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Running head: Integrating disability content




    Integrating curriculum content on disability within Social Work Practice: Tools for
                                  curriculum building.

                 Elaine Jurkowski, MSW, PhD1,2 and Patricia Welch, MSSA3

A PRESENTATION TO THE CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION
                              OF
                    SCHOOLS OF SOCIAL WORK

                                           Montpellier, France
                                             July 17, 2002
                                       1
                                         Corresponding author
                          2
                              Assistant Professor, School of Social Work
                                        College of Education
                               Southern Illinois University Carbondale
                                              M/C 4329
                                  Carbondale, Illinois 62901-4329
                                       (618) 453-1200 (phone)
                                         (618) 453-4291 (fax)
                                          etjurkow@siu.edu
                                           3
                                       Doctoral Student
                         George Warren Brown School of Social Work
                                   Washington University
                               Box 1196, One Brookings Drive
                                 St. Louis, MO 63130-4899


                 Key Words: Disability, social work education, curricula issues
                                                                                                 2
                                          ABSTRACT

    Integrating curriculum content on disability within Social Work Practice: Tools for
                                   curriculum building.
                  Elaine Jurkowski, MSW, PhD and Patricia Welch, MSSA

Advocacy efforts, including those from social workers, have led to increased initiatives and

community integration of people with disabilities. Liese, Clevenger & Hanley (1999) have

identified needs for curriculum development and training within Schools of Social Work, but

limited their scope to people with developmental disabilities. DeWeaver & Kropf (1992) also

identified the need to infuse curriculum, looking specifically at the HBSE sequence rather than

opportunities to work across curricula. DePoy & Miller (1996) reviewed programs taught by

accredited Schools of Social Work, in the United states, for disability content, targeting specific

aspects of developmental disabilities. The assumption that disability content is infused across all

disabilities types and throughout the core content areas within the social work curricula is based

upon the standards for accreditation set forward by the Council on Social Work Education

(CSWE) and the Canadian Association on Social Work Education (CASSW). Jurkowski and

Welch (2000) identified curriculum needs for Social Work education specifically related to

disability content in North America through a virtual survey sent to all accredited Schools of

Social Work in the United States (n-491) and Canada (n=32) during the 1999/2000 academic

year. Findings suggest that there is a need to integrate disability content into social work

curricula across all sequences. This paper outlines a model and tools which can be used to

integrate disability content into social work curricula, and deal with aspects of diversity related

to functionality and disability related goals. Curriculum suggestions and strategies for infusion

into social work curricula will also be outlined in this paper. The model provides valuable

information which can guide the overall development of curricula which can improve social
                                                                                             3
work students; knowledge, attitude, and ability to interact with issues related to ability and

impairment.    Advocacy efforts, ensuring the rights of, and empowerment of people with

disabilities can only result from trained social work professionals.
                                                                                                  4
Introduction

       Advocacy efforts, including those from social workers, have led to increased initiatives

on behalf of individuals with disabilities as well as to their integration in the community.

Despite the progress and the growth in disability rights, individuals with disabilities face ongoing

social problems, such as stigma and discrimination (Fine & Asch, 1988; Gray & Hahn, 1997).

Consequently, there exists a need for social work professionals to work with individuals with

disabilities (Mackelprang & Salsgiver, 1999). According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census

(1997), accelerated growth of individuals with disability can be expected in the future due to the

aging population and the increased likelihood of having a disability with age. Consequently, it is

highly likely that the need for social work services will increase in conjunction with the

increasing disability population.

       Over the last several decades, there has been an important shift in the approach toward

interventions and individuals with disabilities from a medical model to a strengths-based and

independence-oriented perspective. Although the European era of enlightenment from the mid-

1970's conveyed the notion that people with disabilities could be perfected, Macklesprang &

Salsgiver (1996) suggested that this era led to the development of a perspective which shed light

on disability/impairment but led to a perspective of isolation, rather than inclusion.         This

isolation was fueled by the “medicalization of disability,” a model which works in direct contrast

with a strengths perspective.

       Components of the strengths-based approach include independence and least restrictive

environment, two concepts extended from the civil rights and human rights movements of the

1960s (Wolfensberger, 1972; DeJong, 1979). Social workers generally view their clients or

consumers from the vantage point of empowerment, and opportunities for self-determinism.
                                                                                             5
Similarly, the independent living perspective views the client-consumer from the vantage point

of personal decision making rather than passivity, empowerment rather than powerlessness, and

places a strong emphasis upon individual strength and control. It is this “strength and control”

which have facilitated social and political change.

               A strengths-based perspective to social work intervention recognizes that human

service practitioners focus on capabilities, capacities and opportunities instead of impairments or

disabilities (Cowger, 1994; Early & GlenMaye, 2000; Saleebey, 1992). Believing that

individuals have the capacity for success despite their “frailties,” the strengths-based approach

considers the strengths that individuals contribute to situations. Miley, O’Melia & Dubois

(1995) described the empowerment intervention mode to focus on three areas: client strengths,

neighborhood /community resources that exist within one’s own system and a vision that

solutions are possible. The social workers’ goal in the process and outcomes of empowerment is

to increase control over one’s social and organizational environment. Consequently, in order to

effectively meet and facilitate a strengths-based approach when working with people who have

disabilities, social workers must be exposed to policy and practice related issues regarding

disability during their professional training and development (Chapin, 1995).

       There has been an evolution of thinking relative to how persons with disabilities are

perceived in society, over time, which seems to follow some specific conceptual models.

Originally, people with disabilities or impairments were perceived to be victims of “illness”, as

conceptualized by a medical model. This same approach also guided the development of several

welfare schemes and long term disability type programs/policies. The expansion to incorporate

the notion of rehabilitation and idea that people could consider alternatives to their lifestyles

despite impairment evolved post World War II, when returning servicemen expected that they

could resume active lives in their communities, despite their impairments. These rights, were
                                                                                   6
perceived as essential compensation for their “honorable service” which rendered the

impairments (Jurkowski, 1997). DeJong’s independent living paradigm (1979) extended this

conceptual model to include independent living and community based options, as the norm, for

people living with impairments and disabilities. DeJong’s contributions set the stage for

inclusivity, rather than exclusion of people with impairments from society, and was a response to

civil rights activists who sought to ensure that the rights and lives of people with disabilities

could be maintained within their home based communities (Wolfensburger, 1974).

        Independent living and assisted living concepts focus on autonomy, independence,

personal dignity, and privacy worldwide. Both attempt to enhance capabilities so individuals

with disabilities can remain as independent as possible within the community. Consequently,

social workers will need exposure through their professional development and educational

process to assure that professionals have the awareness and competencies required adequately

serving people with disabilities and responding to this mission. Advocacy efforts, including those

from social workers, will lead to increased initiatives and community integration of people with

disabilities.

        Liese, Clevenger & Hanley (1999) have identified needs for curriculum development and

training within Schools of Social Work, but limited their scope to people with developmental

disabilities. DeWeaver & Kropf (1992) also identified the need to infuse curriculum, looking

specifically at the HBSE sequence rather than opportunities to work across curricula. DePoy &

Miller (1996) reviewed programs taught by accredited Schools of Social Work, in the United

states, for disability content, targeting specific aspects of developmental disabilities. Jurkowski

and Welch (2000) identified curriculum needs for Social Work education specifically related to

disability content in North America through a virtual survey sent to all accredited Schools of

Social Work in the United States (n-491) and Canada (n=32) during the 1999/2000 academic
                                                                                                   7
year. Their findings suggested that there is a need to integrate disability content into social work

curricula across all sequences. Based on these needs a model which presents some key elements

related to disability to infuse in a curricula, has been developed. This model has been developed

along with a variety of tools and resources which can be integrated across the lifespan to address

issues related to disability and impairment in social work education. The balance of this paper

will provide an overview of the model and some excepts of a “toolkit” resource guide developed

by the authors for use when integrating content about disability through social work curricula.

The model provides valuable information which can guide the overall development of curricula

which can improve social work students; knowledge, attitude, and ability to interact with issues

related to ability and impairment. Advocacy efforts, ensuring the rights of, and empowerment of

people with disabilities can only result from trained social work professionals.

       The Evolution process.

       The late Alan Meyers (1999) identified areas of need for disability content within public

health curricula and education, and examined how disability was represented within the core

content areas in Schools of Public Health.Jurkowski and Welch (2000) expanded on Meyers

work, and identified curriculum needs for Social Work education specifically related to disability

content in North America through a “virtual” survey approach. Through this approach, an

electronic survey was sent sent to all accredited Schools of Social Work in the United States (n-

491) and Canada (n=32) during the 1999/2000 academic year. Rosters of Schools and their

respective email lists were found on the websites for both the Council on Social Work Education

and Canada Association of Schools of Social Work. Schools responded to an electronic survey

and in addition to their electronic versions of responses, also forwarded paper copies of their

syllabi which were examples to highlight how disability content was infused in the curricula. The
                                                                                                 8
initial quantitative findings suggested that there was a need to integrate disability content into

social work curricula across all sequences.

        A qualitative thematic review of syllabi forwarded to authors in the “Disability Content”

study (2000) were reviewed by the authors. The qualitative study was conducted using 46 syllabi

from courses taught in both Canada and the United States.

        Findings



       

    

        syllabi were noted. These included a lack of integration of content related to disability

within the specific core content areas in Social Work (Policy, Practice, HBSE, Research &

Field); resources available in local communities such as independent living resource centers,

Disability studies programs, linkages between urban and rural programs and practioners were

often excluded and not utlized as resources. Gaps in curricula/syllabi included the need to

address atabases for planning at micro, meso and macro levels; case studies in order to infuse

disability content across all core competencies within social work education; policy related

materials; and information regarding different paradigms of community involvement such as

“medical modela” social models and rehabilitation models of care.

        Jurkowski and Welch (2001) extended this work to identify a model and “blueprint” for

    use in the development of curricula content strategies within social work and public health

    education. This blueprint can also be helpful when working with Social Work Faculty to

    develop curricula which will address or contain content related to disability and impairment.
                                                                                                    9
     A overview of the items is available in Table 1. In addition, this qualitative investigation led

     rise to the development of a series of resource tools which are also highlighted in this paper.



         Table 1:

         A Blueprint of items to include about disability within Social Work Curricula.

                        Name of Course:

        Content Area:

Directions: Check if item is included, covered, and/or discussed in the syllabus. Comment on
      how each item is incorporated into syllabus (reading, assignment, and classroom discussion).


Ite     Item Description                       Check                   Qualitative Comments
m                                               Box
1a      Definition(s) of disability
1b      Need for standard definition
2a      Measurement of disability
2b      Disability statistics
3a      Classification systems
3b      WHO - International classification of impairment, disability and handicap (ICIDH)
3c      Person-in-environment (PIE)
4a      Varying models of disability
4b      Medical model
4c      Rehabilitation model
4d      Social or psycho-social model
4e      Political or socio-political model
4f      Economic model
4g      Independent living model
4h      Strengths model
4h      Shift away from the person to the person AND the environment

5a      Key terminology and concepts
5b      Functioning
5c      Disability/impairment
5d      Activity
5e      Participation/Environment
5f      Capacity/Performance
5g      Assistive technology
5h      Personal assistance
                                            10
6a   Discrimination, prejudice, stigma
6b   Advocacy and empowerment
6c   Disability rights movement
6d   Legislation related to disability
7    Resources for disability information
     (Readings, videos, web sites etc).
                                                                                              11



        The items identified within this blueprint were outgrowths of the qualitative analysis

which identified a range of themes, and an integration of the literature published on disability.

While this blueprint had been developed, the authors also saw the need to develop a series of

tools which could be integrated into Social Work curricula about disability.

Tools to address these gaps:

        In response for the need to develop materials related to impairment and functioning, the

authors developed a user friendly workbook entitled: “The Dawn of a New Century:

Integrating people with disabilities into communities”. The workbook is comprised of three

models and within each of the modules one can find a guide to internet resources, guide to

films about disability, resources/references to include a series of books and articles and

curriculum suggestions. These resources can be useful globally and locally in order to integrate

information about disability and impairment into social work curricula. Some of the highlights

of the modules include:

A. Historical and Social trends: This module includes an overview of trends occurring within

    social, economic and political arenas over the past 100 years and a review of legislation

    developed related to disability over the past century in North America. It also compares and

    contrasts the dearth of resources dedicated to disability, in comparison with other areas of

    development.

B.Data bases for secondary date and sources of data which include: One module contains a

    variety of resources and resource links for secondary data sites. The sample pages from the

    manual which follows provides an example of the links included.

C. A bibliography of resources and current literature.

The following pages provide an overview of some of the pages from the workbook, and
                                                                                           12
samples of materials.




       
                                         Module I
The Dawn of a New Century: Social, economic, and political trends impacting disability.


Objectives:

At the end of this module participants will:
i) be able to identify how social, economic and political trends have affected community
inclusion for people with disabilities; and
ii) understand the role of social workers in the process of building strengths at micro, meso,
and macro levels to support people with disabilities.




Developed by Elaine Jurkowski, MSW, PhD.
13
                                                                                           14
                                        ABSTRACT

Major shifts in legislation, technology, and education have changed our nation’s demographic
composition. Social, political, and economic factors since the Kennedy Administration have
played a significant role in these changes. Legislation, such as Individuals with Disability
Education Act (IDEA) and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has facilitated community
inclusion across the life span. Programs, such as Medicaid and Medicare, have also led to
inclusive communities with consumers in need of accommodations. The impacts of these
factors will be highlighted in terms of their implications for social work intervention. While
social workers have been prepared traditionally to work with people across race, gender, and
class lines, social work education has not yet addressed skill development in the area of
disability. This module concludes with the need for social work education and training to
respond to these demographic shifts.
                                                                                            15




                                         Module II
The Dawn of a New Century: The role of social workers in building strengths for people
                                with disabilities.


Objective:

At the end of this module participants will understand the role of continuing social work
education in the process of building clinical and practice based competencies.




Developed by Elaine Jurkowski and Patricia Welch.
                                                                                           16

                                        ABSTRACT

Over the past century the profession of social work has evolved their professional role and
expanded their services. Traditionally, the profession ministered to individuals, groups, and
families within a non-institutional setting. The deinstitutionalization movement began the era
of community living for people with disabilities. This coupled with Civil Rights Legislation,
community accommodations, and a community-living model have resulted in an increased
community census of people with disabilities. Recent findings from a virtual based survey to
Schools of Social Work in the United States and Canada have concluded that fewer than 35%
of schools provide training or focus on interventions for people with disabilities or require
accommodations. Findings indicate a relative dearth of content related to advocacy, health
care, and disability. This dearth of training seriously impacts the success of the social work
practitioner. This section will conclude with the resources needed in order to better equip
social workers to build strengths for individuals and communities in response to those with
disabilities.
                                                                                             17




                                        Module III
   The Dawn of a New Century: Strategies and tools for a strengths-based approach to
           individual and community practice for people with disabilities.



Objective:

At the end of this module participants will be comfortable with some practice based strategies
which can build strengths within practice/community when working with people with
disabilities.




Developed by Elaine Jurkowski and Patricia Welch.
                                                                                           18
                                        ABSTRACT

Findings indicate (Jurkowski, Welch, 2000) advocacy and empowerment for people with
disabilities will result from trained social work professionals and lead to a more equitable
society. This presentation will provide information useful for developing skills in working
with people with disabilities. Specific resources will be provided to the audience, which will
address knowledge, attitude, and behavior. These resources will be useful at micro, messo and
macro levels to implement change and promote a strengths based approach to individual and
community practice for people with disabilities.
                                                                                            19

Selected Resource List on Materials related to Disabilities/Aging

Adolescence

        Boyce, G.C., Marshall, E.S. & Peters, M. (1999). Daily stressors, coping responses and
uplifts of adolescents with disabilities. Education and training in mental retardation and
developmental disabilities. 34, (4), 406-417.

       Daniels, V.I., Vaughn, S. (1999). A tool to encourage “best practice” in full inclusion.
Teaching Exceptional Children. 31, (5), 48-62.

        Hasazi, S.B., Gordon, L.R., & Roe, C. (1985). Factors associated with the employment
status of handicapped youth exiting high school from 1979-1983. Exceptional Children. 51,
(6), 455-469.

       Thoma, C.A. (1999). Supporting student vices in transition planning.          Teaching
Exceptional Children, 31, (5), 4-14.

Advocacy

       Amado, A.N., (1996). Two views on self-advocacy: How self-advocates can support
national and local organizations. Mental Retardation. (August). 254-256.

      Forest, M. & Pearpoint, J. (1997). Practical and useful tools for change. TASH
Newsletter, 23. (5). 13-15.

       Miller, A. & Keys, C.B. (1996). Awareness, action, and collaboration: How the self-
advocacy movement is empowering for persons with developmental disabilities. Mental
Retardation. 34. (5). 312-319.

        O’Brien, C.L., O’Brien, J., & Mount, B. (1997). Person centered planning has
arrived.... or has it?” Mental Retardation. 33. (4). 480-483.

         Tease, C. (1997). Self-determination: A family perspective. TASH Newsletter, 23. (10).
12-14.

Aging and Disability

       Fast, B. & Chapin, R. (1996). The strengths model in long term care: Linking cost
containment and consumer empowerment. Journal of Case Management, 5, (2), 51-57.

      Heller, T., & Factor, A. (1993). Aging family caregivers: Support resources and
changes in burden and placement desire. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 98, (3),
417-426.
                                                                                           20
Books on Films & Disability

      The Cinema of Isolation: A history of physical disability in the movies. Martin F.
Norden ISBN 0-8135-2104-1

      Framed: Interrogating Disability in the Media, Edited by Ann Pointon with Chris
Davies ISBN 0-85170-600-2

       Disability Drama in Television and Film. Lauri E. Klobas

       Images of the disabled, disabling images. A & Joe Gartner (Eds.)

       The Creatures Time Forgot: Photography and disability imagery. David Hevey

      Hollywood Speaks: Deafness and the Film Entertainment Industry. John S.
Schuchman

Popular Films:
       - As good as it gets.
       - Awakenings
       - Best years of our lives
       - Beyond Silence.
       - Born on the 4th of July.
       - Boys in the Hood.
       - Children of a Lesser God.
       - Coming Home.
       - Elephant Man
       - Forest Gump.
       - Hover of Cards.
       - Hunchback of Notre Dame (original, not the Disney Version!)..
       - Immortal Beloved.
       - It’s a Wonderful Life.
       - Jean de Florette.
       - Lorenzo’s Oil
       - The Man Without a Face.
       - Marvin’s Room.
       - Miracle Worker.
       - My Left Foot.
       - Nell.
       - Nottinghill.
       - One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest.
       - Ordinary People.
       - Other Side of the Mountain.
                                                                                     21
Selected Websites


Structural Factors:
Luxembourg Income Study:
   International Labor Organization:
   International Social Security Association:
   UN Development Programs:
   United Nations:
   NGONet - Central and Eastern Europe:
   The World Bank: Social Security Programs Throughout the World:
   Social Security in Other Countries:
   Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development:
Demographic and Social Indicators:
    Census and Demographic Data: http://www.census.gov International Data Base:
http://www.unesco.org/geneal/eng/infoserv/index.html
Children:
    Child Welfare League: http://www.cwla.org/
    Children’s Defense Fund: http://www.childrensdenfense.org/
    UNICEF: http://www.unicef.org/statis
    National Center for Children in Poverty: http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/nccp
Health:
    UNAIDS: http://www.aidsnyc.org/
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov
    World Health Organization: http://www.who.int
Social Development:
    http://www.worldbank.org/data/databytopic/databytopic.html
    http://www.worldbank.org/html/extdr/regions.htm
    http://www.worldbank.org/html/extdr/toc.html.
Internet resources:
        - http:ww.disabilityresources.org/STATISTICS.html
  http://www.makoa.org
  http://census.gov/hhes/www/disability.html
  http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/nhis_dis/nhis_dis.htm
  http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/otheract/aging/trendsoverview.htm
  http:www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/elecannounc/nchslists.htm
International resources:
        - ICIDH2: http:www.who.int/icidh/
     World Health Organization: http://www.who.int/home-page/
     Research Archive on Disability:
     http://www.socio.com/data_arc/radius_0.htm 
                                                                                            22

References:

Chapin, R.K. (1995). Social policy development: The strengths perspective. Social
Work, 40 (4), 506-514.
        Cowger, C. D. (1994). Assessing client strengths: Clinical assessment for client
empowerment. Social Work, 39(3), 262-269.
DeJong, G. (1979). Independent living: From social movement to analytic paradigm.
Archive of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 60, 435-446.
DePoy, E., & Miller, M. (1996). Preparation of social workers for serving individuals
with developmental disabilities: A brief report. Mental Retardation, 34(1), 54-57.
DeWeaver, K.L., & Kropf, N.P. (1992). Persons with mental retardation: A forgotten
minoritin education. Journal of Social Work Education, 28(1), 36-46.
Early, T.J., & GlenMaye, L.F. (2000). Valuing families: Social work practice with
families from a strengths perspective. Social Work, 45(2), 118-130.
Fine, M., & Asch, A. (1988). Disability beyond stigma: Social interaction, discrimination,
and activism. Journal of Social Issues, 44(1), 3-21.
Gray, D., & Hahn, H. (1997). Achieving occupational goals: The social effects of
stigma. In C.Christiansen & C. Baum (Eds.), Enabling function and well-being (pp. 393-409).
Thorofare, NJ: SLACK.
        Jurkowski, E. & Welch, T. (2000) Status of disability content in social work curricula:
A cross-national comparison. Proceedings: International Federation of Social Workers &
International Association of Schools of Social Work: PROCEEDINGS Joint Conference,
Montréal, Québec, Canada, July 29 - August 2, 2000. Online:
[http://www.arcaf.net/social_work_proceedings/abstracts5/Jurkowski
        Liese, H., Clevenger, R., & Hanley, B. (1999). Joining university affiliated programs
and schools of social work: A collaborative model for disabilities curriculum development and
training. Journal of Social Work Education, 35(1), 63-69.
        Mackelprang, R., & Salsgiver, R., (1999). Disability: A diversity model approach to
human service practice. CA: Brooks Cole Publishers.
        Mackelprang, R., & Salsgiver, R.O. (1996). People with disabilities and social work:
Historical and conceptual issues. Social Work, 41(1), 7-14.
        Miley, K.K., O’Melia, M., & Dubois, B.L. (1995). Generalist social work practice: An
empowering approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
        Saleeby, D. (Ed.). (1992). The strengths perspective in social work practice. New York:
Longman.
        U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1997). Disabilities affect one-fifth of all Americans:
Proportion could increase in coming decades (Census Brief No. 97-5). Washington, DC:
Government Printing Office.
        Wolfensberger, W. (1972). Citizen advocacy for the handicapped, impaired, and
disadvantaged : An overview. Washington, DC: President's Committee on Mental Retardation
        World Health Organization. (2000). International classification of functioning,
disability, and health (ICIDH-2) prefinal version. [On-line]. Available:
http://www.who.int/icidh/prefinaldec2000.htm

				
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