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Pronouns

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									Pronouns
  Are not nouns
  Used in place of nouns
  The word that a pronoun substitutes for is an
   antecedent.
  Pronouns we will discuss: personal pronouns,
   demonstrative pronouns, indefinite pronouns, and, to
   a lesser extent, interrogative pronouns (Read about
   them!)
  Pronoun reference error: when antecedent is unclear
     o John and his friend went shopping at the mall,
       and he bought a suit. (Who bought the suit?)
     o A clearer sentence would be: “John went
       shopping at the mall along with his friend and
       bought a suit.” Or “John and his friend went
       shopping at the mall, and the friend bought a
       suit.” Or “John went shopping at the mall along
       with his friend, who bought a suit.”
  Pronoun agreement error: when pronouns are
   fundamentally different than the antecedent
     o Each student was asked to bring their completed
       medical form for the school trip.
    o A corrected version of the sentence: “Each
      student was asked to bring his or her completed
      medical form for the school trip.” Or “Students
      were asked to bring their completed medical
      forms for the school trip.”
 Pronoun case error: when the pronoun functions in
  the wrong way
    o Example: My mother and me traveled across
      country to see my grandfather before he died.
      (This sentence should use “my mother and I,” not
      “my mother and me.”)
 Case: subjective, objective, possessive, reflexive
    o Subject case: I, we, they, he, she, it, you
    o Object case: me, us, them, him, her, it, you
    o Possessive (adjective) case: my/mine, our/ours,
      their/theirs, his, her/hers, its, your/yours
    o Reflexive: myself, ourselves, themselves,
      himself, herself, itself, yourself/yourselves
          I (subjective) travel a lot.
          He (subjective) dances very well.
          He (subjective) gave the trophy to me
           (objective) when I won the tournament.
 She (subjective) asked me (objective) a
  question.
 I (subjective) answered her (objective).
 Joan asked her (possessive) brother to fix
  her (possessive) car and park it (objective) in
  her (possessive) neighbor’s driveway.
 “Momma, I (subjective) did it (objective)
  myself (reflexive).”
 Melissa and he (subjective) ate their
  (possessive) supper, paid the bill, left the
  restaurant and went on our (possessive)
  way.
 He (subjective) asked me to keep Joan’s
  secret between us (objective) / him
  (objective) and me (objective).
 He (subjective) slept through his
  (possessive/adjective) algebra class and
  didn’t take any notes.
 When they (subjective) went to the lake, the
  boat wouldn’t start because it (subjective)
  didn’t have any gas.
     My (possessive/adjective) friend hurt himself
      (reflexive) by running and tripping on the
      curb.
     My friend hit himself on the shoulder when
      the barbell he was holding slipped from his
      hands.
     I love my kids even though they make me
      mad at times.
     My mother went to the grocery store to buy
      the ingredients for her special cake, but it
      didn’t have any in stock.
     My mother went to the grocery store to buy
      the ingredients for her special cake, but they
      weren’t available.
     Whenever my dog sees itself in a mirror, it
      barks like crazy.
     Whenever my dog sees herself in a mirror,
      she barks like crazy.
     My friend is planning a going-away party for
      Lisa, Melissa, and me .
     Some people learn from their mistakes, and
      some individuals just repeat them.
o Seeming Exceptions (But not really):
 These exceptions involve “understood” or
  “implied” elements of sentences
 Similar to implied subjects in imperative
  sentences (“(You) Go brush your teeth.” Or
  “Please (you) call your mom.”)
 Comparisons use the subject case:
     He is taller than I (am tall).
     Nobody sings as well as she (sings).
     He runs faster than I (run).
     Nobody is as good as she (is good).
     My friend is smarter than I (am smart).
     He is way more awesome than I (am
      awesome).
     He is more intelligent than they/others
      (are intelligent).
 Sometimes, it depends on meaning whether
  you use subject or object case. (Probably
  better to write out the implied elements than
  risk being unclear.
     You trust Mr. Aton more than (you trust)
      me.
     You trust Mr. Aton more than I (trust Mr.
      Aton).
     I have more fear of him than you.
      (Here, the meaning is unclear.)
         o Clearer: I have more fear of him
           than you do. (Meaning is clear)
         o Clearer: I have more fear of him
           than I have of you. (Meaning is
           clear).
     I believe her more than him. (Here, the
      meaning is unclear.)
         o Clearer: I believe her more than I
           believe him. (Meaning is clear)
         o Clearer: I believe her more than he
           believes her. (Meaning is clear).
 Answering the phone:
     This is she.
     This is he.
     This is I.
     All predicate pronouns that go with the
      linking verbs. Predicate pronouns are
      often called subject complements, which
          is a good name for them because they
          use subject case pronouns.
o Demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, those
     Demonstrative pronouns serve as adjectives.
     This sweater, those doughnuts, that man,
      these days
     This will be on the exam. (wrong)
     This information will be on the exam.
      (correct)
     This material will be on the exam. (correct)
     This formula will be on the exam. (correct)
     (You) Go get me that can of Coca-Cola.
     (You) Go find me these candy bars.
     These people are driving me crazy.
     Those cans of juice contain ample vitamins.
     Those girls make me sick.
     Those girls make me sick with all the silly
      tricks they play on my brother and me, and I
      just wish they would be more like our male
      cousins, who are always fun.
 Personal pronouns: various forms (cases) of I, he,
  she, they, we you, and it
 Indefinite pronoun: several, couple, few, one, two,
  any, some, one, everyone, everybody, anybody,
  someone, somebody else, anyone else, others, who,
  and so forth
    o Indefinite pronouns often function as subjects
      and also other noun functions, but the same
      words can function as adjectives. When they
      function as nouns, they often work in conjunction
      with a prepositional phrase; when they function
      as adjectives, they are usually directly in front of
      the noun they modify.
         Some (indefinite pronoun as subject) of the
          children were playing in the sandbox.
         Some (indefinite pronoun as adjective)
          children (noun as subject) were playing in
          the sandbox.
         The teacher gave a treat to each (indefinite
          pronoun as object of the preposition) of the
          children at recess.
         The teacher gave a treat to each (indefinite
          pronoun as adjective child at recess.
 Anybody (indefinite pronoun as subject) can
  come to the party who wants to.
 One (indefinite pronoun as subject) of the
  students received an award.
 One (indefinite pronoun as subject) received
  an award.
 Several (indefinite pronoun as an adjective)
  people like to go to the park to exercise.
 Some (indefinite pronoun as subject) of the
  children on my street were playing soccer.
   Everyone (indefinite pronoun as a subject)
    that played football enjoyed themselves
    (reflexive), but several (indefinite pronoun as
    an adjective) people got hurt.

								
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