> Disease Prevention and Control By Taufiqullah on Sep 20, 2011 with Comments 0 Infectious disease control is possible because the people know, among others, various ways of transmission. Ways of transmission can occur directly, ie, kontaklangsung between penderitadengan lorang sensitive, or is not direct, ie through a medium such as water, air, food, soil, clothing, insects, hands, and so on. For the sake of eradicating the use of a strategy to eliminate transmission of the disease, the disease is often classified on the basis of how its spread. It is very important to prevent the spread of disease from one area to another area. This is where the importance of the role of environmental health, namely to prevent the spread of disease through the environment. The groupings are as follows: • penyakitbawaan water and food (water and food-borne diseases) • Air-borne diseases (water borne diseases) • soil-borne diseases, and congenital disease vector • (vector-borne diseases) Prevention programs can be done by vaccinating the correct and orderly. Prevention of infectious diseases through three ways: elimination, breaking the cycle, and immunizations (vaccinations). “prevention is better and cheaper than cure” To prevent and control infectious diseases in particular can be done in 3 ways approaches: 1. Eliminating the reservoir Menhilangkan human reservoir as a source of spread of the disease can be done in the following manner: 1) Isolating the patient (the patient), which puts patients in a special place to reduce contact with others. 2) quarantine is to limit the space for people and put them together- together with other similar on a special place designed for it. Usually in a long time, such as quarantine for leprosy sufferers. 2. Breaking the transmission chain Eradication of disease vector control and host disease. Vectors are animals that act to carry or transmit a disease, but disease-causing agent does not have the breeding to the body of the animal. For example: flies transmit the disease of dysentery. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes transmit dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). Control of vectors and host disease can be done in various ways: mechanically, khemis, and biological. 1) The mechanics of life by eradicating the place (nest) the preferred vectors and host disease. For example: the program M-3 (drain, cover, and bury). 2) In khemis using drugs exterminator vectors and host disease . For example: the eradication of mosquitoes by using insecticide (DDT), larvisida (abate), etc.. 3) By using biological predators (animals of prey) vectors and host disease. For example: the eradication of mosquitoes using fish, bacteria, worms, and other mosquito species. 4) In the integrated use of three ways simultaneously. Integrated manner is a way of controlling disease vectors and host the best and efektif.Meningkatkan environmental sanitation and hygiene of individuals is an important effort to break the relationship or the chain of transmission of the disease is contagious. Desinfektansia are chemicals that can kill pests, diseases and the bodies of microorganisms other. For example: carbolic acid, formalin, sublimat, chlorine, iodine, alcohol and others. 3. Immunisation protects the immune Immunization derived from the word which means immune. Child immunized, it means that given a vaccine to stimulate the onset of immunity to a particular disease in accordance with the type of vaccine given. Therefore, someone who vaccinated immune to a disease but not necessarily immune to other diseases. Infants and toddlers are most vulnerable age group against infectious diseases. This vulnerable age groups need special protection (specific protection) by immunization either active or passive immunization. Specific prophylactic medications also can prevent malaria, meningitis and dysentery bacilli. At a young age, lack of nutrition will cause the child’s vulnerability. Therefore, improving child nutrition is also an attempt by the prevention of infectious diseases in children. The vaccine is a seed germs that have been killed or weakened. Immunisation aims to stimulate the emergence of immunity from the body by entering the vaccine. When someone gets an injection of vaccine TCD (Typhus, cholera and dysentery), the body that person will hold a reaction to the vaccine, ie, by making antibodies. Once antibodies are present in the body in sufficient levels, then for a certain person will be immune to the disease typhus, cholera and dysentery. So the purpose of vaccination with the vaccine is to get immunity against the disease concerned. Levels of antibodies in the blood will gradually decrease. Because it is injection with vaccines need to be repeated and repeated injections of this depends on the kinds of vaccines. Immunizations or vaccinations are only given to people who are healthy. Immunity to an infectious disease can be classified into two, namely: 1. Non-specific immunity is the body’s defenses in humans are naturally able to protect the body from an illness. Such as skin, tears, special fluids that come out of the stomach (intestine), the reflexes of a particular, such as coughing, sneezing and so forth. 2. Specific immunity can be obtained from two sources, namely: (1) Genetics, immunity derived from genetic resources is usually associated with race (skin color and ethnic groups, such as blacks (nigger) tend to be more resistant to malaria disease type vivax. Another example, people who have hemoglobin S more Plasmodium falciparum resistant to disease than those who had hemoglobin AA . (2) Provided Immunity (Acquired Immunity), namely This immunity is obtained from outside the body of a child or person concerned. Immunity can be both active and passive. Active immunity can be obtained after the recovery from certain diseases. For example children who have recovered from measles, he will be immune to measles. Active immunity can also be obtained through immunization, which means into the body is inserted pathogenic organisms (seeds) disease. Immunity passively acquired from the mother through the placenta. Mothers who have acquired immunity against certain diseases such as measles, malaria and tetanus then his son (the baby) will acquire immunity against the disease for the first few months. Passive immunity can also be obtained via the serum antibodies from humans or animals. Passive immunity is only temporary (in the short time anyway). Some examples of vaccines that are often used to prevent the onset of the disease are: 1) Vaccine TCD 2) Vaccines containing tetra seeds of cholera, typhoid, paratifus paratifus A and B that have been shut down or weakened. Tetra means four, according to the number of germs contained in the vaccine. The vaccine is also referred to as tetra kotipa vaccine (cholera, typhoid, and paratifus.) 3) vaccine BCG (Bacille Calmette Guerin stands). Vaccine consisting of BCG-bacillus bacillus tuberculosis alive but has been weakened so it is not dangerous anymore. The injection of this vaccine in infants or children, are expected to provide immunity against tuberculosis. BCG vaccine is not used to treat tuberculosis and also not to know whether a person has TB disease. injection of BCG vaccine is given specifically to get a unique immunity, namely immunity to tuberculosis. 4) The smallpox vaccine 5) Salk vaccine is the vaccine given to children children to get immunity against the disease polio paralyzed children). 6) Vaccines Otten is an injectable vaccine for those men to get immunity against bubonic plague. 7) Vaccines TCD, tetra vaccine, smallpox vaccine and the vaccine is called dead. His opponent is a live vaccine, for example.