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               Method for
               PRE-assembly and
               STandardisation benefit
               in construction

  Version 2003/1.3
                                                                                       IMMPREST Userguide

Research Team

Christine Pasquire (
Alistair Gibb (
Nick Blismas (

Dept. of Civil & Building Engineering
Loughborough University
Loughborough, LE11 3TU, United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)1509 222884

This toolkit should not be confused with one similarly named Imprest® (Information Management for PRojects and
ESTates). Imprest® is software from DataVisibility for The Strategic Analysis and Control of Capital Projects. For
further information please refer to their website at

                                                  IMMPREST Userguide

Software installation
Overview of toolkit
Toolkit Navigator
Tool A – Information and Instruction Tool
Tool B – Interactive Benefit Indicator Tool
Tool C – Benefit Measurement Tool

Key to symbols:
     idea or tip
     take note

                                                                       IMMPREST Userguide

The research and resultant toolkit were possible contributions from the following funding and
collaborating organisations. Many more organisations, than those listed below, contributed
with their time and personnel. We wish to extent our thanks to all of them for their

Research Team

                      Dept. of Civil & Building Engineering, Loughborough University

Funding & Coordinating Bodies

                      Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)

                      Department of Trade and Industry (DTi)

                      Davis Langdon Everest (LINK Coordinators)

Industrial Collaborators


                      Bovis Lend Lease

                      Britspace RBS

                      Colledge Trundle Hall (CTH)

                      Crown House Engineering

                      Donald Smith Seymour & Rooley (DSSR)

                      Hotchkiss Ductwork

                      John Lewis Partnership

                      Schumann Smith

                      Turner and Townsend

                                                                          IMMPREST Userguide

IMMPREST (Interactive Method for Measuring Pre-assembly and Standardisation benefits in
construction) is an interactive CD toolkit designed to facilitate benefit assessment when a
decision needs to be made between two methods or systems of construction exhibiting
various degrees of standardisation and pre-assembly.

The toolkit is designed for use by anyone within the construction supply-chain, although
primarily for those assessing the value attributable to some aspect of the construction
process. Quantity surveyors and designers would benefit most, although clients and other
suppliers would find it equally useful in determining the real value of any option selected.

The toolkit has not been designed to replace the functions of any member of the supply-
chain, but rather to serve as a common checklist of items to be investigated when assessing
different options in a building. It allows for a common understanding of a project‟s priorities
by the whole supply-chain. In addition, it provides a method for justifying and recording
project decisions. Reviewing past project decisions and learning from them is a practice that
is not readily embraced by the construction industry. The toolkit offers a system whereby
organisations and their personnel can learn and improve as they reflect and measure
performance against the decisions made before and during the project.

We hope IMMPREST proves useful to you and your organisation. Improvements to the toolkit
will be incorporated in forthcoming versions. Please see our website for news on the latest
software release. Any comments on the content of the toolkit can be sent to the research
team using the details provided on the cover page of this manual.

                                                                           IMMPREST Userguide

Software installation

Running IMMPREST from the CD
The CD should start automatically, however if this fails follow these steps:
    1. Insert CD into computer,
    2. Click START on the Windows toolbar,
    3. Click Run…
    4. Browse for the drive that is holding the CD (usually D: drive). After selecting the
        appropriate drive, search for and select the IMMPREST file. Press OK,
    5. This should launch the Toolkit, which provides on-screen instructions,
     Always ENABLE macros when prompted.

Running IMMPREST from your hard disk
To run the Toolkit from the C: dive:
    1. Create a Toolkit folder on C: drive,
    2. Copy all files and folders from the CD into the newly created folder,
    3. Browse for the Toolkit folder on the C: drive and double-click the IMMPREST file,
    4. This should launch the Toolkit, which provides on-screen instructions,
     Always ENABLE macros when prompted.

 IMPORTANT NOTE: Your computer must have the following licensed software to operate
the toolkit properly:
    Web-Browser (e.g. Microsoft Internet Explorer)
    Microsoft Excel (version 2000 or later). The toolkit will not function on earlier versions of

                                                                                  IMMPREST Userguide

Overview of toolkit
Structure and logic. The Toolkit comprises of three distinct tools, an Introduction and
Information Tool (Tool A), an Interactive Benefit Indicator Tool (Tool B), and a Benefit
Measurement Tool (Tool C). Each tool introduces increasing levels of detail and specificity to
the project and element being evaluated. Figure 1 illustrates the links between the various
components of the Toolkit. The first tool, introduces the subject of S&P at a general level
providing links and references to further important work. The second tool furnishes the user
with a range of potential benefits and disbenefits for given project objectives. The third tool
provides a template for users to build-up a comprehensive benefit evaluation profile for a
particular building element of a project. This „hub and spoke‟ design allows users to dictate
the level at which they utilise the Toolkit. Evaluations can be saved separately, without the
need to progress between various irrelevant levels of the software.

                                       Instruction & Information Tool (Tool A)
                                      Instructions for use and general information on
                                     S&P, with references, context and links to related
      Toolkit Navigation
                                                      research [HTML]

     Main entry/exit point of
     the Toolkit for
     inexperienced users is          Interactive Benefit Indicator Tool (Tool B)
     through Tool A                                                                            Save as
                                             Provides an indication of potential
                                      benefit/disbenefit of using S&P, given particular
     Experienced users may                                                                     project file
                                     project Drivers and Constraints [MS EXCEL 2000]
     only require Tools B or
     C individually and would
     access these directly
                                          Benefit Measurement Tool (Tool C)
                                                                                                Save as
                                      Template covering all major aspects of value for
                                     users to evaluate benefit based on project-specific
                                                                                                project file
                                                   data [MS EXCEL 2000]

Figure 1: Schematic outline of the IMMPREST toolkit

The three components of the Toolkit were developed using common software programmes
that were both easily accessible to users, but also allowed user adaptation of the tools should
their requirements dictate. A simple survey of the collaborators and their supply-chains
revealed that the relevant software packages and versions were present in 78% of the
organisations, with the remainder running older versions of the appropriate software
packages. The main navigational and informative sections of the Toolkit were designed with
simple Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) front-ends that can be navigated using an

                                                                          IMMPREST Userguide

internet browser, the more interactive and intelligent elements being developed within
Microsoft Excel 2000 using Visual Basic programming. Access to each of the tools is via the
Toolkit Navigation Bar, which acts as the hub from which the tools are launched and to which
the user returns once a tool is closed.

Instruction and Information Tool (Tool A). This tool serves primarily as an introduction
to first-time users of the Toolkit and to those inexperienced with using S&P in construction. It
provides an overview of the tools and basic operating instructions for the Toolkit. It serves as
a centre for basic information, with references to more detailed sources, as well as related
research projects on S&P.

Interactive Benefit Indicator Tool (Tool B). The second component of the toolkit gives
the user an indication of the type of benefits and disbenefits that a particular S&P choice
could provide a project. Indication of benefit and disbenefit is made by means of graphical
display, which compares an S&P option against a baseline figure representing traditional
construction methods. Drivers and constraints, entered by the user for a particular project
situation, shape the results returned by the interactive charts, so as to accentuate or diminish
certain issues and thereby draw attention to those most relevant to the project.

At the outset, the tool requires drivers and constraints, of the project under consideration, to
be determined and selected. This first step emphasises, a) the multiplicity of issues that
contribute to a decision within a project, b) the need for project goals to be decided early in
the process, and c) that drivers and constraints are universal for a project regardless of the
element being assessed. The tool forces all members of the project team to determine the
project‟s main drivers early in the process, and to make these explicit throughout the supply-
chain. Users are only permitted to select one „essential‟ driver within each category,
compelling them to focus the project‟s goals. The categories into which the 16 drivers are
grouped, are Cost, Time, Quality, Health and Safety, Sustainability.

Constraints are likewise made explicit at the outset of the project, allowing the supply-chain
to understand the limitations imposed on the construction process and to develop strategies
that will mitigate their impact and further enhance the project drivers. As with drivers, users
are limited in their choice of „definite‟ constraints, not allowing the temptation to assign all
constraints as relevant and highly influential. The 20 project constraints are grouped under
Site, Process and Procurement constraints.

Once drivers and constraints have been selected, comparative benefits are conveyed using an
interactive column or radar chart to display the benefits of an S&P option against a

                                                                           IMMPREST Userguide

„traditional‟ benchmark. „Traditional‟ merely portrays those construction methods, still in
common use, that utilise little or no S&P. The data underpinning the charts were obtained
through Likert-scale questionnaire surveys of members across the construction supply-chain,
using a sample of 73 responses to a mail-shot of 289 contacts obtained during the research.
The questionnaires sought to draw on the experiences of those who have used S&P,
documenting their perceptions of benefit and disbenefit using these approaches. The
interactive charts are comparative representations of these survey results, using averages of
a simple scoring system. Weightings are imposed onto these figures by the project drivers
and constraints selected by the user, thereby accentuating issues of greatest importance and
eliminating those deemed irrelevant. Selection of a driver or constraint as important will
double the score, whilst a not relevant selection will delete the score.

The interactive charts are designed to direct users to the information relevant to their specific
project situation. Drop-down menus aid users to select the relevant element under
consideration within the charts for drivers or constraints. Once an element has been selected
the user can further focus results by selecting the particular driver or constraint group of
interest and view results within that category alone. Thirteen distinct building elements were
identified and formed the focal points for benefit evaluation, data collection and case studies.
Selection of an element and particular driver group also gathers detailed information
explaining the benefits, disbenefits and steps needed to ensure that the specified benefits of
S&P are realised. Likewise, selection of a particular constraint group returns information
explaining how these may impact on the project, and how they may be mitigated.

Tool B serves mainly as a guide to S&P options for a particular project. Although fairly high-
level, it furnishes a project participant with enough information to understand the issues
surrounding the use of S&P in their particular situation. Informing the project team using the
tool ensures, firstly, that project drivers are focussed and aligned among all members.
Secondly, it serves to furnish the team with an integrated parallel perspective on the possible
solutions to the element being designed. The tool is however, limited in the depth of analysis
that it permits. A third tool, the Benefit Measurement Tool, was therefore developed to allow
a more accurate and specific analysis of options.

Benefit Measurement Tool (Tool C). The final tool in the suite equips the user with a
template to weigh-up the benefits and disbenefits of two possible approaches to a building
element, ensuring that the final choice made is based on maximum value rather than ill-
determined costs. Tool C is made up of six measurement worksheets that are accessed
through the Benefit Summary Page. Each worksheet provides a checklist matrix for users to
measure the benefit or constraint impact of the particular group being evaluated. Summary

                                                                          IMMPREST Userguide

benefits or constraint impacts from each of these worksheets is forwarded to the Benefit
Summary page, which graphically represents each result for users to make a judgement,
based on an overall consideration of the groups measured. Tool C was developed from ideas
generated through a pilot study (COMPREST), focussed workshops with industry, semi-
structured interviews and case studies.

Within the Cost, Time, Quality, Health & Safety, and Sustainability groups, measurement is
made at the construction, project and life-cycle levels, to ensure a holistic view of value. All
groups, other than Cost, Time and aspects of Health & Safety and Sustainability, do not
require the input of numerical measures, but instead require an evaluation expressed
textually from a drop-down menu, thus permitting latitude in the depth and use of the
worksheet by the user. Each measure, whether numerical or textual, has a confidence
measure attached to it so that users can express their certainty in the evaluation made. Both
evaluations, for each item within a worksheet, and their average confidences, are
summarised on each worksheet and forwarded to the Summary page for overall evaluation.

The worksheet matrices, for all the groups, have standard column layouts, each detailing the
items to be measured, and suggesting how these can be measured. An information block
below the matrices provides an indication of where the relevant data resides within the
supply-chain. The last three or four columns, depending on the group, are data entry sections
(shaded light blue) in which users enter their evaluations. Percentage benefit or disbenefit,
for numerical data, or textual indications of benefit are given for each measurement item.
Evaluation summaries at the various levels allow the user to utilize those figures applicable to
their particular project and circumstances. This final tool aims to offer users a highly flexible
means of conducting detailed comparative evaluations of several S&P building options.

                                                                                  IMMPREST Userguide

Toolkit Navigator
On launching the toolkit, the Toolkit Navigator is activated. All three tools are opened through
the Navigator – there is no direct link between the three tools. To move from one tool to
another, either close the active tool, access the Navigator (which should be minimised on
your windows toolbar) and open the required tool or, computer specifications permitting, the
various tools can be run simultaneously. Closing each tool is only achieved by closing the file
within the relevant tool, and not through the Navigator. Figure 2 below illustrates the various
functions available on the Navigator.

                File                    Case Studies
                Exit the                Link to cases and examples
                Toolkit                 demonstrating the types of benefits
                Navigator.              that can be realised with S&P.

                                                                      Printable Userguide and quick
                                                                      help available. Also developer
                                                                      and version details.

                                   Brief information of the                     Buttons to launch
                                   Navigator. Hovering the mouse                the various tools
                                   over the large buttons, on the               within the
                                   right-hand-side, will give a                 IMMPREST Toolkit.
                                   brief description of the tool.

Figure 2: Functions on the Toolkit Navigator

                                                                                        IMMPREST Userguide

Tool A – Introduction and Information Tool
Pressing the Tool A button within the Navigator will automatically launch the web-browser
and display the front page of the tool. Navigation through this tool is with hyperlinks, and it
functions in every way as a website. The contents of the tool are displayed on the menu in
the right-hand column. Figure 3 below illustrates some of the features of the tool.

          The right-hand column contains all the hyperlinks of
          the tool. Press these to navigate to the relevant
          information. To print any pages use the Print facilities
          of the web-browser. To exit, press the X icon in the
          top right-hand corner of the screen.

                                                                     Area displaying the choice made in
                                                                     the right hand column.
               Press F11 on Internet
               Explorer to best view
               these pages.

Figure 3: Opening page of Tool A

                                                                            IMMPREST Userguide

Tool B – Interactive Benefit Indicator Tool
Pressing the Tool B button within the Navigator will automatically launch Microsoft Excel and
the file holding the tool. Ensure that the Enable Macros button is selected during loading,
otherwise the tool will not function. Navigation through the tool is via the HUB, however on
launch the programme will guide users through various screens using Next > buttons to
allow entry of project details, project drivers and constraints. Projects should be saved using
the Save button in the HUB or the Save As function in Excel. Be sure to rename the file to
something other than Indicator.xls, so as not to cause future confusion. Figures 4a-h
illustrate the significant features of the tool. Note also that screentips, indicated by red
corners, are provided throughout the toolkit to explain particular items.

       The programme‟s macros will change your Excel screen to Full Screen. Use the Close
        Project buttons in both Tools B and C to ensure that the screen is restored to normal
        view. This macros is applicable to Tools B and C.

       If the vertical or horizontal scrollbars disappear when Tool B or C are loaded, you will
        need to set your toolbars to Autohide. To do this, right-click on the toolbar and select
        Autohide in Properties.

                                                                    Direct access to the HUB is
                                                                    possible from the first page.
                                                                    This is intended for existing
                                                                    assessments (i.e. saved
                                                                    files) or experienced users
                                                                    wishing to bypass Drivers
                                                                    and Constraints for specific

                                                                    Use the Next> button to
                                                                    progress through the initial
                                                                    project detail pages of the

Figure 4a: Toolkit introduction page

                                                                          IMMPREST Userguide

From the introduction page, users will be directed to the Project details page, where specific
details may be entered for subsequent evaluations. Users can skip this page and leave all
fields blank. The page following (Notes) is a free-form text page for project-specific notes.

Figure 4b: Project details page

                                                                         IMMPREST Userguide

Users are then directed to the driver selection page, which enables specific project drivers to
be identified and made explicit for the benefit of the supply-chain. Figure 4c explains the
driver selection options of the page.

          Choices available to the user for
          project drivers. The selection at this
          point weights the „Essential‟ drivers,
          and eliminates the „Not relevant‟
          drivers for ease of evaluation. Only
          one „Essential‟ driver can be chosen
          in each group (i.e. one for Cost
          Drivers, one for Time Drivers etc.).

Figure 4c: Driver selection page

                                                                          IMMPREST Userguide

Once the user has selected the drivers for their project, the Next > button will display the
Constraint selection page. It is similar to the previous page, and allows the user to select the
main constraints on a project under consideration. Figure 4d explains the constraint selection
options of the page.

          Choices available to the user for
          project Constraints. The selection at
          this point weights the „Definitely‟
          constraints, and eliminates the „Not
          relevant‟ constraints for ease of
          evaluation. Only three „Definite‟
          constraints can be chosen in each
          group (i.e. three for Site Constraints,
          three for Process Constraints etc.).

Figure 4d: Constraint selection page

                                                                       IMMPREST Userguide

On completion of the Driver and Constraint selection process, the programme directs the user
to a summary page (figure 4e) displaying the selections made in the previous two pages.
Drivers and Constraints are listed in terms of the importance attached to them during
previous steps. Should the user wish to change these, the < Back button can be used to
amend previous selections.

Figure 4e: Driver and constraint selection summary

                                                                          IMMPREST Userguide

The HUB (figure 4f) is the central navigation page for Tool B. From this page, all previous
pages can be accessed, including the driver and constraint indicator tools.

     All preceding pages can
     be accessed from the                                             A guide to using the
     buttons provided in the                                          interactive charts during
     Information Pages                                                the Driver and Constraint
     section of the HUB.                                              assessment are provided
                                                                      in these pages.

                                                                      Access to the
                                                                      indicator graphs
                                                                      and information.

                                                                      Access to the
                                                                      Driver indicator
                                                                      graphs and
                               Buttons for filing, saving and         information.
                               printing the pages of the toolkit.

                               Each page can be individually
                               printed from the button on the
                               particular page, however the whole
                               tool can be printed by simply
                               selecting the PRINT Full Report

Figure 4f: HUB page of the tool through which all pages are accessed

                                                                               IMMPREST Userguide

Selecting the Driver or Constraint Assessment buttons from the HUB will direct the user to the
appropriate interactive chart. All have identical features, although displaying different
aspects. Figure 4g illustrates the main features of these pages. Exit from this chart is via the

                                           Select and deselect particular
                Choose element             drivers or constraints as
                to assess from             appropriate. The default is for
                the drop-down              all items in all groups to be
                menu. The                  chosen.
                default chooses
                all elements.

                                                                              Choose particular
                                                                              driver or constraint
                                                                              group to view using the
                                                                              drop-down menu.

                                                                                            Chart giving an
                                                                                            indication of relative
                                                                                            benefit compared to
                                                                                            a traditional option.
                                                                                            Important drivers
                                                                                            and constraints
                                                                                            selected by the user
                                                                                            are inflated to
                                                                                            highlight their

                                                            Indication of            Directs the user
             Refreshing of the chart is                     data confidence          to an
             required where driver or                       and some                 information
             constraint priorities have                     grades of S&P            page providing
             been changed during                            options                  some more
             assessment. If unsure                          common within            details on the
             press this button to                           the selected             choices made
             refresh data.                                  element.                 within the

Figure 4g: Benefit indicator graph (Drivers)

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Pressing the Benefits & Disbenefits > or Constraints > buttons below the charts will
display this page, which is reliant on selections made in the interactive charts. In order to
view the benefits or constraints of other elements, return to the charts using the < Back to
Charts button and select the desired element. Exit from this page is also via the chart and
then back to the HUB. Figure 4h illustrates these and other features.

                                        The selected element and
                                        constraint (or benefit) are
                                        provided at the head of the page
                                        for reference and printing.

                                                                               Potential constraints
                                                                               for the specific
                                                                               element under
                                                                               review are listed in
                                                                               this block, making
                                                                               reference to the
                                                                               charts in the
                                                                               previous page.

                                                                               In the case of
                                                                               drivers, the potential
                                                                               benefits and
                                                                               disbenefits are listed
                                                                               in this block.

                                               List of steps ensuring that the listed
                                               constraints may be mitigated.

                                               In the case of benefits, steps to realise them
                                               are listed here.

Figure 4h: Constraint details for a selected element

                                                                          IMMPREST Userguide

Tool C – Benefit Measurement Tool
Pressing the Tool C button within the Navigator will automatically launch Microsoft Excel and
the file holding the tool. Ensure that the Enable Macros button is selected during loading,
otherwise the tool will not function. Navigation through the tool is via the Benefit Summary

Projects should be saved using the Save button in the Summary page or the Save As
function in Excel. Be sure to rename the file to something other than Worksheet.xls, so as
not to cause future confusion. Figures 5a-d illustrate the significant features of the tool. Note
also that screentips, indicated by red corners, are provided throughout the toolkit to explain
particular items.

The first interactive page of Tool C assesses whether the process and procurement conditions
of the project are conducive to a successful S&P implementation. Users simply select the
option that best describes their project. The responses to these 13 questions are ranked and
weighted using the data collected in the questionnaires. The average score across all
respondents was used to rank and generate a proportional penalty score out of 100. Scores
towards 100 suggest that project conditions are not conducive to S&P, whilst scores tending
towards 0 showed positive conditions. From this page the user can proceed to the central
Benefit Summary Page. The S&P Implementation Assessment page (figure 5a) can be
bypassed in the assessment process.

The Benefit Summary Page (figure 5b), as well as serving as a hub for accessing the driver
and constraint worksheets, also draws together a summary „score‟ and confidence level to it,
so that a quick overview of the evaluation can be made. Users can then select a specific
driver or constraint group to view and develop using Worksheets.

The Worksheets (figures 5c-d) provide a template for „working-up‟ a value profile of one
option against another. The template is designed as a comparative tool. Traditional (or
whatever the user chooses as „traditional‟) is viewed as the baseline against which all aspects
of value are compared. The annotated diagrams provide instructions to the use of the

Note: The following constraint assessment questions are a repeat of those answered in Tool
B, however these are presented in a different order and will need to be re-entered. You may
wish to print the Constraint Assessment from Tool B to ensure these correspond.

                                                                                IMMPREST Userguide

                              Choice of responses to the process and
                              procurement questions posed. Unlike
                              Tool B, there is no restriction to the
                              number of questions that can be
                              answered „definitely‟.

                   Process and procurement constraint
                   questions to ascertain the influence
                   these will have on an S&P
                   implementation within the project.

                      Key for interpreting the
                      penalty score achieved
                      during the assessment

       Description of the questions,
       elaborating with examples.

              Depending on the responses given by the user in the previous
              columns, a weighted score is displayed in these cells. Definite
              answers will return the full penalty score, while „maybe‟ will
              return a 50% score. „Not relevant‟ answers will be scored zero.
              Colour coding aids the perception of penalty severity. A
              cumulative score is given at the bottom of the column against
              which users can assess their project‟s „readiness‟ to succeed
              with an S&P approach.

Figure 5a: S&P Implementation Assessment

Following this page, users will be forwarded to the Benefit Summary page (figure 5b).

                                                                             IMMPREST Userguide

     Select the                   Describe the
     appropriate                  traditional or least
     element to be                S&P option here.
     assessed from                This can also be
     the drop-down                used to describe                            Tool Commands to
     menu. This                   one S&P option                              allow the Tool to be
     selection carries            which may be                                Opened, Saved,
     through to all               compared to                                 Closed and Printed.
     worksheets.                  another.                                    A link back to the
     Each element                                                             S&P Implementation
     should be                                                                assessment is also
     assessed and                                                             provided.
     saved                        Describe the S&P
     separately.                  option here
                                  against which the
                                  option above is to
                                  be assessed.

                                                                         Graphical overview of the
                                                                         assessment made on the
                                                                         worksheet. It provides a
                                                                         quick view of the
                                                                         comparative assessment
                                                                         between two options.

   Summary confidence
   level brought forward                                 Button directing user to the
   from the individual                                   worksheet where specific
   worksheets. These are                                 assessments can be made.
   reported as Not                                       Navigation to all worksheets is
   Applicable until                                      through the summary page.
   assessments are made
   in the worksheet.

Figure 5b: Benefit Summary Page

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                Colour-coded strip                Categories breaking down the various aspects of the
                identifying the driver            issue being assessed. The Items column further breaks
                or constraint group               the categories down into their constituents for finer
                worksheet.                        analysis. These columns are protected and cannot be
                                                  altered. Some items have hyperlinks to associated items
                                                  in other driver or constraint groups.

                                                         The details column describes the Items
                                                         listed in the previous column. Methods
                                                         are suggested for measuring benefits or
                                                         constraints. This column is protected.

   Specific details          Column for
   on where                  users to write             Average confidence level
   relevant data             free text notes,           for the group of items
   on these issues           or record actual           assessed. This is again
   may be found              figures for the            averaged for the
   within the                project. All light         worksheet and carried
   supply-chain.             blue areas are             forward to the summary
   These are                 those that                 page.
   protected cells.          users complete.

   Column for specifying a value for                Average benefit or constraint
   traditional. In textual sheets this is a         to the project, which is carried
   baseline against which the comparative           forward to the summary page,
   assessments are made. This is a                  and is associated with the
   protected column.                                confidence level.

Figure 5c: Example of a Benefit assessment worksheet (Driver)

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       Column containing a drop-
       down menu of options for the
       user to make a qualitative
       assessment of the items being
       evaluated. This column
       portrays the relative value, i.e.
       compared to the traditional
       option. The measures
       suggested should be used to
       arrive at the assessment

       Confidence rating associated             A textual, colour-coded display of
       with the assessment made in              the benefit or constraint to the
       the previous column. As the              project based on the option
       item under consideration is              chosen in the assessment
       measured in greater detail the           column. The colours serve to give
       confidence in the assessment             an overview of the general
       should increase. These figures           positive (green), neutral (amber)
       produce an average confidence            and negative (red) effects of the
       for the worksheet which is               option being evaluated on project
       carried forward to the                   benefit and constraints. This
       summary page.                            column is formula-dependant and
                                                cannot be altered by the user.

Figure 5d: Example of a Benefit assessment worksheet (Constraint)

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    Benefits Construct IT at Salford University describes benefit as an increase in Efficiency,
    Effectiveness or Performance. A decrease in any of these is referred to as a disbenefit. Benefits
    may manifest themselves as improved Cost, Time, Quality, Health & Safety, Environment, etc.

    Building Services See Services


    CIRIA Construction Industry Research and Information Association.            See “Links to other
    research” for information on this organisation‟s Client‟s Guide to S&P.

    Constraints The limitations of the project which impact on the decision to use S&P; these include
    Site, Process and Procurement Constraints.

    Delivery units Those sections of a Services system which are the output facilities: air
    conditioning or heating vents, electrical power or telecommunication network points etc.

    Distribution units The pipework, ducting etc. used to distribute M&E Services from the Source
    units to the Delivery units.

    Drivers The outcomes of a project that motivate the decision to use S&P; these include Cost,
    Time, Quality, Health and Safety, Environmental and Respect for People Drivers.

    DTI The Department of Trade and Industry is one of the funding bodies for the IMMPREST
    Research Project. Responsibility for the Construction Industry transferred from the DETR to the
    DTI in 2001.

    Efficiency Benefits which are financially measurable, e.g. by use of cost records, time sheets.

    Effectiveness Benefits which are measurable but not always in monetary terms, e.g. greater
    certainty of cost and time estimating.

    Element The parts of a building which are considered for S&P; these include Foundations, Frame,
    Envelope, Services, Internals and Modular Units.

    Envelope The external walls and roof that form the perimeter of a building.          Walling may
    include: lightweight curtain walling, in aluminium, steel or glass, or heavyweight components in
    concrete, brick or stone. Roofing includes flat or pitched roofs.

    EPSRC The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) is the largest of the
    seven UK Research Councils. It is one of the funding bodies for the IMMPREST Research Project.

                                                                                 IMMPREST Userguide


Facilities The major parts of a building that are generally provided by the developer for the use
of the end-user, such as the toilets/washrooms, kitchens, lifts/elevators, plant-rooms, building
management systems, rooms etc. The Facilities Management function operates these facilities
after the building handover.

Foundations Part of the substructure of a building. Piling and Pad foundations are available as
pre-cast concrete elements.

Frame The structure of a building. Structural Steel, Reinforced Concrete and Timber are all used
for prefabricated frameworks.

Horizontal moving equipment Equipment such as conveyors or fork-lifts.


Internals The internal walls, raised floors, suspended ceilings and applied finishes such as
plaster, paint, wall coverings etc. This element also includes pre-assembled volumetric units.


Life-cycle This normally refers to the Project Life-cycle, from feasibility through to construction
and handover of a building. The Life-cycle of a Facility also includes operation and maintenance of
a building and its decommissioning/demolition.

M&E The abbreviation for Mechanical and Electrical services within the construction context.

Modular building A complete building or part of a building normally made up of prefabricated
units. Units may be Repetitive, within one project or across projects, or Bespoke, using no form of


Performance Benefits which have an influence on the outcomes of a project or business
enterprise but are not easily measurable in quantitative terms, e.g. better working relationships,
improved health and safety.

Preassembly or Prefabrication The design and manufacture of units or modules, usually
remote from the work site and their installation to form the permanent works at the work site.

                                                                                IMMPREST Userguide


Respect for People The Movement for Innovation‟s (M4I) Working Group on Respect for People
has developed KPIs to measure employee satisfaction, staff turnover, training and development,
diversity in the workplace etc. as well as Health & Safety

S&P Standardisation and Pre-assembly

Services The Mechanical and Electrical building services, distributing heating, air-conditioning,
electrical power, telecommunications networks etc.

Source units Those sections of a Services system which are typically the production facilities:
boilers, air-handling units, general plant rooms etc.

Standardisation The extensive use of components, methods or processes in which there is
regularity, repetition and a background of successful practice. This may include standard building
products, standard forms of contract, standard details, design or specifications and standard
processes, procedures or techniques.

Supply Chain The construction supply chain refers to suppliers and buyers of goods and
services, including Architectural and Design Services, Specialist Manufacturers and Suppliers,
Installation Contractors and Sub-contractors.

Sustainability This is defined as the use of processes or materials which minimise the impact of
the construction work on the Environment by reducing noise, pollution and energy use for
transportation. Waste materials are either reduced or recycled.


Vertical moving equipment Equipment such as craneage.

Volumetric unit A preassembled/prefabricated unit which encloses usable space but does not
constitute a whole building.



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