure and logic. The Toolkit comprises of three distinct tools, an Introduction and
Information Tool (Tool A), an Interactive Benefit Indicator Tool (Tool B), and a Benefit
Measurement Tool (Tool C). Each tool introduces increasing levels of detail and specificity to
the project and element being evaluated. Figure 1 illustrates the links between the various
components of the Toolkit. The first tool, introduces the subject of S&P at a general level
providing links and references to further important work. The second tool furnishes the user
with a range of potential benefits and disbenefits for given project objectives. The third tool
provides a template for users to build-up a comprehensive benefit evaluation profile for a
particular building element of a project. This „hub and spoke‟ design allows users to dictate
the level at which they utilise the Toolkit. Evaluations can be saved separately, without the
need to progress between various irrelevant levels of the software.
Instruction & Information Tool (Tool A)
Instructions for use and general information on
S&P, with references, context and links to related
Main entry/exit point of
the Toolkit for
inexperienced users is Interactive Benefit Indicator Tool (Tool B)
through Tool A Save as
Provides an indication of potential
benefit/disbenefit of using S&P, given particular
Experienced users may project file
project Drivers and Constraints [MS EXCEL 2000]
only require Tools B or
C individually and would
access these directly
Benefit Measurement Tool (Tool C)
Template covering all major aspects of value for
users to evaluate benefit based on project-specific
data [MS EXCEL 2000]
Figure 1: Schematic outline of the IMMPREST toolkit
The three components of the Toolkit were developed using common software programmes
that were both easily accessible to users, but also allowed user adaptation of the tools should
their requirements dictate. A simple survey of the collaborators and their supply-chains
revealed that the relevant software packages and versions were present in 78% of the
organisations, with the remainder running older versions of the appropriate software
packages. The main navigational and informative sections of the Toolkit were designed with
simple Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) front-ends that can be navigated using an
internet browser, the more interactive and intelligent elements being developed within
Microsoft Excel 2000 using Visual Basic programming. Access to each of the tools is via the
Toolkit Navigation Bar, which acts as the hub from which the tools are launched and to which
the user returns once a tool is closed.
Instruction and Information Tool (Tool A). This tool serves primarily as an introduction
to first-time users of the Toolkit and to those inexperienced with using S&P in construction. It
provides an overview of the tools and basic operating instructions for the Toolkit. It serves as
a centre for basic information, with references to more detailed sources, as well as related
research projects on S&P.
Interactive Benefit Indicator Tool (Tool B). The second component of the toolkit gives
the user an indication of the type of benefits and disbenefits that a particular S&P choice
could provide a project. Indication of benefit and disbenefit is made by means of graphical
display, which compares an S&P option against a baseline figure representing traditional
construction methods. Drivers and constraints, entered by the user for a particular project
situation, shape the results returned by the interactive charts, so as to accentuate or diminish
certain issues and thereby draw attention to those most relevant to the project.
At the outset, the tool requires drivers and constraints, of the project under consideration, to
be determined and selected. This first step emphasises, a) the multiplicity of issues that
contribute to a decision within a project, b) the need for project goals to be decided early in
the process, and c) that drivers and constraints are universal for a project regardless of the
element being assessed. The tool forces all members of the project team to determine the
project‟s main drivers early in the process, and to make these explicit throughout the supply-
chain. Users are only permitted to select one „essential‟ driver within each category,
compelling them to focus the project‟s goals. The categories into which the 16 drivers are
grouped, are Cost, Time, Quality, Health and Safety, Sustainability.
Constraints are likewise made explicit at the outset of the project, allowing the supply-chain
to understand the limitations imposed on the construction process and to develop strategies
that will mitigate their impact and further enhance the project drivers. As with drivers, users
are limited in their choice of „definite‟ constraints, not allowing the temptation to assign all
constraints as relevant and highly influential. The 20 project constraints are grouped under
Site, Process and Procurement constraints.
Once drivers and constraints have been selected, comparative benefits are conveyed using an
interactive column or radar chart to display the benefits of an S&P option against a
„traditional‟ benchmark. „Traditional‟ merely portrays those construction methods, still in
common use, that utilise little or no S&P. The data underpinning the charts were obtained
through Likert-scale questionnaire surveys of members across the construction supply-chain,
using a sample of 73 responses to a mail-shot of 289 contacts obtained during the research.
The questionnaires sought to draw on the experiences of those who have used S&P,
documenting their perceptions of benefit and disbenefit using these approaches. The
interactive charts are comparative representations of these survey results, using averages of
a simple scoring system. Weightings are imposed onto these figures by the project drivers
and constraints selected by the user, thereby accentuating issues of greatest importance and
eliminating those deemed irrelevant. Selection of a driver or constraint as important will
double the score, whilst a not relevant selection will delete the score.
The interactive charts are designed to direct users to the information relevant to their specific
project situation. Drop-down menus aid users to select the relevant element under
consideration within the charts for drivers or constraints. Once an element has been selected
the user can further focus results by selecting the particular driver or constraint group of
interest and view results within that category alone. Thirteen distinct building elements were
identified and formed the focal points for benefit evaluation, data collection and case studies.
Selection of an element and particular driver group also gathers detailed information
explaining the benefits, disbenefits and steps needed to ensure that the specified benefits of
S&P are realised. Likewise, selection of a particular constraint group returns information
explaining how these may impact on the project, and how they may be mitigated.
Tool B serves mainly as a guide to S&P options for a particular project. Although fairly high-
level, it furnishes a project participant with enough information to understand the issues
surrounding the use of S&P in their particular situation. Informing the project team using the
tool ensures, firstly, that project drivers are focussed and aligned among all members.
Secondly, it serves to furnish the team with an integrated parallel perspective on the possible
solutions to the element being designed. The tool is however, limited in the depth of analysis
that it permits. A third tool, the Benefit Measurement Tool, was therefore developed to allow
a more accurate and specific analysis of options.
Benefit Measurement Tool (Tool C). The final tool in the suite equips the user with a
template to weigh-up the benefits and disbenefits of two possible approaches to a building
element, ensuring that the final choice made is based on maximum value rather than ill-
determined costs. Tool C is made up of six measurement worksheets that are accessed
through the Benefit Summary Page. Each worksheet provides a checklist matrix for users to
measure the benefit or constraint impact of the particular group being evaluated. Summary
benefits or constraint impacts from each of these worksheets is forwarded to the Benefit
Summary page, which graphically represents each result for users to make a judgement,
based on an overall consideration of the groups measured. Tool C was developed from ideas
generated through a pilot study (COMPREST), focussed workshops with industry, semi-
structured interviews and case studies.
Within the Cost, Time, Quality, Health & Safety, and Sustainability groups, measurement is
made at the construction, project and life-cycle levels, to ensure a holistic view of value. All
groups, other than Cost, Time and aspects of Health & Safety and Sustainability, do not
require the input of numerical measures, but instead require an evaluation expressed
textually from a drop-down menu, thus permitting latitude in the depth and use of the
worksheet by the user. Each measure, whether numerical or textual, has a confidence
measure attached to it so that users can express their certainty in the evaluation made. Both
evaluations, for each item within a worksheet, and their average confidences, are
summarised on each worksheet and forwarded to the Summary page for overall evaluation.
The worksheet matrices, for all the groups, have standard column layouts, each detailing the
items to be measured, and suggesting how these can be measured. An information block
below the matrices provides an indication of where the relevant data resides within the
supply-chain. The last three or four columns, depending on the group, are data entry sections
(shaded light blue) in which users enter their evaluations. Percentage benefit or disbenefit,
for numerical data, or textual indications of benefit are given for each measurement item.
Evaluation summaries at the various levels allow the user to utilize those figures applicable to
their particular project and circumstances. This final tool aims to offer users a highly flexible
means of conducting detailed comparative evaluations of several S&P building options.
On launching the toolkit, the Toolkit Navigator is activated. All three tools are opened through
the Navigator – there is no direct link between the three tools. To move from one tool to
another, either close the active tool, access the Navigator (which should be minimised on
your windows toolbar) and open the required tool or, computer specifications permitting, the
various tools can be run simultaneously. Closing each tool is only achieved by closing the file
within the relevant tool, and not through the Navigator. Figure 2 below illustrates the various
functions available on the Navigator.
File Case Studies
Exit the Link to cases and examples
Toolkit demonstrating the types of benefits
Navigator. that can be realised with S&P.
Printable Userguide and quick
help available. Also developer
and version details.
Brief information of the Buttons to launch
Navigator. Hovering the mouse the various tools
over the large buttons, on the within the
right-hand-side, will give a IMMPREST Toolkit.
brief description of the tool.
Figure 2: Functions on the Toolkit Navigator
Tool A – Introduction and Information Tool
Pressing the Tool A button within the Navigator will automatically launch the web-browser
and display the front page of the tool. Navigation through this tool is with hyperlinks, and it
functions in every way as a website. The contents of the tool are displayed on the menu in
the right-hand column. Figure 3 below illustrates some of the features of the tool.
The right-hand column contains all the hyperlinks of
the tool. Press these to navigate to the relevant
information. To print any pages use the Print facilities
of the web-browser. To exit, press the X icon in the
top right-hand corner of the screen.
Area displaying the choice made in
the right hand column.
Press F11 on Internet
Explorer to best view
Figure 3: Opening page of Tool A
Tool B – Interactive Benefit Indicator Tool
Pressing the Tool B button within the Navigator will automatically launch Microsoft Excel and
the file holding the tool. Ensure that the Enable Macros button is selected during loading,
otherwise the tool will not function. Navigation through the tool is via the HUB, however on
launch the programme will guide users through various screens using Next > buttons to
allow entry of project details, project drivers and constraints. Projects should be saved using
the Save button in the HUB or the Save As function in Excel. Be sure to rename the file to
something other than Indicator.xls, so as not to cause future confusion. Figures 4a-h
illustrate the significant features of the tool. Note also that screentips, indicated by red
corners, are provided throughout the toolkit to explain particular items.
The programme‟s macros will change your Excel screen to Full Screen. Use the Close
Project buttons in both Tools B and C to ensure that the screen is restored to normal
view. This macros is applicable to Tools B and C.
If the vertical or horizontal scrollbars disappear when Tool B or C are loaded, you will
need to set your toolbars to Autohide. To do this, right-click on the toolbar and select
Autohide in Properties.
Direct access to the HUB is
possible from the first page.
This is intended for existing
assessments (i.e. saved
files) or experienced users
wishing to bypass Drivers
and Constraints for specific
Use the Next> button to
progress through the initial
project detail pages of the
Figure 4a: Toolkit introduction page
From the introduction page, users will be directed to the Project details page, where specific
details may be entered for subsequent evaluations. Users can skip this page and leave all
fields blank. The page following (Notes) is a free-form text page for project-specific notes.
Figure 4b: Project details page
Users are then directed to the driver selection page, which enables specific project drivers to
be identified and made explicit for the benefit of the supply-chain. Figure 4c explains the
driver selection options of the page.
Choices available to the user for
project drivers. The selection at this
point weights the „Essential‟ drivers,
and eliminates the „Not relevant‟
drivers for ease of evaluation. Only
one „Essential‟ driver can be chosen
in each group (i.e. one for Cost
Drivers, one for Time Drivers etc.).
Figure 4c: Driver selection page
Once the user has selected the drivers for their project, the Next > button will display the
Constraint selection page. It is similar to the previous page, and allows the user to select the
main constraints on a project under consideration. Figure 4d explains the constraint selection
options of the page.
Choices available to the user for
project Constraints. The selection at
this point weights the „Definitely‟
constraints, and eliminates the „Not
relevant‟ constraints for ease of
evaluation. Only three „Definite‟
constraints can be chosen in each
group (i.e. three for Site Constraints,
three for Process Constraints etc.).
Figure 4d: Constraint selection page
On completion of the Driver and Constraint selection process, the programme directs the user
to a summary page (figure 4e) displaying the selections made in the previous two pages.
Drivers and Constraints are listed in terms of the importance attached to them during
previous steps. Should the user wish to change these, the < Back button can be used to
amend previous selections.
Figure 4e: Driver and constraint selection summary
The HUB (figure 4f) is the central navigation page for Tool B. From this page, all previous
pages can be accessed, including the driver and constraint indicator tools.
All preceding pages can
be accessed from the A guide to using the
buttons provided in the interactive charts during
Information Pages the Driver and Constraint
section of the HUB. assessment are provided
in these pages.
Access to the
Access to the
Buttons for filing, saving and information.
printing the pages of the toolkit.
Each page can be individually
printed from the button on the
particular page, however the whole
tool can be printed by simply
selecting the PRINT Full Report
Figure 4f: HUB page of the tool through which all pages are accessed
Selecting the Driver or Constraint Assessment buttons from the HUB will direct the user to the
appropriate interactive chart. All have identical features, although displaying different
aspects. Figure 4g illustrates the main features of these pages. Exit from this chart is via the
Select and deselect particular
Choose element drivers or constraints as
to assess from appropriate. The default is for
the drop-down all items in all groups to be
menu. The chosen.
driver or constraint
group to view using the
Chart giving an
indication of relative
benefit compared to
a traditional option.
selected by the user
are inflated to
Indication of Directs the user
Refreshing of the chart is data confidence to an
required where driver or and some information
constraint priorities have grades of S&P page providing
been changed during options some more
assessment. If unsure common within details on the
press this button to the selected choices made
refresh data. element. within the
Figure 4g: Benefit indicator graph (Drivers)
Pressing the Benefits & Disbenefits > or Constraints > buttons below the charts will
display this page, which is reliant on selections made in the interactive charts. In order to
view the benefits or constraints of other elements, return to the charts using the < Back to
Charts button and select the desired element. Exit from this page is also via the chart and
then back to the HUB. Figure 4h illustrates these and other features.
The selected element and
constraint (or benefit) are
provided at the head of the page
for reference and printing.
for the specific
review are listed in
this block, making
reference to the
charts in the
In the case of
drivers, the potential
disbenefits are listed
in this block.
List of steps ensuring that the listed
constraints may be mitigated.
In the case of benefits, steps to realise them
are listed here.
Figure 4h: Constraint details for a selected element
Tool C – Benefit Measurement Tool
Pressing the Tool C button within the Navigator will automatically launch Microsoft Excel and
the file holding the tool. Ensure that the Enable Macros button is selected during loading,
otherwise the tool will not function. Navigation through the tool is via the Benefit Summary
Projects should be saved using the Save button in the Summary page or the Save As
function in Excel. Be sure to rename the file to something other than Worksheet.xls, so as
not to cause future confusion. Figures 5a-d illustrate the significant features of the tool. Note
also that screentips, indicated by red corners, are provided throughout the toolkit to explain
The first interactive page of Tool C assesses whether the process and procurement conditions
of the project are conducive to a successful S&P implementation. Users simply select the
option that best describes their project. The responses to these 13 questions are ranked and
weighted using the data collected in the questionnaires. The average score across all
respondents was used to rank and generate a proportional penalty score out of 100. Scores
towards 100 suggest that project conditions are not conducive to S&P, whilst scores tending
towards 0 showed positive conditions. From this page the user can proceed to the central
Benefit Summary Page. The S&P Implementation Assessment page (figure 5a) can be
bypassed in the assessment process.
The Benefit Summary Page (figure 5b), as well as serving as a hub for accessing the driver
and constraint worksheets, also draws together a summary „score‟ and confidence level to it,
so that a quick overview of the evaluation can be made. Users can then select a specific
driver or constraint group to view and develop using Worksheets.
The Worksheets (figures 5c-d) provide a template for „working-up‟ a value profile of one
option against another. The template is designed as a comparative tool. Traditional (or
whatever the user chooses as „traditional‟) is viewed as the baseline against which all aspects
of value are compared. The annotated diagrams provide instructions to the use of the
Note: The following constraint assessment questions are a repeat of those answered in Tool
B, however these are presented in a different order and will need to be re-entered. You may
wish to print the Constraint Assessment from Tool B to ensure these correspond.
Choice of responses to the process and
procurement questions posed. Unlike
Tool B, there is no restriction to the
number of questions that can be
Process and procurement constraint
questions to ascertain the influence
these will have on an S&P
implementation within the project.
Key for interpreting the
penalty score achieved
during the assessment
Description of the questions,
elaborating with examples.
Depending on the responses given by the user in the previous
columns, a weighted score is displayed in these cells. Definite
answers will return the full penalty score, while „maybe‟ will
return a 50% score. „Not relevant‟ answers will be scored zero.
Colour coding aids the perception of penalty severity. A
cumulative score is given at the bottom of the column against
which users can assess their project‟s „readiness‟ to succeed
with an S&P approach.
Figure 5a: S&P Implementation Assessment
Following this page, users will be forwarded to the Benefit Summary page (figure 5b).
Select the Describe the
appropriate traditional or least
element to be S&P option here.
assessed from This can also be
the drop-down used to describe Tool Commands to
menu. This one S&P option allow the Tool to be
selection carries which may be Opened, Saved,
through to all compared to Closed and Printed.
worksheets. another. A link back to the
Each element S&P Implementation
should be assessment is also
assessed and provided.
saved Describe the S&P
separately. option here
against which the
option above is to
Graphical overview of the
assessment made on the
worksheet. It provides a
quick view of the
between two options.
level brought forward Button directing user to the
from the individual worksheet where specific
worksheets. These are assessments can be made.
reported as Not Navigation to all worksheets is
Applicable until through the summary page.
assessments are made
in the worksheet.
Figure 5b: Benefit Summary Page
Colour-coded strip Categories breaking down the various aspects of the
identifying the driver issue being assessed. The Items column further breaks
or constraint group the categories down into their constituents for finer
worksheet. analysis. These columns are protected and cannot be
altered. Some items have hyperlinks to associated items
in other driver or constraint groups.
The details column describes the Items
listed in the previous column. Methods
are suggested for measuring benefits or
constraints. This column is protected.
Specific details Column for
on where users to write Average confidence level
relevant data free text notes, for the group of items
on these issues or record actual assessed. This is again
may be found figures for the averaged for the
within the project. All light worksheet and carried
supply-chain. blue areas are forward to the summary
These are those that page.
protected cells. users complete.
Column for specifying a value for Average benefit or constraint
traditional. In textual sheets this is a to the project, which is carried
baseline against which the comparative forward to the summary page,
assessments are made. This is a and is associated with the
protected column. confidence level.
Figure 5c: Example of a Benefit assessment worksheet (Driver)
Column containing a drop-
down menu of options for the
user to make a qualitative
assessment of the items being
evaluated. This column
portrays the relative value, i.e.
compared to the traditional
option. The measures
suggested should be used to
arrive at the assessment
Confidence rating associated A textual, colour-coded display of
with the assessment made in the benefit or constraint to the
the previous column. As the project based on the option
item under consideration is chosen in the assessment
measured in greater detail the column. The colours serve to give
confidence in the assessment an overview of the general
should increase. These figures positive (green), neutral (amber)
produce an average confidence and negative (red) effects of the
for the worksheet which is option being evaluated on project
carried forward to the benefit and constraints. This
summary page. column is formula-dependant and
cannot be altered by the user.
Figure 5d: Example of a Benefit assessment worksheet (Constraint)
Benefits Construct IT at Salford University describes benefit as an increase in Efficiency,
Effectiveness or Performance. A decrease in any of these is referred to as a disbenefit. Benefits
may manifest themselves as improved Cost, Time, Quality, Health & Safety, Environment, etc.
Building Services See Services
CIRIA Construction Industry Research and Information Association. See “Links to other
research” for information on this organisation‟s Client‟s Guide to S&P.
Constraints The limitations of the project which impact on the decision to use S&P; these include
Site, Process and Procurement Constraints.
Delivery units Those sections of a Services system which are the output facilities: air
conditioning or heating vents, electrical power or telecommunication network points etc.
Distribution units The pipework, ducting etc. used to distribute M&E Services from the Source
units to the Delivery units.
Drivers The outcomes of a project that motivate the decision to use S&P; these include Cost,
Time, Quality, Health and Safety, Environmental and Respect for People Drivers.
DTI The Department of Trade and Industry is one of the funding bodies for the IMMPREST
Research Project. Responsibility for the Construction Industry transferred from the DETR to the
DTI in 2001.
Efficiency Benefits which are financially measurable, e.g. by use of cost records, time sheets.
Effectiveness Benefits which are measurable but not always in monetary terms, e.g. greater
certainty of cost and time estimating.
Element The parts of a building which are considered for S&P; these include Foundations, Frame,
Envelope, Services, Internals and Modular Units.
Envelope The external walls and roof that form the perimeter of a building. Walling may
include: lightweight curtain walling, in aluminium, steel or glass, or heavyweight components in
concrete, brick or stone. Roofing includes flat or pitched roofs.
EPSRC The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) is the largest of the
seven UK Research Councils. It is one of the funding bodies for the IMMPREST Research Project.
Facilities The major parts of a building that are generally provided by the developer for the use
of the end-user, such as the toilets/washrooms, kitchens, lifts/elevators, plant-rooms, building
management systems, rooms etc. The Facilities Management function operates these facilities
after the building handover.
Foundations Part of the substructure of a building. Piling and Pad foundations are available as
pre-cast concrete elements.
Frame The structure of a building. Structural Steel, Reinforced Concrete and Timber are all used
for prefabricated frameworks.
Horizontal moving equipment Equipment such as conveyors or fork-lifts.
Internals The internal walls, raised floors, suspended ceilings and applied finishes such as
plaster, paint, wall coverings etc. This element also includes pre-assembled volumetric units.
Life-cycle This normally refers to the Project Life-cycle, from feasibility through to construction
and handover of a building. The Life-cycle of a Facility also includes operation and maintenance of
a building and its decommissioning/demolition.
M&E The abbreviation for Mechanical and Electrical services within the construction context.
Modular building A complete building or part of a building normally made up of prefabricated
units. Units may be Repetitive, within one project or across projects, or Bespoke, using no form of
Performance Benefits which have an influence on the outcomes of a project or business
enterprise but are not easily measurable in quantitative terms, e.g. better working relationships,
improved health and safety.
Preassembly or Prefabrication The design and manufacture of units or modules, usually
remote from the work site and their installation to form the permanent works at the work site.
Respect for People The Movement for Innovation‟s (M4I) Working Group on Respect for People
has developed KPIs to measure employee satisfaction, staff turnover, training and development,
diversity in the workplace etc. as well as Health & Safety
S&P Standardisation and Pre-assembly
Services The Mechanical and Electrical building services, distributing heating, air-conditioning,
electrical power, telecommunications networks etc.
Source units Those sections of a Services system which are typically the production facilities:
boilers, air-handling units, general plant rooms etc.
Standardisation The extensive use of components, methods or processes in which there is
regularity, repetition and a background of successful practice. This may include standard building
products, standard forms of contract, standard details, design or specifications and standard
processes, procedures or techniques.
Supply Chain The construction supply chain refers to suppliers and buyers of goods and
services, including Architectural and Design Services, Specialist Manufacturers and Suppliers,
Installation Contractors and Sub-contractors.
Sustainability This is defined as the use of processes or materials which minimise the impact of
the construction work on the Environment by reducing noise, pollution and energy use for
transportation. Waste materials are either reduced or recycled.
Vertical moving equipment Equipment such as craneage.
Volumetric unit A preassembled/prefabricated unit which encloses usable space but does not
constitute a whole building.