What Makes a Good MIMO Channel Model

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        What Makes a Good MIMO Channel Model?
                                            u       ¨
                                           H¨ seyin Ozcelik, Nicolai Czink, Ernst Bonek
                                                 u
                                       Institut f¨ r Nachrichtentechnik und Hochfrequenztechnik
                                                                            a
                                                       Technische Universit¨ t Wien
                                                              Vienna, Austria
                                                        nicolai.czink@tuwien.ac.at


    Abstract— Using different meaningful measures of quality, this         Based on the results we will try to answer the question what
paper investigates the accuracy of analytical MIMO channel               makes a good MIMO channel model.
models. Different metrics should be applied if the underlying
MIMO channel supports predominantly beamforming, spatial                        II. R EVIEW OF CONSIDERED CHANNEL MODELS
multiplexing or diversity. The number of envisaged antennas
plays an important role. By comparing the results of an extensive           In the following we consider frequency-flat fading MIMO
indoor measurement campaign at 5.2 GHz, we find the following             channels with m transmit and n receive antennas where each
main conclusions: (i) The recently developed Weichselberger              single realization of the channel can be described by the n×m
model predicts capacity for any antenna number and represents            channel matrix H.
diversity best of all three models, but still not satisfactorily. (ii)
Except for 2 × 2 MIMO systems the Kronecker model fails to               A. Kronecker model
predict capacity, joint angular power spectrum, and diversity.
(iii) The virtual channel representation should only be used
                                                                            The Kronecker model [1]–[3] can be expressed as1
for modeling the joint angular power spectrum for very large                                          1          1/2       1/2
antenna numbers.                                                                    Hkron =                   RRx G(RTx )T ,                     (1)
    The answer to the question given in the title: The appropriate
                                                                                                   tr{RRx }
model has to be chosen according to the considered application.          where RTx = E{HT H∗ } and RRx = E{HHH } denote the
                                                                         transmit and receive correlation matrices. Further, G is an i.i.d.
  MIMO; analytical channel models; quality metrics
                                                                         random fading matrix with unity-variance, circ. symmetric
                                                                         complex Gaussian entries. The parameters for the Kronecker
                        I. I NTRODUCTION                                 model are the transmit and receive correlation matrices.
   Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems are a                      The Kronecker model became popular because of its simple
promising candidate for future wireless communications sys-              analytic treatment. However, the main drawback of this model
tems. It is the radio propagation channel that determines                is that it forces both link ends to be separable [8], irrespective
crucially the characteristics of the entire MIMO system. There-          of wheter the channel supports this or not.
fore, accurate modeling of MIMO channels is an important                 B. Weichselberger model
prerequisite for MIMO system design, simulation, and de-
                                                                            The idea of Weichselberger was to relax the separability
ployment. Especially analytical MIMO channel models that
                                                                         restriction of the Kronecker model and to allow for any
describe the impulse response (or equivalently the transfer
                                                                         arbitrary coupling between the transmit and receive eigenbase,
function) of the channel between the elements of the antenna
                                                                         i.e. to model the correlation properties at the receiver and
arrays at both link ends by providing analytical expressions
                                                                         transmitter jointly.
for the channel matrix are very popular for developing MIMO
                                                                            Introducing the eigenvalue decomposition of the receive and
algorithms in general. Most popular examples include the Kro-
                                                                         transmit correlation matrices
necker model [1]–[3], the Weichselberger model [4], [5, Ch.
6.4.3] and the virtual channel representation [6]. In order to                                   RRx = URx ΛRx UH ,
                                                                                                                Rx
                                                                                                                                                 (2)
judge on the goodness of such models, metrics or performance                                     RTx = UTx ΛTx UH ,
                                                                                                                Tx
measures are needed. Since the application of a specific metric
                                                                         Weichselberger [4], [5, Ch. 6.4.3] proposed
implies a reduction of reality to some specific aspects, a single
metric alone is not capable of capturing all properties of a                                          ˜
                                                                                      Hweichsel = URx Ωweichsel             G UT ,
                                                                                                                               Tx                (3)
MIMO channel.
   As a consequence, we will use three different metrics                 where G, again, is an i.i.d. complex Gaussian random fading
covering different aspects of MIMO systems to verify the suit-                       ˜
                                                                         matrix, and Ωweichsel is defined as the element-wise square
ability of the narrowband Kronecker model, Weichselberger                   1 The following notation will be used throughout this paper:
model and virtual channel representation (VCR) in this paper.            (·)1/2 denotes the matrix square root; (·)T stands for matrix transposition;
These metrics will be (i) the double-directional angular power           (·)∗ stands for complex conjugation; (·)H stands for matrix Hermitian;
spectrum (APS), (ii) the mutual information with equal power             denotes the element-wise Schur-Hadamard multiplication; ⊗ denotes the Kro-
                                                                         necker multiplication; E{·} denotes the expectation operator; tr{·} denotes
allocation, and (iii) a diversity metric recently introduced by          the trace of a matrix; vec(·) stacks a matrix into a vector, columnwise; · F
Ivrlac and Nossek [7].                                                   stands for the Frobenius norm.
                       number of real-valued parameters            was used to avoid large-scale fading effects [9, Ch. 4.3.4].
     Kronecker                    m 2 + n2                         The receiver (Rx) was a directional 8-element uniform linear
     Weichselberger      mn + m(m − 1) + n(n − 1)                  array of printed dipoles with 0.4λ inter-element spacing and
     VCR                             mn                            120◦ 3dB field-of-view. The channel was probed at 193 equi-
                          TABLE I                                  spaced frequencies over 120 MHz of bandwidth. The (virtual)
 N UMBER OF MODEL PARAMETERS OF CONSIDERED CHANNEL MODELS .        transmit array was positioned in a hallway and the receiver
                                                                   assumed 24 different positions each looking into 3 different
                                                                   directions (rotated by 120◦ ) in several offices connected to this
                                                                   hallway without line-of-sight (except one position/direction),
root of the power coupling matrix Ωweichsel . The positive and     leading to 72 different ’scenarios’. A detailed description of
real-valued elements ωweichsel,ij of the coupling matrix deter-    the measurement campaign can be found in [9, Ch. 4].
mine the average power-coupling between the i-th transmit             For each scenario, we generated spatial realizations of 2×2,
eigenmode and the j-th receive eigenmode.                          4×4 and 8×8 MIMO channels [9, Ch. 4.3.3]. This paper shows
   The Weichselberger model parameters are the eigenbasis          results for 0.5λ/0.4λ Tx/Rx interelement spacing; additional
of receive and transmit correlation matrices and a coupling        results for 1.0λ/0.8λ and 3.5λ/2.8λ can be found in [9, Ch.
matrix.                                                            5].
                                                                                     IV. M ODEL VALIDATION
C. Virtual channel representation
                                                                      The investigated models assume that the channel is suffi-
   In contrast to the two prior models, the virtual chan-          ciently described by its second order moments, hence by the
nel representation (VCR) models the MIMO channel in the            full channel correlation matrix RH , only. As a consequence,
beamspace instead of the eigenspace. In particular, the eigen-     measurements used for the evaluations have to fulfil this
vectors are replaced by fixed and predefined steering vectors        requirement, too. Only a restricted set of 58 scenarios (out
[6].                                                               of 72) met this condition; the others were excluded.
   The VCR can be expressed as                                        This is how we validate the models: For each scenario
                           ˜
            Hvirtual = ARx Ωvirtual      G AT ,
                                            Tx               (4)   we will (i) extract model parameters from measurement; (ii)
                                                                   generate synthesized channel matrices with these parameters
where orthonormal response and steering vectors constitute         by Monte-Carlo simulations of the three models; (iii) compare
the columns of the unitary response and steering matrices          different metrics calculated from the modeled channels with
                            ˜
ARx and ATx . Further, Ωvirtual is defined as the element-          those extracted directly from the respective measurement.
wise square root of the power coupling matrix Ωvirtual , whose     A. Extraction of Model Parameters
positive and real-valued elements ωvirtual,ij determine - this
time - the average power-coupling between the i-th transmit           To extract model parameters from the measurements, dif-
and the j-th receive direction.                                    ferent realizations of the MIMO channel matrix are necessary
   The VCR can be easily interpreted. Its angular resolution,      for each scenario. Besides the spatial realizations, different
and hence ’accuracy’, depends on the actual antenna configu-        frequencies were used as fading realizations.
ration. Its accuracy increases with the number of antennas, as        The model parameters of the Kronecker model, i.e. the
angular bins become smaller.                                       single-sided receive and transmit correlation matrix are es-
                                                                   timated by2                1
   The model is fully specified by the coupling matrix. Note                       ˆ
                                                                                 RRx =
                                                                                                  N
                                                                                                      H(r)H(r) ,
                                                                                                                 H
                                                                                                                              (5)
that there still exists one degree of freedom in choosing the                                 N r=1
first direction of the unitary transmit/receive matrices ATx/Rx .                  ˆ           1   N       T       ∗
                                                                                 RTx =                H(r) H(r) ,             (6)
                                                                                              N r=1
D. Number of parameters                                            where N is the number of channel realizations, while H(r)
   Table I summarizes the number of real-valued parameters         denotes the r-th channel realization.
that have to be specified for modeling an n × m MIMO                   Applying the eigenvalue decomposition to the estimated
channel using the models previously reviewed. However, mind        correlation matrices,
the following exception: When only mutual information (or                              ˆ          ˆ ˆ ˆ
channel capacity) is of interest, the number of necessary                              RRx      = URx ΛRx UH , and
                                                                                                           Rx                       (7)
parameters of the Kronecker model and the Weichselberger                               ˆ
                                                                                       RTx        ˆ ˆ ˆ
                                                                                                = UTx ΛRx UH ,                      (8)
                                                                                                           Tx
model reduce to m + n and mn, respectively.                                                            ˆ
                                                                   the estimated power coupling matrix Ωweichsel of the Weich-
                    III. M EASUREMENTS                             selberger model can be obtained by
  The model validation was based on a comprehensive indoor                                N
                                                                    ˆ           1               ˆ      ˆ                 ˆ      ˆ
office environment measurement campaign our institute, at 5.2        Ωweichsel =                 UH H(r)U∗
                                                                                                  Rx     Tx              UT H(r)UTx .
                                                                                                                           Rx
                                                                                N        r=1
GHz. The transmitter (Tx) consisted of a positionable sleeve                                                                        (9)
antenna on a 20 × 10 grid with an inter-element spacing of
λ/2, where only a sub-set of 12 × 6 Tx antenna positions             2 Note                                                   ˆ
                                                                              that estimated model parameters are denoted by (·).
  Analogously, by taking unitary steering/response matrices
ATx and ARx , the estimated coupling matrix of the VCR                                                                          8x8 Capon DoD Spectrum
ˆ
Ωvirtual can be calculated by




                                                                                                             Power [dB]
                                                                                                                          −60

                                                                                                                          −65

                                                                                                                          −70
                                                                                                                                  −50     0      50
                  N
 ˆ            1                                                                                                                      DoD [degree]

 Ωvirtual   =           AH H(r)A∗
                         Rx     Tx      AT H(r)ATx
                                         Rx              . (10)                                 DoA Spec
              N   r=1                                                                      50




                                                                           DoA [degree]
   For ATx and ARx one steering/response direction was                                      0

selected towards the broadside direction of the antenna array.                            −50
                                                                                                −62 −66
                                                                                                Power [dB]
B. Monte-Carlo simulations
   Using the extracted model parameters from the measure-
ments, channel matrix realizations according to the Kronecker
model (1) the Weichselberger model (3) and the VCR (4)
are synthesized by introducing different fading realizations
of the i.i.d. complex Gaussian, unity-variance random fading                                                                                   (a)
matrix G. For the different MIMO systems, the number of
realizations was chosen to be equal to the respective number
of measured realizations.
                                                                                                                                4x4 Capon DoD Spectrum




                                                                                                             Power [dB]
                                                                                                                          −65
C. Metrics
                                                                                                                          −70

   If we want to judge the goodness of a MIMO channel                                                                             −50     0
                                                                                                                                     DoD [degree]
                                                                                                                                                 50

model, we first have to specify ’good’ in which sense. The                                       DoA Spec
quality of a model has to be defined with a view toward a                                   50
                                                                           DoA [degree]


specific channel property or aspect which we are interested
                                                                                            0
in. For this we need performance figures that cover the
desired channel aspects and apply these metrics to measured                               −50
                                                                                                −64−66−68
and modeled channels, enabling a comparison of the models                                       Power [dB]


investigated.
   Of course, it would be very helpful and advantageous to
have a single metric that is capable of capturing all properties
of a MIMO channel. However, this is not possible since the
application of a specific metric implies a reduction of reality
to some selected aspects, as modeling always does.                                                                                             (b)
   Mind that different metrics can yield different quality rank-
ings of channel models as both, models and metrics, cover
different channel aspects. The suitability of a metric strongly                                                                 2x2 Capon DoD Spectrum
                                                                                                             Power [dB]




depends on its relevance to the MIMO system to be deployed.                                                               −68

   1) Double-directional (or joint) angular power spec-                                                                   −70
                                                                                                                                  −50     0      50
trum: For the directional evaluations, the joint direction-of-                                                                       DoD [degree]

departure/direction-of-arrival (DoD/DoA) angular power spec-                                    DoA Spec

trum (APS) is calculated using Capon’s beamformer, also                                    50
                                                                           DoA [degree]




known as Minimum Variance Method (MVM) [5],                                                 0


                                          1                                               −50
              PCapon (ϕRx , ϕTx ) =            ,           (11)                               −68
                                                                                           −67 −69
                                      aH R−1 a
                                      ˜   H ˜
                                                                                            Power [dB]



with
                  ˜
                  a = aTx (ϕTx ) ⊗ aRx (ϕRx ),             (12)
using the normalized steering vector aTx (ϕTx ) into direction
ϕTx and response vector aRx (ϕRx ) from direction ϕRx . Here,
RH = E{vec(H)vec(H)H } denotes the full MIMO channel                                                                                           (c)
correlation matrix.
  Figure 1 compares the APS of the measured and modeled            Fig. 1. Angular power spectra of measured and modeled (a) 8 × 8, (b) 4 × 4,
8 × 8 (a), 4 × 4 (b), and 2 × 2 (c) MIMO channel for an            and (c) 2 × 2 MIMO channels for an example scenario.
exemplary scenario. For each sub-plot, the measured APS
                                                           8x8 MIMO channel                                                                             4x4 MIMO channel                                                                             4x4 MIMO channel
   model’s mutual information [bist/s/Hz]




                                                                                                                                                                                            model’s mutual information [bist/s/Hz]
                                                                                                model’s mutual information [bist/s/Hz]
                                            45                                                                                                                                                                                        12
                                                                          +10% error                                                                                                                                                                +20% error    +10% error
                                                             +20% error                i.i.d.                                                                       +10% error
                                                                                                                                         22           +20% error                   i.i.d.                                            11.5                                      i.i.d.
                                            40
                                                                                   −10% error                                            20                                                                                           11
                                            35                                                                                                                                −10% error                                                                                       −10% error
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     10.5
                                                                                                                                         18
                                            30                                                                                                                                                                                        10
                                                                                                                                         16                                                                                           9.5
                                                                          Kronecker                                                                                    Kronecker                                                                                   Kronecker
                                            25
                                                                          Weichselberger                                                                               Weichselberger                                                                              Weichselberger
                                                                                                                                         14                                                                                            9
                                                                          VCR                                                                                          VCR                                                                                         VCR
                                            20                                                                                                                                                                                        8.5
                                             20      25      30        35        40       45                                                  14     16        18       20        22                                                          9          10           11            12
                                                  measured mutual information [bits/s/Hz]                                                     measured mutual information [bits/s/Hz]                                                       measured mutual information [bits/s/Hz]

                                                                  (a)                                                                                         (b)                                                                                           (c)
                                             Fig. 2.    Average mutual information of measured vs. modeled (a) 8 × 8, (b) 4 × 4 and (c) 2 × 2 MIMO channels at a receive SNR of 20dB.



(joint and marginal APS) are given on the left side, whereas                                                                                                         information3 . Moreover, the mismatch increases up to more
the right side shows the models’ joint APS.                                                                                                                          than 10% with decreasing mutual information. The VCR (blue
   Let us first investigate 8×8 (Fig. 1a). In the measured chan-                                                                                                      squares) overestimates the ’measured’ mutual information sig-
nel, specific DoDs are clearly linked to specific DoAs, such                                                                                                           nificantly. The reason again is due to its fixed steering/response
that the joint APS is not separable. In contrast, the Kronecker                                                                                                      directions. Thus, it tends to model the MIMO channel with
model introduces artefact paths lying at the intersections of                                                                                                        more multipath components than the underlying channel actu-
the DoA and DoD spectral peaks. The Weichselberger model                                                                                                             ally has, thereby reducing channel correlation and increasing
exposes this assumption to be too restrictive. Nevertheless,                                                                                                         the mutual information. The Weichselberger model (black
it does not render the multipath structure completely correct                                                                                                        circles) fits the measurements best with relative errors within
either. The VCR should be able to cope with any arbitrary                                                                                                            a few percents.
DoD/DoA coupling. The joint APS shows that it does not                                                                                                                  The relative model error of the Kronecker model decreases
because of the fixed and predefined steering vectors. It is not                                                                                                        with decreasing antenna number (c.f. Fig. 2b,c). Although for
able to reproduce multipath components between two fixed                                                                                                              2×2 channels there exist some exceptional scenarios where the
steering vector directions properly.                                                                                                                                 Kronecker model also overestimates the mutual information,
                                                                                                                                                                     a clear trend goes with underestimation of the mutual infor-
   Decreasing antenna numbers (4 × 4, 2 × 2) reduce the
                                                                                                                                                                     mation. The VCR overestimates mutual information of the
spatial resolution. The performance of both the Kronecker and
                                                                                                                                                                     measured channel systematically up to 20%. The performance
the Weichselberger model improve with smaller number of
                                                                                                                                                                     of the Weichselberger model does not change significantly,
antennas but the APS is still not reproduced correctly. The
                                                                                                                                                                     either. It still reflects the multiplexing gain of the measured
VCR collapses for smaller antenna numbers.
                                                                                                                                                                     channel best.
  2) Average mutual information: Considering a channel                                                                                                                  3) Diversity Measure: The eigenvalues λi of the full MIMO
unknown at Tx, and disregarding bandwidth, the mutual infor-                                                                                                         channel correlation matrix, RH , describe the average powers
mation of the MIMO channel with equally allocated transmit                                                                                                           of the independently fading matrix-valued eigenmodes of a
powers was calculated for each realization using [10], [11]                                                                                                          MIMO channel [5, Ch. 5.3.8]. Its offered degree of diversity
                                                                                                                                                                     is determined only by the complete eigenvalue profile.
                                ρ
                                  HHH ),             (13)    I = log2 det(In +                                                                                          For the sake of comparison and classification of different
                               m
                                                                                                                                                                     channels, however, a single-number metric is highly advanta-
where In denotes the n × n identity matrix, ρ the average                                                                                                            geous, even if it can not reflect the whole information of the
receive SNR, and H the normalized n × m MIMO channel                                                                                                                 complete eigenvalue profile. A useful metric for Rayleigh fad-
matrix.                                                                                                                                                              ing MIMO systems, the so-called Diversity Measure Ψ(RH ),
   The normalization was done such that for each scenario the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2
power of the channel matrix elements hij averaged over all                                                                                                                                                                                              2            K
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           λi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        tr{RH }                      i=1
realizations was set to unity [9, Ch. 5.3.1]. In the subsequent                                                                                                                     Ψ(RH ) =                                                                =        K
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ,   (14)
evaluations, the average receive SNR for each scenario was                                                                                                                                                                              ||RH ||F                     i=1   λ2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            i
always fixed at 20dB.                                                                                                                                                 was recently introduced by Ivrlac and Nossek [7].
   Figure 2 shows the results of this evaluation: Scatter plots of                                                                                                     Figure 3 shows the scatter plots of the models’ Diversity
the average mutual information of the measured channel versus                                                                                                        Measures versus the Diversity Measures of the measured
the average mutual information of the modeled channels for                                                                                                           channels for 8 × 8, 4 × 4, and 2 × 2 MIMO. As can be
8 × 8, 4 × 4, and 2 × 2 MIMO are depicted. For each model,
a specific marker corresponds to one of the 58 scenarios.                                                                                                               3 Monte-Carlo simulations that we have performed with completely syn-
                                                                                                                                                                     thetic MIMO channels showed that, although very seldom, the Kronecker
 In case of 8 × 8 MIMO channels (Fig. 2a), the Kronecker                                                                                                             model might also overestimate the ’measured’ mutual information. The
model (red crosses) underestimates the ’measured’ mutual                                                                                                             probability of overestimation decreases with increasing antenna number.
                                                             8x8 MIMO channel                                                                             4x4 MIMO channel
   Diversity Measure of the channel model
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2x2 MIMO channel




                                                                                                 Diversity Measure of the channel model




                                                                                                                                                                                               Diversity Measure of the channel model
                                            40                                                                                            14                                                                                             4
                                                   +200% error +100% error                                                                              +100% error     +50% error                                                                                    +20%error
                                                                     +50% error                                                           12                                                                                            3.5         +50%error
                                            30
                                                                                                                                          10                                                                                             3

                                            20                                                                                             8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2.5
                                                                                                                                           6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2
                                            10                              Kronecker                                                      4                            Kronecker                                                                                      Kronecker
                                                                            Weichselberger                                                                              Weichselberger                                                  1.5                            Weichselberger
                                                                            VCR                                                            2                            VCR                                                                                            VCR
                                             0                                                                                                                                                                                           1
                                              0            10         20        30         40                                                   2       4     6       8    10     12    14                                                1       1.5      2     2.5     3      3.5     4
                                                  Diversity Measure of the measured channel                                                    Diversity Measure of the measured channel                                                      Diversity Measure of the measured channel

                                                                   (a)                                                                                          (b)                                                                                             (c)
                                                                  Fig. 3.    Diversity Measure of the measured vs. modeled (a) 8 × 8, (b) 4 × 4 and (c) 2 × 2 MIMO channels.



seen, the modeled channels either match or overestimate the                                                                                                            general, as this determines the benefits of MIMO.
Diversity Measures of the corresponding measured channels,                                                                                                                In an indoor environment, we assessed three analyti-
independently of the number of antennas.                                                                                                                               cal MIMO models by three different metrics, viz. double-
   For 8 × 8 MIMO channels (Fig. 3a) it can be observed                                                                                                                directional angular power spectrum, average mutual informa-
that all models overestimate the Diversity Measure, although                                                                                                           tion, and the Diversity Measure. From experimental validation
the Weichselberger model (black circles) outperforms both the                                                                                                          we conclude that (i) the Weichselberger model performs
Kronecker model (red crosses) and the VCR (blue squares)                                                                                                               best with respect to the analyzed metrics, even though it is
clearly.                                                                                                                                                               inaccurate for joint APS and Diversity Measure in case of
   The Diversity Measures for 4×4 and 2×2 MIMO channels                                                                                                                large antenna numbers, (ii) the Kronecker model should only
(Fig. 3b and c) show the same qualitative behavior as 8 × 8                                                                                                            be used for limited antenna numbers, such as 2x2, (iii) the
channels, but decreasing relative errors with decreasing an-                                                                                                           virtual channel representation can only be used for modeling
tenna numbers for all three models. Again, the Weichselberger                                                                                                          the joint APS for very large antenna numbers.
model performs best. For the 2 × 2 channel, it shows almost
perfect match except for some negligible errors for higher                                                                                                                                                                                    R EFERENCES
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                                                                      V. C ONCLUSIONS                                                                                             ¨
                                                                                                                                                                        [8] H. Ozcelik, M. Herdin, W. Weichselberger, J. Wallace, and E. Bonek,
                                                                                                                                                                            “Deficiencies of the ‘Kronecker MIMO radio channel model,” Electron-
   If we want to judge the goodness of a MIMO channel                                                                                                                       ics Letters, vol. 39, no. 16, pp. 1209–1210, 2003.
model, we first have to specify ’good’ in which sense. The                                                                                                                        ¨
                                                                                                                                                                        [9] H. Ozcelik, “Indoor MIMO channel models,” Ph.D. dissertation, Institut
quality of a model has to be defined with a view toward a                                                                                                                     u                                             a
                                                                                                                                                                            f¨ r Nachrichtentechnik, Technische Universit¨ t Wien, Vienna, Austria,
                                                                                                                                                                            December 2004, downloadable from http://www.nt.tuwien.ac.at.
specific channel property or aspect which we are interested in                                                                                                          [10] I. E. Telatar, “Capacity of multi-antenna gaussian channels,” AT&T Bell
and which is relevant for the MIMO system to be deployed.                                                                                                                   Laboratories, Tech. Rep. BL0112170-950615-07TM, 1995.
   A good channel model is a model that renders correctly the                                                                                                          [11] G.J. Foschini and M.J. Gans, “On limits of wireless communications in
                                                                                                                                                                            fading environments when using multiple antennas,” Wireless Personal
relevant aspects of the MIMO system to be deployed.                                                                                                                         Communications, vol. 6, pp. 311–335, 1998.
   If no specific channel property is in focus, a good MIMO
channel model reflects the spatial structure of the channel in

				
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