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Disease Prevention and Control

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					> Disease Prevention and Control
By Taufiqullah on Sep 20, 2011 with Comments 0

Infectious disease control is possible because the people
know, among others, various ways of transmission. Ways
of transmission can occur directly, ie, kontaklangsung
between penderitadengan lorang sensitive, or is not
direct, ie through a medium such as water, air, food,
soil, clothing, insects, hands, and so on.

For the sake of eradicating the use of a strategy
to eliminate transmission of the disease, the disease is often
classified on the basis of how its spread. It is very
important to prevent the spread of disease from one area to
another area. This is where the importance of the role of environmental health,
namely to prevent the spread of disease through the environment.

The groupings are as follows:
• penyakitbawaan water and food (water and food-borne
diseases)
• Air-borne diseases (water borne diseases)
• soil-borne diseases, and
congenital disease vector • (vector-borne diseases)

Prevention programs can be done by vaccinating
the correct and orderly. Prevention of infectious diseases through three
ways: elimination, breaking the cycle, and immunizations (vaccinations).
“prevention is better and cheaper than cure” To
prevent and control infectious diseases in particular
can be done in 3 ways approaches:

1. Eliminating the reservoir
Menhilangkan human reservoir as a source of spread of
the disease can be done in the following manner:
1) Isolating the patient (the patient), which puts patients
in a special place to reduce contact with
others.
2) quarantine is to limit the space for people and
put them together- together with other
similar on a special place designed for it.
Usually in a long time, such as quarantine for
leprosy sufferers.

2. Breaking the transmission chain
Eradication of disease vector control and host
disease. Vectors are animals that act to carry or
transmit a disease, but disease-causing agent
does not have the breeding to the body of
the animal. For example: flies transmit the disease
of dysentery. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes transmit dengue
Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). Control of vectors and host disease can be
done in various ways: mechanically, khemis, and
biological.

1) The mechanics of life by eradicating the place
(nest) the preferred vectors and host disease.
For example: the program M-3 (drain, cover, and
bury).
2) In khemis using drugs
exterminator vectors and host disease . For
example: the eradication of mosquitoes by using
insecticide (DDT), larvisida (abate), etc..
3) By using biological predators (animals
of prey) vectors and host disease. For
example: the eradication of mosquitoes using fish, bacteria,
worms, and other mosquito species.
4) In the integrated use of three ways
simultaneously. Integrated manner is a way of controlling
disease vectors and host the best and
efektif.Meningkatkan environmental sanitation and hygiene of
individuals is an important effort to
break the relationship or the chain of transmission of the disease
is contagious. Desinfektansia are chemicals that can
kill pests, diseases and the bodies of microorganisms
other. For example: carbolic acid, formalin, sublimat, chlorine, iodine,
alcohol and others.

3. Immunisation protects the
immune Immunization derived from the word which means immune. Child
immunized, it means that given a vaccine to stimulate
the onset of immunity to a particular disease in accordance
with the type of vaccine given. Therefore, someone
who vaccinated immune to a disease but not
necessarily immune to other diseases.
Infants and toddlers are most vulnerable age group

against infectious diseases. This vulnerable age groups need
special protection (specific protection) by immunization either
active or passive immunization. Specific prophylactic medications also
can prevent malaria, meningitis and dysentery
bacilli. At a young age, lack of nutrition will
cause the child’s vulnerability. Therefore,
improving child nutrition is also an attempt by
the prevention of infectious diseases in children.

The vaccine is a seed germs that have been
killed or weakened. Immunisation aims to
stimulate the emergence of immunity from the body by
entering the vaccine. When someone gets an injection of vaccine
TCD (Typhus, cholera and dysentery), the body that person will
hold a reaction to the vaccine, ie, by
making antibodies. Once antibodies are present in
the body in sufficient levels, then for a certain
person will be immune to the disease typhus, cholera and
dysentery. So the purpose of vaccination with the vaccine is to
get immunity against the disease concerned.
Levels of antibodies in the blood will gradually decrease.

Because it is injection with vaccines need to be repeated and
repeated injections of this depends on the kinds of vaccines.
Immunizations or vaccinations are only given to people
who are healthy.

Immunity to an infectious disease can be classified
into two, namely:
1. Non-specific immunity is the body’s defenses in
humans are naturally able to protect the body from
an illness. Such as skin, tears, special fluids
that come out of the stomach (intestine), the reflexes of
a particular, such as coughing, sneezing and so forth.
2. Specific immunity can be obtained from two sources, namely:

(1) Genetics, immunity derived from genetic resources is
usually associated with race (skin color and
ethnic groups, such as blacks (nigger)
tend to be more resistant to malaria disease type
vivax. Another example, people who have hemoglobin S
more Plasmodium falciparum resistant to disease
than those who had hemoglobin AA .

(2) Provided Immunity (Acquired Immunity), namely

This immunity is obtained from outside the body of a child or person
concerned. Immunity can be both active and
passive. Active immunity can be obtained after the
recovery from certain diseases. For example children who have
recovered from measles, he will be immune to
measles. Active immunity can also be obtained
through immunization, which means into the body
is inserted pathogenic organisms (seeds) disease. Immunity
passively acquired from the mother through the placenta. Mothers who have
acquired immunity against certain diseases such as
measles, malaria and tetanus then his son (the baby) will
acquire immunity against the disease for the
first few months. Passive immunity can also
be obtained via the serum antibodies from humans or
animals. Passive immunity is only temporary
(in the short time anyway).

Some examples of vaccines that are often used to
prevent the onset of the disease are:
1) Vaccine TCD

2) Vaccines containing tetra seeds of cholera, typhoid,
paratifus paratifus A and B that have been shut down or
weakened. Tetra means four, according to the number
of germs contained in the vaccine. The vaccine
is also referred to as tetra kotipa vaccine (cholera, typhoid, and paratifus.)
3) vaccine BCG (Bacille Calmette Guerin stands). Vaccine
consisting of BCG-bacillus bacillus tuberculosis alive but has been weakened
so it is not dangerous anymore. The injection of this vaccine in
infants or children, are expected to provide immunity
against tuberculosis. BCG vaccine is not
used to treat tuberculosis and also not to
know whether a person has TB disease.
injection of BCG vaccine is given specifically to get
a unique immunity, namely immunity to tuberculosis.
4) The smallpox vaccine
5) Salk vaccine is the vaccine given to children children
to get immunity against the disease polio
paralyzed children).
6) Vaccines Otten is an injectable vaccine for those men
to get immunity against bubonic plague.
7) Vaccines TCD, tetra vaccine, smallpox vaccine and the vaccine is called
dead. His opponent is a live vaccine, for example.

				
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Description: Disease Prevention and Control.