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					Timber Bridge
Constructions
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2   NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
                                              CONTENTS

                              Tynset Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
                              Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA)




                              VTI’s New Simulator – One of the Very Best! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
                              Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)




                              Drivers with Disabilities – Their Cars, Driving Habits and Safety . . 8
                              Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)




                              Experiences Gained from the Local ”Cycle Helmet Law” . . . . . . . . .10
                              Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)




                              Older Female Road Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
                              Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)




                              HVS – the Swedish Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
                              Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)




                              HVS-NORDIC Action in Finland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
                              Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Building and Transport




                              Effects of Weather-Controlled Variable Message Signs . . . . . . . . . .17
                              Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Building and Transport




                              Reduced BAC Limit in Norway – Less Drinking and Driving? . . . . .20
                              Institute of Transport Economics (TØI)




                              Simplifying Public Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
                              Institute of Transport Economics (TØI)




                              A N N OTAT E D R E P O R T S


                              Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Building and Transport .        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26

                              Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) .       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27

                              Institute of Transport Economics (TØI)   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29


NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                                           3
                                             NORWEGIAN PUBLIC ROADS ADMINISTRATION (NPRA)




    Tynset Bridge




The Tynset Bridge crosses the river
Glomma in Hedmark County about 400
km north of Oslo. With its 70 metres
span, Tynset Bridge is the longest span-
ning timber bridge in the world designed
for full traffic loading. The bridge is in
the national road network and has to
carry lorries up to 60 tons.

The development of modern timber                 With its three spans, Tynset Bridge has    impression of the load carrying structure
bridges has taken place step by step,          a total length of 125 metres. The main       and to facilitate inspection. This means
starting with pedestrian bridges and some      span of 70 metres is a trussed arch, while   that the structure is subject to weathering,
smaller road bridges in Hedmark County.        two secondary spans of 27 metres each        and must therefore be protected by other
After having gathered experience, increas-     are three hinged solid arches. The width     means in order to ensure the required
ingly larger bridges were developed up to      of the carriageway is 7 metres, and in       operational life.
Tynset Bridge, which has the longest span      addition there is a sidewalk of 3 metres       The bridge is designed in accordance
so far. The research performed and the         between the arches. The top of the trussed   with the Norwegian national traffic load
knowledge gained through the Nordic            arch is 17.3 metres above the abutment       regulation, which specifies a uniformly
Timber Bridge Project has greatly con-         hinges.                                      distributed load of 9 kN/m and a 60 ton
tributed to the development of timber            The wearing course on the road is          lorry, represented by three equivalent axle
bridges in Norway. In Norway the focus         asphalt with a waterproof layer under-       loadings of 210 kN in each lane.
has been on the manufacture and erection       neath. On the sidewalk the wearing             Glued-laminated timber is used for
of bridges, extension of the service life      course is transverse timber planking.        all wooden structural parts except for
with low maintenance costs and on par-         The main structure is intentionally kept     the stress-laminated bridge deck. In the
ticular design problems.                       exposed in order to let the public get an    carriageway the bridge deck consists of


4                                                                                 NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
                                               NORWEGIAN PUBLIC ROADS ADMINISTRATION (NPRA)


48 x 223 mm stress-laminated planks.
The elevated walkway is designed as a
separate structure, built up of longitudinal
140 x 520 mm glulam beams with a layer
of 73 x 148 mm sawn planks on top in
order to be able to carry a single wheel
load of 130 kN. The construction of the
bridge consumed approximately 400 m3
of glued-laminated timber and 200 m3 of
sawn timber. This represents more than
5000 trees from the forest. In addition,
the bridge superstructure consists of 95
tons of steel.

The two hinge trussed arch

The requirement of sufficient height
over maximum flood level led to a load
bearing structure above the bridge deck
constituting a trussed arch on each side of
the deck. For systems like this it is very
common to have tension ties to balance
the horizontal thrust from the arches.
This option was studied, but in the end
it was found more favourable to let the
abutments and pillars resist the horizon-       alternative types of bridges were consid-       and gluing. Second, the entire structural
tal reactions for all arches. The pillars       ered. In order to establish cost figures for    member, after shaping, drilling of holes,
are founded on groups of 800 mm steel           comparison of alternatives, a steel plate       etc., is given a pressure treatment with
tubes filled with reinforced concrete. The      girder bridge, a steel arch bridge and a        creosote oil in order to reduce cracking
combined effect of the bending strength         steel cable stayed bridge were evaluated.       and make the timber water repellent. The
of the piles and the soil pressure against        The steel plate girder was found to be the    creosote impregnation has proved to be a
the piles and the foundation slab provides      cheapest for the bridge structure itself, but   long lasting treatment with a potential of
sufficient resistance. At the abutments         considering the total cost, including the       100 years service life.
the horizontal reactions are resisted by        necessary elevation of the access roads,
“friction plates”, which are concrete slabs     the timber trussed arch bridge turned out       The environmental challenges
embedded about 3 metres below the road          to be the cheapest alternative. As an addi-
surface at the bridge ends.                     tional gain, the timber bridge appears as       Creosote oil is frequently considered a
   In order to stabilise the arch system        an impressive landmark and a gateway at         hazard to the environment because of its
and to take care of lateral wind forces         the entrance to the village of Tynset.          toxic elements. During the first years of
a wind truss was erected between the                                                            service surplus oil may leak out of the
upper chords of the arches. This truss          The weather protection                          wood on warm and sunny days and then
must be terminated about 6 metres above                                                         drip on to the ground or into water. How-
the bridge deck to eliminate the risk of        In order to ensure the required service         ever, this effect is considered minor com-
collision with vehicles, thus leaving a         life of one hundred years, the structure        pared with the over all benefit of ensuring
flexible portal of the trusses down to the      is protected against weather deterioration      a long service life of the structure. The
bearings. A major advantage of leading          by both physical and chemical protection.       average yearly energy use, emission of
the horizontal reactions into the supports      The top surface of all structural members       environmental gases to the air, etc. is then
is the improved possibility of establishing     is provided with copper cladding. In addi-      distributed over a much longer lifespan
lateral moment resisting connections to         tion, copper plates protect exposed joints      than by the use of other preservatives.
the supports also. In addition the width        with slotted-in steel plates and bracing           In recent years the bleeding has been
of the upper chords is increased from 710       connections.                                    reduced by gradually reducing the reten-
mm to 1100 mm between the ends of the              A system of double treatment of the          tion of creosote. The aim is to get an
wind truss and the supports.                    main structural parts is used for several       almost dry surface and thus no dripping.
                                                reasons: First, sapwood in the interior of         The use of timber in longlived struc-
Cost comparisons                                the glulam cross section is preserved by        tures is a means to store CO2, which is
                                                giving each lamella a pressure treatment        extracted from the air in the photosyn-
In the conceptual design phase various          with CCA-salt solution before flatening         thesis of the trees. For each 1000 kg of

NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                               5
                                          NORWEGIAN PUBLIC ROADS ADMINISTRATION (NPRA)




timber about 1100 kg of CO2 have been           Conclusions                                   closely  together.  Regular  design
extracted from the air. As a comparison,                                                      team meetings chaired by the owner
the production of 1000 kg of cement will        The Tynset Bridge, with its 70-meter          helped to ensure that both progress
cause an emission of about 800 kg of CO2        span, represents a milestone in Norwegian     was maintained and potential prob-
to the air. In that context it is an environ-   timber bridge construction. The success-      lems were ironed out in advance.
mental benefit to have a timber structure       ful accomplishment of the project, which
last longer.                                    comprised a great deal of development, is
                                                mainly due to the integrated design team.
Service life and maintenance costs              Through the team the owner, the struc-        The article is written by Tormod Dyken,
                                                tural consultant, the architect, the glulam   Norwegian Public Roads Administration,
The service life is governed by several         producer and the authority worked             Bridge Department.
conditions: the timber quality, the skill
of the workers, the competence of the
designer, the weather conditions and the
temperature range at the site.
  The main issue is to prevent water from
penetrating into the wood and, if it has
become damp to allow the wood to dry
out as fast as possible. A particular chal-
lenge is to prevent water penetration into
the unavoidable cracks in solid wood. In
such cases it is necessary to cover the
timber surface by some cladding.




6                                                                                   NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
                                                                      SWEDISH NATIONAL ROAD AND TRANSPORT RESEARCH INSTITUTE (VTI)




                                   VTI’s New Simulator
                                   – One of the Very Best!
                                                                                                                                     One of the best

                                                                                                                                     The new VTI simulator has a budget of
                                                                                                                                     USD 2.5 millions. It is not a lot compared
                                                                                                                                     with the money, USD 65 millions that was
                                                                                                                                     allocated in the USA for a similar project.
                                                                                                                                     That simulator is designated NADS
                                                                                                                                     – National Advanced Driving Simulator
                                                                                                                                     – and is under construction at the Univer-
PHOTO: BENGT ARNE IGNELL/REDAKTA




                                                                                                                                     sity of Iowa.
                                                                                                                                        – We are buying our linear motion
                                                                                                                                     system from the same supplier, MTS Sys-
                                                                                                                                     tems Corporation in Minneapolis, says
                                                                                                                                     Staffan Nordmark.
                                                                                                                                        While drawing up specifications for the
                                                                                                                                     performance of the new simulator, Staffan
                                                                                                                                     Nordmark and his colleagues examined
                                                                                                                                     what demands had been made in the
                                   Accelerations of 0.8 g are about the             Own workshop                                     projects so far carried out at VTI. The
                                   limit of what it is possible come up to in                                                        development of the simulator has been
                                   a car. Soon this will be achieved in real        Work on the new simulator started three          governed by this. It is evident that this
                                                                                    years ago. To some extent it is made             has produced a simulator, which can be
                                   life in an indoor installation at VTI,
                                                                                    locally. The two 13.5 m long rails on            ranked second in the world after NADS
                                   if a simulator situation can be called                                                            in Iowa.
                                                                                    which the simulator moves are made
                                   reality. The new simulator that is now           at Motala Verkstad. The carriage and                – But we will be able to carry out our
                                   under construction will enable research-         the rotary table, which have now been            investigations much more cheaply than
                                   ers to study considerably more powerful          installed, were welded together at VTI’s         the Americans, says Staffan Nordmark.
                                   linear movements than before.                    own workshop. The remaining compo-                  – Our niche is large motion systems.
                                                                                    nents were also made there: the tower,           What is new in this simulator is a much
                                                                                    cradle, vibrating table and the access           more powerful linear motion. What is also
                                   Instead of a chain and sprocket, the new         ramp. These are ready to be mounted.             new is that the vehicle will not have to be
                                   simulator is driven, via electric motors,           – It is because of this workshop that we      oriented the same way all the time. We
                                   by a steel belt one millimetre thick and         can afford this, says Staffan Nordmark.          will be able to turn it so that it is aligned
                                   one metre wide. The actual carriage on           Without our own workshop we would not            along the rails, which will be needed
                                   which the rotary table and the vehicle are       have dared embark on such a construc-            when driving in a queue, with braking and
                                   mounted is supported on hydrostatic bear-        tion.                                            acceleration, is to be studied.
                                   ings comprising steel cups filled with oil          The new simulator is built in a recently
                                   under hydraulic pressure. The cups move          equipped room. In order that there should        Article written by
                                   along a steel rail, and due to the action of     be as little disturbance as possible to the      Bulle Davidsson/redakta.
                                   the oil the carriage floats above the rails in   surrounding environment, the floor has
                                   about the same way as on an air cushion.         been specially designed with elastic joints
                                   The whole installation will be 14–15 m           that will damp out vibrations. There is
                                   long and the carriage will be able to move       also space here for the heavy vehicle sim-
                                   3.75 m in each direction.                        ulator, which VTI at one time constructed
                                      – We thought that our old car simulator       for the insurance company Trygg Hansa.           Do you want to know more about simula-
                                   was big, but compared with this it looks         The insurance company has wound up               tors? Go to http://www.inrets.fr/ur/sara/
                                   like a toy, says Staffan Nordmark who is         that side of its activities, and the simulator   Pg_simus_e.html, from where you can
                                   in charge of construction.                       has been returned to VTI.                        click on a link for NADS.



                                   NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                                  7
                               SWEDISH NATIONAL ROAD AND TRANSPORT RESEARCH INSTITUTE (VTI)




Drivers with Disabilities – Their
Cars, Driving Habits and Safety




The car is very important for the inde-
pendent mobility of disabled persons; the
car considerably increases their quality
of life. The importance of the car can
be seen in its predominance as transport
mode. Among the disabled persons who
took part in the VTI study presented in
Report No 466 the car was used, either
as driver or passenger, for 90 per cent of
the total distance travelled. The special
transport service for old or disabled
persons was used for only 7 per cent of
the total distance travelled. The investi-
gated group of drivers was experienced:
three out of four had been driving
adapted cars for a period of more than
five years and the annual mileage was
                                                                                                                                      PHOTO: GÖRAN BILLESON
about 13,500 kilometres.

Knowledge of disabled persons who
drive adapted cars has been poor. To
obtain more factual information, VTI per-
formed the present investigation during
the summer of 1999. A questionnaire           The driver and the car                    of these, 7 per cent, sat in the wheelchair
was sent to over 1,000 owners of cars                                                   while driving.
that, according to the Swedish National       Nearly 30 per cent of the drivers had        Half of the group used the car every, or
Vehicle Register, were specially adapted      a spinal cord injury. Polio was also a    almost every, day of the week and 75 per
for the driver. About 76 per cent (793 per-   common diagnosis (17 %). Between 70       cent of the distance was driven in day-
sons) answered the questionnaire, which       and 90 per cent of the respondents had    light. The proportion of driving on rural
focused on the driver’s disability, the       some form of impairment in the legs       and urban roads was on average 50–50;
equipment in the car, the use of the car,     and/or feet. Three out of four used a     a slightly lower percentage of rural road
safety and accident involvement.              wheelchair, but only a small proportion   driving compared with drivers in general.


8                                                                              NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
                              SWEDISH NATIONAL ROAD AND TRANSPORT RESEARCH INSTITUTE (VTI)




  The cars driven by the respondents at        cord injury.                                      with equipment that had to undergo a reg-
the time of the study were on average            Nine accidents were attributed to prob-         istration inspection. Exceptions from this
six years old (the median was a 1993           lems with the special equipment in the            regulation included wheel knob, accelera-
model). About one in every ten cars was        car. The causes could be unfamiliarity            tor for left foot, and foot brake operated
the size of a van. Examples of common          with the controls, an adaptation that was         other than by the right foot or right hand.
simple adaptations or original equipment       insufficiently adjusted to the individual         The total number of drivers of adapted
included automatic transmission (in 90 %       or equipment that broke down. In three of         cars in Sweden could not be confirmed
of the cars), servo-powered steering either    the four cases with technical defects of the      in this study. Incorrect data in the vehicle
in original version or adapted (64 %),         equipment, a combined control for brak-           register due to poor reporting routines also
servo-powered brakes either in original        ing and accelerating was found in the car.        meant that only an approximate estimate
version or adapted (42 %), cruise control                                                        of the total number of drivers in the inves-
(40 %) and wheel knob (26 %).                  Suggested improvements                            tigated group could be made.
  Since impaired lower extremities were                                                             Several of the comments given by
frequent in the investigated group, con-       Using data from the questionnaire on              the respondents have been included in
trols operated by hand were frequently         annual mileage and number of accidents            the report. The comments deal with the
installed. Nearly half the group (47 %)        and comparing these with corresponding            importance of the car, subsidies, acci-
had a combined control for braking and         statistics for other drivers, it was possible     dents, near-accidents, parking places for
accelerating which, except for a few           to calculate accident and injury rates. For       disabled drivers, etc.
cases, was handoperated. In addition, a        every million kilometres driven, drivers
separate control for braking was found in      of adapted cars on average collided 0.85
41 per cent of the cars (86 % of these were    times, while drivers in general collided
handoperated) and a separate accelerator       0.98 times. The corresponding risk of
in 38 per cent of the cars (63 % were          being involved in an accident with per-
handoperated). Another example of major        sonal injury or fatality as a consequence
special equipment is an adapted seat for       was estimated at 0.21 and 0.20 accidents/
the driver, e.g. a swing seat (27 %).          million kilometres driven respectively.
                                               The differences between the groups were
Safety                                         not statistically significant, i.e. the risk of
                                               a disabled driver in our investigation being
The drivers felt very safe behind the steer-   involved or injured in an accident was on
ing wheel: 91 per cent replied that they       the same level as for drivers in general.
felt relatively safe or very safe when driv-   One example of a measure to increase
ing the adapted car. They also expressed a     traffic safety for this group is more fre-
high level of confidence in the car: 95 per    quent contacts between the authorities
cent said their confidence was relatively      involved in the adaptation of the car, so
high or very high.                             that the final result is a car and a driver
   The proportion of drivers involved          that work together as efficiently as pos-
in accidents during the period 1996            sible. Furthermore, financial subsidies
to summer 1999 was 11 per cent (84             should be made flexible so that support
respondents out of 793 had been involved       can be provided also between the present
in 97 accidents in total). The majority were   renewal dates for a car adaptation grant.
minor accidents: in 84 cases (87 %), only      This would be a benefit for persons with
material damage was the consequence.           disabilities that gradually change and
  Typical crashes leading to human inju-       whose cars require modifications to meet
ries were rear-end collisions and colli-       a new situation. One important issue con-
sions with other car drivers who ignored       cerns fastening of a wheelchair; this must
their obligation to give way. Like young       be securely anchored not only during
drivers in general, young disabled drivers     transport but also when folded and stowed
were more often involved in accidents          inside the car.                                    Author: Per Henriksson
than middle-aged and elderly drivers. A                                                           Drivers with disabilities - a survey of
                                                                                                  adapted cars, driving habits and safety.
group of disabled drivers which was over-      Vehicle register
                                                                                                  Series: VTI rapport 466
represented among those drivers who had                                                           Language: Swedish with English sum-
experienced an accident comprised per-         Use of the vehicle register meant that only        mary
sons with impaired or no function in the       a subgroup of people driving adapted cars          The report is also available as a pdf file
abdomen, such as persons with a spinal         could be reached; namely those using cars          on www.vti.se under Reports.


NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                                    9
                                   SWEDISH NATIONAL ROAD AND TRANSPORT RESEARCH INSTITUTE (VTI)




Experiences Gained from the Local
”Cycle Helmet Law”
A political – not legal – resolution            Qualitative   process                                  helmets       should     increase
concerning cycle helmets attracted great        study                                                 among children up to 12 years
interest by the media, especially during                                                               of age, their parents and their
                                                The Motala local cycle helmet                           teachers in the junior and
the first six months after the introduc-
                                                law was evaluated, both quantita-                        middle schools. Ultimately,
tion of the law. The name “helmet law”          tively as regards the effects of                          however, it is hoped that the
presumably played an important part             helmet use, and qualitatively                              activities which take place
in this connection.                             as regards description of the                              within the framework of
                                                working process. VTI Report                                the helmet law will influ-
                                                No 459 relates only to                                      ence all cyclists in Motala
A local cycle helmet law must be firmly         the qualitative evalua-                                     and will in the long term
rooted among the relevant target groups.        tion of the process. Its                                    result in a general increase
It is important to have “activists” who         overriding aim is to                                        in helmet use.
can initiate and promote the work, but the      describe how work on
work must not depend on any one person.         the law was carried                                          A long term approach
The way all issues concerning cycle hel-        out and to report
mets are dealt with in the municipality         the experiences                                               – It is good that the idea
should be coordinated with work on the          of the people                                                  of a local cycle helmet
cycle helmet law. Continuous political          involved.                                                      law could be tested in
engagement is needed. A plan should be          Two related                                                    real conditions, says VTI
drawn up for political follow-up of the         studies were made, an “Analysis of activi-   researcher Sixten Nolén who was project
“cycle helmet law”.                             ties and players”, based mainly on written   manager for the evaluation of the work on
  If it is intended that a local cycle helmet   material, and an “Interview study” which     the Motala cycle helmet law.
law should bring about increased use of         describes the impressions and experiences      – True enough, the experiences gained
cycle helmets among all cyclists in the         of the players who were most actively        from the studies of cycle helmet use in
municipality, the work must right from          involved in the working process.             Motala do not indicate that the Motala
the beginning be addressed to adult                                                          “cycle helmet law” is a substitute for a
cyclists also.                                  Political recommendation                     national cycle helmet law. This study
                                                                                             shows, however, that the idea of local
Motala – a safe community                       However, the Motala cycle helmet law is      cycle helmet laws should have a good
                                                not a law in the legal sense, since indi-    potential to increase helmet use perma-
In order that increased use of cycle hel-       vidual municipalities cannot enact their     nently in a municipality, provided that
mets may be achieved in Sweden on a             own laws. It must be seen as a political     certain problems can be avoided and cer-
voluntary basis, more must be known             recommendation which must be supple-         tain activities intensified.
of how such an increase can be brought          mented with other measures; the political      Earlier research also shows that local
about. One way of acquiring such knowl-         resolution however forms a basis which       injury prevention programmes should be
edge is to evaluate different types of          can be complemented with information         carried on over a long term – preferably
local initiative which may be taken in          and educational measures for increased       ten years or longer – to be effective.
individual municipalities; it is hoped that,    cycle helmet use. But the Motala helmet        – Presumably, this also applies to work
in this way, good experiences may be dis-       law should have greater impact than an       on a local cycle helmet law, says Sixten
seminated to the rest of the country.           ordinary helmet campaign, since it is        Nolén.
   Such a local cycle helmet initiative was     based on a municipal policy resolution
taken in Motala Municipality which, in          which creates the framework for the use       Autor: Sixten Nolén, VTI, and Kent
1990, had been designated a Safe Com-           of political instruments and different        Lindqvist, Linköping University
munity. Work within a Safe Community                                                          Title: Lokal “bicycle helmet law” in
                                                kinds of pressure in the work.
                                                                                              Motala - A process study
has the aim of preventing accident inju-          Formally, the cycle helmet law relates      Series: VTI rapport 459
ries in many different areas, for instance      only to young school children (6–12)          Language: Swedish with English sum-
among vulnerable road users. As part of         in Motala when they are cycling to and        mary
this work, on 1 May 1996 Motala intro-          from school and in their leisure hours.       The report is also available as a pdf file
duced a “local cycle helmet law”.               The primary object is that wearing of         on www.vti.se under Reports



10                                                                                 NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
                                            SWEDISH NATIONAL ROAD AND TRANSPORT RESEARCH INSTITUTE (VTI)




             Older Female Road Users
             In traffic research, it appears that men      men are often implicitly the norm in traf-      public transport and bicycles. Alterna-
             are often regarded as the norm in traffic     fic studies and that women are studied as       tive methods of analysis which take into
             studies and that women are studied as a       a possible abnormality. This may create a       consideration, for instance, that a journey
             possible abnormality. It is also more the     problem if research concerning the elderly      for a traveller may consist of several
                                                           is based and constructed on a minority          different modes may therefore provide
             exception than the rule that the concept
                                                           and its characteristics. Women as a norm        additional knowledge. It is, for instance,
             of age is discussed. On the other hand,       would be more in accord with the actual         more common among women than men
             the concept of traffic is evident and clear   situation. However, even such a construc-       to change between different modes on
             in most of the studies which have been        tion would miss important groups and            one and the same journey.
             examined. Nevertheless, analyses are          thus essential knowledge concerning the
             generally confined to distinct modes such     elderly in traffic. In this report, we there-   Old age is genderless
             as cars, public transport and bicycles.       fore highlight the need of heterogeneity in
                                                           research concerning elderly road users.         The knowledge that is available concern-
             This study of the literature shows that                                                       ing elderly female travellers is generally
             elderly women in traffic have been an         Different modes of traffic                      quantitative in nature. The absence of
             invisible group, in spite of an awareness                                                     reflection in many of the studies exam-
             that the proportion of elderly people in      Apart from gender, age and traffic are          ined also gives rise to methodological
             the population is increasing and that the     concepts that can with advantage be sub-        problems which are specific to geronto-
             majority of the elderly are women. One        jected to critical scrutiny. In gerontologi-    logical and gender research. In spite of the
             reason is that the studies generally com-     cal research, for instance, discussion of       shortcomings referred to above, it appears
             prise little theory and do not subject to     different age concepts is of central impor-     that men and women travel differently.
             critical scrutiny concepts such as sex or     tance. In traffic research, on the other        Women’s journeys are generally confined
             gender.                                       hand, it is more the exception than the         to smaller geographical areas and are
                                                           rule that the concept of age is discussed.      more dependent on social factors. What
             Men are the norm                              Similarly, in most of the studies examined      is interesting is that these differences to
                                                           the concept of traffic is regarded as evi-      some extent decrease with age. This may
             Owing to the fact that gender is not con-     dent and clear. No thought is given to the      be due to the dismantling, on retirement,
             sidered, the differences between different    fact the that the focus is often placed on      of social structures related to working life.
             groups, and the understanding of these,       accidents, and that analyses are generally      It is also worthy of note in this context that
             are underestimated. It would appear that      confined to distinct modes such as cars,        old age is often regarded as genderless. It
                                                                                                           is probable that the explanations for the
                                                                                                           decreasing differences are complex and
                                                                                                           require deeper studies. As a complement
                                                                                                           to present research, qualitative studies
                                                                                                           with a firm theoretical basis may therefore
                                                                                                           make important contributions.




                                                                                                           Authors: Anu Sirén (University of Hel-
                                                                                                           sinki), Satu Heikkinen and Liisa Haka-
                                                                                                           mies-Blomqvist
                                                                                                           Titel: Older female road users: A review
                                                                                                           Series: VTI report 467A
                                                                                                           Language: English
PHOTO: VTI




                                                                                                           The report is also available as a pdf file
                                                                                                           on www.vti.se under Reports


             NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                                11
                                                       SWEDISH NATIONAL ROAD AND TRANSPORT RESEARCH INSTITUTE (VTI)




                     HVS – the Swedish Experience
                                                                                                                  Shared use

                                                                                                                  HVS is 23 m long and 3.7 m wide. Its
                                                                                                                  height is 4.2 m and it weighs 50 tonnes.
                                                                                                                  For the first two years (1997–98) it was
                                                                                                                  used in Finland, and for the next two years
                                                                                                                  (1999–2000) it was used in Sweden. At
                                                                                                                  the end of last year it returned to Finland,
                                                                                                                  and some time this year it will return here
                                                                                                                  again.
                                                                                                                     Isn’t it very cumbersome to have to
                                                                                                                  transport the vehicle back and forth over
                                                                                                                  the Baltic in this way?
                                                                                                                    – Not at all, says Leif G. Wiman,
                                                                                                                  researcher at VTI.
                                                                                                                     – It was the road research people in
                                                                                                                  Finland who first heard of this machine,
                                                                                                                  but they thought it was too expensive and
                                                                                                                  approached us to see if we would consider
                                                                                                                  research cooperation. The idea was that
                                                                                                                  we would share the cost. After a period of
                                                                                                                  consideration, we said yes.
                                                                                                                    – The cooperation works very well, says
                                                                                                                  Leif G. Wiman.

                                                                                                                  Exchange of research results

                                                                                                                  – We try to avoid making similar tests,
                                                                                                                  that is to say we avoid doing the same
                                                                                                                  thing twice. Instead, we exchange results.
                                                                                                                  All tests are recorded in a joint database
                                                                                                                  – which we have constructed together –
PHOTO: TORD OLSSON




                                                                                                                  and all who are involved in the project can
                                                                                                                  access the database. There are never any
                                                                                                                  problems when we want to borrow each
                                                                                                                  other’s results, and it is very easy to make
                                                                                                                  comparisons between the two countries.
                      -The Heavy Vehicle Simulator is a link between laboratory environment and real life.           – I think that this cooperation on HVS
                     With a machine such as HVS, 5–10 years’ heavy traffic can be simulated in 1–2 months, says   promotes relations between Sweden and
                     Leif G. Wiman, VTI.                                                                          Finland as a whole, says Kent Gustafson,
                                                                                                                  head of research at VTI. The fact that we
                     It cost around SEK 14 million when            HVS is manufactured in South Africa.           share costs and resources and run a joint
                     it was bought in 1997 and was                 There are six more machines of this type       research programme helps make research
                     considered very expensive. Finland            in the world, four in USA and two in           in road engineering more attractive in both
                                                                   South Africa.                                  countries.
                     and Sweden paid half the cost each.
                       VTI has now written a report, which           What makes HVS special is that it is
                                                                   mobile. There are other machines which         One thousand vehicle passages per hour
                     evaluates the first years’ use of the Heavy
                                                                   have approximately the same functions as
                     Vehicle Simulator, HVS, a machine that        HVS, but these are mostly stationary.          One can read in Leif G. Wiman’s report
                     can simulate several years’ heavy traffic                                                    that the object of the Swedish-Finnish
                     in a few months.                                                                             project is to accumulate more knowledge
                                                                                                                  of pavement response and pavement per-


                     12                                                                                 NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
                                  SWEDISH NATIONAL ROAD AND TRANSPORT RESEARCH INSTITUTE (VTI)


formance.                                       way authorities have conflicting interests,     Data for the mileage tax
   What does it mean?                           and this is a problem. On the other hand,
   – Pavement response expresses the way        a lower petrol consumption reduces emis-        If Leif G. Wiman has a wish for the
in which the road, when under load,             sions, which is good for the environment.       future, it is that HVS should be used more
responds to stresses, strains and deflec-       This is a complex issue.                        on existing roads or in road construction
tions, says Leif G. Wiman. Pavement per-                                                        projects.
formance refers to the gradual deterio-         Roads reinforced with steel mesh                   – I think it is a very great advantage
ration during the experiments, i.e. way                                                         to be able to test a construction before
the road behaves and is abraded when            The Swedish HVS tests started in 1999           deciding to use it. It is possible to arrive
vehicles drive over it. With HVS it is pos-     when a number of road constructions             quickly at results, which could otherwise
sible to simulate 1000 vehicle passages         were tested for the Swedish National            be obtained only by making a forecast or
per hour. The deterioration, which in real      Road Administration. During 2000, Ice-          simulating traffic flow in a computer. If it
life would take 5–10 years can be simu-         land asked if it was possible to test two       is found that a material is unsatisfactory,
lated with HVS in 1–2 months.                   constructions with Icelandic materials.         it can be replaced by another at an early
   – We can say that we test the construc-      The answer was yes.                             stage. In Finland, HVS has already been
tions of different roads under structured          This meant that the Icelandic Road           used in this way, and I would like to see
and controlled conditions, says Kent Gus-       Administration paid the costs of the            the machine used in Sweden for the same
tafson. We know quickly whether a certain       HVS tests. But the vehicle was not trans-       purpose.
road construction is satisfactory or oth-       ported to Iceland. Instead, Iceland came           In other words, the highway authorities
erwise. This is particularly useful when        to Linköping.                                   can quickly learn how to design roads so
we are thinking of using a new type of             – At VTI we have an installation that        that they can stand up better to the heavy
construction we do not know very much           provides the facilities for full-scale tests,   loads. It is the costs that will determine
about.                                          says Leif G. Wiman. We have two test            the tax due to be paid by different trans-
                                                halls. We can run tests in one while the        port categories
The super single wheel                          new road is constructed and prepared in            – The mileage tax is something that is
                                                the other. The Icelanders wanted to test        subject to a lot of debate in Europe just
We can also find how different factors          two different types of construction, and        now, says Kent Gustafson. The results of
affect road wear. Different tyres abrade        quite simply sent here all the material that    measurements with HVS could be of great
the road to different degrees. Tyre pressure    was needed. We constructed two Icelan-          significance in such a discussion.
is important, as well as axle load. Obvi-       dic roads here and used our simulator on
ously speed and temperature also play a         them.                                           Article written by
part.                                              The HVS vehicle has also been used           Catarina Gisby/redakta.
   Today, the maximum permissible load          within the framework of an EU project
is 10 tonnes per axle. (On a driving axle       relating to roads reinforced with steel
it is 11.5 tonnes). But transport firms in      mesh.
Europe want to have a higher load. Quite           – We constructed one reinforced and
simply, they want to be able to carry even      one unreinforced road in the same test
more freight per vehicle movement.              hall, and could simulate the identical load-
   – During our experiments, we can load a      ing on both simultaneously, explains Leif
wheel or axle above the permissible limit       G. Wiman. We could see straight away
to see what happens, says Kent Gustafs-         that the unreinforced road was much infe-
son.                                            rior to the reinforced one.
   Most lorries and road trains still have         In the opinion of Leif G. Wiman, HVS
twin wheels, but the “super single” wheel       is an important link between the labora-
is becoming increasingly popular. It has        tory environment and real life.
a lower rolling resistance, which reduces          – It does not exactly reproduce real life
petrol consumption, and obviously the           conditions, but it comes very near. What
transport firms think that this is excellent.   it cannot do is to include the effect of cli-
   – In our tests with HVS we can how-          matic cycles.
ever see that the road is abraded at a faster      There is an insulated box, which covers       Author: Leif G. Wiman
rate by the super single wheel. The load        the test area. This makes it possible to         Title: Accelerated load testing of pave-
is more concentrated, explains Kent Gus-        keep the temperature constant – or to vary       ments. HVS-NORDIC tests in Sweden
tafson.                                         it if this is what is wanted.                    1999
   It is the highway authority that pays for       – So far in the main tests we have used       Series: VTI rapport 477A
the faster deterioration, not the transport     the constant temperature of +10°C so that        Language: English
firm.                                           we may be able to compare the different          The report is also available as a pdf file
                                                                                                 on www.vti.se under Reports.
   – In this, the transport firms and high-     tests.


NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                                   13
                            TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND (VTT), BUILDING AND TRANSPORT




HVS-NORDIC Action in Finland




                                                                                                                                             PHOTO: VTI
Accelerated pavement testing with the           road design and maintenance measures.         struction, quality control, instrumentation,
Heavy Vehicle Simulator, has over time          Other important objectives are to develop     measurements and test parameters was
given good results. In the tests, steel rein-   international research co-operation, and      implemented.
forced pavements have shown very high           attract new researchers to the road sector       A common Finnish-Swedish database
                                                in order to increase competence and make      was constructed. All data from the tested
resistance to rutting. New knowledge
                                                Nordic highway engineering more widely        constructions, and observations and meas-
has also been obtained concerning low-          known.                                        urements are stored in the common data-
volume road design.                               The goal of the HVS-NORDIC research         base for all partners to use.
                                                programme is also to develop methods to          HVS-NORDIC was located in Finland
                                                determine the lifetime of different pave-     from June 1997 to August 1998 and again
HVS-NORDIC (Heavy Vehicle Simula-               ment structures and maintenance meas-         from November 2000. It will be moved to
tor) is a facility for Accelerated Pavement     ures with the aid of design methods based     Sweden in summer 2002.
Testing (APT) owned jointly by Swedish          on data obtained in laboratory analyses.
and Finnish partners. The Swedish action          The test programme, its background and      Testing of the facility
is described in another article in this         principles are described in the joint Finn-
issue.                                          ish-Swedish Research Programme. The           Ten pavement sections were tested during
  A joint six-year programme for both           aim is to make tests in both countries        the first period in Finland. Because these
countries was drawn up to improve road          more or less comparable. Therefore a          also had to include testing with HVS-
management through better knowledge of          common test procedure including con-          NORDIC, this affected the choice of


14                                                                                  NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
                                   TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND (VTT), BUILDING AND TRANSPORT



                                                                                                    was very good. The research idea was
                                          4000                                                      that the lowest bound layer would be of
                            2000                                                                    conventional asphalt concrete (with bitu-
                                                                                                    men B-200), which has high resistance to
                                                                                                    fatigue but is not very stiff. Above this
                                                                Slope                               layer is an asphalt concrete binder course
                                                                1:
                                                                                                    with Gilsonite, which is two times stiffer
                    AC 30-40 mm                                                                     than conventional asphalt concrete. This
             Crushed rock   250 mm                               1:3                                layer spreads the traffic load, thus also
                                                                 1:1.5                              reducing strains in subsequent layers.
                                                                 fill
                Sand        650 mm               W
                                                                                                       Based on the response measurements
                                                                                                    and laboratory fatigue criteria, the innova-
                                                                                       2500         tive pavement structure (high resistance to
                    Clay    1000 mm                                                                 fatigue) gave 30 times better resistance to
                                                                                                    traffic loading than did the conventional
                                                                                                    one. However, the construction costs of
                                                                                                    bituminous layers were only 10% higher
                    Sand    600 mm
                                                                                                    for the innovative structure.

                                                                                                    Steel reinforced pavements
                                        3000
                                                                                                    The thawing test results showed more than
                                                                                                    twice as good wheel load capacity against
Figure 1. The pavements tested by HVS-NORDIC were in a concrete test pool and constructed           rutting with the steel mesh reinforced sec-
with ordinary road construction machines. The aim of these tests was to study the effect of slope   tion than without steel reinforcement. The
on pavement performance.                                                                            steel mesh reinforced section also exhib-
                                                                                                    ited better resistance against cracking.
tests and the original research programme            Testing of the perpetual pavement              Cracks could be seen on the road surface
could not be exactly followed. There were                                                           later than when steel reinforcement was
also quite a few teething problems, and              The pavement structure for heavy-traffic       absent from the base layer.
the unscheduled downtime was only 16%                roads that had high resistance to fatigue         In the second period in Finland from
and real testing time 62%, both calculated
on the basis of a 24 hour day 7 days a
week.
   No difference was found in rutting when
the loading mode was uni- or bi-direc-
tional. Consequently, the bi-directional
loading mode can be used to give HVS
double efficiency compared with the uni-
directional loading mode.
   The first result was that the pavements
lasted much longer than expected, except
for the frost-susceptible pavement struc-
tures tested during the thawing period.

Effects of moisture condition

Deterioration was occurred mainly as rut-
ting in dry conditions, only a few cracks
were found. Raising the water-table level
up to the bottom of the base layer had a
dramatic effect on rutting and cracking.
In dry circumstances, low quality base
course material behaved well because of                                                 GEOM factor
the toughness of the stone material. In
wet circumstances the situation is prob-          Figure 2. With the “GEOM factor” the rutting of a low-volume road can be predicted based on
ably different.                                   the width and slope of the road.


NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                                   15
                                TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND (VTT), BUILDING AND TRANSPORT


November 2000, one reinforced (steel            possibility of taking HVS-NORDIC to an        Published reports:
fabric in unbound base course) pavement         old road with aged and fatigued pavement
structure was tested as well as a similar       is being considered, but finding a suitable   1.   Huhtala, M., Pihlajamäki, J., HVS-
structure without steel reinforcement, as       road section for the test is difficult.            NORDIC, The activity of the first
a part of the EC project REFLEX. The                                                               period in Finland 1997-1999. Finn-
steel reinforced pavement had much better       International co-operation                         ish Road Administration, Finnra
resistance to rutting than that without rein-                                                      Reports 21/2000. 50 p. + 1 app.
forcement.                                      International co-operation is growing              ISBN          951-726-638-3,                         ISSN
                                                                                                   0788-3722,                  TIEL 3200609E.
   The third tested pavement structure in       around APT. The first international con-
                                                                                                   h t t p : / / w w w. t i e h a l l i n t o . f i / t p p t /
the same test pool also included                ference on APT was held in October                 hvsnordic.pdf
lightweight material (expanded poly-            1999 in Reno, Nevada. It included two
styrene, EPS) on subgrade. The per-             presentations from Finland and one from       2.   Pihlajamäki, J., Sikiö, J., HVS-
formance of the lightweight material            Sweden concerning the HVS-NORDIC                   NORDIC. Research Report No2. Tests
was successfully studied with and with-         studies. The TRB Task Group is well                09 - 10, high trafficked pavements on
out steel reinforcement and new knowl-          known within countries that have APT               Ring Road II. Finnish Road Adminis-
edge for pavement design was obtained.          facilities. The COST 347 action (Improve-          tration, Finnra Reports 29/2001. 40
                                                ments in Pavement Research with Accel-             p. + 3 app. ISBN 951-726-764-9,
                                                                                                   ISSN 1457-9871, TIEH 3200675E.
                                                erated Load Testing) started in late 2000
                                                                                                   h t t p : / / w w w. t i e h a l l i n t o . f i / t p p t /
The effect of pavement geometry                 and has 16 participating countries. All the        hvs22001.pdf
                                                countries with APT facilities, including
The next three tested pavements were also       Finland and Sweden, are participating in      3.   Huhtala M., Pihlajamäki J., Sikiö J.,
for low-volume roads. The aim was to            this action which also has connections to          HVS-NORDIC. Research Report No3.
study the importance of the road cross          the USA, RSA, Australia, and New Zea-              Tests 01-02, base course tests, 03-
section in respect of its structural proper-    land where APT has high status.                    05 loading mode tests in Otaniemi.
ties. Two different slopes were built and                                                          Helsinki 2001. Finnish Road Adminis-
as a reference “horizontal slope” (Fig. 1).                                                        tration, Finnra Reports 30/2001. 60
                                                                                                   p. + 4 app. ISBN 951-726-765-7,
  The pavement response due to a moving
                                                                                                   ISSN 1457-9871, TIEH 3200676E.
wheel load with several offsets was meas-                                                          h t t p : / / w w w. t i e h a l l i n t o . f i / t p p t /
ured and finally the pavement perform-                                                             hvs32001.pdf
ance was evaluated with accelerated test-
ing. The most important result was the                                                        4.   Kangas,      H.,     Onninen,        H.,
GEOM factor, which was created from                                                                Saarelainen, S., Testing a pavement
response measurements and observations                                                             on thawing, frost-susceptible sub-
during tests with different slopes (Fig. 2)                                                        grade with the Heavy Vehicle Simu-
. It is now possible to predict the rutting                                                        lator. Finnish Road Administration,
                                                                                                   Finnra Reports 31/2000. 69 p. ISBN
propagation and pavement performance.
                                                                                                   951-726-661-8, ISSN 0788-3722,
   Upcoming tests will be for low-volume                                                           TIEL 3200619E.
roads in different moisture conditions. The                                                        http://www.tiehallinto.fi/tppt/hvsr.pdf




                                                                                                   Article specially written for NRTR
                                                                                                   by Jari Pihlajamäki.

                                                                                                   For further information, please contact:
                                                                                                   Jari Pihlajamäki, VTT,
                                                                                                   Tel. +358 9 456 4688
                                                                                                   Fax +358 9 463 251
                                                                                                   E-mail: jari.pihlajamaki@vtt.fi


16                                                                                  NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
                                                                   TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND (VTT), BUILDING AND TRANSPORT




                                      Effects of Weather-Controlled
                                      Variable Message Signing
                                      on Driver Behaviour
                                                                                                                                                  road surface conditions in three categories
                                                                                                                                                  based on data from road weather stations.
                                                                                                                                                   The slippery road condition sign and the
                                                                                                                                                  minimum headway sign were controlled
                                                                                                                                                  manually (Figure 1). The categories were
                                                                                                                                                  (a) good, (b) possibly slippery and (c)
                                                                                                                                                  verified slippery. The slippery road con-
                                                                                                                                                  dition sign was off, in steady mode or
                                                                                                                                                  in flashing mode, respectively. The min-
PHOTO: CHRISTER TONSTRÖM, MEDIABILD




                                                                                                                                                  imum headway sign was always on and
                                                                                                                                                  the recommended headway depended on
                                                                                                                                                  vehicle length, driving speed and road
                                                                                                                                                  surface condition. The signs were tested
                                                                                                                                                  at three sites, and the evaluation covered
                                                                                                                                                  approximately one year.
                                                                                                                                                    The slippery road condition sign and the




                                      This doctoral thesis summed up six field
                                      studies. The concept of weather-control-
                                      led speed limits and displays proved
                                      successful. Lowering the speed limit
                                      decreased both the mean speed and the        Figure 1. Schematic diagram showing (a) the slippery road condition sign and (b) the
                                                                                   minimum headway sign (‘suositus’ is Finnish for ‘recommendation’).
                                      variance of speed. The slippery road
                                      condition sign and minimum headway
                                      sign also contributed to safer driving in              Site     VMS                                          Speed effect (km/h) TS2-TS1
                                                                                                                                                       st                         nd
                                                                                                                                                   1 winter                      2 winter
                                      slippery conditions.                                   1        Slippery road condition sign (steady) and
                                                                                                      headway recommendation sign                  -0.9*      (-0.5*)      -0.8*       (-0.1*)

                                      The purpose of the study was to inves-
                                                                                                      Slippery road condition sign (flashing)
                                      tigate the effects of local and frequently                      and headway recommendation sign              -2.2*      (-2.2*)      -1.9*       (-1.8*)
                                      updated information of adverse weather
                                      and road conditions on driver behaviour.                        Headway recommendation sign                  -1.1*      (-1.2*)      -1.0*       (-1.1*)
                                                                                             2        Slippery road condition sign (steady)        -1.8*      (-1.5*)      -           (-0.6*)
                                       The information was transmitted by sev-                        Slippery road condition sign (flashing)      -2.3*      (-1.7*)      -           (-1.3*)
                                      eral VMS (Variable Message Sign) types                          No message                                   +0.1       (-0.3)       -           (-0.2)
                                      including slippery road condition signs,               3        Slippery road condition sign (steady)        -                       +1.4*       (+1.2*)

                                      minimum headway signs, temperature dis-                         Slippery road condition sign (flashing)      -                       +0.8*       (+0.5*)
                                                                                                      No message                                   -                       +0.1        (+0.1)
                                      plays and speed limits.                                * p < 0.05


                                      Variable warnings                            Table 1. Effects of variable road condition signs on mean speed for cars travelling in free-flow
                                                                                   traffic, and in parentheses for total traffic flow. TS1 is the traffic monitoring station before the
                                      For control of the VMS, traffic man-         sign and TS2 after the sign. The effects of weather and place of measurement were controlled in
                                      agement centre operators classified the      the before-after - experimental-control design.


                                      NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                                                17
                               TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND (VTT), BUILDING AND TRANSPORT


  Speed parameter                  Experimental road         Control road          Effect         effects. The interview with drivers who
                                                                                                  had passed the signs also showed other
                                                                                                  potential effects such as refocusing of
                                      km/h                       km/h              km/h           attention to seek cues on potential haz-
  Mean / free flow                    -9.7                       -6.3              -3.4           ards, testing the slipperiness of the road,
  Mean / free flow / no rain          -9.5                       -4.2              -5.3           and more careful passing behaviour.
  Mean/total                          -8.8                       -6.3              -2.5
  Standard deviation                  -0.8                       +2.3              -3.4           Variable speed limits
    th
  85 percentile                       -8.2                       -3.5              -4.7
                                                                                                  On the weather-controlled road including
    th
  15 percentile                       -6.7                       -8.2              +1.5
  Clarification of symbols:           variable speed limit                fixed speed limit       variable speed limits the control of VMS
                                                                                                  was automatic. The control categories of
                                                                                                  the road and weather conditions were
Table 2. Speed effects of reduced speed limits and adverse road conditions on the experimental    good, moderate or poor. The effects of
road, of adverse road conditions on the control road, and of the VMS in wintertime.               lowering the posted speed limit on the
                                                                                                  weather-controlled road were greater than
                                                                                                  the effects of the warning and informa-
                                                                                                  tion VMS. In winter, the change of the
                                                                                                  speed limit from 100 km/h to 80 km/h
                                                                                                  decreased the mean speed by 3.4 km/h,
                                                                                                  whereas changing the speed limit from
                                                                                                  120 km/h to 100 km/h in summer led to
                                                                                                  a mean decrease of 5.1 km/h. When poor
                                                                                                  road conditions were difficult to detect, the
                                                                                                  effect was 2 km/h higher. Consequently,
                                                                                                  the system proved to be most effective
                                                                                                  when adverse weather and road conditions
                        A1                             A2
                                                                                                  are not easy to detect, such as black ice
                                                                                                  conditions when the accident risk is high-
                                                                                                  est. The system also decreased the stand-
                                                                                                  ard deviation of speed (Table 2).
                                                                                                     The variable speed limits proved to be
                                                                                                  more efficient than the warning or infor-
                                                                                                  mation signs because they affected both
                                                                                                  the mean speed and the speed variance in
                                                                                                  the desired direction, and the speed effect
                                                                                                  was much greater.
                                                                                                     Lowered speed limits due to poor
                     B1                       B2                        B3
                                                                                                  weather and road conditions are on the
Figure 2. Schematic diagram showing a fibre-optic speed limit sign (A1 and B1), electromecha-     whole well accepted. In several roadside
nical speed limit sign (A2), fixed speed limit sign (B2), and general warning sign with supple-   interviews, drivers recalled the variable
mental sign (B3).                                                                                 fibre-optic signs reasonably well. Specifi-
                                                                                                  cally, 83–91 percent of the drivers recalled
                                                                                                  the posted speed limit and 66 percent
                                                                                                  recalled the slippery road sign. Ninety-
minimum headway sign improved traffic            of the minimum headway sign was of the           five percent of the drivers indicated that
safety by decreasing the mean speed in           same magnitude as the effect of the slip-        variable speed limits are useful.
addition to the effect of worsened weather       pery road sign. In addition, the minimum
and road condition. Specifically, the signs      headway sign decreased the proportion of         Effects of sign technology
decreased the mean speed by 1–2 km/h at          short (less than 1.5 seconds) headways in
a distance of 500–1,100 m after the signs        queues. The slippery road condition sign         Because of the exceptional appearance
(Table 1). Earlier research has not shown        and minimum headway sign did not sub-            of the weather-controlled VMS that uses
similar effects for fixed warning or infor-      stantially affect the standard deviation of      fibre-optic technology, the effects of sign
mation signs. However, the speed effect          speed.                                           technology were studied in two evalu-
of the sign was the opposite at one site,          In a complementary interview study,            ations (Figure 2). A comparison of the
suggesting that the sign may not be effec-       effects on speed and headways were               effect of a fibre-optic speed limit sign
tive in all road environments. The effect        among the most frequently reported               with the effect of a fixed sign showed


18                                                                                      NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
                                TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND (VTT), BUILDING AND TRANSPORT




1.9 km/h in the fibre-optic sign’s favour.
This finding, among others, indicates that
the effects observed on the weather-con-
trolled road are probably more substantial
than shown.
   Information overload was demonstrated
in the study comparing the recall of the
fixed warning sign in the vicinity of a
fibre-optic and fixed speed limit sign. The
results showed that drivers were less likely
to recall the warning sign when it was in
the vicinity of the fibre-optic speed limit
sign than in the vicinity of the fixed speed
limit sign.
   To cover the ‘novelty effects’, follow-up
measurements were carried out. Some
portion of the effects of the fibre-optic
signs seemed to be novelty effects which
gradually diminish as drivers get used to
the signs.

Implications

In conclusion, the concept of weather-con-
trolled speed limits and displays was suc-
cessful. The signs were shown to improve
traffic safety. However, the effects can
not be regarded as sufficient to compen-
sate for the high accident risk caused by
adverse weather and road conditions. This
calls for more effective measures like in-
vehicle speed control. However, a clear
advantage of the VMS is that it provides
the same information to all drivers with
no substantial differences in interpreta-
tion, thereby contributing also to increased
homogeneity of driver behaviour. The use
of effective signs is motivated by the high
                                               PHOTO: CHRISTER TONSTRÖM, MEDIABILD




accident risk on slippery roads. However,
the danger of information overload pre-
vents the use of effective fibre-optic signs
in complex traffic environments. Optimi-
sation of the strength of information must
be taken into account when planning traf-
fic control.
   The slippery road condition sign is rec-
ommended to be used carefully at critical
spots, whereas a system including var-                                               extremely important to set the variable      Author: Pirkko Rämä
                                                                                                                                  Title: Effects of weather-controlled
iable speed limits is recommended for                                                speed limits carefully. A sophisticated
                                                                                                                                  variable message signing on driver
somewhat longer problem sections. The                                                and error-free data collection and control   behaviour
use of fibre-optic signs is recommended                                              system is necessary.                         Series: VTT Publications 447
for weather controlled applications. The                                                                                          Language: English
placement of effective variable warning                                                                                           The publication is also available as a
signs has to be considered carefully. In                                                                                          pdf file on site http://www.inf.vtt.fi/pdf/
addition, the findings suggest that it is                                                                                         publications/2001/P447.pdf


NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                                                                     19
                                               INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORT ECONOMICS (TØI)




Reduced BAC Limit in Norway
– Less Drinking and Driving?
In January 2001 Norway reduced the
legal limit of blood alcohol concentra-
tion (BAC) for drivers from 0.05 to
0.02 percent. The percentage that would
not drink at all before driving increased
from 82 percent to 91 percent and the
already strict social norms against alco-
hol and driving seemed to be strength-
ened, according to a survey carried out
by The Institute of Transport Econom-
ics. However, the likelihood of driving
with a BAC below or above the old
limit of 0.05 percent has surprisingly
not changed.


As the first country in the world Norway       The percentage that would not drink at all before driving increased from 82 percent to 91 per-
introduced a legal BAC limit of 0.05 per-      cent and the already strict social norms against alcohol and driving seemed to be strengthened
cent (50 milligrams alcohol per 100 mil-       after the new BAC limit in Norway.
liliter blood) in 1936. Moreover, Norway
has a long tradition of strict enforcement,    a BAC between 0.02 and 0.05 percent is a        fore the Norwegian authorities did not
with three weeks imprisonment as the           fine, and the license is not suspended.         want a roadside survey to monitor the
normal punishment up to 1988. After 1988                                                       changes in drinking and driving brought
fines were the normal punishment for first     Drinking and driving increases                  about by the reduced BAC limit. How-
offense up to BAC of 0.15 percent and          accident risk                                   ever, a survey of driver knowledge and
imprisonment above BAC of 0.15 per-                                                            behavior was made by questionnaire to
cent. In addition the driver’s license is      It is a well-established fact that the con-     a random sample of Norwegian license
suspended, for one year or more. The atti-     sumption of alcohol before driving a motor      holders before and after the amendment,
tudes towards drinking and driving, even       vehicle increases the accident risk. How-       June 1998 and June 2001, respectively.
towards driving with a BAC below the           ever, the importance of rather low blood          Random samples of driver’s license
legal limit have been rather reprehensible     alcohol concentrations for accident risk is     holders were interviewed by telephone by
(Vaas & Elvik, 1992).                          still discussed. Norwegian studies find that    a professional opinion poll company in
   After Sweden reduced the legal limit        drivers involved in fatal, alcohol-related      June 1998 and June 2001. The response
from 0.05 to 0.02 percent in 1990, the         road accidents have on the average quite        rate was 56 percent in 1998 and 53 per-
pressure increased for a similar reduction     high BAC, above 0.1 percent, whereas            cent in 2001. A total of 3001 interviews
in Norway, and the amendment came into         Moskowitz & Robinson (1987) claim that          were completed both years.
effect by January 1, 2001. The stated rea-     as to divided attention “Impairment began
sons for this amendment were to reduce         below .02 %, with 60 percent of the             Knowledge of the BAC limit and the
the amount of impaired driving and to          studies reporting impairment at or below        penalty
demonstrate that the driving of a motor        .05%.” and further “Impairment occurs in
vehicle and consumption of alcohol do not      most areas at the lowest BAC that can be        To comply with the reduced BAC limit,
belong together. The reduction of alcohol-     reliably chemically determined”.                the drivers have to know the limit. 86 per-
related road accidents were hardly men-        The question is thus what effect a reduc-       cent of the license holders answered cor-
tioned in the official documents in this       tion of the legal BAC limit from 0.05 per-      rectly as to the BAC limit both before and
matter, but this reduction was maybe taken     cent to 0.02 percent will have?                 after the change. To comply with the rule,
for granted, if only a reduction in drinking      Drinking and driving is most reliably        it is also necessary to know approximately
and driving could be achieved.                 measured by roadside surveys. Such sur-         how much alcohol it takes to get to the
   The normal punishment for driving with      veys are however, rather costly, and there-     limit. 47 percent answered correctly after


20                                                                                   NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
                                              INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORT ECONOMICS (TØI)


                                                                                             tles or more would be necessary to reach
                                                                                             the legal limit of 0.05 percent.

                                                                                             More or less drinking and driving?

                                                                                             A bottle of normal beer would be the
                                                                                             maximum amount a man of 70 kilograms
                                                                                             could drink and still be on the legal side
                                                                                             of the 0.02 percent limit. Only 1 percent
                                                                                             in 1998 and 0 percent in 2001 claim that
                                                                                             they would drink more than this amount
                                                                                             before driving. However, the percentage
                                                                                             that would not drink at all before driving
                                                                                             has increased from 82 percent to 91 per-
                                                                                             cent.
                                                                                                Two percent in 1998 and 8 percent in
                                                                                             2001 claim they are likely to drive with a
                                                                                             BAC above the legal limit (0.05 percent
                                                                                             in 1998 and 0.02 percent in 2001), which
                                                                                             may be reasonable, as the limit has been
                                                                                             reduced. What is more important is how-
                                                                                             ever, the percentage likely to drive with
                                                                                             a BAC in the range of 0.02 to 0.05 per-
                                                                                             cent. This percentage cannot be calcu-
                                                                                             lated exactly as questions were only asked
                                                                                             above and below 0.05 in 1998. However,
                                                                                             the percentage of license holders likely to
                                                                                             drive with a BAC below, but not above
                                                                                             0.05 was 13.6 in 1998 and 13.3 in 2001,
                                                                                             i.e. no change from 1998 to 2001. More-
                                                                                             over, the percentage of drivers likely to
                                                                                             drive with a BAC above 0.05 per is the
                                                                                             same, 2 percent, in 1998 and 2001.

                                                                                             Driving a car to occasions where
                                                                                             alcohol is served
The majority of Norwegian drivers have realized that the BAC limit is changed.
                                                                                             As the amount of alcohol that can be
                                                                                             consumed without exceeding the BAC
the change and 42 percent before.               or should not perform the behavior in        limit has been reduced, it is reasonable to
  Knowledge about the penalty for drink-        question.” The subjective norm as to         expect that people would drive a car to
ing and driving would also be necessary         driving after drinking one bottle of beer    places where alcohol is served to a lesser
in considering whether or not to drink and      has changed somewhat. The percentage         degree in 2001 than in 1998. However,
drive. The penalty for drinking and driving     of drivers who think people they know        there is no change in driving a car to such
in Norway is a combination of imprison-         would dislike driving after one bottle of    a place.
ment, fines and suspension of the license,      beer (0.33 liter, 4.5 percent alcohol) has     As a consequence of the reduced BAC
depending on the actual BAC level. The          increased from 63 percent in 1998 to 71      limit, designating a driver not to drink
majority of Norwegian drivers have real-        percent in 2001. The norm for driving        alcohol and drive the others home from
ized that the BAC limit is changed.             after four bottles of beer has, however,     places where alcohol is served, should be
                                                remained the same.                           expected to increase. However, no change
Social norms                                      The most striking fact is, however, the    has occurred in designating a driver.
                                                widespread strictness of the norms against
People are known to be affected by the          drinking and driving. Even in 1998 63        Why no change?
social norms. Ajzen and Fishbein (1980)         percent of the drivers claimed that people
describes as “a person’s subjective norm,       they knew would dislike their drinking       The most surprising of the results is per-
i.e. his perception that most people who        and driving after one bottle of beer even    haps that the likelihood of driving with a
are important to him think he should            though the majority thought that two bot-    BAC below or above the old BAC limit of


NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                           21
                                               INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORT ECONOMICS (TØI)


0.05 percent has not changed even though       Was the reduced limit successful?              Literature:
the amount people would drink before
driving has changed and the social norm        The objective of the reducing driving with     1. Ajzen, I. og Fishbein, M.
of driving after one bottle of beer has also   BAC below or above 0.05 percent has               Understanding Attitudes and Pre-
changed. However, only 1 percent of the        not been achieved so far. However, the            dicting Social Behavior. Englewood
interviewees said in 1998 that they would      after-survey was carried out less than six        Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1980
drive after drinking two bottles of beer or    months after the amendment came into
                                                                                              2. Bernhoft, I. M. og Behrensdorff, I.
more, which is what it takes to get con-       effect. Another explicit objective of the         Alkohol og bilkørsel. Effekt af ændret
siderably above the 0.02 limit. This fact      amendment was “to demonstrate that driv-          promillegrænse. København, Dan-
shows that the potential for improvement       ing of a motor vehicle and the consump-           marks transportforskning. 2000
was diminutive before the reduction of the     tion of alcohol do not belong together.”
legal limit.                                   In terms of this objective the amendment       3. Moskowitz, H. and Robinson, C.
                                               may be considered successful as the social        Driving-related skills impairment at
The cause of the observed changes              norm of driving after only one bottle of          low blood alcohol levels. I Noordzij,
                                               beer has become stricter and more people           .
                                                                                                 P C. and Roszbach, R. Alcohol,
                                                                                                 Drugs and Traffic Safety – T86.
As there is no control group not affected      claim that they drink no alcohol before
                                                                                                 Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica. 1987
by the reduced BAC limit, it is impossi-       driving.
ble to claim that the changes observed are        The most important question whether         4. Vaas, K. og Elvik, R. Føreres kunnskap
caused by the legal amendment. However,        or not the reduced limit will reduce the          om og holdning til promillelovgivnin-
the changes in knowledge about the limit,      number of alcohol-related road accidents          gen. Oslo. Transportøkonomisk insti-
the penalties and the amount of alcohol it     cannot be answered by the kind of data            tutt. 1992
takes to get to the limit, could hardly be     presented in this paper, and it was also too
caused by other factors than the publicity     early to say when the survey was carried
created by the amendment.                      out. Bernhoft and Behrensdorff (2000)
   The changes in the social norm and          have shown that even if drinking and
the amount of alcohol the drivers them-        driving was reduced in Denmark by a
selves accept to drink before driving can      reduced BAC limit, the number of alco-
of course be caused by other factors. How-     hol-related accidents need not be reduced.
ever, the norm for driving after four bot-     If no reduction of alcohol-related acci-
tles of beer, which was illegal even before    dents is observed in Norway, the question
the amendment, has not changed, a fact         could be asked whether the reduced BAC
supporting the hypothesis that the change      limit is a necessary restriction on Norwe-      Author: Terje Assum
in the norm for driving after one bottle       gian drivers.                                   Title: Reduced BAC limit – less drinking
of beer is in fact caused by the amend-                                                        and driving?
ment. The change in the amount of alco-        By Terje Assum, Institute of Transport          Series: TØI report 530/2001
hol the drivers themselves would drink         Economics.                                      Language: Norwegian with English
before driving, is most likely caused by                                                       summary.
the change in the norm. It may of course                                                       The report summary is available at:
                                                                                               h t t p : / / w w w. t o i . n o / t o i _ D a t a /
be due to other factors, though no other
                                                                                               Attachments/786/sum_530_2001.pdf
likely factors are evident.




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22                                                                                 NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
                                             INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORT ECONOMICS (TØI)




Simplifying Public Transport




Efficient information about the public transport service is important for users being able to plan and carry out a trip or a journey.
Picture from Oslo.


There are many factors that can affect       to travel, how familiar they are with the      Five groups of barriers
whether people choose to travel by public    system or how many different operating
transport or not. The quality of the         companies there is. The public transport       Barriers are often defined as different
service is of considerable importance.       system must appear as a complete and           kinds of obstacles, problems or difficulties
People put great emphasis on availa-         simple service. Factors like lower prices      related to using public transport. Howe-
                                             and high frequency to raise the overall        ver, barriers do not need to fully prevent
bility, distance by foot to nearest sta-
                                             quality of public transport, is not a topic    people from using the public transport ser-
tion, ticket price, punctuality, comfort     in this report, because the main focus is to   vice. Many passengers are faithful users
etc. This article is based upon a research   simplify public transport.                     of the service in spite of the problems and
project carried out at the Institute of         People using public transport has ques-     insufficiencies they may experience.
Transport Economics in Norway. In the        tions related to the trip before, during and      We can split the different type of bar-
project we focus on the importance of        after it has taken place. Information, such    riers into five groups, categorized as fol-
the public transport service to be as easy   as timetables, route maps, fare informa-       lows:
to comprehend as possible.                   tion etc., is sometimes hard to fully com-     - information barriers. This includes lack
                                             prehend. The information is often poorly       of or even incorrect knowledge about the
                                             formulated, so that the transport system       public transport service, which may affect
It should not matter how complicated trips   may seem unclear and difficult to inter-       two things. First it may affect people’s
passengers choose, how far they choose       pret.                                          choice of transport mode. This is because


NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                           23
                                                INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORT ECONOMICS (TØI)


both car drivers and public transport users     tant measures are:                               The intension behind this list is to give an
have insufficient and incorrect compre-         - passenger information. This is to increase     overview of the variety of possible mea-
hension of their own or other people’s          the users’ knowledge about the system            sures, and give suggestions to how the
way of travelling. Second, it may create        and to make trip planning and travelling         public transport system can be improved,
problems when orientating in the system.        as easy as possible                              with the purpose of making the service
Informative barriers can cause the public       - marketing, especially individualized mar-      easier and more accessible to potential
transport service to appear as difficult        keting. This is to give the users know-          and existing users.
to follow and hard to get familiar with.        ledge about which possible routes fit their
This leads to the question: Do people           needs                                            Passenger information
refrain from travelling by public transport     - providing a clear and simple line
because they have limited knowledge of          network/structure. This must contain fixed       Information about the public transport ser-
the service available?                          routes, recognisable names and numbers,          vice is an absolute requirement for users
- this includes parameters such as distance     and a clear and plain network                    being able to plan and carry out a trip or
by foot to nearest station/bus stop, phy-       - high frequency. This way the users             a journey. It is often easier to use the car
sical obstacles on the way to and from          don’t have to memorize the timetables.           than to get information about the public
the station/stop, on the station/stop, on the   Another option is fixed cycle operation on       transport service available.
transport vehicle (for example level diffe-     the routes. This makes timetables easy to           Poor information also leads to difficult-
rences between vehicle and platform, poor       memorize                                         ies in learning what possibilities there are,
lighting, heavy doors, slippery step etc.)      - coordination of the public transport ser-      and orientating in the system. It is one of
Another physical obstacle, which may            vice. Coordination between the different         the most important action plans for cre-
prevent people from travelling by public        routes is important for obtaining easy           ating a service that is easy. Information
transport, is their own health condition.       transfers, which in turn will reduce the         shall cover all demands the users have on
Elderly and handicapped people often            inconvenience cost of transfers between          all parts of the trip. Therefore, the infor-
have trouble getting on and off the trans-      lines                                            mation must be easy to get, easy com-
port vehicle.                                   - improved physical shape of the vehicles.       prehensible, unambiguous, complete and
- psychological barriers. This includes         This is to raise both comfort and availabi-      logical. Besides, it must at all times be
perceived insecurity or fear towards using      lity for all potential users. One example is     correct. Information that is wrong can be
public transport, and in some cases inse-       low-floor buses                                  worse than no information at all, and may
curity concerning the ability to handle         - improved physical shape of terminals,          lead to lack of confidence towards the ser-
the system. There is a positive relations-      stations and stops. This includes making         vice.
hip between knowledge about the public          them more attractive, more suitable for
transport system and the ability to feel        their purposes, more available and easier        Strategies towards a simpler public
safe and certain when using it.                 to orientate in                                  transport service
- cultural barriers. Public transport may       - design of the overall public transport
appear to have a certain image that some        service. It is important for improving all       The existence of barriers and the extent of
people find it difficult to identify with.      parts of the service aesthetically. This is to   them vary depending on several variables,
These types of barriers can also arise from     make the system easy to recognise, user-         for example size and population density
negative attitudes towards public trans-        friendly and attractive                          of the region in question. It also depends
port.                                           - bus priority to ease public transport pas-     on the level of service, people’s age and
- practical barriers. These types of barriers   sage. This is a crucial measure towards          life cycle, how often one travels by public
are related to people’s preferences, regar-     savings in journey time, reduce transfer         transport and familiarity with the trans-
ding usage of time (waiting time, aux-          time, improve punctuality and contribute         port system.
iliary time, transfer time), ticket prices,     to smooth and ”seamless” journeys                   In other words, this problem cannot be
changing between lines during a trip,           - simpler fare system and ticketing. It is       solved by one single measure. First of all,
flexibility preferences and comfort             important that prices are consequent, and        a long-term strategy plan for making the
demand. This sort of barriers will not be       that it is easy to buy and renew ticket cou-     public transport system easier has to be
reduced solely by making public trans-          pons. This calls for co-operation between        initiated. This process should be based on
port easier. It is primarily done by a          operating companies                              the following major elements:
general quality increase. This issue will       - adjust the service for elderly and han-        - exploring the problems on a local level
not be further discussed in this report.        dicapped. This is to increase availability       - strategies towards a simpler route
                                                to the public transport system for people        service
Measures to decrease barriers                   with reduced mobility, so they can travel        - strategies towards an easier fare system
                                                on the same terms as other users                 and ticketing
To decrease the number of barriers and          - park and ride. This may give a flexible        - market communication
to increase the availability of public trans-   use of public transport in combination           - regional co-operation.
port, the service must be user-friendly,        with car, and will make the trip easier and
simple and unambiguous. The most impor-         less time-consuming for many users.


24                                                                                    NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
                                                INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORT ECONOMICS (TØI)


Exploring the problems on a local               imply an increase in transfers between         vice minded drivers etc
level                                           lines, and often longer walking distances      - rating of customer satisfaction. This is
                                                to the bus stops. This requires both deve-     a method for evaluating satisfaction and
First step in the process of developing an      lopment of suitable interchanges and high      barrier level among the customers, and in
easier public transport service is to get       punctuality. High punctuality is especially    this way make a foundation for improve-
an overview of the problems on a local          important in a system based on the fact        ments of the service.
level. One has to evaluate the type of bar-     that most of the passengers need to per-
riers that exist, and how many people who       form one or more transfers. High punctua-      Regional co-operation
get affected by them. The most important        lity can be obtained by prioritising public
methods to serve this purpose are:              transport in the traffic system.               The common situation nowadays is that
- ”fellow traveller studies”. This is to eva-      An important principle for develop-         more than one company operate within a
luate the problems the users of the service     ment of public transport systems has been      city or a region. People also have a more
face during the trip. An observer follows       ”think tram - drive bus”. This means to        differentiated travel pattern than earlier,
both familiar and unfamiliar users of the       give the bus network the same advanta-         which implies that they have to face seve-
public transport system on a trip. During       ges as the tram network, especially related    ral operators with different information,
the trip, he or she observes and registers      to design of the network, flow, frequency      fare- and ticket systems. This implies co-
the problems and difficulties appearing         and travel time.                               operation between regions on the follo-
during the trip. This type of study can give                                                   wing:
important insight to different aspects of       Strategies towards a simpler fare              - fare system
the service and in turn point out what ser-     system and ticketing                           - bus routes and transfers
vice product needs to be improved                                                              - passenger information.
- interviews to find the extent of barriers.    The fare- and ticketing system must be            The different companies should co-
This includes both quantitative and qua-        designed as simple as possible seen from       ordinate their efforts to create a complete,
litative interviews. Another type of inter-     the users point of view. This implies co-      simple and accessible public transport
view is called focus group interviews,          ordination between different operators, so     system.
where the interviewer gathers a group of        that the users can rely on a consequent
people to informally discuss a chosen sub-      fare- and ticket system. Possible solutions    By Unni B. Lodden.
ject                                            are:
- ”user tests”, where experts on different      - one card for all types of trips
areas test the functionality in the public      - easier ticket sale system.
transport system in question                       Electronic ticketing systems will raise
- ”function analysis”. This analysis syste-     the possibility for the users to carry only
matically evaluates, reviews and assesses       one card for all trips, regardless of dis-
all demands and requests related to public      tance and number of trips per month.
transport product.                              Such cards contribute to an easy payment
                                                system, without requiring the users to
Strategies towards a simpler route              know all the different fare- and discount
service                                         prices. Operators also have to arrange for
                                                an easier ticket sale system. The goal is to
A central strategy to develop a simpler         prevent the users from striving to get tick-
route service is to raise the frequency level   ets and coupons, and instead make it as
so that learning the timetables is unneces-     easily available as possible.
sary. This may be very expensive, and has
to be assessed given the public transport       Market communication
market in every region. Therefore, it is
just as important to investigate whether it     Market communication is important to
is possible to carry out an efficiency plan     obtain a good relationship with the custo-
towards raising frequency on more centra-       mers. This term includes factors regarding      Author: Unni B. Lodden
lized sections. Possible solutions are:         the operators handling of and communi-          Title: Simplifying public transport. Bar-
- trunk network with supplementary local        cation towards their passengers.                riers against using public transport and
                                                                                                measures to make public transport
routes                                          - passenger information. This form of
                                                                                                easier
- ”star-shaped” network                         communication should be priority no 1           Series: TØI report 540/2001
- developing better interchanges and bus        - travel guaranties. This is to visualise       Language: Norwegian with English
priority measures.                              the operators’ responsibility towards their     summary.
   Both trunk network and ”star-shaped”         costumers                                       English summary is available on:
network (route structure in which all lines     - safety and service. This may be obtained      h t t p : / / w w w. t o i . n o / t o i _ D a t a /
emanates from one central node) will            trough security, emergency phones, ser-         Attachments/823/Summary.pdf


NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                                            25
             Annotated reports from VTT, Building and Transport, Finland


Occupational Exposure of Asphalt Workers during Remixing
This report is part of the Finnish Research
Programme on Environmental Health
1998–2001 (SYTTY) co-ordinated by
the Academy of Finland. The report
investigates and compares the occupa-
tional exposure of road-paving workers
during the laying of traditional stone
mastic asphalt (SMA) and when using a
re-paving method known as remixing (see
figure), where coal fly ash or lime is used
as the filler material.
   Concentrations of total inhalable dust,
bitumen fumes, bitumen vapours, 15 dif-
ferent PAH compounds, and NOx and
SOx gas particles were determined in the
breathing air zones of the asphalt work-
ers.
   Concentrations of total inhalable dust
and bitumen fumes in SMA remixing
were lower than in traditional laying.
Concentrations of PAHs were also lower
in remixing. PAH compounds containing
4–6 ring structures, like benzo(a)pyrene,       highest in the breathing air zone of the         Authors: Virpi Väänänen, Pirjo Heik-
were, however, highest during remixing.         paver operators and the operators of heat-       kilä, Mervi Hämeilä, Petri Peltonen
All of the workers who used remixing            ing devices in the remixing techniques.          Title: Coal fly ash in stone mastic
                                                Better ventilation of the cabins of paver        asphalt. Working influences of remix-
with the fuel oil techniques experienced                                                         ing the remixing method
the emissions to be irritating and the          machines was recommended.
                                                                                                 Series: Finnra Reports 25/2001
amount of SOx in the breathing air zones                                                         Language: Finnish with an English
was higher. Concentrations of PAHs were                                                          abstract


Traffic Safety on the Principal Road Network
The Finnish National Road Administra-           measures were implemented. However, the         The new safety vision has, for example,
tion is preparing long-term guidelines for      best available knowledge will be used.          brought up the need for new road types
development of the main road network            Prediction models for the number of injury      like narrow motorways and other road cat-
in Finland. One important factor in the         accidents and especially for fatalities are     egories with middle barriers. Also, all the
process will be a traffic safety review of      developed. These models will be used            measures affecting driving speeds seem
the existing and planned principal road         together with the accident history to figure    to have even better effects than previously
network. There are totally 13,300 kilome-       out the most reliable estimate for the cur-     thought. This is because a cut in speed
tres of main roads, of which 6,400 km are       rent safety situation.                          reduces fatality figures more than it does
considered principal roads. These make            Based on the current safety situation and     injury accidents.
up the most important connections in Fin-       observed effects of road improvements,
land.                                           predictions will be made for the safety
   The new Finnish vision on Traffic Safety     characteristics of various main road net-
states that “Nobody needs to get killed or      work options.
seriously injured in traffic.” Based on this,     A specially tailored evaluation pro-
traffic safety evaluations have been made       gramme for traffic safety will be used to        Author: Harri Peltola
using the number of fatalities in addition to   predict the safety benefits of different road    Title: Safety of the Finnish main road
the traditional number of injury accidents.     improvement options.                             network – evaluation based on the
                                                                                                 years 1996–2000
This in spite of incomplete knowledge             Obviously, taking into account espe-
                                                                                                 Series: Finnra Internal Publications 42
of what the consequences would be on            cially the number of fatalities has caused       Language: Finnish
the number of fatalities if some safety         a rethink of ways of improving safety.


26                                                                                   NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
            Annotated reports from the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute



Tyre/Road Noise – Myths and Realities
                                                                                                                                  noise very much concentrated within the
                                                                                                                                  1 kHz octave. Tone correction may be
                                                                                                                                  considered.
                                                                                                                                  11. Quiet tyres are possible only if
                                                                                                                                        safety is sacrificed.
                                                                                                                                  Recent results show that there is no trade-
                                                                                                                                  off between low noise emission and high
                                                                                                                                  safety.
                                                                                                                                  12. We cannot afford to reduce tyre/road
                                                                                                                                        noise.
                                                                                                                                  Calculation exercises are presented that
                                                                                                                                  suggest that low-noise tyres as well as
                                                                                                                                  low-noise road surfaces may be very cost




                                                                                            PHOTO: CHRISTER TONSTRÖM, MEDIABILD
                                                                                                                                  effective.
                                                                                                                                  13. Tyre/road noise will be substantially
                                                                                                                                       reduced by the introduction of noise
                                                                                                                                       emissionlimits.
                                                                                                                                  Not true; the new EU tyre noise emission
                                                                                                                                  limits will be almost totally ineffective.




The subject of tyre/road noise is on the        tions between speed-related factors and
agenda to a greater extent than ever before.    that these can be useful in data presenta-
In VTI särtryck 345, VTI researcher Ulf         tion.
Sandberg gives an insight into the past,        5. Different road surfaces may give
present and future of tyre/road noise emis-           a large variation in noise levels.
sion in the society as well as its control.     True, the variation is very large, but the
This is done by exploring some myths and        most common and              useful surfaces
realities related to the subject. The follow-   are close together on the noise scale.
ing myths are explored:                         6. Tyres do not differ very much in
                                                      noise emission.
1.     Tyre/road noise has become a             This is not true, the variation is large if a
       concern only during the last dec         sufficient number of tyre types is included
       ades, say from the 1970s.                in the data set.
It is shown that tyre/road noise was already    7. Winter tyres are much more noisy
an important issue long ago.                          than summer tyres.
2. Tyre/road noise is an important part         This is a myth based on the past. Cur-
       of vehicle noise at speeds above         rently, winter tyres may be the “quiet”
       50    km/h      (70    for   trucks).    tyres.
The truth is that nowadays                      8. The width of the tyre is a very influ
tyre/road noise dominates during almost all           ential factor.
types of driving for cars and down to about     Essentiallytrue:Anoise-widthrelationcover-
40 km/h for trucks (vehicles meeting EU         ing the range from “tiny” bicycle tyres                                            Author: Ulf Sandberg
requirements).                                  to large truck tyres is presented.                                                 Title: Tyre/road noise – Myths and real-
                                                                                                                                   ities. Plenary paper published in the
3. Manufacturers have done a lot to             9. Tyre/road noise from a heavy truck
                                                                                                                                   Proceedings of the 2001 International
       reduce vehicle and tyre/road noise.            is far above that from a typical car.                                        Congress and Exhibition on Noise
Yes, in some respects; however, it seems        Not true, one may find heavy trucks that                                           Control Engineering, the Hague, the
that vehicle noise has in some cases            emit lower tyre/road noise than some                                               Netherlands, 2001 August 27–30
increased rather than decreased.                cars.                                                                              Series: VTI särtryck 345
4. Speed has great influence but it             10. Tyre/road noise is very broadband                                              Language: English
       does not attract much very interest.           nowadays.                                                                    The report is also available as a pdf
It is shown that there are unexpected rela-     True and not true - current tyres emit                                             file on www.vti.se under Reports.


NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                                                                   27
            Annotated reports from the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute


Judgment and Skill in Driver Training




                                                                                                PHOTO: CHRISTER TONSTRÖM, MEDIABILD
During the 1990’s, there was a gradual          with either a “skill oriented” or “judgment                                           critical situations. Such training could be
shift in driver training in Sweden from a       oriented” content. Between two weeks and                                              called “JudgmentSkill”. The problem, and
“skill oriented” content in which the focus     two months after completion of the train-                                             also the challenge, is how this is to be
is on improving driving skill to handle         ing the project participants took three tests                                         done without giving rise to “undesirable”
critical situations, towards a “judgment        in accordance with the following studies:                                             behavioural changes.
oriented” content in which the focus is            1. Driving style in real traffic
placed on the avoidance of critical situ-          2. Judgment of safety margins
ations through a driving style with large          3. Assessed and actual driving ability.
safety margins. There was also a debate            The conclusion of the three studies in
concerning the advantages and drawbacks         the project is that it has not been possible
of each training strategy. There are some       to demonstrate that the two training strat-
studies which indicate that the traditional     egies studied have any positive traffic
skill oriented driver training does not yield   safety effects. The results of studies 1 and
any positive traffic safety effects, or that    3 rather indicate that the training strategy
its effect may sometimes even be nega-          which is skill oriented may even have
tive. This suggests that a judgment ori-        negative traffic safety effects, which pro-
ented driver training would be preferable       vides support for some previous research.
from a traffic safety perspective, but there    The results of study 2 show tendencies
is no clear evidence for this as regards        contrary to those in studies 1 and 3. The
effects on actual driving behaviour.            project will therefore be followed up with
   The aim of the study described in VTI        a further interview study with those who
Report No 463 is to compare two driver          had undergone the different training strat-
training strategies: one that is “skill ori-    egies, to see if the lasting effect which
ented” and one that is “judgment ori-           these have had on the participants support
                                                                                                                                       Authors: Sixten Nolén and Anders
ented”. The comparison relates to the driv-     the results arrived at.
                                                                                                                                       Nyberg
ing style of young drivers in real traffic,        In conclusion, there is a discussion of                                             Title: En experimentell studie av två
judgment of safety margins and tenden-          how further training of young drivers can                                              utbildningsstrategiers inverkan på unga
cies, if any, to overestimate their own         be developed. One proposal is that it                                                  förares bilkörning
driving ability. The project has an experi-     should be based on developing an under-                                                Series: VTI rapport 463
mental design with two test groups and a        standing of the importance of having large                                             Language: Swedish with English sum-
control group, consisting of a total of 48      safety margins to reduce the risk of critical                                          mary
young men in their twenties. The two test       situations in traffic. This should however                                             The report is also available as a pdf file
                                                                                                                                       on www.vti.se under Reports.
groups had both undergone driver training       be supplemented by skill training to avoid


28                                                                                   NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
            Annotated reports from the Institute of Transport Economics (TØI), Norway


Cost-benefit Analysis of ITS Investments
The method of cost-benefit analysis (CBA)           Regarding certain ITS applications,
used for evaluation of infrastructure invest-   especially those that provide travellers
ments was developed for traditional road        with real time traffic information, there
investments. Is the method a useful tool        will be more uncertainty in the traffic        Authors: Hanne Samstad and Tom E.
also for evaluation of investments in           analyses forming the basis for CBA calcu-      Markussen
intelligent transportation systems (ITS)?       lations. In addition, there may be benefits    Title: Cost-benefit analysis as an evalua-
   The literature study and the discussion      for travellers that are not usually included   tion tool for ITS investments
in this report show that CBA is generally       in user benefit calculations in CBA. Pos-      Series: TØI report 501/2000
a useful tool for evaluating the economic       sible alternative calculation methods are      Language: Norwegian with summary in
efficiency of ITS investments.                  presented.                                     English




Transport, Welfare and Economic Development in South Eastern Europe
Armed conflicts have during the last            transport demand and supply, freight
decade had a devastating effect on              transport demand with emphasis on ports,
South Eastern Europe. The countries of          sea transport and inland waterways and
the region now face huge challenges in          finally, road safety and environmental
respect of political end economic reform.       concerns.
A well functioning transport system is
a precondition for trade and economic
development. This pilot project has ana-         Authors: Henning Lauridsen, Terje
lysed current problems in the transport          Assum, Randi Hjorthol, Giske C. Lille-
sector and identified research needs.            hammer
Research-based knowledge is urgently             Title: Transport, Welfare and Economic
                                                 Development in South Eastern Europe
required by the sector in the region to
                                                 - A Pilot Project
solve the massive problems ahead. Pri-
                                                 Series: TØI report 532/2001
ority areas for transport research during        Language: English. The report sum-
the next few years are: Transport policy         mary is available at http://www.toi.no/       The pilot project has analysed current prob-
and institutional reform, transport plan-        toi_Data/Attachments/832/Summ_                lems in the transport sector in South Eastern
ning and evaluation methods, passenger           532_2001.pdf                                  Europe and has identified research needs.



Regional Economic Effects of Liberalisation in Air and Postal Services
Deregulation and increased competition          tive effects. Prices may be differentiated
have not had negative effects on the level      according to the destination of letters. In
of service in sparsely populated regions        that case, prices should be lower for post
in Norway up to now. The reason is the          to sparsely populated areas than for post
Public Service Obligation arrangements          to densely populated areas.
and the opportunities they offer to reg-
ulate price and quality of the services.
Using this instrument and the public own-
                                                                                                Authors: Harald Minken, Olav Fosli,
ership of airports and the main operator in                                                     Karl-Erik Hagen, Tom E. Markussen
the postal sector, it will also be possible                                                     Title: Regional economic effects of lib-
to reach regional objectives in the future                                                      eralisation in air and postal services
while opening up for more competition.                                                          Series: TØI report 509/2001
The exclusive rights of the main postal                                                         Language: Norwegian with English
operator can be abolished without nega-                                                         summary.



NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                                29
            Annotated reports from the Institute of Transport Economics (TØI), Norway


Public Transport Passenger Preferences                                                       Authors: Ingunn Stangeby, Kjell Jansson
                                                                                             Title: Targeted public transport. Sub-
                                                                                             report 2: Passenger preferences
Passengers’ valuation of journey time
                                                                                             Series: TØI report 533/2001
using transport depends on whether they                                                      Language: Norwegian with English sum-
have a seat or not. Valuation of journey                                                     mary. The summary is available at http:
time increases with the length of the jour-                                                  //www.toi.no/toi_Data/Attachments/
ney. Walking time to/from the bus stop                                                       838/sammendrag.pdf
is valued approximately twice as high
as journeys with seating. Valuation of
frequency decreases when the interval
between departures increases. Passengers
are willing to pay a lot to avoid delays.
They experience having to change from
one form of transport to another as a dis-
advantage. There is much to indicate that
passengers prefer track-based transport to
using buses. They want comfort and con-
venience, both at the bus stop and during
the journey and are willing to pay for
bus shelters. More women than men
feel unsafe when using public transport.
A good line network can be developed
around a trunk network with high fre-
quency, clear junctions and express buses
between areas with heavy traffic.             Passengers are willing to pay a lot to avoid delays, according to this report.


Transport Performance in Norway 1946–2000
In this report transport performance fig-     Norway and abroad rose by 9 percent in
ures for the year 2000 are presented          1999. Short shopping trips by Norwegians
together with other relevant Norwegian        account for most of this increase. Domes-
transport statistics. Domestic passenger      tic transport of goods increased by 1.2
transport performance increased 1.1 per-      percent in 2000. The quantity of freight to
cent in 2000. Private car transport rose by   and from the mainland shows only small
                                                                                             Author: Arne Rideng
1.4 percent, while public transport mainly    changes compared with the level in 1997
                                                                                             Title: Transport performance in Norway
remained at the 1999-level. The upward        and 1998. Oil export transported by ship       1946-2000
trend for rail traffic continued in 2000,     directly from the Norwegian continental        Series: TØI report 515/2001
55 million trips by rail means the highest    shelf increased by 10 percent in 2000,         Language: Norwegian with English
number ever. Air traffic increased by         while there have been small changes in oil     summary. The summary is available
1.3 percent, which is the lowest growth       and gas exports (measured by weight) by        at http://www.toi.no/toi_Data/
rate since 1971. Road traffic between         pipe the last three years.                     Attachments/773/515_sum.pdf



Effect of Noise on Children in Learning Situations
Studies in other countries have shown that    noise seem to have an adverse effect on
the actual noise levels in classrooms can     long-term memory.
exceed WHO requirements.                         A high noise level in the classroom
  Pupils exposed to chronic noise seem        results in teachers and pupils having to       Effect of noise on children in learning
to develop inferior reading skills. Chronic   strain their voices in order to be heard. In   situations. A literature review
exposure to noise can result in reduced       some cases this can lead to voice disor-       Authors: Alf Glad, Astrid H. Amundsen,
motivation for taking on new challenges       ders.                                          Ronny Klæboe
                                                                                             Series: TØI report 519/2001
and solving problems. Acute noise can
                                                                                             Language: Norwegian with English
serve as a distracter, reducing the ability
                                                                                             summary.
to concentrate. Both acute and chronic

30                                                                                NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002
            Annotated reports from the Institute of Transport Economics (TØI), Norway


Foreign Visitor Survey 2001
This report presents the results of the Nor-   nights fell by five percent. Most of this
wegian foreign visitor survey, and includes    decline was registered for holiday visitors.
data for the summer season (May–Septem-        Holiday traffic by private motor vehicles
ber) and the year 2001. Almost all foreign     and coaches constituted 75 percent of all
visitors are included in the survey. Alto-     foreign holiday guest-nights in Norway.
gether 1.85 million tourists stayed over-      Over the past five years the number of
night and 590 000 day visitors (cruise pas-    guest-nights in this broad category of tour-
sengers not included) crossed the border       ists has dropped as much as 12 percent.
during this summer season. 19 percent of       In the year 2001 a total of 3.1 million for-
the visitors were on business trips, while     eign guests stayed overnight in Norway
81 percent were on holiday. Foreign tour-      while 1.2 million (0.8 million cruise pas-
ists spent a total of 13.9 million guest-      sengers not included) were on a day trip
nights in Norway during the 2001 summer        from abroad. Foreign tourists spent a total    Authors: Arne Rideng, Berit Grue
season. The total number of foreign over-      of 20.7 million guest-nights in Norway in      Title: Foreign visitor survey 2001
night guests dropped by one percent com-       2001, of which holiday guests constituted      Series: TØI report 541/2001
                                                                                              Language: Norwegian with English
pared to the summer season of the previ-       16.9 million guest-nights.
                                                                                              summary.
ous year, and the number of foreign guest-



Strategic and Comprehensive Decision-making
The parliamentary Standing Committee           The methodology does not provide mean-
on Transport and Communications were           ingful input to the political process. Poli-
interviewed about the National Transport       ticians are primarily interested in differ-    Authors: Inger-Anne Ravlum, Morten
Plan’s suitability as input to strategic       ent issues and effects than the strategies     Stenstadvold
                                                                                              Title: Strategic and comprehensive
and comprehensive political decision-          and impact assessments provides. Some
                                                                                              decision-making? Parliamentary
making. The politicians view introducing       representatives express a feeling of impo-     hearing of the National Transport Plan
a common plan for all transport modes          tence when confronted by the technocratic      2002-2011
as an improvement, but public transport        methodology employed in the plan. The          Series: TØI report 543/2001
should receive more attention in the plan.     report also contains recommendations for       Language: Norwegian with English
The plan is also marred by repetitions.        making the National Transport Plan more        summary. The summary is available
The strategies outlining policy alternatives   suitable as input to the political process.    at http://www.toi.no/toi_Data/
are judged too theoretical and apolitical.                                                    Attachments/824/Summary.pdf



Practical Application of Noise Regulations in Norway
The study comprises investigations of          for more comprehensive and less frag-
how existing noise regulations are applied     mented regulations, especially related to
in planning and decision-making proc-          land use planning at various levels. There
esses in Norway. Data has been collected       is a clear need for guidance on formal
through questionnaires sent to environ-        requirements and good practice directed
mental and health authorities in all coun-     towards planners in the municipalities.        Authors: Marika Kolbenstvedt, Astrid
ties, investigation of noise concerns in       Developing further professional compe-         Helene Amundsen, Tor Lerstang, Eyjolf
Norwegian EIA reports and practice and         tence through education and establish-         Osmundsen
of noise concerns in local municipal land      ment of professional networks between          Title: Much cry and little wool? Practical
use planning, the follow up of noise in        various actors is recommended.                 application of noise regulations in
decisions related to formal disagreements                                                     Norway
between authorities and noise assessments                                                     Series: TØI report 546/2001
                                                                                              Language: Norwegian with English
in the National Transport Plan 2002–2011.
                                                                                              summary. The summary is available
The report points out a number of areas                                                       at http://www.toi.no/toi_Data/
for improvement, starting with the need                                                       Attachments/846/516_sum.pdf


NORDIC ROAD & TRANSPORT RESEARCH NO. 1 2002                                                                                                31

				
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