McGuffey's Eclectic Spelling Book

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					Project Gutenberg's McGuffey's Eclectic Spelling Book, by W. H. McGuffey This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: McGuffey's Eclectic Spelling Book Author: W. H. McGuffey Release Date: March 24, 2005 [EBook #15456] Language: English Character set encoding: ASCII *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MCGUFFEY'S ECLECTIC SPELLING BOOK ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

{Transcribers Notes: Do you remember how to spell "pharmacopoeia" or "Winnipiseogee"? This was for sixth grade! Here is a chance to expand your vocabulary or just enjoy a trip to the grade school of 1900. The original text uses a specialized font to indicate pronunciation. Italics are used to specify words or syllables in the text. The approximations given here retain only the emphasis (accent). See the DOC or PDF format for the original graphics. Don Kostuch}

ECLECTIC EDUCATIONAL SERIES. McGUFFEY'S [Registered] ECLECTIC SPELLING-BOOK.

REVISED EDITION.

McGuffey Editions and Colophon are Trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. NEW YORK-CHICHESTER-WEINHEIM-BRISBANE-SINGAPORE-TORONTO PREFACE. In revising this book, care has been taken to preserve all the excellences that have so long and so favorably distinguished McGUFFEY'S ECLECTIC SPELLING-BOOK: and the chief changes that have been made, have been suggested by the evident plan of the original work. The old system of indicating the pronunciation by numerals, called "superiors," has been abandoned, and the diacritical marks used by Webster have been adopted. The Revised Speller conforms in orthography, pronunciation, and syllabication to the latest edition of Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Exercises have been given on each of the distinctive marks used in the book, as will be seen by reference to Lessons 36-57. A number of lessons have been added in the department of prefixes and suffixes, and now nearly all the more common of these etymological principles have been explained. (See Lessons 136-167.) In arranging the text of the several lessons, the object has been not to appeal merely to arbitrary memory, but to associate each lesson with some principle of sound, meaning, or accent, which would tend to aid the pupil in acquiring a knowledge of our language. Several distinct lessons on pronunciation are given, and towards the close of the book numerous lessons of difficult words in orthography have been introduced. Instead of indicating silent letters by italics, as has hitherto been done, a new type has been made in which such letters are canceled, thus enabling the pupil to discover their status at a glance. The pages have been enlivened, as in the other books of this Series, by attractive engravings. The publishers take pleasure in acknowledging the valuable services of W. B. Watkins, D. D., who planned and executed this revision. DECEMBER, 1879. 16 Copyright, 1879, by Van Antwerp, Bragg & Co.

THE ENGLISH ALPHABET. The English Alphabet consists of twenty-six letters, viz.: a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z. Letters are divided into VOWELS and CONSONANTS. The Vowels are those letters which can be perfectly sounded without the aid of any other letter. The vowels are a, e, i, o, u, w, and y. The vowel sounds of w and y are the same as those of u and i. A, e, and o are always vowels. I, u, w, and y are sometimes consonants. A Diphthong is the union of two vowels in one sound. When both vowels are sounded, the diphthong is called PROPER, because then it is really a DIPHTHONG, or double sound; that is, the sounds of the vowels unite; as, oi in oil; ou in sound. When only one of the vowels is sounded, the diphthong is called IMPROPER, because then, as one of the vowels is silent, it is not properly a DIPHTHONG, though it takes that name; as, oa in boat, ui in suit, where a and i are silent. The following diphthongs are in common use, viz.: oi, oy, ou, ow, ae, ai, au, aw, ay, ea, ei, eo, eu, ew, ey, ia, ie, oa, oe, ua, ue, ui; as in toil, boy, round, plow, seal, coal, head, sail, say, aught, yeoman. Of these, oi, oy, ou, and ow are generally proper diphthongs; though sometimes ou and ow are improper, as in famous, where o is silent, and in slow, where w is silent. A Triphthong is the union of three vowels in one syllable; as, eau in beau, iew in view. The triphthong is properly a union of letters, not sounds.

OF THE VARIOUS SOUNDS. All the vowels, and some of the consonants, have several sounds; in this book these sounds are indicated by diacritical marks, as in the following tables:

TABLE OF VOCALS. Long Sounds. Sound ----a a a a as is ----ate care arm last

a oo e e i o u

all fool eve err ice ode use

Short Sounds. Sound ----a e i o u oo as is ----am elm in odd up look

Diphthongs. oi,oy,as in oil, boy ou,ow, as in out, owl

TABLE OF SUBVOCALS Sound as is ----- ----b bib d did g gig j jug n nine m maim ng hang l lull v th z zh r w y valve this zinc azure rare we yet

TABLE OF ASPIRATES Sound as is

----f h k p s t sh ch th wh

----fife him cake pipe same tart she chat thick why

NOTE.--The foregoing forty-four sounds are those most employed in the English language. Some of these sounds are represented by other letters, as shown in the following table. For further instruction concerning the sounds, see Lessons 36-57.

TABLE OF SUBSTITUTES. Sound for as in ----- --- ----a o what e a there e a feint i e police i e sir o u son o oo to o oo wolf o a fork o e work u oo full u e burn u oo rude y i fly y c c ch ch g n s s x gh ph qu qu i k s sh k j ng z sh gz f f k kw myth can cite chaise chaos gem ink as sure exact laugh phlox pique[1] quit

[Footnote 1: The u is canceled in this book when qu is sounded like k.] W, in its vowel sounds, corresponds with u; an in new (pro. nu). A has, in a few words, the sound of e; as in any (pro. en'ny). U has, in a few words, the sound of e; as in bury (pro. ber'ry); or that of i, as in busy (pro. biz'y).

OF THE CONSONANTS. The Consonants are those letters which can not be perfectly sounded without the aid of a vowel. The consonants are b, c, d, f, g, h, l, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, x, z, and sometimes i, u, w, and y. The consonants are divided into MUTES and SEMI-VOWELS. The Mutes are those consonants that admit of no sound without the aid of a vowel. They are b, d, k, p, q, t, and c and g hard. The Semi-vowels are those consonants that can be sounded imperfectly by themselves. They are f, h, j, l, m, n, r, s, v, x, z, and c and g soft. Four of the semi-vowels are called LIQUIDS; viz., l, m, n, and r. They are called liquids because they unite so readily with other sounds, or flow into them.

OF SYLLABLES AND WORDS. A Syllable is a sound, or a combination of sounds, uttered by a single impulse of the voice: it may have one or more letters; as a, bad, bad-ness. A Word is either a syllable or a combination of syllables; as, not, notion. A word of one syllable is called a Monosyllable; as, man. A word of two syllables is called a Dissyllable; as, manly. A word of three syllables is called a Trisyllable; as, manliness. Words of more than three syllables are called Polysyllables. Accent is a stress of voice placed upon some one syllable more than the others. Every word composed of two or more syllables has one of them accented. This accent is denoted by a mark (') at the end of the accented syllable; as, mid'night, a ban'don.

A Primitive Word is one which is not derived from any other word; as, man, great, full. A Derivative Word is one which is formed from some other word by adding something to it; as, manful, greatness, fully. A Simple Word is one which is not composed of more than one word; as, kind, man, stand, ink. A Compound Word is one that is composed of two or more simple words; as, ink-stand, wind-mill. Spelling is naming or writing the letters of a word.

Script Alphabet [Illustration: The following letter are shown in an ideal hand-written script.] CAPITAL LETTERS. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z LOWER-CASE LETTERS. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z THE ALPHABET. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z THE ALPHABET. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

PICTORIAL ALPHABET. A B C D E F G H I J K L M [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: Axe] Boy] Cat] Dog] Elk] Fox] Girl] Hen] Ink] Jug] Kid (Goat)] Lark] Man]

N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

[Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration: [Illustration:

Nut] Ox] Pig] Quail] Rat Sun] Top] Urn] Vine] Wren] letter X] Yak] Zebra]

McGUFFEY'S ECLECTIC SPELLING-BOOK.

Lesson 1. SHORT SOUNDS OF VOWELS. Short Sound of A. am an as at ax rat sat cat bad mad pad sad gad sap gap bag gag hag lag tag fag ban can fan pan ran tan van cap map nap rap hap jam ham

Short Sound of E. bed led red wed beg leg hen den ken men wen jet let met net pet set yet sex fell bell sell nest zest test pest rest jest tent rent sent went felt pelt melt

Lesson 2. SHORT SOUNDS OF VOWELS.--CONTINUED. Short Sound of I. if rid him sin jig

it is bit hit sit

lid sip tip nip lip

rim fix six din pin

tin dig fig big pig

rig bib jib rib fib

Short Sound of O. on ox got cot jot lot cob job rob sob cod God nod pod rod log hog dog box hop mop sop pop top dot jot lot pot rot not

Short Sound of U. up us cub hub rub bud mud dug mug pug tug jug rum sum bun dun run sun rut hung bung lung sung hulk gush dust must rust gust drum

Lesson 3. REVIEW OF SHORT SOUNDS OF VOWELS. man fin fit hot rug had den did sod lad lap get dim rot hum fun fog tub hod bet pat ten mix fob fun hug dip fog gun did tap wet hid dot hut gum nag bet pen cog had peg his con cut flog dram help lift rush

Lesson 4. Long Sound of A. date late mate jade fade rate came dame same cage page sage bane lace wake

Long Sound of E.

me fee feel seek

we jeer leer veer

she feed meek beef

heed deed keep reel

weed deep peep weep

Long Sound of I. pile file mile dike like pike fire tire sire life rife wife bide hide ride

Long Sound of O. code node bode rove dolt jolt molt bolt bone cone hone tone hope pope rope cope dote note vote hold

Long Sound of U. lure cure pure cube tube lute mute duke jute lune dune use huge pule cue

Lesson 5. Short Sounds of Vowels. crab grab drab slab stab brag cram clan clad dash bled fled sled sped then bent best hemp vest west chip ship whip slip drip spit crib gift king grit shot blot spot plot trot clog frog plod stop clod bump lump pump jump hump bulk just drug shut hush

Lesson 6. Various Vowel Sounds. bard card hard bark dark dint hint lint deal veal meal neat heat bang fang gang tank rank sank hank dank dime lime tine dell tell well yell belt rave gave lave ill bill fill rill hill cull dull gull

mint tint

hang rang

fine mine

pave save

hull mull

Lesson 7. Long Sounds of Vowels. blaze craze shape state crape fume spume fluke flume dure sneer creed steep sleek fleet smite spite quite whine spine drive tribe brine spire bride blame flame slate spade prate globe drone stone probe shore clear drear blear spear smear dean bean bead beam lean mope mold tore robe poke

Lesson 8. Various Sounds of Vowels. clasp grasp flask graft craft book good took foot hook small stall fall wall squall boon spoon bloom broom stool cramp stamp grand stand lamp stork horse snort short north bring cling sling swing thing wad was wash wast what moan coast toast roast roach pod rob rock soft lost

Lesson 9. Long Sounds of Vowels under the Accent. fa'tal na'tal pa'pal pa'gan ba'by la'dy la'zy ma'zy na'vy ra'cy Sa'tan le'gal re'gal re'al pe'nal ta'per di'al tri'al fi'nal vi'tal ri'val vi'al lo'cal fo'cal vo'cal o'ral o'val to'tal bo'ny co'ny go'ry ro'sy po'sy cu'bit du'el hu'man u'nit du'ly fu'ry ju'ry pu'ny pu'pil hu'mid tu'mid

Lesson 10. Short Sounds of Vowels under the Accent. al'um al'to can'ter mar'ry ral'ly nap'kin hap'py pan'try ram'mer mam'mon tab'let el'der hec'tic helm'et fen'nel ken'nel bel'fry ed'dy en'try en'vy test'y self'ish civ'il dit'ty gid'dy fil'ly sil'ly liv'id lim'it lim'ber riv'et lin'en mil'let cul'prit clum'sy dul'cet fun'nel gul'ly buck'et gus'set sul'len sum'mon hur'ry mul'let

Lesson 11. Various Sounds of A. care mare share spare snare game lame name fame tame fast mast cask mask past scar spar star garb barb charm chart lard arm yard lake dale gale cape shame camp damp hand land sand waft raft chaff aft staff war warp warm ward warn fray play gray stay bray

Lesson 12. Various Sounds of A. dan'ger man'ger quak'er qua'ver dra'per wa'ger fa'vor fla'vor sa'vor ma'jor ca'per am'ber ban'ter ban'ner hand'y man'na can'cer pan'der tam'per plan'et ham'per stam'mer lard'er mar'gin ar'dent ar'my art'ist har'vest par'ty tar'dy ar'dor car'pet gar'ment clat'ter flat'ter lat'ter mat'ter pat'ter tat'ter rag'ged rack'et van'ish gal'lant pat'tern

Lesson 13. Various Sounds of E. sheep creep sleep sweep speed breeze teeth sneeze breed bleed freed ce'dar fe'ver tre'mor ge'nus se'cret re'bus se'quel se'quence he'ro ze'ro se'cant bet'ter fet'ter let'ter en'ter ev'er nev'er sev'er dex'ter mem'ber plen'ty ven'om cler'gy fer'vor her'mit mer'cy ser'mon ser'pent mer'chant ver'bal ver'dict per'son fer'ment

Lesson 14. Various Sounds of I. bird birch chirp flirt girl shirt squirm squirt third girt gird bri'er ci'der mi'ser spi'der vi'per cli'ent gi'ant i'tem i'cy spi'ral i'vy bib'ber bit'ter dif'fer din'ner frit'ter lit'ter riv'er shiv'er sil'ver in'ner liv'er thir'ty thirst'y third'ly birch'en chirp'er girl'ish gird'er stir'less first'ly birth'day mirth'ful

Lesson 15. Various Sounds of O. bro'ker clo'ver drov'er gro'cer o'ver o'dor so'lar po'lar pok'er home'ly po'em col'ic ton'ic top'ic mor'al com'ma dog'ged doc'tor cop'per fod'der fos'ter pon'der cor'net cor'set or'gan sor'did tor'pid form'al for'ty lord'ly morn'ing orb'it mor'tal worst come love dove shoot moon moose tooth gorge most prop

Lesson 16. Various Sounds of U. hu'mor ju'ror tu'mor stu'por tu'tor cu'rate lu'cid stu'dent stu'pid lu'nar tu'mult but'ter mut'ter rud'der shut'ter suf'fer sup'per mum'my mus'ket num'ber nut'meg stut'ter mur'der mur'mur tur'ban tur'nip tur'key pur'port curl'y fur'ry fur'nish cur'vet bur'den pru'dent fru'gal tru'ly tru'ant cru'et bru'in dru'id ru'in ru'by bru'tal gru'el

Lesson 17. Various Sounds of the Vowels. June dupe tune flute plume glue droop gloom loop hoof roof proof furl hurl turn churn hurt curl deck neck next text desk nest husk musk rusk stung pluck drunk chill drill quill skill spill frill from pomp romp long song strong for corn fork form sort torch halt malt salt waltz swan wasp sheath shell shorn shout shrub shrug

Lesson 18. Words Accented on the last Syllable. a wake' be came' be have' be take' e late' per vade' for sake' a bate' cre ate' es tate' re late' be hest' be set' ca det' de fend' de pend' re pel' at tend' con sent' im pend' im pel' com pel' be hind' be side' be tide' de rive' re cite' re tire' re vile' re mise' re vive' con nive' ex cite' re cede' con crete' com pete' se crete' con cede' con vene' im pede' re plete' un seen' su preme' re lease'

Lesson 19. be rate' a pace' re bate' de bate' de face' de fame' se date' col late' re gale' em pale' en gage' en rage' a bode' a lone' a tone' af ford' ca jole' de pose' com pose' en force' en robe' ex plore' ex pose' im port' ex pire' con fide' con fine' con spire' po lite' re cline' re fine' re pine' re quire' re spire' u nite' en twine' a cute' a buse' con fuse' de duce' de lude' ma ture' pol lute' pro cure' re buke' re duce' se clude' se cure'

Lesson 20. blade glade grade shade trade skate brisk quilt filth pinch flinch mince plash clash crash smash trash slash drove grove stove clove smote store bream cream dream gleam steam stream blush flush slush brush crush thrush dress swim spend speck fresh whelp cheap peach teach reach bleach glean twine blind grind spike smile while carve farce parse barge large snarl

Lesson 21. ab'bey ab'bot atom ash'es cap'tor car'rot cav'il ehap'ter chat'tel fath'om gal'lon gal'lop rec'ord check'er ed'it lev'el meth'od splen'did ves'per west'ern bed'lam des'pot ren'der tem'pest pit'y dis'tant din'gy diz'zy fin'ish gim'let spir'it tim'id pig'gin tin'sel tip'pet wit'ness col'ter fo'cus glo'ry lo'cust mo'ment po'tent co'gent do'tage no'ted stor'age sto'ry pro'test

Lesson 22. shake snake baste haste taste paste bunch hunch lunch punch plump stump chose prose those froze force porch broth cloth froth moth botch stock march parch starch larch lark stark prism sixth stint smith whist midst pine wild mild tile slide glide spent fence hence pence thence whence oil moil coil foil soil toil boy coy hoy joy toy cloy

Lesson 23. Monosyllables miscellaneously arranged. free spin shad band pack bath dock gold pipe club shop clip hate tape race mire kite bank fell pink hilt last shelf chide fringe clock cheek full frock troop glass lurk cloud quest flax still trim door clung loft pulp grape pose zest shine wore think marsh booth wince spray join friz brow grace

Lesson 24. Words in which the final e is silent. ca'ble fa'ble ga'ble sa'ble sta'ble cra'dle la'dle ma'ple sta'ple bee'tle fee'ble nee'dle Bi'ble ti'tle ri'fle no'ble fick'le am'ple ap'ple baffle bat'tle cat'tle rab'ble sam'ple sim'ple tem'ple dim'ple fid'dle kin'dle lit'tle bot'tle cob'ble fond'le bub'ble bun'dle crum'ble muf'fle muz'zle pud'dle ruf'fle tum'ble pur'ple cir'cle sad'dle

Lesson 25.

an'gel ba'sis ca'ter fla'grant fra'grant has'ty ha'tred la'bel pa'tent sa'cred state'ment va'cate

ab'sent ac'rid blank'et clas'sic crag'gy dam'sel dan'dy fab'ric fam'ish fran'tic lath'er lav'ish

bish'op big'ot bil'let blis'ter cin'der crick'et fif'ty fil'let lim'pid pil'fer pil'lar print'er

blun'der blus'ter cus'tom cut'ler cut'ter sum'mer sun'der shud'der thun'der tum'bler ul'cer un'der

Lesson 26. DICTATION EXERCISES. NOTE TO TEACHERS.--These lessons are intended as exercises in the meaning as well as the spelling of words. Distinguish carefully words of similar sound, but which differ in their spelling. At the recitation the sentences should be read aloud by the teacher, and the pupils required to write them out neatly and correctly upon their slates or on the blackboard. He ate seven or eight apples. Send the pale maid with the pail of milk. He owed for the paper on which he wrote an ode to the moon. We are not quite ready for the quiet man. Age gives edge to wine. He said the idol looked like a satyr. Clever satire often rouses the idle.

Lesson 27. Sounds of ai, ou, ow, and ea, paid grain staid waif rail flail quail snail bound found ground hound mound pound round sound cow how town growl clown frown crown drown cheat treat beast bleat preach speak streak feast head dead stead tread dread thread sweat death

Lesson 28. Dissyllables with short Sounds of Vowels.

ad'age bal'last bant'ling can'to ras'cal las'so an'tic sad'ness sal'ver sand'y mag'got

fren'zy emp'ty gen'try mer'it men'tal sher'iff ten'dril vel'lum vel'vet nec'tar ves'try

bick'er crit'ic dig'it flim'sy flip'pant frig'id in'fant in'gress in'mate in'quest in'sect

blos'som cot'ton com'ic drop'sy flor'id frol'ic gos'pel gos'sip hor'rid jol'ly rock'et

Lesson 29. Trisyllables with short Sounds of the Vowels. bal'co ny bar'o ny cav'i ty fac'ul ty grav'i ty mal'a dy van'i ty am'pu tate ab'so lute al'ti tude am'bu lance del'i cate des'o late der'o gate dev'as tate em'u late hes'i tate med'i tate pet'ri fy plen'i tude rec'ti tude res'o lute lib'er ate lim'i tate im'mo late in'di cate in'ti mate in'du rate in'vo cate ir'ri tate lit'i gate mil'i tate stip'u late

Lesson 30. Miscellaneous Sounds. prime brawn brick green chest space crank limp chess finch flung swine snore charge tinge goose prow wealth screw flake flash clean straw gloss crow shark brand twist slice throb soon flaw loaf crawl flank quench Scotch thrift flange twain thrice flesh twelve scale

Lesson 31. Long Sounds of I and U, and short Sounds of E and I.

a bide' a like' a live' a rise' de cide' de file' de fine' de ride' de sire' di vide' di vine'

ac cuse' im pure' im pute' as sume' com mute' com mune' com pute' con clude' con fute' dis pute' en dure'

con tend' con tent' in tend' in tent' dis sect' de ject' de test' de tect' in spect' ob ject' re spect'

ad mit' ad dict' as sist' com mit' con sist' de pict' dis till' emit' en list' en rich' for bid'

Lesson 32. Silent Letters. B is silent after m and before t, and p is silent before s. The silent letters are canceled in this lesson, as they are throughout the book. lamb comb tomb dumb numb bomb crumb thumb debt doubt psalm pshaw debt'or doubt'ful sub'tle psal'ter

DICTATION EXERCISES ON THE ABOVE. The lamb is a dumb animal. He climbed the hill to the tomb, but his limbs became numb. Comb your hair, but do not thumb your book. Bombs are now commonly called "shells." The debtor, who was a subtle man, doubted his word, and gave not a crumb of comfort. Take your psalter and select a joyous psalm. His answer was, "Pshaw!"

Lesson 33. Sounds of igh, oa, shr, and thr. nigh thigh fight light flight fright tight load oats boat oak foal goat soap coax hoax oath coach float poach hoarse shrank shrewd shrift shrike shrunk thrill three thrash threat throng throve thrust throat thrum

Lesson 34.

Long and short Sounds of A, and short Sound of E. gain nail taint trail aim maim train strain chain paint quaint a bash' ca bal' ca nal' cra vat' de camp' pro tract' re cant' re fract' re lax' at tack' at tract' dis patch' dis tract' ex pand' a bet' be deck' be held' be quest' de fect' e lect' e rect' e vent' pre tend' re flect' re fresh' re lent' re ject' re quest' re bel' re gress' re press' sub ject neg'lect'

Lesson 35. Short Sounds of Vowels under the Accent. ac'ci dent ad'a mant am'i ty an'i mal an'nu al can'is ter flat'ter y fam'i ly lax'i ty man'i fest man'i fold ben'e fit brev'i ty clem'en cy des'ti ny neg'li gent pend'u lum rem'e dy reg'u lar rel'e vant pen'i tence pen'e trate dif'fer ent dif'fi cult fil'a ment in'cre ment in'do lent his'to ry in'ju ry pil'lo ry sim'i lar tit'u lar tim'or ous

Lesson 36. SOUNDS OF THE VOWELS, DIPHTHONGS, AND CONSONANTS. In this lesson, and in the pages immediately following, will be found forty-three exercises on the various sounds of the English language. Some of these have been given already, but are repeated here for the more thorough instruction of the pupil Let the teacher carefully discriminate between the different sounds of the vowels, and fully drill the scholars in their correct enunciation. 1. Regular Long Sound of A, marked a. make safe gaze saint la'tent cham'ber pas'try man'gy brave crave grave shave a base'ment a bate'ment ad ja'cent a wa'ken

Lesson 37.

2. Regular Short Sound of A, marked a. span trap plat sham ad'der an'vil ban'ish bran'dy crack gland slack plaid can'di date cal'i co grat'i tude mag'is trate

3. Sound of A before r in such words as air, care, marked a. dare rare flare glare af fair' de spair' be ware' com pare' chair prayer scare square trans par'ent for bear'ance par'ent age care'ful ness

Lesson 38. 4. Sound of the Italian A, as in arm, marked a. farm harm barn yarn ar'bor ar'mor bar'ber car'go guard daunt harsh jaunt ar'gu ment ar'ti choke car'di nal car'pen ter

5. Sound of A in certain words before ff, ft, ss, st, sk, sp, and in a few before nce and nt, marked a, as in staff. mass class vast task chance pass'port mas'ter graft'ed gasp quaff chant prance chan'cel lor chan'cer y craft'i ness ad van'tage

Lesson 39. 6. Sound of broad A. as in all, marked a. thrall tall wart awe de de de as bauch' fault' fraud' sault' drawl pawn sprawl warmth au'di ence laud'a ble plaus'i ble talk'a tive

7. Short Sound of broad A, as in what, marked a. wan wand wan'ton wan'der squash squab squal'id ness was'ish ly

squat wat'ch

squan'der wal'low

squad swamp

watch'ful ness what ev'er

Lesson 40. 8. Regular Long Sound of E, as in eve, marked e. feel keel glee deem fe'male pee'vish que'ry nei'ther wean these priest cheer de'i ty de'cen cy e gre'gious fre'quen cy

9. Regular Short Sound of E, as in end, marked e. ebb fret helm them pen'ny sec'ond ten'der rec'tor sledge, spread knelt cleft en'e my rec'og nize len'i ty mem'o ry

Lesson 41. 10. Sound of E as in there, marked e, This corresponds with the sound of a in care. ne'er where there of' heir'ess par terre' ere long' there by' where at' where where where where up on' un to' a bouts' with al'

11. Sound of E like a, as in prey, marked e. they whey freight deign neigh'bor hei'nous o bey' in veigh' neigh'bor hood sur vey'or pur vey'ance con vey'ance

Lesson 42. 12. Sound of E before r, verging toward the sound of u in urge, and marked e. term er'mine terse ter'ma gant

pearl err learn

ear'ly per'fect mer'cer

merge yearn swerve

per'son al mer'chan dise ser'mon ize

13. Regular Long Sound of I. as in ice, marked i. fife crime shrine thrive di'et qui'et fi'at pli'ant Christ spice strive slime brib'er y di'a dem li'a ble i'ci cle

Lesson 43. 14. Regular Short Sound of I, as in ill, marked i. sting bliss inch strip piv'ot splin'ter tin'der wick'ed spring twitch thick sphinx dif'fi dent pin'a fore in'fa my lit'ur gy

15. Sound of I like that of long e, as in pique, marked i. pe tite' an tique' ca price' fas cine' fa in po va tigue' trigue' lice' lise' mag a zine' sub ma rine' ver'di gris quar'an tine

Lesson 44. 16. Sound of I before r, verging toward u in urge, marked i. stir first firm skirt birth'right gird'le irk'some vir'gin girth thirst firth smirch girl'ish ness mirth'ful ness thir'ti eth flirt'ing ly

17. Regular Long Sound of O, as in old, marked o. host smoke sport slope po'et to'ry lo'cate so'lo chrome blown scold droll fo'lio glo'ri fy o'pi ate po'et ry

Lesson 45.

18. Regular Short Sound of O, as in not, marked o. bond frost lodge prong mon'ster pot'ter lodg'ment yon'der croft sconce mosque frond lon'gi tude prompt'i tude nom'i nate ob'li gate

19. Sound of O like short u, as in dove, marked o. month glove shove front blood'shed love'ly noth'ing cov'et sponge tongue flood blood cov'ert ly cov'e nant broth'er hood moth'er Iy

Lesson 46. 20. Sound of O like oo long, as in do, marked o. whom move tour shoe tour'ist rou tine' through out' en tomb' group prove douche youth who ev'er shoe'-mak er en tomb'ment mov'ing ly

21. Sound of O like oo short, as in wolf, marked o. wolf would could should bo'som wom'an wolf'ish wolf'-net em bo'som un bo'som wom'an hood worst'ed wol ver ene' wom'an ly wom'an ish wolf'ish ly

Lesson 47. 22. Sound of 0 like a (broad a), as in form, marked o. born horn morse' lorn tort'ure fork'ed for'mer for'ward corpse thorn scorn scorch form'al ist cor'mo rant hor'ta tive mor'ti fy

23. Another mark has been added in this book to indicate a sound of O where it precedes r, as in work, marked o. work word worm wort wor'thy wor'ship ef'fort world'ly worse world whorl whort wor'thi ly world'li ness wor'ship er work'ing-man

Lesson 48. 24. Regular Long Sound of double 0, as in moon, marked 00. tool noon spool groove moon'shine noon'tide bloom'ing gloom'y groom school soothe smooth boor'ish ness gloom'i ly room'i ness sooth'say ing

25. Regular Short Sound of double O, as in wool, marked oo. wool look rook hood hood'wink look'out wood'land wool'ly brook crook shook stood coop'er age rook'er y book'-bind er crook'ed ness

Lesson 49. 26. Regular Long Sound of U, as in mute. marked u. sue lieu nude suit beau'ty feud'al cu'bic flu'id deuce sluice juice fugue beau'ti ful cu'ti cle mu'ti ny pu'ri ty

27. Regular Short Sound of U, as in but, marked u. lungs plush dunce trump slum'ber rus'set duch'ess scuf'fle clump stunt skulk young but'ter y cus'to dy 1ux'u ry sum'ma ry

Lesson 50. 28. Sound of U when preceded by r in the same syllable, as in rude, marked u. It is the same sound as oo. true crude cruse rule ru'mor ru'ral truf fle bru'tish prune truce spruce cruise cru'di ty rhru'ma tism pru'dent ly pru'ri ent

29. Sound of U like that of short oo, as in put, marked u.

bull pull put push

pul'pit pul'ley cush'ion bul'wark

ful'ly bush'y puss'y butch'er

ful fill'ment bul'le tin bull'ion ist bush'i ness

Lesson 51. 30. Sound of U before r in such words as urge, marked u. urge burn spur curb jour'ney stur'geon church'man bur'gess spurn nurse curst burst ur'gen cy curl'i ness jour'nal ist hurt'ful ness

31. Regular Long Sound of Y, as in fly, marked y. ap de re re ply' ny' ly' ply' ty'rant hy'dra ty'phus ty'ro pyre type fyke chyme dy'nas ty an'ti type a sy'lum hy e'na

Lesson 52. 32. Regular Short Sound of Y, as in hymn, marked y. pyx cyst tymp Styx sys'tem syn'tax phys'ic lyr'ic lymph nymph tryst rynd sym'me try syn'co pe syn'dic ate syn op'sis

33. The sound of oi or oy (unmarked), as heard in oil, oyster. oint voice troy poise re re de em coil' joice' stroy' ploy' spoil moist broil choice en joy'ment dis joint'ed em ploy'ment ap point'ment

Lesson 53. 34. The sound of ow (unmarked), as heard in owl. When the ow is sounded as in blown, the o is marked long (blown). howl gown cowl al low' en dow' vow'el crowd prowl scowl flow'er y pow'er ful em bow'el

down

row'el

brown

en dow'ment

35. The diphthong ou has two leading sounds: that of ow in words derived from the Anglo-Saxon, as in out; and that of oo in words derived from the French, as in soup. sour pout soup roup found'ling ground'less rou lette' group'ing fount mount croup wound an nounce'ment un found'ed crou'pi er trou'ba dour

Lesson 54. 36. The consonant C has two regular sounds: as soft c in cede, marked c; as hard c in cot, where it has the sound of k, and is marked c. cives mace clot acts ac'id sol'ace tac'tic traf'fic trace brace curd cave De cem'ber in ces'sant en act'ment e lect'or

37. The sound of N as heard in link, is marked thus, n, which is the same sound as that represented by ng. lank monk sunk monk'ey con'gress lan'guage drink trunk conch con'gru ous sin'gu lar drunk'en ness

Lesson 55. 38. S bas two regular sounds: when unmarked it has its sharp or hissing sound, as in yes; when marked thus, s, it has the buzzing sound of z in zeal. sick pest has ease mass'y vest'ment a muse' in fuse' smelt gross grows ruse pos sess'ive as sess'or re sem'ble res'o nant

39. Ch has three sounds: unmarked (English ch), it has nearly the sound of tsh, as in child; marked thus, eh (French ch), it has the sound of sh, as in chaise; and marked thus, ch (Latin ch), it has the sound of k, as in chorus. such chef speech'less ma chine' child chaise choc'o late chiv'al ry

chasm

chem'ist

chrism

char'ac ter

Lesson 56. 40. G has two regular sounds: marked thus, g (g hard), it has the sound of g in go; marked thus, g (g soft), it has the compound sound of j, as in gem. gear'ing gen'tile gen'der gew'gaw slug'gish gest'ure slug crag gibe gid'di ness guil'lo tine gen'er al

41. Th has two sounds: its sharp sound, as in thing, which is unmarked, and its soft sound, as in thine, marked th. thin thaw this than the'ist the'sis gath'er both'er breath theft thine breathe myth'ic al the'o ry hith'er to oth'er wise

Lesson 57. 42. X has three sounds: its regular sharp sound (unmarked) like ks, as in expect, and its soft or flat sound like gz, as in exist, marked x;. At the beginning of words x has the sound of z as in xebec (ze'bec). ex'it ex cel' ex alt' ex empt' ex pan'sive' ex'pi ate ex am'ple ex ult'ant ex ex ex ex tra'ne ous te'ri or ec'u tive' or'di um

43. Q is followed in all cases by u, and has usually the sound of kw, as in queen; but in a few words derived from the French, qu is sounded like k, as in coquette. quack queen plaque clique' queer'ly quo'rum piqu'ant co quet' quoit quote bisque torque qui e'tus quo ta'tion co quet'tish piqu'an cy

Lesson 58. cas cade' ex change' in flame' a base' a maze' a brade' in clude' ad jure' de pute' a larm' a far' re mark'

ob late' par take' ad dress' re flex' ar rest' con test' de press'

cru sade' de base' re gret' ex cept' ex pect' ex pend' ex press'

re ma in in mo op re

fuse' nure' ject' vent' lest' press' dress'

de bark' em bark' ac quit' a drift' re miss' be fit' per sist'

Lesson 59. HOMOPHONOUS WORDS. NOTE.--These exercises on words of similar sound, instead of being gathered into a single department, are interspersed throughout the book. raised, lifted up. razed, destroyed. pries, inspects closely. prize, to value. pray, to supplicate. prey, a spoil. pore, a small opening. pour, to cause to flow. poll, the head. pole, a rod; a perch. plait, a fold. plate, flattened metal. plumb, perpendicular. plum, a fruit. place, site; spot. plaice, a fish. please, to gratify. pleas, excuses. bell, a sounding vessel. belle, a fine young lady.

Lesson 60. bight, a bay. bite, to seize with the teeth. bloat, to swell. blote, to dry and smoke. board, a plank. bored, did bore. bread, food. bred, reared. blue, a color. blew, did blow. boar, the male swine. bore, to pierce. piece, a part. peace, quietness. new, not old. knew, did know. gnu, a quadruped. limb, a branch. limn, to draw or paint. arc, part of a circle. ark, a vessel. prays, supplicates. praise, honor. preys, spoils.

Lesson 61. Words accented on the last Syllable. ab rupt' an nul' con struct' dis cuss' de duct' in duct' a cross' a dopt' a loft' a gree' a sleep' es teem'

in in at en en in in

struct' trust' tire' tice' tire' cline' cite'

re but' re sult' in vite' o blige' per spire' sub lime' sur vive'

a non' be long' com port' re port' con sole' re pose' con voke'

de cree' de gree' dis close' dis pose' re store' en throne' ex plode'

Lesson 62. DICTATION EXERCISES. Dost consider that dust thou art? He paid the servant his hire, and the wages were higher than last year. With whoop and hurra they tore the hoop from the barrel. The mower will cut more grass to-morrow. The foreign consul took counsel with the enemy, and called a council of war. English consols are high. Kings are sometimes guilty of flagrant wrongs. Many a fragrant flower blooms unseen. He tore his clothes in a struggle to close the door. His course toward that coarse lad was wrong.

Lesson 63. Words accented on the first Syllable. con'tact for'est hob'by loft'y log'ic af'flux am'bush an'them an'nals as'pect nos'tril prod'uct prob'lem ros'ter tor'rent bank'rupt cam'phor hav'oc hag'gard hatch'et cur'ry ful'crum hud'dle pub'lic pub'lish kin'dred pick'et tick'et wick'et in'voice pun'gent rus'tic rub'bish sulk'y sul'try scrib'ble trip'let trick'le liz'ard vil'la

Lesson 64. cam'bric ca'dence da'tive na'tive pave'ment duke'dom dur'ance cu'beb pu'trid pur'ist de'ist e'qual free'dom need'ful meet'ing boun'ty coun'ty cow'ard drow'sy fount'ain cy'press Fri'day ice'berg li'bel mi'grate pow'der prow'ess sound'ings tow'el tow'er trib'al cri'sis hy'drant sci'ence si'lent boy'hood clois'ter joy'ous loi'ter loy'al

Lesson 65. beard crease eaves heave leap knee spleen have frank slake smack clamp build built squint live stick cliff writ bronze buzz snatch dredge church palm calf half talk walk chalk lawn daub fault spawn drift fund verse search fern kern sperm serve were herb strength sneak purse clutch witch script guess start wrath floor czar haunch flaunt haunt sharp kneel

Lesson 66. en no'ble, e lope'ment ex po'nent he ro'ic pro mo'tive de tach'ment dog mat'ic dra mat'ic ec stat'ic e las'tic Lesson 67. cit, a citizen. sit, to rest on a seat. duct, a channel. ducked, plunged under. chuff, a clown. chough (chuf), a bird. coin, metal stamped. coigne, a corner. cole, a kind of cabbage. coal, carbon. find, to discover. fined, did fine; mulcted. prints, calicoes. prince, a king's son. wreak, to revenge. reek, vapor. bier, a carriage for the dead. beer, fermented liquor. rest, quietness; ease. wrest, to turn; to twist. ring, a circle. wring, to twist. rote, repetition. wrote, did write. strait, a narrow channel. straight, not crooked. wave, an undulation. waive, to refuse. in duce'ment a cu'men ac cu'sant al lure'ment a muse'ment es tab'lish fa nat'ic fan tas'tic gi gan'tic in hab'it a bu'sive, pe ru'sal pur su'ant re fus'al sul phu'ric at tend'ant as sem'blage ap pend'ant in tes'tate com'pen sate

Lesson 68.

bole, the body of a tree. bowl, a vessel. boll, a pod. nose, part of the face. knows, does know. mote, a particle. moat, a ditch. toled, allured. told, did tell. tolled, did toll. rein, part of a bridle. rain, falling water. reign, to rule. Lesson 69. a float' be low' be moan' be stow' de plore' a breast' a head' be friend' be held' in flect' post pone' pro rogue' dis course' de port' re mote' at tempt' dis tress' con nect' bur lesque' de flect'

hist, hush! hissed, did hiss. paws, the feet of beasts. pause, a stop. faun, a sylvan god. fawn, a young deer. pride, vanity. pried, did pry. wain, a wagon. wane, to decrease. see, to behold. sea, a body of water. si, a term in music.

di lute' a new' dis use' en sue' im bue' a bridge' dis miss' a midst' be twixt' be witch'

de mure' de plume' re cruit' re cluse' re fute' e clipse' e vince' ex tinct' for give' in flict'

Lesson 70. Long Sounds of Vowels. au stere' be queath' re vere' be seech' bo hea' a light' a wry' be guile' be lie' de prive' de crease' in crease' de mean' fu see' re peal' de scribe' de spise' pre scribe' de cline' re quite' ap peal' ap pear' ap pease' ar rear' blas pheme' ac quire' at trite' as sign' de mise' com prise' dis creet' en treat' ex treme' gran dee' im peach' dis guise' es quire' ig nite' in quire' ma lign'

Lesson 71. Words accented on the Penult. a mend'ed an gel'ic ap pen'dix con tent'ed re flect'ive de crep'it di lem'ma dis tem'per do mes'tic

as sem'bly as sess'ment pa rent'al po et'ic pre sent'ed pu tres'cent pre vent'ive

de fend'ant de mer'it re fresh'ing re plen'ish re sent'ment re splen'dent sur ren'der

em bel'lish em bez'zle re dun'dant a sun'der con cur'rent ef ful'gent en cum'ber

Lesson 72. Trisyllables with the short Sounds of the Vowels. ac quit'tal be nig'nant be wil'der com mit'ment con sid'er a bol'ish ab hor'rent ad com'plish ad mon'ish al lot'ment de liv'er di min'ish con sist'ent con tin'gent e nig'ma car bon'ic co los'sus de mol'ish a pos'tate des pot'ic in sip'id in trin'sic ma lig'nant pa cif'ic pro hib'it em bod'y har mon'ic im pos'tor la con'ic ma son'ic

Lesson 73. hart, the male deer. heart, the seat of life. hear, to perceive by the ear here, in this place. heard, did hear. herd, a drove. hie, to hasten. high, lofty. him, objective case of he. hymn, a song of praise. hole, an opening. whole, all; entire. hour, sixty minutes. our, belonging to us. in, within. inn, a hotel. key, a fastener. quay (ke), a wharf. rhyme, poetry. rime, white frost. knot, a fastening of cord. not, negation. know, to understand. no, not so.

Lesson 74. The Vowel in the last Syllable silent. ba'con to'ken bra'zen ha'ven ha'zel sweet'en trea'son weak'en wea'sel height'en dam'son fat'ten flax'en glad'den hap'pen bit'ten driv'en kit'ten pris'on quick'en

maid'en ma'son ra'ven shak'en wea'zen tak'en wak'en spok'en dea'con

light'en lik'en rip'en tight'en wid'en bro'ken clo'ven froz'en gold'en

mad'den rav'el sad'den red'den fresh'en o'pen leav'en length'en reck'on

ris'en smit'ten stiff'en swiv'el writ'ten fast'en glis'ten drunk'en mut'ton

Lesson 75. The Vowel in the last Syllable not silent. cray'on de'mon ci'on si'phon co'lon o'men bar'rel par'cel asp'en cab'in drag'on flag'on lin'den grav'el bev'el plat'en tal'on wag'on sud'den fel'on lem'on mel'on chan'nel chick'en glu'ten cit'ron kitch'en mit'ten pis'ton her'on flan'nel slov'en

Lesson 76. Dissyllables with the long Sounds of the Vowels. a'gue ca'lyx cha'os dai'ly dai'sy bea'dle bea'ver drear'y ea'ger mean'ness fa'mous fail'ure faith'ful frail'ty game'ster neat'ly clear'ance cre'dence flee'cy greed'y cai'tiff fra'cas gate'-way name'sake stra'tum mea'sles peo'ple le'gion re'gion stee'ple ci'pher high'land mo'hair oak'um poul'tice trea'cle trea'tise treat'ment twee'zers wea'ry

Lesson 77. Words ending with ow, the last Letter being silent. ar'row har'row nar'row mar'row spar'row sal'low tal'1ow shal'low shad'ow el'bow fel'low mel'low fal'low mead'ow bil'low win'dow win'now wid'ow bor'row mor'row

Words containing ei or ie, promiscuously arranged. grieve thieve ceiled pieced sheik re trieve' ag grieve' a piece' con ceit' be lieve' be siege' bre vier' de ceive' re lief' re lieve' de ceiv'er de ceit'ful dis sei'zin a chiev'ing re ceiv'er

Lesson 78. aught, any thing. ought, should. wry, crooked. rye, a kind of grain. lead, a metal. led, did lead. read, perused. red, a color. read, to peruse. reed, a plant. all, the whole. awl, a sharp instrument. oar, for rowing. ore, unrefined metal. o'er, over. ow'er, one who owes. adds, joins to. adz, a joiner's tool. ale, a liquor. ail, to feel pain. ate, did eat. eight, twice four. ant, an insect. aunt, a relation.

Lesson 79. bald, without hair. bawled, cried out. bad, ill; vicious. bade, past tense of bid. baize, a kind of cloth. bays, plural of bay. bear, an animal. bare, naked. bay, part of the ocean. bey, a Turkish officer. be, to exist. bee, an insect. air, the atmosphere. ere, before. e'er, ever. heir, one who inherits. aisle, walk in a church. isle, an island. I'll, I will. cere, to cover with wax. sear, to burn; dry. seer, a prophet. ball, a round body. bawl, to cry out.

Lesson 80. gai'ter clev'er paint'er way'ward di'gest light'ning por'trait nov'ice plant'ain das'tard scab'bard scaf'fold sham'bles tran'script nest'ling men'ace shriv'el jos'tle but'ton pic'nic grum'ble hus'tle mur'rain rum'ble jaun'dice si'lex mas'tiff sar'casm tar'nish tar'tar ha rangue' re lapse'

Tues'day cli'mate wrist'let

pen'ance shep'herd whole'some

troub'le ar'gue pin'cers

pro fess' re venge' flight'y

Lesson 81. DICTATION EXERCISES. To essay the task, requires courage. The discourse was an able essay. An agent will assay the ore, and forward a receipt. Contemn a mean act; but do not always condemn the actor. They were to seize the fort, and cease firing. They affect great grief; but do not effect their purpose. Do you dissent from my opinion? The hill was difficult of descent. A decent regard for others' ills is human. They advise the young to take the advice of the old. The enemy will invade the rich province. They were strongly inveighed against.

Lesson 82. ed'u cate eb'on y ef'fi gy el'e phant em'bas sy ad'mi ral ag'o ny al'i ment al'co hol am'nes ty em'er y ex'o dus fel'o ny gen'e sis fed'er al can'ni bal fac'to ry gal'ler y man'u al par'a sol meth'od ist pen'i tent sen'ti nel fel'low ship res'i dent myr'i ad slip'per y min'u end tyr'an ny sym'pho ny

Lesson 83. mul'ber ry mus'cu lar pun'ish ment sub'se quent sup'pli cant am'pli fy grat'i fy pac'i fy rar'e fy sanc'ti fy cul'ti vate jus'ti fy mul'ti ply mul'ti tude sub'sti tute cam'o mile pan'to mime rad'i cal pat'ron ize sat'el lite am'ulet an'ces try Cal'va ry cav'al ry mar'i gold bat'ter y can'o py char'i ty chas'ti ty maj'es ty

Lesson 84.

bail, surety. bale, a pack of goods. bait, a lure. bate, to lessen. base, low; vile. bass, a part in music. beach, the shore. beech, a kind of tree. beat, to strike. beet, a vegetable. bin, a box. been (bin), existed.

bold, brave. bowled, did bowl. bourn, a limit. borne, carried. bow, a weapon. beau (bo), a man of dress. break, to sever by force. brake, a thicket. bruise, to crush. brews (bruz), does brew. by, near. buy, to purchase.

Lesson 85. berth, a sleeping-place. birth, coming into life. braid, to weave. brayed, did bray. breach, a gap. breech, the hinder part. broach, a spit; to pierce. brooch, an ornament. but, except. butt, a cask; a mark. call, to name. caul, a kind of net-work. cast, to throw. caste, an order or class. cede, to yield. seed, to sow; to scatter. coarse, not fine. course, way; career. dam, mother of beasts. damn, to condemn. cane, a reed; a staff. Cain, a man's name. ceil, to line the top of seal, a sea animal.

Lesson 86. DICTATION EXERCISES. The ensign would not sign the paper. His design was known. He maligned his rival, and suffered condign punishment. A benign face. He was arraigned after the campaign. He deigned not to feign surprise. Squirrels gnaw the bark. He affirmed it with phlegm. The knight carried a knapsack. He had a knack for rhymes. She knew how to knead the dough. They cut the knot with a knife. The curfew tolls the knell of parting day. The knave had hard knuckles, but little knowledge.

Lesson 87. Sounds of O and U. con'dor doc'trine cos'tive sol'id loz'enge of'fal or'ange os'trich pomp'ous spon'dee toc'sin jock'ey

fos'sil frost'y ton'nage won'der won'drous wont'ed wor'ry

of'fice ol'ive nov'el boot'y move'ment stuc'co buz'zard

pon'tiff prom'ise cum'brous cus'tard flour'ish hun'dred hus'band

mot'ley nos'trum buck'le bus'tle dud'geon dun'geon lunch'eon

Lesson 88. Short Sounds of Vowels. doub'le knuck'le nour'ish south'ern frus'trate rep'tile ref'use sen'tence skep'tic speck'le bed'stead cher'ub cres'cent crev'ice dex'trous ster'ile ves'tige wed'lock Wednes'day zeal'ous eb'on eph'od es'sence eth'ics feath'er brim'stone dic'tate frig'ate pil'lage trib'ute fend'er heav'y heif'er jeal'ous jel'ly ab'bess ad'junct dag'ger bram'ble cal'lous

Lesson 89. cell, a small room. sell, to barter away. cent, a small coin. sent, did send. scent, odor; smell. chased, did chase. chaste, pure. clause, part of a sentence. claws, the nails of a beast. cord, a small rope. chord, musical tones in hamony cote, a pen; a fold. coat, an outer garment. cart, a vehicle. carte, a bill of fare. dear, costly; beloved. deer, an animal. due, owing; fit. dew (du), moisture condensed. doe, the female deer. dough, unbaked paste. dram, a glass of spirits. drachm, a small weight. fane, a temple. fain, gladly. feign, to pretend.

Lesson 90. be speak' nan keen' im plead' con ceal' con geal' re frain' ab solve' de volve' dis solve' re solve' re spond' re print' ad judge' be grudge' sub duct' be numb' con vulse' re proach' in dulge' re pulse' suc cumb' af front' a mong' re take'

re re re re

main' strain' tain' tail'

re strict' re sist' sub mit' dis tinct'

en pa pa be

croach' trol' role' fore'

re re de al

trace' pay' lay' lay'

Lesson 91. dust, powdered earth. dost, second person of do. earn, to gain by labor. urn, a kind of vase. ern, the sea-eagle. die, to expire. dye, to color. draught (draft), drawing draft, a bill of exchange. dun, a dark color. done, performed. fate, destiny. fete, a festival. day, twenty-four hours. dey, a Turkish title. ewe (yu), a female sheep. you, the person spoken to. yew (yu), a kind of tree. eye, the organ of sight. I, myself. ay, yes. aye, an affirmative vote. flee, to run away. flea, an insect. flew (flu) , did fly. flue, a passage for smoke.

Lesson 92. ag'ile al'oes dac'tyl fash'ion gal'ley bit'tern brisk'et cis'tern chim'ney chis'el hack'ney knap'sack lad'der lat'tice lan'cet crys'tal dis'tance dis'taff dwin'dle pick'le pas'sive prac'tice rab'id rap'id tac'tics crim'son grid'dle live'long gyp'sy hith'er bis'cuit fil'bert im'age im'pulse mil'dew kid'ney lin'tel liq'uid liq'uor rid'dance

Lesson 93. slui'cy jui'cy stew'ard jew'el neu'tral cor'ner cor'sair corse'let for'feit gor'geous bol'ster court'ship fro'ward co'coa nose'gay gor'gon lord'ship mor'bid mort'gage mor'sel cer'tain sur'ly sur'geon ear'nest jour'nal au'dit caus'tic awk'ward gaud'y lau'rel driz'zle tick'le twink'le thim'ble vil'lain so'da so'fa. so'ber sto'ic to'paz

Lesson 94. DICTATION EXERCISES. The awl is used by all shoe-makers. He said that he would do aught that he ought to do. The man who stole the bale of goods gave bail. The Bey rode a bay horse around the bay. Deer break through the brake and brush. He had just lain down in the narrow lane. The horse with the long mane ran through the main street of a town in Maine. Which of the pair of fine pears will you pare for the child? The joiner's plane will smooth the plain door. You can rein your horse, if it should rain. The kings reign wisely.

Lesson 95. bal'us trade al'ka li al'ka line ap'o gee al'i quot as'ter isk az'i muth bach'e lor cal'a bash cal'a mus fab'ri cate gal'ax y mas'to don mack'er el mar'i ner par'a graph par'al lax par'a gon par'a pet par'a phrase bev'er age cher'u bim dem'o crat den'i zen den'si ty ex'or cist ed'i fy em'a nate em'pha size ep'i cure

Lesson 96. fir, a kind of tree. fur, soft hair. faint, weak; languid. feint, a pretense. fair, clear; handsome. fare, food; cost of passage. feet, plural of foot. feat, an exploit. floe, a large piece of ice. flow, a current. flour, ground wheat. flow'er, a blossom. fort, a stronghold. forte, one's strong point. forth, forward. fourth, the next after third. frays, quarrels. phrase, part of a sentence, fore, toward the front. four, twice two. foul, impure. fowl, a bird. freeze, to become ice. frieze, a kind of cloth.

Lesson 97.

ex'pe dite' hel'le bore per'i gee reg'i cide rec'on dite' fif'ti eth mir'a cle nim'ble ness rig'or ous ris'i ble

ped'i ment pel'i can pet'u lant rec'om pense spher'ic al syn'o nym tyr'an nize witch'er y wil'der ness whim'si cal

cur'ren cy ful'some ly nul'li ty sub'si dy sub'ter fuge con'ju gate con'tro vert con'se crate cor'o net dom'i nant

Lesson 98. ar'bi trate ar'ma ment ar'mis tice ar'chi tect arch'er y bar'ba rism dec'i mal des'pot ism em'pha sis ep'i taph leth'ar gy pen'ta teuch hard'i hood har'le quin car'ni val car'bon ate gar'den er gar'ni ture met'a phor ed'it or sen'a tor ser'a phim spec'i men spec'u late for'mu la gor'mand ize or'der ly or'di nal or'di nate or'phan age crit'i cism cyl'in der mys'ter y mys'ti fy phys'ic al typ'i fy

Lesson 99. Short and long Sounds of the Vowels. but'ler buck'ler cud'gel judg'ment snuff'ers bond'age cot'tage for'age hos'tage pros'trate com'mon dog'ma dol'phin hos'tile mod'ern con'vent soph'ist sor'rel stop'ple tod'dy dis'mal dis'trict mim'ic mis'sive syn'od cli'max fi'brous hy'brid hy'men hy'phen blem'ish elem'ent cher'ry cred'it em'bers aid'ance bail'iff base'ment brace'let brave'ly

Lesson 100. furs, skins with soft hair. furze, a prickly shrub. gage, to pledge. gauge, to measure. gate, door; entrance. groan, a deep sigh. grown, increased. gall, bile. Gaul, old name of France. gild, to overlay with gold.

gait, manner of walking. gilt, adorned with gold. guilt, crime. great, large; vast. grate, a range of bars. grease, soft fat. Greece, a country.

guild, a corporation. gloze, to smooth over. glows, shines. guest, a visitor. guessed, did guess. hale, sound; healthy. hail, frozen rain.

Lesson 101. a lert' as sert' a ver' a vert' con cern' per vert' a vail' a wait' de cay' de claim' de fray' pre vail' ex pert' in ert' in fer' in sert' in vert' pre fer' re claim' ab stain' ac quaint' af fray' as suage' block ade' sub vert' su perb' ab surd' re cur' de mur' dis turb' dis play" en tail' ob tain' con tain' per suade' a broad' re move' a do' a loof' bal loon' buf foon' hal loo' be fall' re call' en thrall' re sort' as sort' be sought'

Lesson 102. al'pha an'ise brack'et dam'ask mad'der clos'et com'ment con'course con'text con'vex pad'lock plac'id Sab'bath saf'fron stag'nant con'trite oc'tave vol'ume bon'fire con'quer ad'dle bar'rack man'date man'ly stag'nate cher'ish den'tist fresh'et rel'ish rem'nant hon'ey com'fort moth'er oth'er smoth'er ves'tal leg'ate mem'brane mes'sage res'cue

Lesson 103. flout meant wren quick solve wrong quince shrimp cause gauze a fresh' con temn' con tempt' com mand' com mence' com mend' com pact' com plaint' es tray' ap proach' fir'kin serv'ile skir'mish ster'ling sur'feit ur'gent fur'lough jas'mine lack'ey latch'et a'er ate' la'i ty de'vi ous re'al ize re'qui em co'gen cy no'ti fy po'ten cy o'ri ole o'ri ent

quoin squaw cross

cor rode' cur tail' re pute'

mat'in scat'ter sav'age

jo'vi al vo'ta ry zo'di ac

Lesson 104. DICTATION EXERCISES. I accept all your presents except the last. His joy was in excess, at the news of his access to fortune. Though your terms exceed my expectations, I must accede to them. The best cosmetic is air and exercise. He pretended to exorcise evil spirits. Both assent to go up the ascent. He was indicted for inditing a false letter. Champagne is made in France. The soldiers crossed the champaign. The law will levy a tax to build a levee. The levee was held at the mayor's residence. The senior brother was addressed as seignior.

Lesson 105. cer'ti fy fer'ti lize herb'al ist serv'i tude ter'mi nate fer'ven cy mer'cu ry nurs'er y per'fi dy per'ju ry for'ti fy for'ti tude fort'u nate or'di nance or'gan ism ar'bi ter ar'ter y har'mo ny lar'ce ny har'mo nize cog'ni zance con'ju gal glob'u lar or'i gin hom'i ly af'flu ent bal'us ter bar'ri er bar'ris ter car'ri on

Lesson 106. Words accented on the first Syllable. cler'ic al el'e gy em'i grant em'per or ep'i gram pa'pa cy fla'gran cy fra'gran cy ra'di ance sla'ver y main'te nance fes'ti val eth'ic al her'ald ry her'e tic her'o ism di'a lect di'a gram di'a ry fin'er y i'vo ry pli'a ble li'bra ry like'li hood mi'cro cosm mi'cro scope ni'tro gen ped'ant ry ped'es tal med'i cine lex'i con sed'u lous quer'u lous

Lesson 107. Monosyllables representing different Sounds. stray ache bathe lathe plaint brain slave quake stave plague sleet fleece steer speech sphere fief field thief fiend shriek strike trite splice stripe tithe yield fierce pierce tierce niece trope grope broke stroke cloak crock block flock shock mock curse hearse purge scourge verge squeal league plead squeak heath

Lesson 108. SYNTHETIC EXERCISES. Make Sentences containing the following Words. bough, a branch of a tree. bow, to bend. brute, a beast. bruit, to noise abroad. cite, to summon. site, a situation. sight, the sense of seeing. climb, to ascend. clime, climate; region. core, the inner part. corps, a body of soldiers. creek, a narrow inlet. creak, a grating noise. grieves, laments. greaves, armor for the legs. hew (hu), to cut; to chop. hue, a color; dye. Hugh, a man's name. kill, to deprive of life. kiln, a large oven. leaf, of a tree or book. lief, willingly; gladly. maze, an intricate place. maize, Indian corn. mean, low; middle point. mien, air; manner.

Lesson 109. Miscellaneous Sounds. bul'let bull'y bull'ock bul'rush bush'el bull'ion crup'per cuck'oo coop'er wool'en cool'ly scoun'drel bal'sam squad'ron war'rant quad'rant nor'mal or'phan tor'por quar'ter ac claim' o paque' sca lene' se cede' pre cise' pre side' pro scribe' com mode' en gross' con sume' pre sume' be dew'

Lesson 110. false quart sward swarm thwart bilge bridge ridge hinge cringe naught sought bought bright plight budge judge drudge grudge plunge pitch flitch stitch fitch hitch fosse thong notch blotch prompt batch match hatch latch patch breadth breast cleanse friend knell edge hedge ledge wedge fledge twinge print fling string swift

Lesson 111. hall, a large room. haul, to drag by force. hay, dried grass. hey! an exclamation. hare, an animal. hair, of the head. heal, to cure. heel, hinder part of the foot. hire, wages. high'er, more high. hoe, a farming tool. ho! an exclamation. hoop, a ring; a band. whoop, to make a noise. hied, made haste. hide, to conceal. hoard, to lay up. horde, a tribe. hoes, plural of hoe. hose, stockings. jam, a conserve of fruit. jamb, the sidepiece of a door or fireplace. knead, to work dough. need, want.

Lesson 112. faith scrape strange greet perch champ drench squeeze grist shrink copse theme chime whilst smart badge dodge brawl dwarf yawl grant spunk length launch morgue pledge gourd schist flounce screech spasm starve scalp sor'row dur'ing gib'bet bod'kin gos'ling lob'by tan'sy lock'et van'dal ex'tra cut'lass sol'emn hire'ling tres'pass shil'ling mat'tock ram'part tran'quil cun'ning her'ring drug'gist spon'sor

Lesson 113.

knight, a title of honor. night, time of darkness. knave, a wicked person. nave, hub of a wheel. loan, any thing lent. lone, solitary. knap, a small protuberance. nap, a short sleep. lac, a kind of gum. lack, to want; need. laid, placed. lade, to load.

lee, the sheltered side. lea, a meadow; field. lie, to deceive. lye, water passed through ashes. links, parts of a chain. lynx, an animal. loch, a lake. lough (lok), a lake. lock, to fasten a door. lax, loose; vague. lacks, wants; needs. lacs, plural of lac.

Lesson 114. Words containing I consonant, sounded like Y consonant; as alien, pronounced al'yen. al'ien sav'ior pan'nier un'ion sen'ior jun'ior gal'liard span'iel val'iant bill'iards bill'ion In'dian on'ion bil'ious brill'iant fil'ial mill'ion pill'ion pin'ion trill'ion coll'ier pon'iard ruff'ian Chris'tian bat tal'ion pe cul'iar re bell'ion dis un'ion o pin'ion do min'ion com mun'ion mut'u al punc til'io punc til'ious ver mil'ion aux il'ia ry

Lesson 115. The following words, according to the analogy of the English language, should he spelled with the termination er, with the exception of the last word of each line. cen'ter fi'ber lus'ter mea'ger me'ter a'cre mi'ter ni'ter som'ber sa'ber scep'ter na'cre spec'ter o'cher mau'ger um'ber om'ber lu'cre sep'ul cher the'a ter ma neu'ver cal'i ber ac cou'ter mas'sa cre

Lesson 116. In the following words, ng is pronounced as if the g were doubled; as anger, pronounced ang'ger.

an'ger an'gle an'gry an'guish clan'gor dan'gle fan'gled jan'gle ban'gle

lan'guor lan'guid man'gle man'go san'guine span'gled span'gle tan'gle wran'gle

jin'gle min'gle sin'gle tin'gle din'gle lon'ger lon'gest stron'ger bun'gle

youn'ger con'ger bun'gler hun'ger hun'gry wran'gler fin'ger lan'guish un'guent

Lesson 117. In the following, S has the sound of sh as sure, (pro. shure). sure'ly sure'ness sure'ty sug'ar cen'sure press'ure is'sue tis'sue fis'sure ton'sure as sure' in sure' is'su ance as sur'ance in sur'ance in sur'er

The following words are spelled, according to analogy, with the termination se. con dense' de fense' re cense' dis pense' ex pense' in cense' im mense' of fense' pre pense' pre tense' sus pense' li'cense

Lesson 118. lane, a narrow passage. lain, past participle of lie. lapse, to fall. laps, plural of lap. leak, to run out. leek, a kind of onion. lo! behold! low, not high. lore, learning. low'er, more low. maid, a maiden. made, finished. main, chief mane, hair on the neck of a horse. mail, armor. male, masculine. mark, a sign. marque, letters of reprisal. mead, a drink. meed, reward. meet, fit; proper. mete, to measure. meat, food in general. might, strength; power. mite, a small insect.

Lesson 119. mode', way; manner. mowed, cut down. mule, an animal. nay, no. neigh, to cry as a horse. nit, egg of an insect.

mewl (mul), to squall. mist, fine rain. missed, did miss. more, a greater quantity. mow'er, one who mows. muse, to meditate. mews (muz), an inclosure. none, not one. nun, a religious woman. Lesson 120. a mal'gam ate as sas'sin ate ca pac'i tate co ag'u late con cat'e nate con fab'u late con grat'ulate con tam'i nate de cap'i tate e jac'u late e lab'o rate cheese dirt bleak goad slouch gone scarf nerve raid graze stale

knit, to unite. gneiss, a kind of mineral. nice, delicate; fine. owe, to be bound. oh! alas! ode, a poem. owed, indebted. one (wun), a single thing. won, gained.

e man'ci pate e rad'i cate e vac'u ate a ban'don ment in fat'u ate in val'i date be at'i fy pro cras'ti nate re tal'i ate e vap'o rate pre var'i cate

Lesson 121. cir'cus cur'few cur'tain fer'tile fer'vid fur'nace fur'long mer'maid nerv'ous pur'chase sur'face ca pac'i ty com par'i son com par'a tive com pat'i ble con cav'i ty de clar'a tive di ag'o nal di am'e ter dog mat'ic al em bas'sa dor de prav'i ty an'a gram am'bi ent al'li gate cal'a mine hal'cy on Jes'u it ped'i gree reg'is ter rev'el ry skep'tic al ver'i ly

Lesson 122. In words like the following, sier, zier, sure, zure, su, sion, and sia are pronounced zhur, zhur, zhu, zhun, and zha. bra'sier gla'zier gra'zier ras'ure seiz'ure em bra'sure e ras'ure e va'sion in va'sion per sua'sion cas'u al ly cas'u ist ry treas'ur er ship us'u al ly pleas'ur a ble

ho'sier o'sier fu'sion az'ure, meas'ure pleas'ure

ad he'sion co he'sion am bro'sia dis clos'ure ex plo'sion col lu'sion

meas'ur a ble oc ca'sion al pro vis'ion al u su'ri ous dis com pos'ure in de cis'ion

Lesson 123. SYNTHETIC AND DICTATION EXERCISES. brid'al, belonging to a bride. bri'dle, a check; a curb. les'son, a task for recitation. less'en, to make less. met'al, a substance. met'tle, spirit. vice, defect; fault. vise, an instrument. wail, to lament. wale, to mark with stripes.

Filled with choler, he seized the youth by the collar. The priest filled the censer. He is a censor of the press. The ship took divers persons as divers for pearls. The plaintiff assumed a plaintive air. To lessen the number of exercises, will make an easier lesson.

Lesson 124. scrive'ner slug'gard stub'born sub'urbs symp'tom med'ley peas'ant pheas'ant pen'sive pres'ence read'y friv'o lous im'age ry in'di go in'sti gate liq'ui date pil'grim age fish'er y hick'o ry in'ter est mit'ti mus min'strel sy fru gal'i ty gram mat'ic al hi lar'i ty hu man'i ty in hab'it ant i ras'ci ble le gal'i ty lo cal'i ty lo quac'i ty men dac'i ty ra pac'i ty

Lesson 125. NOTE.--These words are not exactly alike in sound, and should be carefully distinguished. as as de di sist'ance, help; relief sist'ants, helpers. vis'er, an inventor. vi'sor, a term in Arithmetic. rab'bit, an animal. rab'bet, a term in carpentry. lin'e a ment, a feature. lin'i ment, an ointment.

def'er ence, respect. dif'fer ence, variation. in gen'u ous, open; free. in gen'ious, having skill.

prin'ci pal, chief prin'ci ple, rule of action. li'ar, one who tells lies. lyre, a kind of harp.

Lesson 126. DICTATION EXERCISES ON THE ABOVE. His assistants gave him great assistance. He was the deviser of the machine. Which is the larger, the divisor or the quotient? This difference being settled, he will pay due deference to your opinion. The ingenious mechanic was also an ingenuous man. Not a lineament could be recognized by his friends. Apply to the wound a healing liniment. The principal in the agreement was devoid of moral principle. Though a great liar, he could play upon the lyre. The rabbit was tame. The carpenter will rabbet the boards.

Lesson 127. In words like the following, U should receive its proper consonant sound; as nature, pronounced nat'yur. nat'ure creat'ure feat'ure fut'ure capt'ure rapt'ure text'ure pict'ure script'ure sig'na ture sep'ul ture fur'ni ture for'feit ure lig'a ture ap'er ture quad'ra ture ad vent'ure con ject'ure ag'ri cult ure leg'is la ture ar'chi tect ure tem'per a ture lit'er a ture flo'ri cult ure ju'di ca ture hor'ti cult ure man u fact'ure

Lesson 128. pail, a wooden vessel. pale, not bright. pear, a fruit. pare, to cut thin. pair, a couple. raze, to pull down. raise, to lift up. rays, beams of light. pain, uneasiness. pane, a square of glass. peel, rind; skin. Paul, a man's name. pall, a covering. pique, to give offense. peak, the top. peer, a nobleman. pier, a wharf quartz, a kind of rock. quarts, measures. plain, smooth. plane, a surface; tool. quire, twenty-four sheets of paper.

peal, a sound of bells. port, a harbor. Porte, a Turkish court.

choir (kwir), a band of singers.

Lesson 129. X with the sound of gz; as exact, pronounced egz act'. ex ex ex ex ex ex ex ex ex act' ist' ult' hale' haust' ert' hort' ude' ergue' ex ex ex ex ex ex ex ex ex act'ly am'ine em'plar er'tion hib'it ist'ence ist'ent ot'ic haust'ive ex ex ex ex ex ex ex ex ux ag'g'er ate an'i mate as'per ate ec'u trix hil'a rate on'er ate em'pli fy or'bi tant o'ri ous

Lesson 130. Ti has often the sound of sh: followed by on, it is pronounced shun. na'tion pa'tient fac'tious frac'tious sta'tion lo'tion mo'tion no'tion po'tion por'tion quo'tient ces sa'tion col la'tion cre a'tion dic ta'tion do na'tion du ra'tion e qua'tion tes ta'tion for ma'tion frus tra'tion gra da'tion de vi a'tion dep re da'tion des per a'tion lib er a'tion me di a'tion mod er a'tion nu mer a'tion op er a'tion tol er a'tion trep i da'tion val u a'tion

Lesson 131. Other examples in which final tion is pronounced shun. men'tion sec'tion frac'tion dic'tion fic'tion fric'tion junc'tion ac'tion cap'tion op'tion ab strac'tion at trac'tion de trac'tion dis trac'tion ex trac'tion in frac'tion pro trac'tion re frac'tion re trac'tion con trac'tion ed u ca'tion em ula'tion ex cla ma'tion ex pec ta'tion ex por ta'tion fer men ta'tion gen er a'tion grav i ta'tion hab i ta'tion il lus tra'tion

fac'tion Lesson 132.

sub trac'tion

im por ta'tion

Examples in which sci, ti, and ci have the sound of sh. auc'tion cau'tion cau'tious gla'cial gra'cious spa'cious Gre'cian spe'cious par'tial con'science spe'cie au da'cious ca pa'cious ve ra'cious fal la'cious fu ga'cious lo qua'cious ra pa'cious sa ga'cious te na'cious vi va'cious vo ra'cious ab er ra'tion ad mi ra'tion ad o ra'tion ad u la'tion ag gra va'tion ap pli ca'tion ap pro ba'tion prep a ra'tion pres er va'tion proc la ma'tion prof a na'tion

Lesson 133. Ci, ce, and si with the sound of sh. spe'cies o'cean so'cial spe'cial cru'cial pre'cious pas'sion man'sion pen'sion ten'sion tor'sion Lesson 134 DICTATION EXERCISES. They propose to alter the place of the altar. He cast his ballot for mayor. The ballet dancer and the ballad singer arrived. The wine seller lived in a cellar. He said that the cymbal was a symbol of music. They sent an arrant rogue on the errand. His manner of conducting the manor did not suit the lord. The prophet of Mammon foretold great profit. The relics of the kingdom were saved by the relict of the king. The stature of the statue of Liberty is fixed by statute. ju di'cial lo gi'cian ma gi'cian mu si'cian tac ti'cian op ti'cian pa tri'cian phy si'cian pro vin'cial fi nan'cial om nis'cient ac ces'sion com pres'sion de clen'sion ex pres'sion im pres'sion op pres'sion pre ten'sion suc ces'sion trans gres'sion ad mis'sion con cus'sion

Lesson 135. rack, an engine of torture. wrack, a sea-plant. rap, to strike. wrap, to roll together. reck, to heed; to care. wreck, destruction. rice, a kind of grain. rise, increase; ascent. rite, a ceremony. right, not wrong. write, to make letters. wright, a workman. roe, eggs of a fish. row, to impel with oars. rose, a flower. rows, does row. roes, plural of roe. sees, beholds. seas, large bodies of water. seize, to lay hold of

Lesson 136. OF AFFIXES. Many words are formed by adding something to the end of another word. The added part is called an affix; as ly, added to man, forms manly. In this, and the following seventeen lessons, the more common affixes are indicated. Plurals formed by adding s to the Singular. roofs hoofs scarfs truths so'los ha'los las'sos ze'ros ty'ros jun'tos can'tos quar'tos al me oc si bi'nos men'tos ta'vos roc'cos

Plurals formed by adding es to the Singular. ech'oes car'goes mot'toes grot'toes to ma'toes mu lat'toes vol ca'noes mos qui'toes po ta'toes bra va'does por'ti coes vi ra'goes

Lesson 137. Words in which f and fe are changed into ves in the Plural: as, leaf, leaves; wife, wives. beeves sheaves leaves lives wives knives thieves wolves loaves calves halves shelves our selves' them selves' your selves'

Words in which Y final is changed into ies in the Plural. skies spies cries la'dies du'ties beau'ties to'ries can'dies tro'phies gro'cer ies for'ger ies gal'ler ies

Lesson 138. Words ending in Y which form the Plural by adding a. toys drays buoys whys chim'neys val'leys mon'eys jour'neys al'leys pul'leys tur'keys mon'keys at tor'neys Sat'ur days hol'i days cor du roys'

Words in which the Plurals are formed irregularly. As the Plural only is given, the teacher might require the pupil to ascertain the Singular, and to spell it. mice cri'ses chil'dren neb'u lae ver'te brae stra'ta { kine, cows } { staves, staffs} { broth'ers,breth'ren } { pease, peas} { dies, dice} ter'mi ni a lum'ni syn op'ses

geese

Lesson 139. Ing signifies continuing to; as talking, continuing to talk. The following words, in taking their suffix, double the final letter. The last letter is doubled when the word ends with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel. plan'ning fret'ting bid'ding win'ning blot'ting rob'bing stop'ping gun'ning shut'ting a bet'ting re bel'ling o mit'ting

Other words ending with consonants, which do not double the final letter. act'ing land'ing build'ing fail'ing rain'ing sail'ing mean'ing coax'ing suit'ing ex pand'ing con sent'ing vis'it ing

Lesson 140. Words ending in e silent, generally drop the e in adding ing. mak'ing nam'ing seiz'ing forc'ing rul'ing lin'ing ex pir'ing re fus'ing

plagu'ing ach'ing

hedg'ing writ'ing

squeez'ing schem'ing

in trigu'ing alleg'ing

The final e is retained when it is necessary to prevent a change of pronunciation, or to maintain the identity of a word. hoe'ing toe'ing tinge'ing foe'man shoe'ing singe'ing dye'ing blue'ness change'a ble trace'able peace'a ble charge'a ble

Lesson 141. Ed, as a suffix, generally signifies did. In words like the following the e in ed is silent, and the wards, though of two and three syllables, are pronounced in one and two. blazed drained hailed lamed paved stowed saved feared flowed glued begged wedged solved called hauled mauled warmed warned warped proved shoved loved boiled coiled soiled bowed crowned plowed roused scoured soured dodged filled be reaved be sieged' blas phemed' ac quired' con trol1ed' a bused' ac cused' com muned' con fused' de coyed' en joyed'

Lesson 142. In words like the following, ed is pronounced as t; and, although of two and three syllables, the words are pronounced in one and two. graced scraped cracked fixed mixed boxed es caped' em braced' en grossed' at tacked' con fessed' op pressed'

In other words formed by the affix ed, the last letter is doubled in words of one syllable, or in words accented on the last syllable, when they end with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel; as, wed, wed'ded. If the word ends in any other consonant than d or t, the e in ed becomes silent, and the two syllables become one; as, hem, hemmed, pronounced hemd. jut'ted fret'ted fit'ted shunned tapped rubbed com pelled e quipped' de murred' o mit'ted im bed'ded com mit'ted

Lesson 143. Words not included in the ahove rule, do not double the final consonant. act'ed land'ed rest'ed failed rained coaxed quar'reled bar'reled trav'eled ex pand'ed mer'it ed vis'it ed

Y is sometimes changed into i; as cry, cried. cried tried shied dried fried spied mar'ried tar'ried car'ried glo'ried sto'ried wor'ried

Lesson 144. Ar, er, and or signify one who does, or that which does; as, baker, one who bakes. If the word ends in e, r only is added. After a consonant y is generally changed into i. Another letter is sometimes united to the affix; as law, law'yer. The final consonants are doubled, as in Lesson 142. beg'gar dig'ger dip'per clip'per trot'ter los'er woo'er vouch'er wres'tler bank'er plant'er build'er giv'er 1aw'yer saw'yer read'er rid'er dy'er bak'er pa'cer pav'er stran'ger writ'er boast'er mourn'er own'er rul'er cre a'tor cru sad'er dic ta'tor en grav'er sur viv'or be liev'er ad vis'er as sign'er in vei'gler

Lesson 145. Words formed by the Affixes er or or. be gin'ner in dors'er de sert'er dis turb'er u surp'er con duct'or tor ment'or en chant'er sup port'er ag gress'or la'bor er rea'son er li'bel er wag'on er con'quer or for'eign er cus'tom er mur'der er gov'ern or pen'sion er nav'i ga tor ded'i ca tor cal'cu la tor spec'u la tor pros'e cu tor cul'ti va tor mul'ti pli er nu'mer a tor gen'er a tor ra'di a tor

Lesson 146. In adjectives, er is generally added to form the comparative, and est to form the superlative; as, rich, richer, richest. strict'er broad'er bright'er fierc'est slow'est gaunt'est wealth'i er greed'i er drear'i er wor'thi est read'i est haugh'ti est

Ly is an abbreviation of like; as manly for man-like, or like a man. Ly is still further shortened into y; as, rock, rocky. bright'ly gay'ly no'bly wind'y eas'y earth'y speed'y spon'gy heav'i ly heart'i ly read'i ly tar'di ly thor'oug ly might'i ly has'ti ly stead'i ly

Lesson 147. Ness is from the Saxon nesse, and means state or quality; as, neatness, state of being neat. bleak'ness fierce'ness hoarse'ness calm'ness smooth'ness numb'ness wrong'ness sweet'ness come'li ness drow'si ness naught'i ness wea'ri ness

The termination full adds its own meaning to the word; as, joyful, full of joy. The final l is omitted in the derivatives. change'ful fright'ful spite'ful mourn'ful woe'ful wrath'ful skill'ful will'ful aw'ful fan'ci ful pit'i ful du'ti ful

Lesson 148. The termination less gives a negative meaning to the derivative; as graceless, without grace. brain'less cease'less guile'less sight'less soul'less friut'less friend'less head'less guilt'less worth'less house'less noise'less

The affix age signifies the pay for, a state of being, or composed of; as cartage, the pay for carting.

mar'riage herb'age wharf'age

fer'ri age her'mit age pat'ron age

vag'a bond age dis ad van'tage es'pi on age

Lesson 149. The suffix al signifies relating to; an signifies pertaining to; ant and ent, in many instances, signify the agent or doer. tid'al ur'ban claim'ant a'gent com'ic al pub'li can as sist'ant pres'i dent me dic'i nal di oc'e san i tin'er ant cor re spond'ent

Able and ible signify that may be, capable of being, fit or worthy to be, or capacity. eat'a ble sal'a ble leg'i ble cred'i ble blam'a ble laugh'a ble for'ci ble au'di ble am'i ca ble nav'i ga ble com bus'ti ble in del'i ble

Lesson 150. Ist, ster, ee, and ess, generally signify the person who, or thing which. The last is an affix denoting the feminine gender. aur'ist tap'ster grant ee' em'press phys'i cist chor'is ter mort ga gee' shep'herd ess pi a'nist for'est er as sign ee' mar'chion ess

Dom signifies the office of or state of being; hood, the state of being; ish, somewhat, like; and ism, the condition or doctrines of. king'dom child'hood knav'ish Bud'dhism chris'ten dom maid'en hood yel'low ish Meth'od ism hea'then dom live'li hood a'gu ish Mor'mon ism

Lesson 151. Eer or ier generally signifies one who has charge of; en means made of, or, with adjectives, to make; ic signifies pertaining to, belonging to, or like; and ise or ize, to make, to become, or to assimilate. cash ier' fin an cier' gon do lier'

cloth'ier beech'en bright'en civ'ic u'til ize sat'ir ize

en gi neer' be hold'en en light'en ce phal'ic cat'e chise civ'il ize

can non eer' em bold'en en liv'en me tal'lic crit'i cise os'tra cize

Lesson 152. Ion and ment denote the state of being, or the act of; fy, to make or become; ance or ence, the act or state of; ive, having a tendency to, or the power or nature of; ory, the power or nature of, or belonging to; and ous, partaking of, or full of. dis per'sion ex cep'tion a tone'ment de'i fy an noy'ance oc cur'rence a mu'sive cur'so ry dan'ger ous di ver'sion e lec'tion a gree'ment stu'pe fy ac cord'ance ab hor'rence con clu'sive ar'mo ry li'bel ous as per'sion con di'tion dec're ment sat'is fy con cord'ance in dul'gence of fen'sive man'da to ry har mo'ni ous

Lesson 153. Kin, ling, let, and ule indicate smallness or diminution. lamb'kin duck'ling leaf'let glob'ule man'i kin un'der ling riv'u let mol'e cule la'dy kin fos'ter ling flag'eo let an i mal'cule

Some means like or same, full of, or very; ward denotes in the direction of; ure means state of; and y, full of, or composed of. tire'some east'ward verd'ure smok'y cum'ber some heav'en ward cur'va ture sin'ew y vent'ure some aft'er ward im post'ure sil'ver y

Lesson 154. ruff, an article of dress. rough (ruf), uneven. retch, to vomit. wretch, a miserable person. rode, did ride. roar, to make a loud noise. row'er, one who rows. sail, a sheet of canvas. sale, the act of selling. seen, beheld.

road, a way; route. rowed, did row. room, an apartment. rheum, a serous fluid. sow, to scatter seed. sew (so), to use a needle. so, thus; in like manner.

scene, a view. seine, a net for fishing. slay, to kill. sleigh, a vehicle on runners. sley, a weaver's reed. seem, to appear. seam, a line of junction.

Lesson 155. rude, uncivil; rough. rood, fourth of an acre. serf, a slave; servant. surf, a swell of the sea. serge, a kind of cloth. surge, to rise; to swell. sheer, pure; clear. shear, to cut or clip. side, a part; a margin. sighed, did sigh. slew (slu), did slay. slue, to slip aside. slow, not fast. sloe, a kind of fruit. sun, the source of light. son, a male child. steel, refined iron. steal, to rob; to pilfer. stile, steps over a fence. style, manner of writing. stare, to look fixedly. stair, a step. sweet, pleasing to the taste. suite (swet), retinue.

Lesson 156. OF PREFIXES. When a syllable or word is placed before another word, it is called a prefix. The prefix re generally gives the idea of repetition or return; as, recall, to call back. re re re re build' touch' seat' view' re re re ro ap pear' as cend' im burse' doub'le re re re re an'i mate gen'er ate sus'ci tate ver'ber ate

The prefix un generally gives a negative meaning; as, unapt, not apt. un un un un paid' clean' known' nerve' un un un un friend'ly health'y stead'y err'ing un un un un court'ly ea'sy fruit'ful learn'ed

Lesson 157. In, also, has a negative meaning; it often becomes im, il, ir, or ig, for the sake of sound.

in im il ig im in in in

act'ive prop'er le'gal no'ble

in sin cere' im po lite' il lu'sive ig'no rant

ir res'o lute ir re lig'ious irre spect'ive ir'ri ta ble im in ir im prac ti ca bil'i ty de struc ti bil'i ty re sist i bil'i ty pen e tra bil'i ty

ma te ri al'i ty di vis i bil'i ty com pat i bil'i ty com press i bil'i ty

Lesson 158. Dis is a Latin particle, and has the force of a negative or privative; as, disagree, not to agree, disarm, to deprive of arms. dis dis dis dis dis please' joint' lodge' charge' grace' dis dis dis dis dis ap pear' be lieve' o blige' cour'age cov'er dis dis dis dis dis con tin'ue in her'it or'gan ize sim'i lar crim'i nate

The prefix after conveys its own meaning. aft'er piece aft'er guard aft'er noon aft'er math aft'er most aft'er-thought

Lesson 159. Post is a Latin word, meaning after. post'script post'-date post-di lu'vi an post po si'tion post me rid'i an post'hu mous ly

Other words are formed by prefixing the English word post, a lettercarrier. post'al post'-chaise post-haste' post'man post'-town post'boy post'mark post'-office post'mas ter

Bene is a Latin prefix, signifying well. ben'e dict ben'e fice ben e fac'tion ben e fi'cial be nef'i cence be nev'o lence

Lesson 160.

Fore adds its own meaning to the word; as foretaste, to taste before; pre is from the Latin prae, before; ante (Latin), before. Anti (Greek), means against or opposite. fore'sight fore'most fore know' pre fix' pre judge' pre serve' pre sage' pre text' fore warn' fore'front fore tell'er fore knowl'edge fore'cas tle pre cau'tion pre ced'ing pre des'tine an'te past an'te date an'ti pode an'ti dote fore bod'ing ly fore de ter'mine pre med'i tate pre oc'cu py pre-em'i nent an te pas'chal an te mun'dane an te nup'tial an ti cli'max an ti feb'rile

Lesson 161. The word miss signifies to err, to go wrong; in the compound the last s is omitted. mis mis mis mis guide' spell' choose' chance' mis mis mis mis be lief' con ceive' di rect' re cite' mis mis mis mis reck'on con'strue gov'ern guid'ance

Words formed by the prefixes up and under. up raise' up heave' up'right up'ward un un un un der der der der lay' write' sign' neath' un'der un'der un'der un'der hand growth brush shot

Lesson 162. Words formed by the prefixes out and over. out out out out brave' grow' pour' talk' o o o o ver ver ver ver reach' awe' flow' freight' o'ver o'ver o'ver o'ver board alls night sight

Counter, from the Latin contra, against. coun'ter pane coun'ter feit coun'ter sign coun'ter point coun ter move' coun ter weight'

Extra (Latin), beyond. ex tra ju di'cial ex tra pro vin'cial ex tra phys'ic al ex tra trop'ic al

Lesson 163. Semi (Latin), and hemi (Greek), ha1f; super (Latin), over or above; trans (Latin), beyond or through; and inter (Latin), among or between. sem'i breve sem'i tone hem'i sphere hem'i trope su per add' su per scribe' tran scend'ent trans fig'ure in'ter course in'ter lude sem'i co lon sem'i cir cle hem'i cy cle hem i he'dral su per fi'cial su per'flu ous trans at lan'tic trans fus'i ble in ter mit'tent in ter ces'sor sem'i qua ver sem i ton'ic hem i morph'ic hem i spher'ic su per in duce' su per struct'ure tran'si to ry trans mis'si ble in ter reg'num in ter sec'tion

LESSON 164. Ad signifies to, and for euphony takes the forms of ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, and as; as ad and verto, advert, to turn to. ad ac ac af duce' count' cord' fix' al an ar as lure' nex' rive' cend' as sail' ad vance' ad'verb ad'verse ag'gre gate ag'gra vate ap pend'age ar'ro gance

Bi (from Latin bis, twice) means two, double, or in two. bi'fid bi'form bi'nate bi'ped bi sect' bi bi bi bi bi den'tate cor'nous fur'cate lin'gual par'tite bi bi bi bi bi no'mi al en'ni al noc'ular valv'u lar sul'phu ret

Lesson 165. Con (Latin cum, with) signifies with or together; it takes the forms of com, col, co, cog, and cor, for ease in pronunciation. con vert' com press' col lect' co here' cog'nate cor rect' con cur' con dign' con de scend' com pan'ion col'lo quy co-ex ist' cog'ni zant cor re spond' con vul'sion con vey'er con ven'tion al com pen sa'tion col lat'er al co-ex ten'sive cog nos'ci ble cor o na'tion con sec'u tive con se quen'tial

con form'

con tu'sion

con nat'u ral

Lesson 166. De signifies down or from; epi significs on, near, during; and ex has the meaning out of. Ex also becomes e, ec, or ef. de de de de scend' tract' note' vote' ex tract' e vade' ef fuse' ec'logue ep i ep'i ep i ep i dem'ic lep sy glot'tis derm'is

Dia, ob, per, and circum mean respectively apart, against, through, and around. With English words, dis gives a negative meaning. dis tend' ob trude' per plex' cir'cuit dis sev'er ob lique'ly per fect'ive cir cum volve' dis em bar'rass ob lit'er ate per sist'en cy cir cum ja'cent

Lesson 167. Mal signifies evil, ill; mono is from Greek monos, single; pan (Greek), signifies all, every thing; and poly (Greek polus), many. mal'con tent mon'o tone pan'o ply pol'y gon ma li'cious mon'o gram pan'the ist pol'y pus ma lev'o lent mo nop'o Iy pan o ra'ma pol'y the ism

Pro is a Latin preposition signifying for, before, and forth; uni (Latin unus, one) signifies one or producing one; syn (sometimes syl and sym) signifies together; and sub (sometimes suf, sup, and sug) denotes under, below. pro'noun pro pel' pro duce' pro vide' u'ni u'ni u'ni u'ni ty form corn val ve syn'the sis syl'la ble sym'pa thy syn tac'tic sub scribe' suf'fix sup press' sug gest'

Lesson 168. Compound Words promiscuously arranged. ale'-house hail'stone lay'man safe'guard lime'-kiln boat'man four'score load'stone hedge'hog pen'knife grist'-mill mid'night

waist'coat bee'-hive key'-stone knee'-pan bride'groom light'-house

oat'meal pole'-star snow'-drop sports'man jew's'-harp luke'warm

pitch'fork ship'wreck wrist'band block'head cross'-bow off'spring

Lesson 169. Compound Words. Lisle'-glove north-east' joint'-stock well'-bred snuff'-box towns'man house'wife char'coal out weigh' horn'pipe heir'loom night'fall book'-case foot'stool cork'screw watch'-word broom'stick dooms'day brown'-bread down'right tooth'ache air'brake harts'horn corn'-stalk loop'-hole bur'dock whirl'pool fools'cap work'shop for sooth' down'cast noon'day law'suit

Lesson 170. Compound Words. can'dle stick hand'ker chief bed'-cham ber ev'er green gen'tle man pep'per mint camp'-meet ing mas'ter piece pass'o ver fowl'ing-piece pow'der-horn post'al-card cop'y-book oft'en times type'-writ er jour'ney man hum'ming-bird musk'-mel on blood'-ves sel hon'ey-comb stem'-wind er school'-mas ter but'ter fly wa'ter-fall gas'-me ter cler'gy man bric'-a-brac na'vy-yard fool'-hard y al might'y by'stand er bass'-vi ol tale'-bear er

Lesson 171. SYNTHETIC AND DICTATION EXERCISES. A'bel, a man's name. a'ble, powerful. al'ley, a narrow passage. al ly', one who assists. al lu'sion, a reference. de scend'ent, falling. cough'er, one who coughs. coffer, a chest. can'died, covered with sugar. can'did, honest; truthful.

il lu'sion, mockery. de scend'ant, offspring.

cent'u ry, 100 years. sen'try, a guard.

The able man's name was Abel. A narrow alley. France was an ally of England in the Crimean war. He made an allusion to the illusion that possessed him. His descendant was descendent from the same line. The cougher sat on the coffer. The candid youth ate the candied cakes. The sentry wore a costume of the last century.

Lesson 172. Words spelled alike, whose Pronunciation and Meaning differ. aye, always. aye, an affirmative vote. chose, did choose. chose, a thing; a chattel. bass, a term in music. bass, a fish. conjure', to implore. conjure, to enchant. bow, a weapon. bow, part of a ship. chap, a boy. chap, the jaw. gout, a disease. gout, taste; relish.

Lesson 173. Words spelled alike, whose Pronunciation and Meaning differ. mall, a public walk. mall, a mallet. slough (sluf), a snake's skin. slough, a miry place. wear, a dam in a river. wear, waste. min'ute (min'it), sixty seconds. mi nute', very small. hind'er, in the rear. hin'der, to obstruct. scald, a burn. scald, a poet. sew'er (so'er), one who sews. sew'er (su'er), a drain. court'e sy, civility. courte'sy, a slight bow. slav'er, a slave ship. slav'er, spittle. i'ron y (i'urn y), of iron. i'ron y, ridicule. worst'ed, a kind of yarn. worst'ed, defeated.

Lesson 174. Words in which the letter A is often mispronounced. Some of the words in this and succeeding lessons have two pronunciations, but in all cases the preferable one is given. hearth grass slant gape gaunt mam ma' a slant' pa pa' a las' al'mond an'cient la'va saun'ter pal'frey rap'ine fra'ter nize com man dant' ti a'ra al ter'nate af fla'tus

far swathe lance calm laugh

scath'less pag'eant stal'wart aft'er par'ent

dra'ma la'ma da'ta ma'gi pa'thos

hi a'tus ba na'na sul ta'na man da'mus oc ta'vo

Lesson 175. Words in which A is frequently mispronounced. chal'dron na'tant hal'berd tas'sel sau'cy mael'strom squa'lor dai'ry ca'ret gra'tis ra'dix ar ca'num er ra'tum ver ba'tim val'en tine ca'ri ous tra'che a bar bar'ic bar ri cade' ra'di us chol'e ra ca na'ry u ra'ni urn a qua'ri um ap pa ra'tus ig no ra'mus ir ra'tion al lit er a'ti lit er a'tim ul ti ma'tum mar a nath'a gym na'si um ex pa'ti ate

Lesson 176. Sounds of A frequently mispronounced. gla'mour raft'er scal'lop craft'y grass'y em balm' a ghast' was'sail balm'y al'der Al'dine sac'ra ment a'pri cot gar'ru lous bra va'do de fal'cate ca ca'o rail'ler y an dan'te hal'i but na'ive te fi na'le glance zouave drain stanch scarce cant can't strap yacht scath calk al'ways a mass' Ar'ab ba'thos cal'dron chas'ten fac'ile fair'y ga'la qua'si lo cale'

Lesson 177. Sounds of A often mispronounced. swath halve jean catch balm groat pau'per ha'rem pa sha' fac'et fal'chion laugh'ter gra va'men to ma'to sa'li ent pa'ri ah far ra'go tap'es try a men' gua'no na'ive har'ass sat'ire jal'ap

trance yea are shaft scared

tar'iff ba salt' hur ra' ba ton' quag'mire

de ca'dence a're a va ga'ry cu'po la cu ra'tor

e clat' prai'rie ra'tion Sal'ic ta'pis

Lesson 178. Words in which the Sounds of E are often mispronounced. ei'ther pre'cept weap'on prel'ate yel'low ven due' for get' stead'y en'gine ket'tle treb'le eq'ui ty ten'a ble e'go tism ter'ra pin al le'gro in her'ent le'ni ent yes'ter day e'qua ble pe'o ny e'qui poise leg'end a ry ab ste'mi ous a me'na ble a pe'ri ent ste're o type sac ri le'gious be nef'i cent a men'i ty e le'gi ac hy men e'al em py re'an

Lesson 179. Words in which the Sounds of E are often mispronounced. leant dreamt eyre rear deaf teat pert tete feoff egg yet pet'rel se'ries seam'stress steel'yard sex'ton fe'brile' fec'und sen'na ten'et tep'id le'ver cere'ment lei'sure ef fete' en feoff' keel'son seck'eI bes'tial fet'id fe'tich se'nile he'lot les see' me lee' deaf'en rou'e e lite' khe dive' res'pite there'fore pref'ace tet'ter met'ric

Lesson 180. Words in which the Sounds of E are often mispronounced. per'uke neth'er pet'al res'in ra ceme' pre'lude nep'o tism as cet'ic red'o lent co te rie' em ploy e' at ta che' ter'ri ble res'in ous rec'i pe tet'a nus ref'lu ent hy e'mal

me'grim ven'ue bre vet' car tel' e'pact

pre'mi er o bei'sance gen'er a Ma dei'ra her'o ine

cer'e brum ve'he ment def'i cit splen'e tic i de'a

Lesson 181. Words in which the Sounds of I are often mispronounced. fi'nite pro'file de bris' A'pril fi nanec' ox'ide ar'chives vis'or sir'up bas tile' rib'ald mer'can tile pi az'za he gi'ra de cli'vous O ri'on i tal'ic ho ri'zon si'ne cure so ri'tes bron chi'tis trip'ar tite pa ri'e tal rec i ta tive' an ni'hi late cal li'o pe he li'ac al zo di'ac al i soch'ro nous men in gi'tis ma ni'ac al scar la ti'na i so therm'al

Lesson 182. Words in which the Sounds of I are often mispronounced. rid vive rinse shire width si'ren ti'ny li'en an'ile ei'der tri'o ti rade' ton tine' bro'mine li'chen ob lique' vis'count vi'rile spike'nard trib'une qui'nine, di late' py ri'tes fa ri'na mar'i time pi a'no vir'u lent cyn'o sure is'o late vol'a tile en fran'chise de ci'sive, pu'er ile

Lesson 183. Words in which the Sounds of I are often mispronounced. fu'tile ar tiste' fi nesse' stir'rup sub'tile chlo'rine as pir'ant in quir'y sub sid'ence' chas'tise ment di gres'sion di men'sion ad ver tis'er tri syl'la ble ka lei'do scope ad ver'tise ment in ter ne'cine lar yn gi'tis

Al'pine chi cane' cui sine' li'lac vic'ar

di plo'ma sim'o ny crin'o line par'a digm e chi'nus

mi in vi is si

rac'u lous ci'so ry vip'a rous o la'tion mul ta'ne ous

Lesson 184. Words in which 0 is sometimes mispronounced. holm yolk scoff nonce cost won't wont shone sloth forge doth tro'phy on'ly mon'grel be troth' proc'ess doc'ile prov'ost grov'e1 fore'head joc'und don'key mon'as ter y proc'u ra tor mi cros'co py drom'e da ry zo ol'o gy al lop'a thy au tom'a ton hy drop'a thy La oc'o on pho tog'ra phy in ter loc'u tor

Lesson 185. Words in which O is sometimes mispronounced. front'ier plov'er a mour' hov'er sur tout' sloth'fu1 Sou chong' caout'choue re volt' fort'night com'pass ap ro pos' vo'ca ble pos til'ion pre co'cious o'o lite dol'or ous ca lor'ic front'is piece prob'i ty pome gran'ate sov'er eign ab do'men dis com'fit court'e ous pa rot'id con do'lence cog no'men op po'nent co ro'na col'port eur po'ta ble a ro'ma

Lesson 186. Words in which U is sometimes mispronounced. tulle joust guide yours ghoul gi'aour col'umn sut'ure pup'pet su'mac ful'some con'duit in au'gu rate ce ru'le an vi tu'per ate ac cu'mu late co ad ju'tor pu'pil la ry

de but duc'at U'lan sup'ple du'ty

cu'cum ber tru'cu lent con nois seur' ju'gu lar nu'mer ous

in'sti tute eu re'ka cae su'ra con'sti tute tour'na ment

Lesson 187. Words properly accented on the first Syllable. con'strue trav'erse ramp'ant ath'lete syr'inge ex'tant brig'and con'cord dis'cord do'nate ob'long com'bat ant dis'pu tant gon'do la pleth'o ra mis'chiev ous blas'phe mous con'ver sant san'he drim con'tra ry pro'te an dis'ci pline pu'is sance in'ter im au'top sy tym'pa num wise'a cre or'ches tral im'po tent con'gru ent im'be cile pha'e ton ret'i na

Lesson 188. roll, to turn over and over. role, a part performed. sign, a token; a mark. sine, a line in geometry. skull, part of the head. scull, to impel a boat. sleeve, an arm cover. sleave, untwisted silk. slight, to neglect; feeble. sleight, dexterity. soul, the immortal spirit. sole, bottom of the foot. sore, a hurt; painful. soar, to mount upward. stake, a pointed stick. steak, a slice of flesh. step, a pace; a foot-print. steppe, a dreary plain. stoop, to bend forward. stoup, a basin; a pitcher. sum, the amount; whole. some, a part; a portion. tale, that which is told. tail, terminal appendage. tare, allowance in weight. tear, to rend; to lacerate.

Lesson 189. tacks, small nails. tax, import; duty. throne, seat of a king. thrown, cast. team, horses hitched together teem, to bring forth. tear, water from the eye. tier, a row or rank. toe, part of the foot. tow, coarse part of flax. tract, a region. tracked, followed. their, belonging to them. there, in that place. throw, to cast; to hurl. throe, agony.

threw (thru), did throw. through, from end to end. time, duration. thyme, a pungent herb.

tide, rising of the sea. tied, bound; fastened. toad, a harmless reptile. towed, drawn by a rope.

Lesson 190. Words properly accented on the first Syllable. prog'ress in'grate pae'an cou'pon du'ress good'man o'zone a'corn pro'logue thir'teen sar'dine eq'ui page phos'phor us lu'di crous vic'i nage in'te gral in'te ger an'ces tor an'ti podes at'ro phy com'plai sant det'o nate ex'qui site ly com'pa ra ble per'emp to ry or'tho e py ex'em pla ry lam'en ta ble in'ter est ing con'tu me ly sub'lu na ry va'ri o loid e'ti o late

Lesson 191. Words properly accented on the second Syllable. trust ee' mon soon' pro lix' back slide' where as' gain say' re cess' pla card' a dept' suc cess' ro mance' he ral'dic ple thor'ic re cu'sant ple be'ian pre ced'ence le the'an il lus'trate im mob'ile phi lip'pic o de'on e la'ine ap pel'la tive a nem'o ne ar tif i cer ar bit'ra ment con sum'mate ly ca mel'o pard con not'a tive in ter'po late te leg'ra phy pe riph'ra sis re con'nais sance

Lesson 192. Words properly accented on the second Syllable. cos tume' with draw' suc cinct' ex cess' de funct' ca nine' mo rale' so no'rous ly ce'um mu se'um e ner'vate ac cli'mate in un'date con den'sate re med'i less pre ced'en cy hy per'bo le py ram'i dal te leph'o ny il lus'tra tive' ex ec'u tor

re si re ac

lay' moom' course' cess'

Lin nae'an ob jur'gate ad um'brate cho re'us

ex tem'po re gla di'o lus in fer'a ble chal ced'o ny

Lesson 193. Words properly accented on the second Syllable. ex in ir ir ir in in in ab de oc traor'di na ry com'pa ra ble ref'ra ga ble rep'a ra ble' rev'o ca ble dis'so lu ble dis'pu ta ble ex'o ra ble sol'u to ry mon'stra tive ly tog'e na ry in ter'po la tor con sol'a to ry de lib'er a tive pro thon'o ta ry dis crim'i na tive com mem'o ra tive ac cel'er a tive sa lu'ta to ry pa ri'e ta ry nun cu'pa to ry in ex'pli ca ble

Lesson 194. Words properly accented on the third Syllable. rev er ie' ob li gor' jag u ar' im pro vise' or mo lu' et i quette' av a lanche as sign or' po lo naise' cat a falque' dis ha bille' am a teur' bom ba zine' tam bour ine' ric o chet' [noun] mule teer' mau so le'um con ser va'tor cot y le'don no men clat'ure hy men e'an den u da'tion dem o ni'ac al ho me op'a thy ap o the'o sis her e dit'a ment spon ta ne'i ty ep i zo'o ty hy per bo're an ep i cu're an Pyth a go're an hip po pot'a mus rec i proc'i ty

Lesson 195. Words frequently mispronounced, or improperly accented. mulet soot noose twice niche salve height sa'chem asth'ma le'gend de sign' [noun] isth'mus this'tle rai'sn jave'lin chest'nut wres'tle or'chis list'en bay'ou gib'bous hos'tler de'tail [noun] fa cade' strych'nine per'fume [noun] mus tache' bas'ket

milch browse [noun] vase

a dult' psalm'ist oft'en

gla'cier griev'ous na'sal

Gae'lic Le vant' [noun] soft'en

Lesson 196. Words frequently mispronounced, or improperly accented. though gist fifth drought nook poor roil sauce rhythm schism root goose'ber ry sooth'say er ju've nile lic'o rice a pos'tle ar'gen tine Ar min'ian de co'rous cyc'la men so'journ er cov'et ous da guerre'o type cab ri o let' min i a ture' leg er de main' char i ot eer' an i mad vert' av oir du pois' Cy clo pe'an Eu ro pe'an spo li a'tion in'ter est ed

Lesson 197. Words frequently mispronounced, or improperly accented. pom'mel bel'lows fig'ure di rect' as'sets je june' ver'min ran'sack short'-lived so'journ cais'son ab'jeet ness ab'a cus ad'verse'ly Bur'gun dy Bed'ou in en vi'rons ex'ple tive um'pi rage o'a sis ar'se nic ar'ti san nu mis'ma tist ig nit'i ble Jan'u a ry Feb'ru a ry in'ven to ry cor'ol la ry vi'o la ble rep'a ra ble des'pi ca ble bap'tis ter y pres'by ter y

Lesson 198. Words frequently mispronounced, or improperly accented. in'nate ter'mites way'lay slaugh'ter frag'ile car'riage thor'ough sched'ule chol'er ic gon'fa lon cen'tu ple re'tro cede nu'cle us cen'tau ry co quet'ry sto mach'ic se'cre to ry dec're to ry ex'ple to ry con sis'to ry pre cep'to ry rep'er to ry chi rur'ger y sperm a ce'ti

grand'eur hir sute' ben'zine

in'ter stice ce ram'ic re volt'ing

pan e gyr'ist pan'e gy rize mel lif'lu ous

Lesson 199. Words frequently mispronounced, or impropedy accented. ag'gran dize al'der man Al'co ran al'ge bra mis'tle toe pres'by ter rasp'ber ry ven'i son pos'i tive dis hon'est chiv'al ric dem'on strate tre men'dous stu pen'dous gov'ern ment Ar'a bic com'bat ive com'mu nist com'plai sance con'verse ly dis as'ter dram'a tist tur'mer ic mne mon'ic vir'e lay ex'pur gate am'ber-gris min'a ret or'de al plat'i num fem'i nine gen'u ine por tent'ous

Lesson 200. Words to be carefully discriminated. cor'po ral, an officer. cor po're al, bodily. du'al ist, a believer in two gods. du'el ist, one who fights a duel climate. de scen'sion, descent. dis sen'sion, strife. ce're ous, like wax. se'ri ous, grave; solemn. Sir'i us, the dog-star. ve'ni al, pardonable. ve'nal, mercenary; base. ap'po site, suitable; fit. op'po site, over against. ac cla ma'tion, a slout. ac cli ma'tion, inurement to an'a lyze, to separate. an'nal ize. to record. or'a cle, a prophet. au'ri cle, the external ear.

Lesson 201. The words opposite one another in the lines have nearly the same meaning, and are called Synonyms. au'thor ize ap par'ent ac cord'ant de port'ment di dac'tic fla gi'tious com mis'sion ob'vi ous con'so nant de mean'or pre cep'tive a tro'cious em pow'er ev'i dent a gree'ing be hav'ior in struc'ive out ra'geous

ad her'ent in'di gence syc'o phant har'bin ger

par'ti san pen'u ry par'a site pre cur'sor

fol'low er pov'er ty flat'ter er fore run'ner

Lesson 202. to, towards; unto. too, also. two, one and one. trey, three at cards. tray, a shallow vessel. vale, a valley; a dell. veil, a cover; a curtain. wait, to tarry; to stay. weight, heaviness; load. weighted, balanced. wade, to walk in water. weth'er, a sheep. weath'er, state of the air. vane, a weathercock. vain, proud; empty. vein, a blood-vessel. waste, to consume; loss. waist, part of the body. ware, merchandise. wear, to use; to waste. way, a road; manner. weigh, to balance. week, seven days. weak, not strong. wood, timber; a forest. would, preterit of will.

Lesson 203. Words sometimes incorrectly pronounced alike, but which should be carefully discriminated. line loam lose morn rout stalk can blanch want wax loin loom loose mourn route stock ken blench wont whacks creek pint sat phase laud east dawn dose wen alms crick point sot face lord yeast don doze when arms sex yon least scrawl tents with close coarse white moor sects yawn lest scroll tense withe clothes corse wight more

Lesson 204. Words nearly alike in Sound, to be carefully distinguished. as say' de cease' de scent' de vice' huz za' in tense' a loud' es say' dis ease' dis sent' de vise' hus sar' in tents' al lowed' ep'ic bea'con coffin grist'ly di'vers cho'ral gant'let ep'och beck'on cough'ing gris'ly di'verse cor'al gaunt'let

im merse' af fect' e lude' Cas'tile

a merce' ef fect' al lude' cast'-steel

mu'sic rad'ish sculp'tor hum'ble

mu'cic red'dish sculpt'ure um'bel

Lesson 205. as cent', steepness. as sent', agreement. an'chor, for a ship. ank'er, a liquid measure. al'ter, to change. al'tar, a place for sacrifice. au'ger, an instrument. au'gur, to foretell. bur'row, hole for shelter. bor'ough, a corporate town. bold'er, more bold. bowl'der, a large pebble. bur'y (ber'ry), to cover with earth. ber'ry, a small fruit. can'non, a great gun. can'on, a rule or law. ceil'ing, top of a room. seal'ing, as with wax. cel'lar, a lower room. sel'ler, one who sells. ces'sion, a giving up. ses'sion, a sitting. cous'in, a relation. coz'en, to cheat.

Lesson 206. cen'su al, of the census. sen'su al, carnal. coun'cil, an assembly. coun'sel, advice. can'vas, a kind of coarse cloth. can'vass, to discuss. crew'el, worsted yarn. cru'el, inhuman; savage. cyg'net, a young swan. sig'net, a seal. chol'er, anger; wrath. col'lar, for the neck. fil'ter, to strain. phil'ter, a love-charm. great'er, larger. gra'ter, that which grates. ho'ly, sacred; pure. whol'ly, entirely. mar'tin, a bird. mar'ten, a kind of weasel. man'ner, form; method. man'or, district. man'tel, shelf over a fireplace. man'tle, a cloak. mar'tial, warlike. mar'shal, an officer.

Lesson 207. Words nearly alike in Sound, to be carefully distinguished. con'so nance e lys'i an e mer'sion for'mer ly pass'a ble pe ti'tion com'i ty con'so nants e lis'ion im mer'sion form'ally pas'si ble par ti'tion com mit'tee cen'sus Lat'in con'cert cor'nice hal'low rel'ic or'der sen'ses lat'ten con'sort Corn'ish halo rel'ict ord'ure

dep ra va'tion ve rac'i ty sta'tion a ry

dep ri va'tion vo rac'i ty sta'tion er y

fa'ther plaint'iff pa'tience

far'ther plaint'ive pa'tients

Lesson 208. Words nearly alike in Sound, to be carefully distinguished. bile wig God dance dome wheel lease sense dross whit boil whig gaud daunts doom weal lees since draws wit ad her'ence con fi dant' at tend'ance ac'ci dence e lic'it em'i nence e rup'tion sal'a ry bar'ren ness proph'e cy ad her'ents con'fi dent at tend'ants ac'ci dents il lic'it im'mi nence ir rup'tion cel'er y bar'on ess proph'e sy

Lesson 209. med'al, a stamped coin. med'dle, to interfere. mi'nor, one under age. mi'ner, a worker in mines. mit'y, full of mites. might'y, powerful. na'val, of ships. na'vel, the central part. cen'sor, one who censures. cens'er, a pan for incense. pan'nel, a kind of saddle. pan'el, a jury roll. pen'cil, used for writing. pen'sile, hanging. pet'ty, small; little. pet'it', a term in law. pom'ace, ground apples. pum'ice, a spongy stone. rig'or, severity; stiffness. rig'ger, one who rigs. suck'er, a kind of fish. suc'cor, help; assistance. sur'plus, excess. sur'pluce, a clerical dress.

Lesson 210. pal'let, a small bed. pal'ate, part of the mouth. pal'ette, an oval board. em'i grate, to move out. im'mi grate, to move in. cas'tor, the beaver. cast'er, one who casts. cur'rent, running. cur'rant, a small fruit. cap'i tol, a public edifice. cap'i tal, principal. com'pli ment, regard. com'ple ment, fullness. coun'sel or, an adviser. coun'cil or, member of a council. straight'en, to make straight. strait'en, to narrow. cal'en dar, an almanac. cal'en der, a hot press. sut'ler, an army trader. sub'tler, more subtle.

Lesson 211. Words which require Care in Spelling. jilt gyre jow1 troll goal knoll dole turf verb pirn perk surd dol'lar schol'ar grap'ple chap'el ren'net sen'ate freck'le shek'el wit'ty cit'y hop'per prop'er rip'ple trip'le pop'py cop'y sun'ny mon'ey glim'mer prim'er tread'le ped'dle cod'dle mod'el nat'u ral gut'tur al lit'er al diz'zi ly bus'i ly ver'ti cal ar'ti cle du'te ous beau'te ous fin'i cal pin'na cle cyn'ic al

Lesson 212. Words which require Care in Spelling. scream screen sheave sheet shield twirl churl clerk quirk fraud broad awe'd com'et vom'it plum'met sum'mit ver'y mer'ry bod'y shod'dy mud'dy stud'y guin'ea nin'ny peb'ble reb'el sib'yl spin'et lin'net cam'el tram'mel mam'mal sev'en heav'en par'rot clar'et in ter cede' su per sede' col'o nize ad ver tise' par'a lyze se'cre cy ec'sta sy vac'il late fas'ci nate co er'cion de ter'sion ex er'tion

Lesson 213. Words which require Care in Spelling. grief sheaf guile, chyle rend wrench dearth worth mirth earth do'ing stew'ing yeo'man chlo'ral know'ing go'ing con dole' con trol' en roll' dis pel' a byss' a miss' as sess' ab'scess sick'le nick'el tal'ents bal'ance si'lence com peer' hid'e ous pre'vi ous im'pi ous a'que ous par'ti cle crit'ic al dil'i gent el'e gant fal'li ble prel'a cy

spurt

fore tell'

ad here'

jeal'ous y

Lesson 214. Words which require Care in Spelling. which ditich feud sued prude wooed balk shawl guise sighs flies stom'ach sau'sage word'y tur'gid ver'ger vir'tue leop'ard lep'er fam'ine gam'mon salm'on re prieve' con ceive' de grade' a fraid' pre pare' for bear' bar'ter tar'tar mar'tyr suc ceed' ac cede' in i'tial of fi'cial es sen'tial sol sti'tial a bun'dant de pend'ent in veigh'er be tray'er di'a logue dy nam'ics me chan ics

Lesson 215. Words which require Care in Spelling. wield weird swale swain storm swarm scythe writhe sieve give scan'dal han'dle clam'or gram'mar ham'mer palm'er sa'tyr trai'tor wait'er cra'ter se rene' un clean' be tween' ma rine' com plete' de feat' de ceit' co erce' dis burse' dis perse' an'no tate an'o dyne col on nade' ser e nade' dom i neer' bel ve dere' pen'ni less mon'ey less joc'u lar jock'ey ing

Lesson 216. Words which require Care in Spelling. skein slain crane sword boast ghost queer brief spoke croak self val'id sal'ad mal'let val'et breez'y greasy gar'den par'don e'vil ea'gle pole'ax kir'tle tur'tle fer'tile myr'tle wid'geon pig'eon mal'ice pal'ace tor'toise mor'tise sel'vage pol'i cy leg'a cy cur'ti lage syn'a gogue cod'i cil dom'i cile ver'sa tile hyp'o crite hip'po drome scen'er y ple'na ry

sylph

poult'ry

por'ridge

dean'er y

Lesson 217. Words which require Care in Spelling. zinc brink fought caught wrought fuse news views choose wooes ooze whose col'lege knowl'edge leath'er teth'er cau'cus mawk'ish au'thor awn'ing ar'id heir'ship air'y car'ry con fer' a stir' oc cur' ef face' e rase' chas tise' bap tize' a chieve' per ceive' be reave' re nown' re nounce' u ten'sil pre hen'sile fa tigu'ing be lea'guer si li'ceous vex a'tious fa ce'tious sus pi'cion po si'tion in cis'ion de ris'ion e di'tion

Lesson 218. Words which require Care in Spelling. earl knurl shirk jerk pith myth growth loath loathe clothe ran'cor can'ker flux'ion suc'tion hos'pice au'spice bot'tom au'tumn trunn'ion bun'ion in vade' up braid' ur bane' or dain' a dieu' im brue' pre cede' pro ceed' re deem' ex treme' di ur'nal hi ber'nal at tor'ney de ter'gent con ta'gion her ba'ceous frol'ic some frol'ick ing de pres'sion dis cre'tion

Lesson 219. Words which require Care in Spelling. risk wrist shred dread scheme chief siege seat seethe keyed coup'le cup'board cho'rus po'rous hill'y lil'y san'dal can'dle nu'tant neu'ter wry'ness ri'ot ly'rist li'vre ten'on pen'non ros'trum phan'tom fan'ion ver'sion ve'hi cle typ'ic al ob'sta cle pro'to col mys'tic al mis'ti ness rec're ant reck'on er wretch'ed ly of'fi cer

tweed

nui'sance

ter'tian

oph'i cleide

Lesson 220. Words containing silent Letters. thought wreathe wreath rhomb gnat rogue' gnaw gnash gnarl gnome phlegm hand'some vict'uals scis'sors schot'tish g'no'mon for'eign dough'ty haugh'ty chron'ic daugh'ter ghast'ly re doubt' re scind' gneis'sose be nign' cam paign' ar raign' op pugn' re sign' de light' ex pugn' af fright' hec'a tomb sci'o list co a lesce' ap'a thegm di'a phragm psy'chic al sac'cha rine rheu mat'ic rhap'so dy rhet'o ric ca tarrh'al

Lesson 221. Silent Letters. taught source brought realm vault knob qualm wroth fraugt knock knife hon'est gher'kin chalk'y isl'and naph'tha gris'tle thros'tle, chris'ten jeop'ard wrig'gle, bris'tle ca tarrh' con demn' de mesne' de pot' burgh'er calk'er rhom'boid tme'sis ptis'an psy'chic rhym'er pneu mat'ics psal'ter y pneu mo'ni a rhi noc'e ros ren'dez vous jeop'ard y hem'or rhage rhiz'o pod ptar'mi gan pseu'do nym psalm'ist ry

Lesson 222. Words liable to be misspelled. tres'tle pa paw' gey'ser gaug'ing co log'ne qua drille' sky'ey sor'ghum sur vey' starve'ling glu'ey ness crys'tal line chrys'a lis lach'ry mose ker'o sene' glyc'er ine ar'go naut fore'bod'ing ex cheq'uer sib'yl line collect'i ble' e ras'a ble ac cor'di on sac er do'tal ef fer ves'cence tran quil'li ty com mit'ti ble cor us ca'tion mac a ro'ni pic'ca lil li

pro'gramme

sib'i lant

fil'i bus ter

Lesson 223. Words liable to be misspelled. fleam glyph liege cuish taunt drap fleche frere jardes crypt sou ey'ing wee'vil lac'quer du et' quar tet' phe'nix rogu'ish whey'ey ledg'er sach'el lar'ynx gen e al'o gy bac ca lau're ate ab o rig'i nes ar chae ol'o gy as a fet'i da er y sip'e las ho mo ge'ne ous hy per crit'i cism ich thy ol'o gy ig'nis-fat u us lack a dai'si cal

Lesson 224. Words frequently mispronounced. for'tress car'bine chlo'ride cof'fee com'rade sau'cer dec'ade quin'sy gal'lows mis'le fau'cet dan'druff fran'chise hom'age rhu'barb cov'ert ma'tron mon'ad pa'tron lith'arge par'tridge wa'ter prod'uce com'bat thith'er o'nyx dis arm' jo cose' bour geois' Cay enne' con tour' di verge' di vert' con cise' dis own' dis dain' di vulge' ex tol' for bade' suf fuse' pos sess' fare well' be neath' re source'

Lesson 225 . Words frequently mispronounced. di'a mond chan de lier' gran'a ry cou'ri er eg'lan tine sor'cer y ex'tir pate cor'di al cor'ri dor gas'e ous par'a dise a'li as par'a chute pot-pour ri' hy'gi ene con'fis cate psal'mo dy guard'i an com'mu nism sub al'tern cin cho'nit in vei'gle stra te'gic ex cur'sion a cous'tics an cho'vy pa la'ver Cau ca'sian ap par'el so pra'no

doc'i ble Lesson 226.

cou ra'geous

im mor telle'

Words liable to be misspelled. som'er sault stim'u lus sil'hou ette pa vil'ion quin till'ion ci vil'ian cen'ti gram ma nil'la eu'pho ny pros'e lyte pu'tre fy pro bos'cis how'itz er syc'a more a bridg'ment ad'di ble aes thet'ic al'che my ar'que buse ai'lan'tus as bes'tus as cend'ant syz'y gy bar'be cue bar'y tone bil'lings gate bry'o ny cen'ti ped cim'e ter col'an der cop'i er nas tur'tium chic'o ry hei'nous ness deb o nair' por'phy ry

Lesson 227. Words liable to be misspelled. bal'dric ban'yan bau'ble la pel' ker'chief gnos'tic but'-end cam'phene catch'up cess'-pool ci gar' mal fea'sance sur'cin gle pleu'ri sy por'ce lain os'cil late del'e ble lau'da num crys'tal lize pol'y glot guer ril'la quin tes'sence cal lig'ra phy dys'en ter y rem i nis'cence hy poc'ri sy hy pot'e nuse syn ec'do che si de're al ad sci ti'tious am au ro'sis lill i pu'tian lil i a'ceos

Lesson 228. Words liable to be misspelled. clew clinch sleuth blonde glebe gyves guy crutch touch kraal coif'fure fledge'ling af'ghan che nille' che mise' chas'seur chev'ron cor'ymb e leve' hogs'head con fec'tion er y klep to ma'ni a cor nu co'pi a cot y led'o nous di u tur'ni ty terp sich o re'an me temp sy cho'sis me te or'o lite per ip neu'mo ny phar ma co poe'ia

chintz ceirge

meer'scham buhr'-stone

phar ma ceu'tic al sac cha rif'er ous

Lesson 229. Words liable to be misspelled or mispronounced. el e phan ti'a sis par a di si'ac al par a pher na'li a ver i si mil'i tude tin tin nab u la'tion su per e rog'a tive pu sil la nim'i ty phan tas ma go'ri a ob'li ga to ri ly id i o syn'cra sy ir re me'di a ble' ip e cac u an'ha ir re cog'ni za ble gu ber na to'ri al el ee mos'y na ry pol y cot y le'don het er o ge'ne ous hi e ro glyph'ic al hyp o chon dri'ac al his to ri og'ra pher in dis'so lu ble'ness in dis'pu ta ble'ness er y si pel'a tous ir ref'ra ga ble ness

Lesson 230. Words of irregular Pronunciation. of (ov) sice (siz) tige (tej) says (sez) said (sed) loir (lwar) a'ny (en'y) newt (nut) beaux (boz) once (wuns) i'ron (i'urn) tough (tuf) hough (hok) fiord (fyord) bouy (bwoy) cough (kawf) mont (mong) rouge (roozh) mauve (mov) ruche (roosh) Czech (tchek) caf'e (kaf 'a) trough (trawf) bus'y (biz'y) ma'ny (men'y) pret'ty (prit'ty) wom'en (wim'en) cann on' (kan yun') sa lon' (sa long') chap'eau (shap'o) cha teau' (sha to') cro quet (kro ka') men age' (-azh')

Lesson 231. Words of irregular Pronunciation. pa tois' (pat wa') bi jou (be zhoo') phthis'ic (tiz'ik) bu'reau (bu'ro) En'glish (ing'glish) flam'beau (flam'bo) haut'boy (ho'boy) hic'cough (hik'kup) bou quet' (boo ka') breech'es (brich'ez) por'poise (por'pus) a gain' (a gen') dis cern' (diz zern') e nough' (e nuf') en nui' (ong nwe') ron deau' (ron do')

right'eous (ri'chus) cham'ois (sham'my) bou'doir (boo'dwor) ser'geant (sar'jent)

vign ette' (vin yet') squir'rel (or skwur'rel) suf fice' (suf fiz') cor'tege (kor'tazh)

Lesson 232. Words of irregular Pronunciation. sough (suf) myrrh (mer) suave (swav) shew (sho) strew (stru) bouffe (boof) nom (nong) clough (kluf) nee (na) ghat (gawt) creux (kru) men ag'e rie (men azh'e ry) ci ce ro'ne (che che- or sis'e-) chev'aux-de-frise (shev'o de frez) pap'ier-ma che (pap'ya ma sha) de col le te' (da kol le ta') tic-dou lou reux' (tik doo lo roo') ver mi cel'li (-chel'li or -sel'li) su per fi'cies (su per fish'ez) ra tion a'le (rash un a'le) ha bit u e (a bit n a') hal le lu jah (hal le lu'ya)

Lesson 233. Words of irregular Pronunciation. bus'i ness (biz'nes) colo nel (kur'nel) hau teur' (ho tur') bdell'ium (del'yum) cui rass' (kwe ras') gauch rie' (gosh re') trous seau' (troo so') gun'wale (gun'nel) dah'lia (dal'ya) soi ree' (swa ra') sap'phire' (saf'ir) cog'nac (kon'yak) roq'ue laure (rok'e lor) sac'ri fice (sak'ri fiz) chef-d'oeuvre' (sha doovr') es cri toire' (es kri twor') belles-let'tres (bel let'ter) res tau rant' (res to rang') mign on ette' (min yon et') fuch'si a (fook'si a) re veil'le (re val'ya) pap e terie' (pap a tre') sur veil'lance' (-val'yans) Ple'ia des (ple'ya dez)

Lesson 234. Words of irregular Pronunciation. nes'cience (nesh'ens) ba rege' (ba razh') diph'thong (dif-) sol'dier (sol'jer) fort'une' (fort'yun) neph'ew (nef'yu) re cher che' (ruh sher sha') so bri quet' (so bre ka') aid'-de-camp (ad'de kong) mag gio're (mad jo'ra) made moi selle' (-mwa zel') fleur-de-lis' (flur de le')

let'tuce (let'tis) en tree' (ong tra') re gime' (ra zhem') scru toire' (skru twor') phy sique' (fe zek')

deb au chee' (deb o she') res er voir' (rez er vwor') eis tedd'fod (is teth'fod) pro te ge' (pro ta zha') de noue'ment (-noo'mong)

Lesson 235. Words of irregular Pronunciation. cri tique' (kri tek') pen chant' (pong shong') chig'non (shen'yong) cha let' (sha la') e lan' (a lang') mem'oir (mem'wor) mon sieur' (mo ser') blanc-mange' (blo-monj') a mende' (a mongd') cen time' (son tem') biv'ouac (biv'wak) en core' (ong kor') se ance' (sa ongs') mor ceau' (mor so') dan seuse' (dong zurz') sang-froid' (song frwa') qui vive (ke vev) faux pas' (fo pa') bon ton (bong tong) bon'mot (bong'mo) mil lier' (mi lya') sa vant' (sa vong')

Lesson 236. Names of Men. Charles Frank George Hugh James Job John Luke Mark Saul Ralph Ad'am Al'bert An'drew Ar'thur Clar'ence Da'vid Ed'ward Ed'win Ez'ra Fran'cis Gil'bert Har'old Hen'ry Ho'mer I'saac Ja'cob Jo'seph Lew'is No'ah Pat'rick Pe'ter Will'iam A'sa Bas'il Ca'leb Ce'phas Cy'rus Eu'gene Fe'lix Ja'bez Leon'ard Mo'ses Rob'ert

Lesson 237. Names of Men. Her'bert Hi'ram Hor'ace Ja'son Jes'se Law'rence Ab'sa lom An'tho ny Ben'ja min E li'jah Fer'di nand Fred'er ick Al ex an'der An dro ni'cus Bar thol'o mew Eb en e'zer Em man'u el E ze'ki el

Le'vi Lu'ther Os'car Phil'ip Rich'ard

I sa'iah (-ya) Le an'der Ol'i ver Sam'u el Tim'o thy

Jer e mi'ah Le on'i das Na po'le on The oph'i lus Zech a ri'ah

Lesson 238. Names of Women. Anne Blanche Eve Grace Jane Jean Kate Maud May Pearl Ruth A'da Ag'nes Al'ice An'na Ber'tha Clar'a Co'ra E'dith Ed'na El'la Em'ma Es'ther Eu'nice E'va Fan'ny Flo'ra Fran'ces Ger'trude Hel'en Han'nah I'da Lau'ra Lo'is Lu'cy Ma'bel Mar'tha Ma'ry My'ra Nan'cy Ra'chel Rho'da Sa'rah Su'san

Lesson 239. Names of Women. A'my Bet'sey Bridg'et Char'lotte Chlo'e Dor'cas Di'nah El'len Flor'ence Ja net' Ro'sa Ad'e line A man'da Bar'ba ra Be'a trice Deb'o rah E li'za Em'i ly Mar'ga ret Pris cil'la Re bec'ca Su san'na A me'li a Ar a bel'la Dor o the'a E liz'a beth E van'ge line Fe lic'i a Fred er i'ca Ge'or gi an'a Is a bel'la La vin'i a Vic to'ri a

Lesson 240. Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing. A. or Am., Answer. A. B., Bachelor of Arts. A. C., or B. C., Before Christ. A. D., In the year of our Lord. A. M., Master of Arts; Before Bro., Brother. C. H., Court-House. Co., Company; County. C. O. D., Collect on delivery. Cr., Credit.

noon; In the year of the world. Bart., Baronet. Bbl., Barrel; barrels. B. L., Bachelor of Laws.

D. D., Doctor of Divinity. Do., or ditto, The same. Dr., Doctor; Debtor. e. g. (exempli gratia), For example.

Lesson 241. Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing. Ed., Editor; Edition. Eng., England; English. Esq., Esquire. Etc. (et cetera), And so forth. Fri., Friday. Fahr., Fahrenheit. F.R.S., Fellow of the Royal Society. Gen., General; Genesis. Gov., Governor. G.P.O., General Post-Office. H. B. M., Her Britannic Majesty. Hhd., Hogshead. H.R., House of Representatives. Ibid., In the same place. Id.(idem), The same. i. e. (id est), That is. Jas., James. Jun. or Jr., Junior. Lat., Latitude. Lb., Pound; pounds.

Lesson 242. Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing. LL. D., Doctor of Laws. Long., Longitude. L. S., Place of the Seal. M., Monsieur. M. C., Member of Congress. Mon., Monday. M. D., Doctor of Medicine. Messrs., Gentlemen. M. P., Member of Parliament. Mr., Mister; Master. Lesson 243. Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing. P. S., Postscript. Pub. Doc., Public Document. Pxt., He painted it. Sc., He engraved it. Q. M., Quartermaster. Rec'd., Received. St., Saint; Street. Sun., Sunday. Supt., Superintendent. Thurs., Thursday. Tues., Tuesday. V., vid., or vide, See. Viz.(videlicet), Namely. Mrs., Mistress. N., North. N. A., North America. MS., Manuscript. No., Number. N. B. (nota bene), Take notice. pp., Pages. Per., By the. P. M., Postmaster; Afternoon. P.O., Post-Office. Prof, Professor.

Rev., Reverend. S., Shilling; South. S. A., South America. Sat., Saturday. Sen., Senior; Senator.

Vol., Volume. Vs. (versus), Against. Wed., Wednesday. W.I., West Indies. Wt., Weight.

Lesson 244. Abbreviations of the States, with their Pronunciation. Ala., Al a ba'ma. Ark., Ar'kan sas. Cal., Cal i for'ni a. Col. or Colo., Col o ra'do. Conn. or Ct., Con nect'i cut Del., Del'a ware. Flor. or Fla., Flor'i da. Geo. or Ga., Geor'gi a. Ill., Il li nois'. Ind., In di an'a. Ia., I'o wa. Kan., Kan'sas. Ky., Ken tuck'y. Lou. or La., Lou i si a'na. Mass., Mas sa chu'setts. Md., Ma'ry land. Me., Maine. Mich., Mich'i gan. Minn., Min ne so'ta. Miss., Mis sis sip'pi. Mo., Mis sou'ri.

Lesson 245. Abbreviations of the States, with their Pronunciation. Neb., Ne bras'ka. N. C., North Car o li'na. N. H., New Hamp'shire N. J., New Jer'sey. Nev., Ne va'da. N. Y., New York. Or., Or'e gon. O., O hi'o. Pa. or Penn., Penn syl va'ni a. R. I., Rhode Is1'and. S. C., South Car o li'na. Tenn., Ten nes see'. Tex., Tex'as. Uh., U'tah (yoo'ta). U.S.A., U nit'ed States of A mer'i ca. Va., Vir gin'i a. Vt., Ver mont'. Wis., Wis con'sin. W Va., West Vir gin'i a.

Lesson 246. American and Foreign Geographical Names. Al'ba ny Ayr (ar) Aulne (on) Bos'ton Chey enne' Main Mo bile' Ba'den Bal'ti more Bor deaux' (-do') Chi ca'go Cai'ro Cey'lon' I'ser (e'zer) Al le ghe'ny A'si a (a'shi a) Cin cin na'ti Eu phra'tes Ha wai'i Pal'es tine Phil a del'phi a

Pau (po) Saone Seine Thames (temz)

Mad Mil Mon New

rid' wau'kee ta'na Or'leans

Pyr'e nees Szeg ed in' Vi en'na Wash'ing ton

Lesson 247. Other Geographical Names of frequent Mispronunciation. Guanaxuato (gwa na hwa'to) Poughkeepsie (po kip'si) Worcester (woos'ter) Youghiogheny (yoh'ho ga'ni) Newfoundland (nu'fund land) Chuquisaca (choo ke sa'ka) Guatemala (ga te ma'la) Winnipiseogee (-pis sok'ki) Venezuela (ven e zwe'la) Altamaha (al ta ma ha') Chautauqua (sha ta'kwa) Aube (ob) Caen (kon) Dieppe (dyep) Foix (fwa) Joux (zhoo) Lisle (lel) Moux (moo) Oude (owd) Sioux (soo) Thau (to) Y (i)

Lesson 248. OF CHARACTERS USED IN PUNCTUATION. A Comma [, ] denotes the slightest degree of separation between the elements of a sentence. A Semicolon [; ] denotes a degree of separation somewhat greater than that indicated by a comma. A Colon [:] marks a still greater degree of separation than a semicolon. A Period [.] usually indicates the close of a sentence. The Interrogation Point [?] is used at the end of a question. The Exclamation Point [!] denotes astonishment or other emotion. A Hyphen [ - ] is used to join words or syllables. A Dash [-] marks a sudden break or stop in a sentence. A Parenthesis [( )] includes words which might be left out without injuring the sense. Brackets [ ] inclose words, etc., intended to explain or rectify what precedes or follows.

An Apostrophe ['] indicates the omission of one or more letters; or denotes the possessive case. Quotation Marks [" "] show that the passage included, is taken from some other author.

OF CAPITAL LETTERS. A Capital should begin: (1) the first word of every sentence, and of every line of poetry; (2) proper names of persons, places, months, and days; (3) all appellations of the Deity; (4) titles of honor; (5) names of things personified; (6) names denoting the race or nation of individuals; (7) adjectives derived from proper names; (8) the first word of a direct quotation or speech; (9) the principal words in the titles of books; (10) words denoting important events, the chief subject of a composition, etc. (11) The pronoun I and the interjection O are always capitals.

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