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					Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                              TIES 2004




            Come Explore Cox Arboretum!




                           Developed by:
  Rachel Sanders, Springfield South H. S., Biotechnology/Biology
  Steve Bleything, Springfield South H. S., Biotechnology/Biology




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                       TIES 2004




                              Table of Contents

                                                    Page

Curriculum Unit Overview - narrative                  3

Summary Chart                                         4

Section One
      Science                                         5


Section Two
      English                                        17


Section Three
      Computer Technology                            22


Transfer Activity                                    28
      Oral Presentation

Appendix A                                           31
     Helpful Websites

Appendix B
     References                                      31




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                       TIES 2004



                          Come Explore Cox Arboretum!
                            Curriculum Unit Overview
Summary

This collection of laboratory experiments was designed during a TIES experience at Cox
Arboretum. The purpose of this unit is to allow Cox Arboretum to become a better
educational resource for high schools and enhance the learning process. These experiments
will allow students to explore and practice following precise laboratory instructions, taking
accurate measurements, collecting data, using various lab equipment, and technological
equipment. These skills are necessary in numerous occupations and steps can be taken
during high school to provide opportunities for students to begin developing some of these
skills. This collection of labs is designed for grades 10-12 in biotechnology, biology, and
environmental courses.

Big Picture

Students often have difficulty understanding the connection between science curriculum and
the “real world”. The “hook” activities will be the opportunity to complete laboratory
experiments at Cox Arboretum. Students will be able to gain applicable experiences by
being placed in teams to follow specific instructions, accurately collect data, and effectively
communicate results.

Preparation for the Unit

•   Find 10-15 articles relating to water quality in ponds, streams, wetlands, bacteria, etc.
•   Make photocopies of all lab sheets and handouts.
•   Schedule classroom time in computer labs with MS Office (if applicable).
•   Schedule time at Cox Arboretum (classroom is available).
•   Make a list of needed supplies and laboratory equipment from each of the selected labs
    and handouts.
•   Secure needed equipment (laptop, projector) for PowerPoint presentation (if desired).
•   It is assumed that the instructor knows basic spectrophotometry operation, and how to
    use MS PowerPoint and Excel.

Overview

On the following page is a summary of the unit including brief summaries of each of the
competencies that must be taught before students approach the culminating, or transfer,
activity. The individual competencies, or skills and concepts, within single subject areas that
must be addressed can be considered building blocks for the transfer activity. The skills and
competencies are “transferred” to a new, less defined, more open-ended context. The
individual competencies, or building blocks, should be, as much as possible, “Authentic
Learning Tasks” (ALTs), meaning that the competencies should be taught in as realistic a
way as possible to reflect the application of the skills in a real life, or workplace, context.


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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                                       TIES 2004


The summary table on the next page provides an overview of the tasks in the unit sections
(ALTs), and shows how the activities in the different subject areas relate to each other.
Demonstration and application of the individual subject area competencies are required for
the student to effectively complete the transfer, or culminating, activity.

Curriculum Unit Summary
                  Come Explore Cox Arboretum!
            Science                                 English                    Computer Technology

ALT 1: Water Quality                   ALT 4: Formal Lab Report              ALT 5: Spreadsheet
Students will learn 8 water            Any of ALT’s 1-3 will be utilized      Students will learn to organize,
quality tests utilized to answer the   to write a comprehensive formal       graph and analyze previously
question: Are geese effecting the      lab report that students will learn   collected data from any of ALT’s
water quality of ponds?                to write in IB format.                1-3 using MS Excel.
ALT 2: Spectrophotometry                                                     ALT 6: PowerPoint
Determine the nature of the green                                            Information and analysis from
color of plants and the absorption                                           any of ALT’s 1-5 are presented
spectrum of chloroplast pigment                                              using MS PowerPoint.
solution utilizing learned
spectrophotometry techniques.
ALT 3: Microbiology
Microbe culture, isolation, and
identification in cultivated garden
areas will be learned and
practiced.


                           Transfer or Culminating Activity or Project

Oral Presentation: Any of ALT’s 1-6 can be utilized for oral presentation. The connections between
ALT’s 1-3 and ALT’s 4-6 are made as information is collected and analyzed. Then as information is
organized for presentation, the student gains higher understanding by moving the concepts to a higher level
of Bloom’s taxonomy (teaching it to someone else).




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                         TIES 2004



Section One: Science

ALT 1: Water Quality

Summary

This activity will introduce students to fundamental aspects of water quality through
experimental measurement of pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate,
temperature, ammonia and chlorine. Students will use these measurements to conclude if the
pond is affected by the presence of geese.

Competencies

•   Demonstrate proper laboratory safety techniques.
•   Use a systematic method of conducting an investigation based on observation,
    hypothesis, measurement, experimentation and theory building.
•   Enhance team-building skills to complete a task.
•   Create spreadsheets and graphs to effectively record and communicate data.

Time

This activity will last approximately 2-3 hours to allow for 3 trials of all chemical tests to be
completed on each pond.

Materials

LaMotte Deluxe Water Quality Test Kit
(Includes all materials/procedures for chemical tests)
Distilled Water
Waste Container
Gloves
Goggles
Lab Coats
Student Handout


Instructions

    1. Refer to the manufacturer’s instructions within the LaMotte Deluxe Water Quality
       Test Kit to perform pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate, temperature,
       ammonia and chlorine.
    2. Record data results in the student handout #1.
    3. All waste from chemical tests needs to be placed into a waste container when
       complete.



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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                     TIES 2004


Evaluation/Assessment of Student’s Competency

•   Demonstration of proper lab safety.
•   Participation in lab group.
•   Create spreadsheets and graphs to express data collection.

Closure

Closure of this lesson will occur through class discussion of how scientific method applies to
everyday life. Discuss adequate values to maintain a healthy pond environment. Students
will discuss the outcome of the lab experiment. Explain to the students that they are
practicing the scientific method to solve an environmental issue and to effectively
communicate accurate data. The next step is to continue practicing scientific processes and
effective communication skills.




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                        TIES 2004


Come Explore Cox Arboretum ALT One: Handout One

Water Quality Student Data Sheet
Team Members: _____________________________________________ Date: __________


                     Pond with Geese Population   Pond without Geese Population
      Test
                    Trial 1   Trial 2   Trial 3    Trial 1    Trial 2   Trial 3
Temperature
pH
Dissolved O2
Chlorine
Ammonia
Nitrate-Nitrogen
Phosphate
Coliforms




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                      TIES 2004



Section One: Science (cont’d)

ALT 2: Spectrophotometry

Summary

In this activity students will determine the nature of the green color of plants and the
absorption spectrum of a chloroplast solution. Students will demonstrate chromatography
and spectrophotometry techniques.

Competencies

   1. Demonstrate proper lab safety procedures.
   2.   Demonstrate proper chromatography and spectrophotometry techniques.
   3.   Describe how organisms acquire and release energy through photosynthesis.
   4.   Describe the visible spectrum and why chlorophyll is green.

Time

This activity will take approximately two-three hours to complete.

Materials

10 leaves of given tree              600mL or 1000mL beaker
Two 100mL beakers                    Hot Plate
Acetone                              Solvent (1 part acetone to 9 parts petroleum ether)
Distilled Water                      Chromatography paper
Ethanol 95%                          Large Test Tubes (4 or 5)
Test Tubes with corks                Filter Paper and Funnel
Thumbtacks                           Spectrophotometer
Graduated Cylinder

Instructions
Part A: Extracting Pigments from Leaves
   1. Collect ten large leaves from a tree. Combine leaves with approximately 200 mL of
      acetone in a large beaker. Let stand for 15 to 20 minutes with occasional gentle
      stirring.
   2. Carefully drain off the acetone and set it aside. Add approximately 100mL of 95%
      ethanol to the leaves and let it stand, with occasional stirring, for an additional 10
      minutes.
   3. Drain off the ethanol and combine it with the acetone extract. Filter the combined
      extract solution using the filter paper/funnel assembly.



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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                       TIES 2004


   Part B: Separating the Pigments by Chromatogram
   1. Cut strips of chromatography paper or filter paper to fit into the large test tubes.
   2. Using scissors, taper the bottoms of each strip to a point.
   3. Attach the strips to corks with thumbtacks and position so the strips just touch the
      bottom of the large test tube.
   4. Prepare four chromatogram chambers by adding 0.5 cm of solvent in the bottoms of
      the large test tubes. Support the test tubes upright in a rack or beaker.
   5. Prepare four chromatogram strips by adding the extracted pigment one drop at a time
      to a point 1 cm from the tip of the paper. Allow each drop to dry before applying
      another. Apply 20-30 drops to each strip.
   6.    Position the prepared chromatogram strips in the test tubes so the pointed end just
        reaches the solvent. Do not let the pigment spot touch the solvent.
   7. Do not disturb the tubes until the solvent has almost reached the top of the strip, then
      remove the strips from the test tubes and allow them to dry.
   8. Examine the chromatograms for the presence of different bands of color. Each band
      contains a different pigment.
           a. Orange…………………Carotene
           b. Yellow………………...Xanthophyll
           c. Bright Green…………..Chlorophyll a
           d. Dull or Khaki Green…..Chlorophyll b
   9. Cut out the strips containing chlorophyll a, place them in a test tube and cover with a
      small amount (7 to 10 mL) of the solvent used earlier.
   10. Allow to stand until the color has come out of the strips into the solvent. Remove
      the filter paper. The resulting solution is the chlorophyll a extract you will be using
      for the spectral analysis. If this solution is to be stored it should be held on ice or
      refrigerated in an opaque container until use.


Part D: Spectral Analysis
   1. Using spectrophotometer, scan the samples from 340nm to 760nm. Use the
      developing solvent as the blank for zeroing the instrument at each new wavelength
      setting.
   2. Record the scanning data on the student handout.
   3. Plot the absorption spectrum on a graph.




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                      TIES 2004


Evaluation/Assessment of Student’s Competency

•   Demonstrate proper lab safety skills.
•   Participation during the laboratory.
•   Participation in class discussion.
•   Written responses on student handout.


Closure

Closure of this lesson will occur through class discussion on how measurements are
significant components of the experimental design and the importance of accurate
measurement skills for use in the workforce. Further discussion will lead into necessary
communication skills for the workforce in order to incorporate into the transfer activity.




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                      TIES 2004


Come Explore Cox Arboretum ALT Two: Handout One

Spectrophotometry Data Table


Team Members: _____________________________________________ Date: __________

Wavelength         Sample 1       Sample 2       Sample 3       Sample 4
  (nm)           (Absorbance)   (Absorbance)   (Absorbance)   (Absorbance)
    340
    360
    380
    400
    420
    440
    460
    480
    500
    520
    540
    560
    580
    600
    620
    640
    660
    680
    700
    720




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                       TIES 2004



Section One: Science (cont’d)

ALT 3: Microbiology

Summary

Students will obtain bacterial samples from cultivated garden areas, isolate them, and
identify them by a variety of characteristics including Gram’s Staining.

Competencies

1. Students will learn to obtain bacterial samples
2. Students will learn to isolate bacterial colonies.
3. Students will learn proper techniques for Gram’s staining.
4.   Students will learn to identify bacterial species (optional).
5.   Students will learn and practice lab safety.
6.   Students will learn and practice good student behavior in a laboratory setting.
* Level of competency for each will be determined by rubric (see enclosed).

Time

Part 1: Obtaining bacterial samples: Approximately ½ hour.
Part 2: Inoculated streak plates will need to incubate at room temperature between 48 and 72
hours, or overnight in a 37 degree Celsius incubator. The process of isolation of bacterial
cultures will take approximately ½ hour.
Part 3: Gram’s staining bacterial colonies: Approximately 1 hour.
Part 4: Identification of bacterial species: Time will vary greatly depending on the kit
selected (see procedures). Follow manufacturer’s guidelines.

Materials

Part 1: Obtaining bacterial samples:
1. Sterile cotton Q-tips (or similar)
2. Sterile agar plates (Petri dishes w/ nutrient media)
3. Disposable latex gloves.
4. Sterile collection tubes filled w/ 20 mL of sterile water (this is a back up in case you need
    to re-isolate your samples).
5. Black, permanent marker
6. A proper receptacle for disposing of gloves, swabs, tubes, and plates after use.



Part 2: Isolation of pure bacterial cultures:


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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                          TIES 2004


1.   Sterile swabs or toothpicks
2.   Bunsen burner
3.   Metal inoculating loop
4.   Incubator set at 37 degrees Celsius.
5.   Extra agar plates for practicing technique.

Part 3: Gram’s staining bacterial colonies:
1. Microscope
2. Glass microscope slide.
3. Inoculating loop
4. Bunsen burner
5. Distilled water
6. Crystal violet dye
7. Gram’s iodine solution
8. Alcohol
9. Safranin

Part 4: Identifying bacterial species: (optional)
1. Bacterial identification kit of your choice. Kits are available from biological supply
companies. One example is the Enterotube II; a marker sized device that contains an
inoculating wire running through 12 separate agar-filled chambers that perform 15 different
biochemical tests. Kits are sold in batches of 25 and are manufactured by Becton Dickinson.
For more information regarding this kit call 1-800-638-8663. Many of these types of kits are
available.

Instructions

Part 1: Obtaining bacterial samples:
1. Select locations in cultivated garden areas to be sampled. A mixture of plant and soil
   samples should be utilized. Be sure to exercise care not to disturb the gardens.
2. Determine beforehand how many samples each group will take. It is useful to have at
   least one sample per individual.
3. For each sample taken, put on a pair of gloves. Dip a sterile swab into the dirt, or rub it
   against the plant on all parts of the swab. Then, lightly rub the end of the swab onto a
   sterile agar plate, as though painting a line.
4. Carefully dip the same swab into a water-filled sampling tube. This gives you a backup
   in case your first plate culture doesn’t work out.
5. Mark plate and tube with date, location, and initials to keep track of culture.




Part 2: Isolating a pure bacterial culture:


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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                      TIES 2004


1. From the line streaked onto the surface of your plate, you can try one of two techniques
   to separate them:
   A. Use a second sterile cotton swab or sterile toothpick to touch a portion of the line on
      your plate and gently streak it across the plate in zigzag pattern. Or:
   B. Back at the lab, take a sterile inoculating loop (loop is made sterile by passing it
      through flame of Bunsen burner, then cooled) and dip the loop into the culture of
      microbes. Then streak this in a pattern over the surface of the agar plate. The
      inoculating loop is then sterilized following each streak series. As the pattern is
      traced, bacteria are rubbed off the loop onto the medium. The last cells to be rubbed
      off the loop should be far enough apart to grow into isolated colonies.
2. Streaked plates are then incubated overnight at 37 degrees Celsius. Selected colonies can
   then be picked up from these plates with a sterile inoculating loop and transferred to
   separate agar plates or culture tubes (such as tryptic soy agar slants or tubes filled with
   Luria broth) to form a pure culture. Once you have obtained a pure bacterial culture, you
   are ready to stain your microorganism.


Part 3: Gram’s staining bacterial colonies:
1. Put on gloves. Use caution not to get gloved hands near flame as they can melt to
   your skin. After pure culture is obtained, microorganism is fixed to a microscope slide
   using an inoculating loop as follows: flame the loop then allow it to cool, dip loop into
   pure culture medium, place a small drop of distilled water on the slide and smear the
   inoculating loop in the drop.
2. Allow the smear to dry, or heat fix the slide by carefully passing it through flame (do not
   “boil” slide, allow it to cool for an instant after each pass.
3. Cover the smear with crystal violet for 30 secs. Because the purple stain imparts its color
   to all cells, it is called a primary stain. Caution: when pouring liquids onto “fixed”
   slides, do not pour directly onto the sample. Rather, pour liquids onto the slide above
   the sample and allow it to gently flow onto the sample. This avoids washing away the
   sample.
4. Rinse the purple die off with distilled water, and then cover the smear with Gram’s iodine
   for 10 secs.
5. Rinse gently with distilled water. Decolorize the smear with alcohol.
6. Rinse with distilled water then cover the smear with safranin for 30 secs. Rinse the
   smear with distilled water and blot the slide dry.
7. Observe slide under a microscope. Bacteria that are gram negative will appear pink
   while those that are gram positive will appear purplish.



Part 4: Identifying bacterial species:



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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                          TIES 2004


1. Based on Gram stain, shape, and size of your colonies, discuss some of the possible
   identities of your bacterial species.
2. Follow the directions for the identification kits, if applicable. Most of the results are
   based on easily observable color changes.
3. Discuss the results. Did they match your expectations?


Evaluation/Assessment of Student’s Competency

The following rubric will be used to assess student performance: Use 1 rubric for all sections
together, or use 1 rubric for each section. Rubric may also be modified to evaluate group’s
performance.

                                       4            3          2           1                0
Student used appropriate safety      Perfect     1 minor    2 minor     Generally         Major
precautions.                                     mistake    mistakes     unsafe           safety
                                                                                         hazard
                                                                                        (remove)
Student remained on task and         Perfect     1 minor    2 minor        Very        Completely
did not disrupt.                                 mistake    mistakes    disruptive     disruptive
                                                                                        (remove)
Student maintained a positive        Perfect       1-2         3-4        Mostly           All
attitude during lab.                              minor      minor       negative       negative
                                                 display    displays
Student performed tasks              Perfect       1-2         3-4       Several        Disaster
competently/good results.                         minor      minor       Mistakes
                                                 mistakes   mistakes
Student was able to demonstrate      Perfect       1-2         3-4        Poorly          No
tasks when asked.                                 minor      minor         done        knowledge
                                                 mistakes   mistakes
Student was able to describe         Perfect       1-2         3-4        Poorly          No
associated theory when asked                      minor      minor         done        knowledge
(prompt for information given in                 mistake    mistakes
class only).

Perfect Score = 24/24. Or give 1 point for attendance for an uneven 25/25.


Closure

Summarize what uses this process has in everyday life. Discuss the blight infection that Cox
Arboretum experienced in 2003-2004. Discuss the physiological difference between Gram +
and Gram – bacteria. Provide open-ended research questions that the students could gather
answers to in the last 15 minutes of class on the internet or from a text. As an additional
activity, you could have students count colonies on bacterial plates. The next ALT in


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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                    TIES 2004


sequence could be a formal lab report, or a PowerPoint presentation discussing methods and
findings. You could at this point skip to the culminating activity of an oral presentation.




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                          TIES 2004



Section Two: English

ALT 4: Formal Lab Report

Summary

The students will create a formal lab report using the IB (International Baccalaureate) format.
They will be responsible for including the parts of the scientific method such as problem,
hypothesis, materials, procedure, data tables, graphs, discussion of results and evaluation for
improvement. The purpose of this activity is to strengthen students’ organization and
communication skills.

Competencies

•   Analyze a set of data to derive a hypothesis and apply that hypothesis to a similar
    phenomenon.
•   Apply scientific inquiry to evaluate results of scientific investigations, observations and
    theoretical models.
•   Draw logical conclusions based on scientific knowledge and evidence from
    investigations.
•   Demonstrate the ability to communicate their findings to others.

Time

This activity will take approximately 2-3 hours to complete depending upon typing ability of
students.

Materials

Topic/Laboratory Data
Computer with spreadsheet and word processing software
Printer
Paper
Student Handout/Rubric of Requirements

Instructions

            A. General Instructions
            1. All reports will be typed, 12 pt font.
            2. All reports will contain a title page that will include: Title of Report
               (centered), your name, date of experiment, your partner and the class period.
            3. All reports will be written in third person passive tense.
            4. All data tables, graphs, etc.... will contain appropriate labels, units and a title.



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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                     TIES 2004


          B. Planning a:
          1. Definition of problem or research question.
          2. Formulation of hypothesis or prediction.
          3. Selection of variables (including references as to why they are relevant).
                 i. Must include dependent and independent variables (responding and
                     manipulated).
                ii. Control must also be stated.

          C. Planning b:
          1. List of appropriate apparatus and materials.
          2. Design of a method to control variables.
          3. Design of a method to collect sufficient, relevant data.

          D. Data Collection:
              1. Collection and recording of raw data.
              2. Organization and presentation of raw data (may include tables, graphs,
                 etc.)

          E. Data Processing and Presentation
             1. Processing raw data.
             2. Presentation of processed data (calculations, statistical analysis, graphs,
                 and error analysis).

          F. Conclusion and Evaluation
              1. Drawing of conclusion from data.
              2. Evaluation of procedures and results.
              3. Improving of investigation for future (should refer back to research
                 question, experimental values compared with literature values).
         G. Manipulative Skills
              1. Carrying out techniques safely.
              2. Following instructions.


        H. Personal Skills a:
              1. Working with a team.
              2. Recognizing the contribution of others.
              3. Exchanging and integrating ideas.




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                     TIES 2004


          I. Personal Skills b:
               1. Approaching scientific investigations with self-motivation and
                  perseverance.
               2. Working in an ethical manner.
               3. Paying attention to environmental impact.

Evaluation/Assessment of Student’s Competency

•   Typed lab report assessed by a rubric.
•   Demonstrates proper grammar and spelling.

Closure

This activity is a lead into how effective communication is a major portion in the workplace
and in the world of science. Students will present scientific findings using clear language,
accurate data, appropriate graphs, tables, maps, and available technology.




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                           TIES 2004


Come Explore Cox Arboretum ALT Four: Handout One

Lab Report Requirements/Points Rubric
I. General Instructions: ________/ 10pts
       1. All reports will be typed, 12 pt font.
       2. All reports will contain a title page that will include: Title of Report (centered),
       your name, date of experiment, your partner and the class period.
       3. All reports will be written in third person passive tense.
       4. All data tables, graphs, etc.... will contain appropriate labels, units and a title.
II. Planning a: ________/10pts
       1. Definition of problem or research question.
       2. Formulation of hypothesis or prediction.
       3. Selection of variables (including references as to why they are relevant).
       4. Must include dependent and independent variables (responding and manipulated).
       5. Control must also be stated.

III. Planning b: ________/10 pts
       1. List of appropriate apparatus and materials.
       2. Design of a method to control variables.
       3. Design of a method to collect sufficient, relevant data.

IV. Data Collection: _______/10 pts
       1. Collection and recording of raw data.
       2. Organization and presentation of raw data (may include tables, graphs, etc.)

V. Data Processing and Presentation: _______/10pts
       1. Processing raw data.
       2.Presentation of processed data (calculations, statistical analysis, graphs, and error
       analysis).

VI. Conclusion and Evaluation: ________/10pts
       1. Drawing of conclusion from data.
       2. Evaluation of procedures and results.
       3. Improving of investigation for future (should refer back to research question,
       experimental values compared with literature values).
VII. Manipulative Skills: ________/5 pts
       1.Carrying out techniques safely.
       2. Following instructions.




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                    TIES 2004


VIII. Personal Skills a: ______/5 pts
       1. Working with a team.
       2. Recognizing the contribution of others.
       3. Exchanging and integrating ideas.


IX. Personal Skills b: ______/5 pts
       1. Approaching scientific investigations with self-motivation and perseverance.
       2. Working in an ethical manner.
       3. Paying attention to environmental impact.



Total: ______/75 pts




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                       TIES 2004



Section Three: Computer Technology

ALT 5: MS Excel Spreadsheet

Summary

Students will practice MS Excel techniques for basic spreadsheet entry, use of formulas to
calculate basic statistics, and a basic but useful graphing technique for comparing numbers.

Competencies

1. Students will learn to enter data on an MS Excel spreadsheet.
2. Students will learn to use formulas on spreadsheets to calculate statistics.
3. Students will use basic graphing techniques on MS Excel.

Time

This will vary greatly depending on familiarity with spreadsheets, and selected data to be
used. Range will likely fall between 20 minutes for an experienced spreadsheet maker with a
reasonable data set to over an hour for a new user with a larger data set.

Materials

1. Computer with MS Excel.
2. Data set to be used.

Instructions

1.    Determine data set to be graphed. Numerical data from ALT’s 1-3 could be used
     individually. ALT 1 provides multiple data points for each test performed. ALT 2
     provides a consecutive normal curve style graphing opportunity. ALT 3 has only colony
     count data (if performed) and will limit statistical manipulation. These instructions will
     be designed around the ALT 1 data set.
2. Open MS Excel and select a new spreadsheet. Select Save as from the file menu and
   save the spreadsheet under the same name as your title. Select cell A1, and enter a title
   for your spreadsheet. Highlight the words and click on the boldface icon to put the title
   in boldface font. You may alter the size as needed.
3. In cell A3, enter the word test. Highlight and boldface this word as well. Skip down to
   cell A4 and enter the word temperature. Continue entering all names of tests performed
   in column A.
4. Entering column headings: In cells B3-D3, enter G1, G2 and G3 for geese test 1, test 2,
   etc. In cell E3, enter G mean, and in F3, enter G Std. Dev.(standard deviation)
5. In cells G3-I3, enter NG1, NG2 and NG3 for no geese test 1, test 2, etc. In cell J3, enter
   NG mean, and in K3, enter NG Std. Dev. (standard deviation) You are now finished


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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                      TIES 2004


   entering column headings. Select save from your file menu to save your work to this
   point.
6. Entering data: You are now ready your actual test data. Your data sheet from ALT 1
   should now be set up the same as your spreadsheet. Enter test values in the appropriate
   cell for each test performed.
7. Using formulas: Select cell E4. Click the formula (f*) symbol on the top toolbar. Select
   average from the menu. Click OK. Then highlight cells B4-D4 (you may need to move
   the dialogue box, do this by left clicking and holding). Click OK. Copy and paste the
   contents of E4 to E5 through E11.
8. Select cell F4. Click the formula (f*) symbol on the top toolbar. Select STDEV from the
   menu. Click OK. Then highlight cells B4-D4. Click OK. Copy and paste the contents of
   F4 to F5 through F11.
9. Repeat steps 6-8 for Non-geese data, substituting appropriate cell numbers.
10. Graphing data: Keep in mind that the purpose of a graph is to give you a visual aid in
    interpreting your data. For this exercise we will use a bar graph to compare the means of
    the Geese vs. No Geese ponds for the seven tests. Start by selecting cells J4-J11. Then,
    hold the control button and select E4-E11. You should now have 2 columns selected (if
    you don’t try again). Then, use the control button to continue selecting cells A4 to A11
    (you should now have 3 columns selected). Click on the chart wizard icon in the toolbar
    (left of the globe). Leave the standard bar graph selected, click next 2x until you come to
    step 3 of 4, chart options. Enter a Graph title, and label your X and Y-axes. Click next,
    and then click finish to save your graph as an object in Sheet 1. Your graph is now
    complete.




Evaluation/Assessment of Student’s Competency

The following rubric will be used to assess student competency.


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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                  TIES 2004


                         4           3          2              1                0
Student properly       Perfect    1 minor    2 minor       Generally       Absolutely
placed column                     mistake    mistakes      incorrect.       wrong or
headings.                                                                    missing
Student entered        Perfect    1 minor    2 minor        Many           Completely
correct data in                   mistake    mistakes      mistakes         incorrect.
correct places.
Student used proper    Perfect    1 minor    2 minor        Many           Completely
formulas in proper                mistake    mistakes      mistakes         incorrect.
location.
Student made graph     Perfect     1-2       3-4 minor     Several          Disaster
is done well.                     minor      mistakes      Mistakes
                                  mistake
Student was able to    Perfect     1-2         3-4 minor Poorly done       No knowledge
demonstrate tasks                 minor         mistakes
when asked.                       mistake
Student was able to    Perfect     1-2         3-4 minor Poorly done       No knowledge
describe associated               minor         mistakes
theory when asked                 mistake
(prompt for
information given
in class only).
Perfect Score = 24/24. Or give 1 point for attendance for an uneven 25/25.

Closure

Closure can be achieved by discussion and interpretation of graph, means, and standard
deviations. Open-ended questions can be posed to the students to see if they indeed
discovered a difference between Geese and No Geese ponds. Discussion of individual tests,
etc. can ensue. This ALT can be used directly to enhance all of the other 5 ALT’s and the
transfer activity as well.




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                           TIES 2004



Section Three: Computer Technology

ALT 6: MS PowerPoint

Summary

Information and analysis from any of ALT’s 1-5 are presented using MS PowerPoint.

Competencies

1. The student will learn to use MS PowerPoint.
2. The student will utilize PowerPoint to develop presentation skills.



Time

Varies depending upon skill level. 1-2 hours or more is a good estimate.

Materials

1. A computer with MS PowerPoint.
2. Information from ALT’s 1-5 to be presented.


Instructions

1. The purpose of the MS PowerPoint software is to create a presentation that others can see
   and readily understand. The software is used to make presenting easier! We will start by
   creating a basic presentation from any of ALT’s 1-5. Open MS PowerPoint on your
   computer. Click on the “blank presentation” icon, and click OK. You will see dialogue
   box that allows you to choose the type slide you will prepare next. We need to start with
   a title slide. Select the uppermost left template and click OK.
2. Click on the box where it says “click to add title”. You may then enter a catchy name for
   your presentation that fits the type of information you will be presenting.
3. Click on the box immediately below the title. Here you can enter the presenter’s name,
   and group member’s names if you like. You can change the size of the font if you need
   to make it fit but it is good when presenting to not have any font sized smaller than
   20.
4. Lets now change the background color of the slide. Go to the Format menu at the top of
   the screen, and click on Background. Click the pull down arrow and select a color for
   your slide. Save your presentation at this point under the same name as your title.
5.    Click the new slide icon in the toolbar. The dialogue box reappears that will allow you
     to choose a style for the next slide. Select the second slide from the top left: bulleted list.


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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                      TIES 2004


   Click on the top title box and call this slide “Summary Overview”. Click the lower box
   and briefly summarize the two to four key points you will be making during your
   presentation. Don’t be too wordy, just give information. Remember, this is not a paper,
   it is a summary presentation.
6. You are now free to experiment with the software to create your presentation. An outline
   form is best for some occasions, while presenting actual data analysis will be more
   important for others. To embellish your presentation, you may import pictures, use
   graphic effects, etc. A word of caution: too much special effect can distract from your
   presentation. Always practice your presentation thoroughly to ensure special effects
   aren’t distracting.
7. When done entering slides, click Slide Show in the top menu, then click View Show.


Evaluation/Assessment of Student’s Competency

The following rubric will be used to assess student competency.
                           4           3            2            1                   0
Student designed       Perfect     1 minor      2 minor     Generally           Absolutely
correct title page.                mistake      mistakes     incorrect.          wrong or
                                                                                  missing
Student made             Perfect    1 minor     2 minor         Many            Completely
appropriate number                  mistake     mistakes       mistakes          incorrect.
of slides with
appropriate info.
Student used proper      Perfect    1 minor     2 minor         Many            Completely
spelling/grammar.                   mistake     mistakes       mistakes          incorrect.
Student used font        Perfect    1 minor     2 minor        Several          Completely
equal or > than 20                  mistake     mistakes       Mistakes          incorrect
pt.
Student was able to      Perfect     1-2        3-4 minor    Poorly done       No knowledge
demonstrate tasks                   minor       mistakes
when asked.                         mistake
Student was able to      Perfect     1-2        3-4 minor    Poorly done       No knowledge
describe associated                 minor       mistakes
theory when asked                   mistake
(prompt for
information given
in class only).
Perfect Score = 24/24.   Or give 1 point for attendance for an uneven 25/25.




Closure



                                                                                              26
Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                     TIES 2004


This ALT can be summarized/closed with further discussion of the use of this software.
Multimedia can be imported for the advanced user to incorporate film clips, cartoons, etc. for
use in presentation. This ALT is immediately useful in the culminating oral presentation for
this unit. PowerPoint can be used to greatly enhance and organize the oral presentation
process, and gives the user enhanced reproduction capabilities for presentation.




                                                                                            27
Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                       TIES 2004




                           Transfer or Culminating Activity

                                     Oral Presentation

Summary

This purpose of the activity is for students to work on team building skills by creating an oral
presentation based on one of the authentic learning tasks. Students will be required to
develop an oral presentation using clear language, accurate data, appropriate graphs, tables,
and available technology. Students will be able to reflect on scientific practices and develop
plans of action to create and evaluate a variety of conclusions. This culminating activity will
allow students to demonstrate the ability to communicate their findings to others.

Competencies

•   Communicate results of an investigation.
•   Enhance team building skills
•   Demonstrate knowledge of MS Spreadsheet and MS PowerPoint.
•   Develop an oral presentation using clear language, accurate data, appropriate graphs,
    tables, and available technology.

Time

This activity will take approximately 3-4 hours for preparation and practice (may take longer
depending on age group and experience).

Materials

Computers (MS Office)
Poster Board
Overhead Projector/LCD Panel


Instructions

    1. Students will be paired into groups of 2-3 students.

8. Students will select an authentic learning task to present the scientific processes used,
   their data and conclusions developed from their investigation.

    3. Follow the requirements on the oral presentation rubric.



                                                                                               28
Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                                   TIES 2004




Evaluation/Assessment of Student’s Competency

•   Complete oral presentation.
•   Meet all requirements on rubric.

Closure

In the workplace, employees are generally required to report findings, research, data or
solutions to team members in order to complete or continue a project or task. Students will
gain the knowledge and experience of working in a team to effectively complete a given task.
Students will become aware of the importance of effective communication within the world
of science and within their future workplace.




                                                                                          29
 Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                        TIES 2004


 Come Explore Cox Arboretum Transfer Activity: Handout One

 Oral Presentation Rubric

Presentation Requirements:              Excellent   Good   Fair   Poor   Missing
a. Enthusiasm (Smile, Greeting,
Handshake)
b. Eye Contact
   *Need to look at crowd 90% of the
time.
c. Professional Appearance
     *No Jeans/Tennis Shoes
d. Clarity of Expression
(Need to meet all of the following
to receive a 4!)
 - Organized, easy to follow
 - Tone
 - English usage
 - Quality of Voice
e. Utilization of Time
- 10 minutes (+/- 2 minutes)
f. Content
 - Cover all areas (Problem,
Hypothesis, Planning a, Planning
b, Conclusion and Evaluation
 - Ability to answer questions
g. Visual Aids: (be creative)
*Include at least 2 of the following,
but not limited to:
-Display Board of data/results
-PowerPoint of data/results
-Equipment used
-Overheads
-Handouts



 Point Value:
 Excellent = 4
 Good = 3
 Fair = 2
 Poor = 1
 Missing = 0

 Total Possible Points: 35/35




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Come Explore Cox Arboretum!                                               TIES 2004




Appendix One: Helpful Web Sites
www.epa.gov
www.newsday.com
www.ode.state.oh.us
www.ohiorc.org
www.mvtechprep.org



Appendix Two: References
Microbiology ALT 3 modified from Burkett, D and Nelson, B. (2004). Sampling, Staining,
      and Identifying Isolated Bacteria from the Environment, www.newsday.com.

Spectrophotometry ALT 2 modified from Spectrophotometer Laboratory Manual. Flinn
       Scientific, Inc.; 1994, pgs.67-70.




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