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Trainee Profiles - HUDCETT - University of Huddersfield

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									Trainee Profiles
______________________________________________________________

A report on trainees on the Certificate in Education/Post
Graduate Certificate in Education of the PCET Consortium of
the University of Huddersfield




Penny Noel
July 2008
Contents


Acknowledgements                                                            3
Executive summary                                                           4
Background                                                                  5
Project aims and outcomes                                                   5
Learning and skills sector staff diversity profile (England)                6
Teaching qualification status of learning and skills sector staff           6
Methodology and actions undertaken                                          7
The analysis of data – P/T in-service Cert Ed/PGCE trainees
(2005-06, 2006-07 and 2007-08)                                              7
   o Course numbers involved in the data analysis                           8
    o   Changes in the age profile of trainees                              9
    o   Gender balance of trainees                                          9
    o   Disability status of trainees                                       10
    o   Ethnicity of trainees                                               10
    o   Trainees employed in education and training                         11
    o   Trainees working for an employer not in education and training      11
    o   Classification of trainee key employers                             12
    o   Highest qualification in subject taught                             13
    o   English, literacy and/or communications qualifications              14
    o   Maths and numeracy qualifications                                   14
    o   Information technology qualifications                               15
    o   Trainee years of teaching experience                                15
Discussion                                                                  16
Recommendations                                                             19
References                                                                  19
Appendices
Appendix 1 Classification of trainee key employers – changes from 2006-08   21




Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                            2
Acknowledgements



My sincere thanks are due to Artur Kulinski and Lukas Mazal for their careful
work in entering the data from so many application forms, and to Jo Granata
for her support with this. Thanks are also due to Shailesh Appukuttan for his
thorough management of the data collection.




Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                           3
Executive Summary

The collection and analysis of Consortium trainee data relating to the previous
three years has been undertaken to inform a future qualitative study that will
examine the impact of the changing trainee profile on ITT courses. Data from
2,737 application forms for the University of Huddersfield part-time in-service
Cert Ed/PGCE for the years 2005-06, 2006-07 and 2007-08 has been
analysed using SPSS software.

Changes in the diversity profile of Consortium trainees over the period
examined can be summarised as follows:
    o There has been an increase in trainees from the youngest age group
    o The gender balance of trainees has remained relatively constant, with
       women continuing to outnumber men.
    o More trainees are now declaring a disability
    o The proportion of BME trainees has increased
During a period of much focused equality and diversity activity within the
Consortium, the diversity profile of Consortium trainees is gradually improving
in important regards.

There has been an increase in younger trainees and in trainees very new to
teaching; however there remain sizeable numbers of more experienced and
older trainees continuing to enrol. Consortium programmes must seek to
address the needs of, and ensure relevance for, each of these two disparate
groups.

There has also been a shift in the balance of trainees away from FE, with over
half the overall 2007-08 intake working outside FE. It remains of key
importance that the curriculum is not experienced as overly „FE-centric‟. The
continuing change in balance towards non-FE also has implications for
mentoring. In this regard, the Associate Online e-mentoring system, designed
as a supplement to the usual assignment of mentors, has the potential to
address issues arising in that it will allow for a matching by sub-specialism, by
level of teaching and – importantly, by professional practice setting.

It is clear that in the delivery of ITT for the lifelong learning sector,
increasingly, one size will not comfortably fit all. Within teacher education
much emphasis is placed upon the role of differentiation in regard to trainee
practice. The changing trainee profile identified through the scoping activity
reported here requires that teacher educators themselves unambiguously
model a differentiated approach – and, in relation to teacher education for the
lifelong learning sector, differentiation must address context.

There has been a yearly increase in the numbers of trainees with entry
qualifications at L2 or above in English, literacy and/or communications, and
in maths and/or numeracy. However there remain significant proportions
without. The initial assessment of trainees linked to „established referral
systems to appropriate literacy and numeracy support where needed‟,
specified in the recent position statement of DUIS/IfL/SVUK/LLUK (2008) will
remain crucial.

Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                           4
Trainee profiles on the Certificate in Education/Post Graduate Certificate
in Education of the PCET Consortium of the University of Huddersfield

1. Background

1.1 Government reform of Initial Teacher Training (ITT) involves the
requirement that teachers across the learning and skills sector should be
appropriately qualified. A letter sent by Lifelong Learning UK (LLUK) in March
(2008a) to college principals and FE sector management provides a reminder
of this and draws attention to the aim of the Workforce Strategy for the Further
Education Sector in England, 2007-2012 (2008b) that “all teachers, tutors and
trainers are qualified or working towards a qualification” (2008a, p.2). The
letter goes on to highlight research undertaken for LLUK which established
that “97% of colleges asked were aware of the reforms and 93% have plans in
place to make sure that their staff benefit from increasing professionalism in
the workforce” (p.1).

1.2 One consequence of ITT reform has been a change in the profile of the in-
service trainees more recently entering post-compulsory education and
training (PCET) teacher-training programmes. Previously, in-service trainee
cohorts have included participants with limited teaching experience studying
alongside those with very many years experience. It may be assumed that
future trainee groups will increasingly involve fewer people with significant
teaching experience and rather will include a greater proportion of people very
new to teaching. In order to meet their needs more effectively, questions
confronting ITT providers now arise concerning the implications for the
curriculum and the appropriate support that may be required.

2.3 The collection and analysis of Consortium trainee data concerning the
previous three years, which is reported here, has been undertaken in order to
inform a future qualitative study that will examine the impact of the changing
trainee profile on ITT courses.

2. Project aims and outcomes

2.1 The project had the following aims:

 To identify the categories to be studied in relation to trainee profiles
 To collect and analyse statistics concerning the categories identified above
 Subsequently, to identify:
    o Emerging trends in trainee profiles, and
    o Issues for further study

2.2 The project brief specified the following outcome:

 That the report from the scoping activity identifies the profile of trainees in
  terms of:
    o Length of teaching experience at entry


Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                               5
    o Age of trainees at entry
    o Gender
    o Level of qualifications at entry
    o Level 2 qualifications in literacy and numeracy at entry
    o Section/work context i.e. further education (FE); work-based learning
    (WBL); adult and community learning (ACL); and others
    o Additional categories as appropriate

3. Learning and skills sector staff diversity profile (England)

3.1 The LLUK Market Assessment (2004) found, within the post-16 education
and training workforce, an „age distribution skewed towards a lower proportion
of younger workers‟ (p.48). WBL had the youngest workforce with 22% aged
30 years or under. In FE, for the year 2006-07, the average age of teaching
staff was 44.8 years, with only 2.6% aged less than 25 years (LLUK, 2008c).

3.2 Women have been found to predominate in teaching across the learning
and skills sector (Parsons and Berry-Lound, 2004). This is still so and is most
marked in ACL providers, where over 75 per cent of teachers are female
(Jones, 2007). In FE, almost 60 per cent of teachers are female (LLUK,
2008c) reflecting the fact that women predominate in each of the major
teaching specialisms. WBL has a similar gender profile to that of FE (Pye Tait,
2007).

3.3 The number of disabled people teaching in the learning and skills sector is
not precisely known. This is because disclosure is so low. LLUK data
analyses relate only to declared disability and, for instance, for over a tenth of
FE teachers, disability status is unknown. The Commission for Disabled Staff
(2008) found that reluctance to disclose relates to anxiety about
discrimination. Rather more than 2 per cent of FE teaching staff declared a
disability in 2006-07 (LLUK, 2008c).

3.4 The most recent Census (2001) identified almost 8 per cent of the
population of Great Britain as belonging to a non-White minority ethnic group.
Across the wider learning and skills sector 7 per cent of teachers have been
identified as non-White minority ethnic (Parsons and Berry-Lound, 2004); in
the most recent LLUK analyses of FE data, for 2006-07, this figure is 8 per
cent, although there are clear regional variations. However, data for almost 10
per cent of FE teachers regarding ethnicity is recorded as „not known/not
provided‟ (LLUK, 2008c).

4. Teaching qualification status of learning and skills sector staff

4.1 In 2007, LLUK commissioned two pilot studies designed to explore the
scope for collecting workforce data relating to the ACL and WBL sectors.
Some limited workforce data was collected through the pilots, and the findings
were reported separately (Jones, 2007; Pye Tait, 2007). Both reports look at
the qualifications of the respective workforces – and this includes reference to


Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                            6
teaching qualifications. The ACL data suggests that the Cert Ed is the most
common teaching qualification for this sector, but does not indicate what
proportion of the workforce holds a teaching qualification. Although the report
states that of the data records submitted “the vast majority” did have a
teaching qualification, the data records represented only 14.5 per cent of the
total sample (Jones, 2007, pp. 3-4). In addition, the low response rate to the
overall ACL data collection exercise makes it difficult to draw reliable
conclusions about the sector as a whole. Data provided in the WBL report
shows that almost 50 per cent of the workforce have no teaching qualification.
Again, this is difficult to interpret as it is unclear what proportion of the
workforce was involved in the data collection. Nor is it clear whether this
statistic applies to the overall WBL workforce sample, or applies only to those
staff within the workforce sample with a teaching role.

4.2 Information about the teaching qualification status of FE staff is more
comprehensive. LLUK data shows that in 2006-07 89.9 per cent of full-time
FE teachers were qualified or enrolled on a teaching qualification; for part-time
staff the equivalent figure is 83.5 per cent (LLUK, 2008d). It is interesting to
note that in relation to the area covered by the Consortium:

      Of the nine English regions, the North West, the North East and Yorkshire and
      Humber are those in which 90% or more of full-time FE teaching staff currently
      hold either a PGCE, Cert Ed, BABEd/BSc with concurrent QTS, Level 3
      Teaching Qualification or a Level 4 FE Teaching Qualifiation – Stage 3 in more
      than half of the regions institutions (LLUK, 2008c, p. 26).

5. Methodology and actions undertaken

5.1 A literature review with a focus upon:
   o The learning and skills sector staff profile (England)
   o Teaching qualification status of learning and skills sector staff

5.2 Categories of information provided on course application forms were
examined and those selected for analysis were discussed with the HUDCETT
Director. Categories to be studied in relation to trainee profiles were agreed
and an SPSS datasheet set up.

5.3 Application forms for the University of Huddersfield part-time in-service
Cert Ed/PGCE for the years 2005-06, 2006-07 and 2007-08 were received
from Registry. Data from 2,737 application forms was entered, interpreted and
analysed using the SPSS software package.

6. The analysis of data – P/T in-service Cert Ed/PGCE trainees (2005-06,
2006-07 and 2007-08)

An initial analysis revealed that data for the majority of PGCE trainees for the
year 2005-06 was missing and it may be assumed that the relevant
application forms had not been included with those sent from Registry. As a
result most of the analyses that follow involve data relating to Cert Ed trainees
for each of the three years and PGCE trainees for the latter two years only
(2006-07 and 2007-08). It is possible that other application forms for the years


Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                              7
in question were not included, and therefore data may not be fully
comprehensive. However, the actual numbers of both Cert Ed and PGCE
trainees involved – 1,839 and 897 respectively, does allow for a robust
analysis of emerging trends in trainee profiles. Where data is clearly
incomplete, this has been specified.

6.1 Course numbers involved in the data analysis

Data collected overall relates to more than twice as many Cert Ed trainees as
to trainees on the PGCE pathway, as shown in Figure 1. Analysis based on
this data alone would provide a slightly skewed picture because of the missing
PGCE data for the year 2005-06. Figure 2 draws attention to data collected for
the years 2006-07 and 2007-08. This involves a more realistic balance
between Cert Ed and PGCE trainees and in terms of most of the analyses that
follow it is examined separately, as appropriate.


                      80
                      70
                      60
                      50
           Per cent




                                                                           Cert Ed
                      40
                                                                           PGCE
                      30
                      20
                      10
                      0
                            Cert Ed                    PGCE

      Figure 1a: Overall data collected relating to P/T Cert Ed/PGCE trainees 2005-06
      – 2007 -08 (Note: Data was not collected for the majority of PGCE trainees 2005-06)



                      70
                      60

                      50
           Per cent




                      40                                                   Cert Ed
                      30                                                   PGCE

                      20

                      10
                      0
                            2006-07                   2007-08

       Figure 1b: Data collected relating to P/T Cert Ed/PGCE trainees 2006-07 and
       2007 -08




Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                                       8
6.2 Changes in the age profile of trainees

In terms of age, the profile of Consortium trainees has become younger over
the three-year period, with the greatest increase in trainee numbers year by
year found in the 21-30 year age group. This has been mirrored by an overall
decrease in numbers year by year of those aged 31 years and over. However,
the majority of trainees still fall within the age band 31-50 years, and nine per
cent of trainees who enrolled in 2007-08 were aged 51 and over, although
overall numbers in this group have declined since the previous year. The
proportion of trainees from FE, Colleges of HE and Sixth Form Colleges aged
21-30 has increased significantly over the three-year period, for example – for
FE, from 14.4 per cent in 2005-06 to 26.2 per cent in 2007-08.


                     45
                     40
                     35
                     30
                                                                                    2005-06 (Cert Ed only)
          Per cent




                     25
                                                                                    2006-07 (all)
                     20
                     15                                                             2007-08 (all)
                     10
                      5
                      0
                                     21-30   31-40     41-50   51-60     60 +
                                     years   years     years   years     years

      Figure 2: Age profile from 2005-06 to 2007-08 (P/T Cert Ed/PGCE)

6.3 Gender balance of trainees

Although slight variations have been identified year by year, the overall
gender balance of Consortium trainees, at just less than 60 per cent female to
40 per cent male, matches that to be found in Further Education. A similar
gender balance is to be found in Work Based Learning, although as noted
Adult and Community Learning has an even higher proportion of female staff.

                                                               2006-08

                                70
                                60
                                50
                     Per cent




                                40                                                              Male
                                30                                                              Female
                                20
                                10
                                0
                                                Male                       Female

           Figure 3: Overall gender balance 2005-06 to 2007-08 (P/T Cert Ed/PGCE)
          (Note: Data does not include the majority of PGCE trainees for 2005-06)



Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                                                        9
6.4 Disability status of trainees

The number of trainees stating that they have „no known disability‟ has
increased over the three years examined. However, this is somewhat
misleading, as the number of trainees declaring a disability has in fact risen
from just over 5 per cent in 2005-06 to around 6.5 per cent in the two
subsequent years. The reason for this seeming anomaly is that there has
been a significant decrease in the percentage of trainees declining to provide
information relating to disability status. Over 4 per cent of trainees chose not
to provide this information in 2005-06, whereas this figure had reduced to 0.7
per cent in 2007-08 (i.e. 9 out of 1,268 trainees)


                     100
                      90
                      80
                      70
                                                                  2005-06 (Cert Ed only)
          Per cent




                      60
                      50                                          2006-07 (all)
                      40                                          2007-08 (all)
                      30
                      20
                      10
                       0
                           No known     Disabled   Info missing
                           disability

       Figure 4: Disability status 2005-06 to 2007-08 (P/T Cert Ed/PGCE)

6.5 Ethnicity of trainees

Over the last three years there has been a decrease of more than 5 per cent
in the proportion of trainees whose ethnicity has been recorded as White
British. This has been matched by an increase in the number of trainees from
a Black and minority ethnic (BME) background. In 2007-08 the percentage of
BME trainees had risen to just over 6 per cent, from the one per cent of two
years earlier. There has been little change in the very small proportion of
trainees whose ethnicity falls into another category (for example – other White
or other ethnic background). For a small percentage of trainees, ethnicity was
not declared on application forms.




Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                                      10
                     120

                     100

                     80
          Per cent                                                                                   2005-06 (Cert Ed only)
                     60                                                                              2006-07 (all)

                     40                                                                              2007-08 (all)

                     20

                      0
                           White                 BME                    Other      Info
                           British                                               missing

       Figure 5: Ethnic group 2005-06 to 2007-08 (P/T Cert Ed/PGCE)

6.6 Trainees employed in education and training

Just over 7 per cent of trainees overall did not work in education and training
at enrolment. Of those who did, slightly more were employed full-time than
part-time (48.2 and 44.2 per cent respectively). Rather more PGCE than Cert
Ed trainees record their present post as education and training (93.5 and 92
per cent respectively). However, in terms of full-time to part-time status the
balance is the other way around, with Cert Ed trainees more likely than PGCE
trainees to be employed in education and training on a full-time basis (51 and
42.4 per cent respectively). There appears to be no discernible pattern in
changes to the trainee profile over the three-year period in regard to
employment in education and training.


                     60
                     50
                                                                                                     2005-06 (Cert Ed only)
          Per cent




                     40
                     30                                                                              2006-07 (all)
                     20                                                                              2007-08 (all)
                     10
                      0
                            education/training




                                                   education/training




                                                                                education/training
                                                                                     Not in
                                                          P/T
                                   F/T




       Figure 6: Trainees employed in education and training 2005-06 to 2007-08 (P/T
       Cert Ed/PGCE)

6.7 Trainees working for an employer not in education and training

Many trainees who have an education and/or training role work for employers
not in education and training – for example, for the police, a charity etc (see
Appendix 1 for the full classification of trainee employers). A total of 22.5 per
cent of trainees identified their employer at enrolment as not in education and


Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                                                                         11
training, with a proportionate balance between Cert Ed and PGCE trainees.
This involved 13 per cent overall working full-time and 9.5 per cent working
part-time in this employment, again with slightly more Cert Ed trainees
working full-time. Data analysis relating to trainee employment draws attention
to the fact that a number of trainees work both in education and training and
for another employer not in education and training. However, data analysis
also reveals that some trainees have identified themselves as working full-
time in education and training and full-time for another employer.


                     90
                     80
                     70
                     60
                                                              2005-06 (Cert Ed only)
          Per cent




                     50
                                                              2006-07 (all)
                     40
                     30                                       2007-08 (all)
                     20
                     10
                      0
                          F/T other P/T other No other
                          employer employer employer

      Figure 7: Trainees working for an employer not in education and training 2005-06
      to 2007-08 (P/T Cert Ed/PGCE)

6.8 Classification of trainee key employers

Although Colleges of Further Education have retained their position as the
most significant Consortium trainee employer over the period 2005-06 – 2007-
08, in two of these three years less than 50 per cent of trainees classified their
employer as FE. Overall, 50.6 per cent of trainees worked outside FE, with the
46.7 per cent of trainees in FE during 2007-08 the lowest proportion during
these years, and a drop of 7.2 per cent from the previous year. Figure 8
shows overall trainee representation in key employment categories (i.e. those
involving 5 per cent or more of the total trainee cohort). As some data is
missing, statistics are given as valid percentages.




Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                                    12
                      60
                      50


          Per cent
                      40
                                                             FE 49.4%
                      30
                      20                                     All non-FE 50.6%
                      10                                     (Local Authority 7.8%)
                       0                                     (College of HE 7.4%)




                                                        )

                                                       )
                                                       )




                                                       )
                                                      %

                                          it y %

                                                       )
                                                             (Private Training 6.6%)




                                        sin 6%

                                                     %
                                                    4%




                                                    5%
                                                    8%
                                                    .6
                         oc o n- 9.4




                                     (C 5.5
                                                  6.
                                                 7.
                                                50

                                                 7.




                                                  y
                                                             (Health/Nursing 5.5%)
                                                4




                                             r it
                                             g
                                         HE




                                             g
                     FE

                                         FE




                              lth nin



                                         ha
                                       or

                                      of

                                      ai
                                                             (Charity 5%)




                                    ur
                                    th



                                   Tr

                                  /N
                                 ge
                                 Au
                                 ln




                                e
                               le
                     Al




                             at
                            al

                           ol



                          ea
                         riv
                        (C



                       (H
                      (P
                      (L




       Figure 8: Classification of trainee key employers 2005-06 to 2007-08 (P/T Cert
       Ed/PGCE) (Note: Data does not include the majority of PGCE trainees for 2005-06)

No other major patterns were discernible during this time scale regarding the
trainee profile and employment classification. There were a few very small but
consistent upward or downward trends. In 2007-08, more trainees were
working in 6th Form Colleges, in University, in the Armed forces or were self-
employed than in the previous year. In this year too, fewer trainees than
before were working in Health/Nursing (down 2.5 per cent from 2005-06), in
the Fire Service and in Careers and Guidance. However, other than for
Health/Nursing, these trends were too small to be really noteworthy.

6.9 Highest qualification in subject taught

The analysis here has had to make use of incomplete data, particularly in
relation to the qualifications of Cert Ed trainees – where over 5 per cent of
data is missing. There were difficulties in the certain identification of the level
of some of the qualifications recorded on trainee application forms. This
frequently – although not always, concerned nursing and health qualifications
that had been achieved some time ago. Further, it is probable that some of
the information provided on application forms is either incorrect – or has been
incorrectly coded. For example, it is unlikely that there were as many as 40 in
number of Cert Ed trainees with a degree at enrolment, or that 15 of them
began the course with a Master‟s degree. What is more likely is that these
trainees should have enrolled as PGCE trainees. However, the quantity of
unproblematic data does allow for a useful analysis.

Overall, almost 85 per cent of PGCE trainees were qualified at degree level or
above relative to the subject they taught. However, 14 per cent of them taught
subjects where their highest qualification was L5 or below, including almost 9
per cent overall teaching a subject where their highest qualification was at L3
(12.1 per cent in 2006-07). Data analysis for the year 2007-08 does indicate
that this may be a declining trend. Conversely, Cert Ed trainees were most
likely to be qualified at L3 in the subject they taught – almost 64 per cent of
them, with a further 25.5 per cent qualified at L4 and 5.




Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                                     13
                     80
                     70
                     60

          Per cent
                     50
                                                                                            Cert Ed
                     40
                                                                                            PGCE
                     30
                     20
                     10
                      0




                                                        iv
                          L3



                                    L4



                                                       L5




                                                                  rs



                                                                                 e
                                                      qu




                                                                               at
                                                                te


                                                                             or
                                                   /e



                                                             as



                                                                          ct
                                                ee



                                                             M


                                                                       Do
                                              gr
                                           De
       Figure 9: Highest qualification in subject taught 2005-06 to 2007-08 (P/T Cert
       Ed/PGCE)

6.10 English, literacy and/or communications qualifications

From 2005-06 – 2007-08, the overall number of trainees with an L2
qualification in English, literacy and/or communications at enrolment has
increased by 10 per cent. However, almost one in four has no literacy or
similar qualification. This percentage was higher for Cert Ed trainees and
lower for PGCE trainees (in 2007-08, this was 29.1 and13.4 per cent
respectively).


                     90
                     80
                     70
                     60
                                                                            2005-06 (Cert Ed only)
          Per cent




                     50
                                                                            2006-07 (all)
                     40
                                                                            2007-08 (all)
                     30
                     20
                     10
                     0
                               L2/L2+    No quals     Info missing

      Figure 10: Profile of trainee English, literacy and/or communications qualifications
      at enrolment 2005-06 to 2007-08 (P/T Cert Ed/PGCE)

6.11 Maths and numeracy qualifications

As with literacy qualifications, from 2005-06 – 2007-08, the number of trainees
with an L2 qualification in maths and/or numeracy at enrolment has increased
by 14 per cent. However, over 36 per cent of trainees overall had no maths or
numeracy qualification. Again, this percentage was higher for Cert Ed trainees
and lower for PGCE trainees (in 2007-08, this was 40.5 and 22.9 per cent
respectively).



Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                                                 14
                     70
                     60

                     50
          Per cent                                                    2005-06 (Cert Ed only)
                     40
                                                                      2006-07 (all)
                     30
                                                                      2007-08 (all)
                     20

                     10
                     0
                           L2/L2+        No quals      Info missing

     Figure 11: Profile of trainee maths and numeracy qualifications at enrolment
     2005-06 to 2007-08 (P/T Cert Ed/PGCE)

6.12 Information technology qualifications

The proportion of trainees with no information technology qualification at any
level appears to have increased over the last three years; in 2007-08 this
involved almost 72 per cent of trainees overall. The number of trainees with
an L3/L3+ information technology qualification has remained at around 15 per
cent throughout this period. Cert Ed trainees are slightly more likely than
PGCE trainees to hold an IT qualification.


                     80
                     70
                     60
                     50                                               2005-06 (Cert Ed only)
          Per cent




                     40                                               2006-07 (all)
                     30                                               2007-08 (all)
                     20
                     10
                     0
                          L3/L3+    Less than   None        Info
                                       L3                 missing

     Figure 12: Profile of trainee information technology qualifications at enrolment
     2005-06 to 2007-08 (P/T Cert Ed/PGCE)

6.13 Trainee years of teaching experience

A considerable amount of data about length of teaching experience was found
to be missing. Data recorded was however significant and has been analysed
in terms of valid percent. The number of trainees at enrolment with less than
one year of teaching experience appears to be increasing; this is in contrast to
those with between one to five years experience, where numbers have
declined from 2005-06 – 2007-08. Over the last two years, there has been a
slight increase in the number of trainees with six to fifteen years and sixteen

Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                                          15
plus years teaching experience. However, the actual number of the latter is
relatively small, with 52 trainees recorded as having 16 plus years experience
from a total of 1268 in the year 2007-08.



                     80
                     70
                     60
                                                                    2005-06 (Cert Ed only)
          Per cent




                     50
                     40                                             2006-07 (all)
                     30                                             2007-08 (all)
                     20
                     10
                      0
                          Less than 1-5 years   6-15    16+ years
                           1 year               years

       Figure 13: Trainee years of teaching experience at enrolment 2005-06 to 2007-08
      (P/T Cert Ed/PGCE)

7. Discussion

7.1 There have been changes in the diversity profile of Consortium trainees
over the three-year period examined; this can be summarised as follows. The
trainee cohort now includes many more people in the youngest age group.
The gender balance of trainees has remained relatively constant, with women
continuing to outnumber men. This reflects the fact that women predominate
in all the largest teaching specialisms. More trainees are now declaring a
disability and this presumably indicates a lessening of anxiety about doing so.
The proportion of BME trainees has increased. Consortium provision is in-
service and therefore the recruitment and selection of the teachers who
become Consortium trainees is the responsibility of a range of different
employers. However, it is worthy of note that during a period of much focused
equality and diversity activity within the Consortium, the diversity profile of
Consortium trainees is gradually improving in important regards.

7.2 There has been a significant year on year increase in the proportion of
younger and less experienced trainees. This is predictable and is a
consequence of ITT reform in the sector. In 2007-08 about a quarter of all
trainees were in the youngest age group. In the same year around a quarter
had less than one year‟s teaching experience. By comparison, an examination
of data for five years earlier, collected in the context of research into retention
and achievement, indicates the scale of change. Then the proportion of
similarly inexperienced trainees was just over 4 per cent – a sizeable
difference. Very inexperienced trainees are likely to have training needs not
too dissimilar to those of pre-service trainees. However, the analysis also
reveals that significant numbers of more experienced and older trainees are
still enrolling on Consortium ITT programmes. Again, this is unsurprising in
view of the data relating to progress towards a qualified lifelong learning
teaching workforce, and the indications are that large numbers of staff outside


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FE, particularly those working in WBL, remain unqualified – along with a
number from within FE (see Section 4). Consortium programmes must
continue to address the needs of and ensure relevance for each of these two
disparate groups of trainees identified.

7.3 In 2007-08, data available shows that almost 15 per cent of Consortium
trainees from FE were either experienced or very experienced teachers (i.e.
with from 6-15 or 16 plus years of teaching experience). Future trainee
cohorts – in the short term at least, are also likely to involve numbers of more
experienced FE teachers. It is known that FE colleges in particular are aware
of the requirements of ITT reform (see Section 1.1) and yet LLUK data shows
that 10 per cent plus of their teachers remain unqualified. It may be that there
remains some reluctance on the part of more experienced FE staff to
undertake the training; this was found to be so during the course of the earlier
Consortium research into retention and achievement. An outcome of the
qualitative study to follow the scoping activity reported here may be to confirm
whether or not this remains the case, and if so, to explore the most effective
strategies with which to respond. The approach to be adopted by mentors
(see Robinson, 2005) and the management of the (undifferentiated)
requirement for eight teaching observations are both issues that are
increasingly likely to require sensitivity in relation to working with the most
experienced, and possibly reluctant trainees – studying alongside their very
inexperienced colleagues.

7.4 There has been a shift in the balance of trainees away from FE, with over
half the overall 2007-08 cohort working elsewhere. This represents a
decrease of over 20 per cent in FE trainee numbers from the time of the
Consortium research undertaken during 2003-04 into retention and
achievement. The earlier research established that trainees who were not
working in FE, or for any other education and/or training employer were
almost twice as likely to consider course withdrawal as those from FE (Noel,
2004). Trainees teaching in non-FE education and/or training were also more
likely to think about leaving the course. Half of these trainees identified
themselves as needing much support with „clear links made to the context in
which I teach‟ (p.16). The shift in balance towards non-FE identified through
the current analysis means that it remains essential that the curriculum is not
experienced as overly „FE-centric‟.

7.5 The dominance of non-FE trainees is likely to continue for some time, and
has implications for mentoring. Ofsted has found that „provision of effective
support and development for subject specialisms, through mentoring,
continued to challenge both providers and employers. This was a particular
issue for trainees working outside a further education college setting’ (Ofsted,
2008, p.11) (my italics). Emerging trends identified in trainee profiles suggest
that this is likely to continue to present a challenge. The Associate Online e-
mentoring system, designed as a supplement to the usual assignment of
mentors, has the potential to address this issue, as follows:

      Additionally though, an “e-Mentor” can be available through Associate Online.
      This would be appropriate, for example, where a trainee‟s work or placement



Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                             17
      situation does not allow them to benefit from face-to-face mentoring with a tutor
      who shares the same specialism (ASSOCiate Online, 2008, p.1)

The system does allow for a matching by sub-specialism, by level of teaching
and importantly, by professional practice setting.

7.6 It is clear that in the delivery of ITT for the lifelong learning sector,
increasingly, one size will not comfortably fit all. Within teacher education
much emphasis is placed upon the importance of differentiation in regard to
trainee practice. The changing trainee profile identified requires that teacher
educators themselves unambiguously model such an approach – and, in
relation to teacher education for the lifelong learning sector, differentiation
must address context. Trainees achieving the teaching qualification are
„badged‟ to teach across the sector; however as Ofsted has found, trainees
are „not sufficiently exposed to the breadth and range of learners in the post-
compulsory sector in either their teaching practice or through the taught
courses‟ (Ofsted, 2008, p.6). Whilst it is difficult to envisage how in-service
trainees who work full-time in one particular professional practice setting might
have meaningful direct exposure in terms of teaching in another, diversity of
context within the classroom is a valuable resource to be tapped. As an
example, trainees might be „twinned‟ in relation to their work in differing
contexts and subsequently arrange to observe one another‟s teaching
practice. Ofsted suggests that one way to ensure that theory remains relevant
is through the „skilful use of the trainees‟ own experience and expertise‟
(p.13). Regular discussion of this nature carefully structured as part of
planned class activity, could support the development of trainee
understanding of the varying contexts which make up the sector, and
moreover may be of particular benefit to more inexperienced trainees. The
strategy might be productively linked to the use of „modelling‟ techniques. For
example, Korthagen et al (2007), describe how the teacher educator might
progress from the implicit modelling involved in the „teach as you preach‟
approach to a more explicit form of modelling which includes facilitating the
translation to the trainees‟ own varied practices. Additionally, the identification
and/or development and promotion of case study and other material relating
to different teaching and training contexts throughout the sector would be
useful.

7.7 There has been a yearly increase in the numbers of trainees with entry
qualifications at L2 or above in English, literacy and/or communications, and
in maths and/or numeracy. However there remain sizeable proportions
without. The initial assessment of trainees linked to „established referral
systems to appropriate literacy and numeracy support where needed‟,
specified in the recent position statement of DUIS/IfL/SVUK/LLUK (2008) will
remain key. Analysis of data shows that there has been a year-by-year
increase in the proportion of trainees working towards an additional
qualification; this was the case for 72.5 per cent of trainees in 2007-08. Whilst
it was outside the scope of the analysis reported here to identify the specific
qualifications involved, future qualitative research may provide some
clarification, and it is probable that much of this activity related to literacy,
and/or numeracy.



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8. Recommendations

In the light of the findings from the scoping exercise it is recommended that
the Consortium/HUDCETT:

8.1 Continue to monitor and review the annual diversity profile of Consortium
trainees

8.2 Consider the commissioning of qualitative research in order to identify and
explore:
   o Barriers to ITT course attendance for FE staff
   o Barriers to ITT course attendance for teachers working in other lifelong
       learning professional practice settings

8.3 Continue to work towards the identification and training of appropriate
Associate Online e-mentors from the professional practice settings that
comprise the learning and skills sector, and monitor and review breadth of
coverage in terms of context

8.4 Make use of a Consortium Network meeting to draw attention to emerging
trends in trainee profiles, and facilitate discussion about the implications of
these for the teacher educator

8.5 Through the Consortium Network, encourage the identification and/or
development, promotion and sharing of case study and other teaching and
learning material that relates to different teaching and training contexts
throughout the sector. A bank of such material might be made available via
the Consortium and HUDCETT websites

8.6 Implement qualitative research as envisaged in order to identify the needs
of and ensure relevance for diverse groups of trainees. The research should
aim to address diversity in relation to:
    o Teaching context
    o Teaching experience
    o Level of personal skills

9. References

ASSOCiate Online (2008) Implementation briefing 2b: Operation of the “e-
Mentoring system, online. Available at:
http://associate.hud.ac.uk/documents/PB005-Brief2b_e-Mentors.doc
(accessed 28.7.08)

Commission for Disabled Staff in Lifelong Learning (2008) From compliance
to culture change: disabled staff working in lifelong learning, Leicester: NIACE

DUIS/IfL/SVUK/LLUK (2008) Evidencing the personal skills requirement for
teachers, tutors and trainers in the lifelong learning sector, online. Available
at: http://www.lluk.org/evidencing-personal-skills-requirements-for-teachers-in-
lifelong-learning-sector-16-july-2008.htm (accessed 20.7.08)



Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                           19
Jones, C. (2007) Adult and Community Learning: Workforce Data 2007,
London: ORC International

LLUK (2004) Market Assessment London: LLUK

LLUK (2008a) Letter sent in March 2008 to principals and the management of
FE and sixth form colleges, online. Available at:
http://www.lluk.org/documents/fewr_feletter_0408_v3.pdf (accessed on
17.7.08)

LLUK (2008b) The Workforce Strategy for the Further Education Sector in
England, 2007-2012, online. Available at:
http://www.lluk.org/documents/the_workforce_strategy_for_the_further_educa
tion_sector_in_england_2007_2012_full_publication.pdf (accessed 17.7.08)

LLUK (2008c) Further Education Workforce Data for England: An Analysis of
Staff Individualised Record (SIR) Data 2006/07 online. Available at:
http://www.lluk.org/documents/SIR_Data_Web.pdf (accessed on 17.7.08)

LLUK (2008d) Progress between 2003 and 2007 on the ‘Success for All’
qualified further education workforce target, online. Available at:
http://www.lluk.org/documents/Success_for_All_200607_results_final.pdf
(accessed 20.7.08)

Lunenberg, M. Korthagen, F. & Swennen, A. (2007) The teacher educator as
role model, Teaching and Teacher Education, 23 (5), 586-601

Noel, P. (2004) Retention and achievement in CPCET programmes: A report
to the Consortium Steering Committee Huddersfield: Consortium for Post-
Compulsory Education and Training

Ofsted (2008) The initial training of further education teachers
Findings from 2006/07 inspections of courses leading to national awarding
body qualifications, London: Ofsted

Parsons, D. & Berry-Lound, D. (2004) Qualifications of Staff in LSC-funded
Provision London: Department for Education and Skills/HOST Policy
Research

Pye Tait (2007) WBL Workforce Data Analysis: Draft final report, Harrogate:
Pye Tait

Robinson, D. (2005) Mentoring Pilot: Report to the Department of Education
and Skills, May 2005 Huddersfield: Consortium for Post-Compulsory
Education and Training




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Appendix 1

Classification of trainee key employers – changes from 2006-08

                                                                                   Valid         Cumulative
 Academic year                                            Frequency    Percent    Percent         Percent
 .                 Missing              System                     1      100.0
 2005-06           Valid                University                 6        1.3        1.4              1.4
                                        6th Form
                                                                  3          .6         .7              2.1
                                        College
                                        Local Authority          46         9.8       10.6             12.7
                                        Police                   10         2.1        2.3             15.0
                                        Health/Nursing           33         7.0        7.6             22.7
                                        Self-Employed             7         1.5        1.6             24.3
                                        College of HE            33         7.0        7.6             31.9
                                        Secondary
                                                                  7         1.5        1.6             33.6
                                        School
                                        Armed Forces              2          .4         .5             34.0
                                        Fire Service              5         1.1        1.2             35.2
                                        Youth and
                                                                  7         1.5        1.6             36.8
                                        Community
                                        Private
                                                                 36         7.7        8.3             45.1
                                        Training
                                        College of FE           202        43.1       46.8             91.9
                                        In-House
                                                                 14         3.0        3.2             95.1
                                        Training
                                        Charity                  16         3.4        3.7             98.8
                                        Ambulance
                                                                  1          .2         .2             99.1
                                        Service
                                        Careers and
                                                                  2          .4         .5             99.5
                                        Guidance
                                        Prisons/Probati
                                                                  2          .4         .5            100.0
                                        on
                                        Total                   432       92.1       100.0
                   Missing              99                       37        7.9
                   Total                                        469      100.0
 2006-07           Valid                University               19        1.9         2.1              2.1
                                        6th Form
                                                                 29         2.9        3.2              5.2
                                        College
                                        Local Authority          53         5.3        5.8             11.0
                                        Police                    9          .9        1.0             12.0
                                        Health/Nursing           47         4.7        5.1             17.1
                                        Self-Employed            18         1.8        2.0             19.0
                                        College of HE            60         6.0        6.5             25.6
                                        Secondary
                                                                 13         1.3        1.4             27.0
                                        School
                                        Armed Forces              7          .7         .8             27.7
                                        Fire Service              7          .7         .8             28.5
                                        Youth and
                                                                  9          .9        1.0             29.5
                                        Community
                                        Private
                                                                 50         5.0        5.4             34.9
                                        Training
                                        College of FE           495        49.7       53.9             88.8
                                        In-House
                                                                 18         1.8        2.0             90.8
                                        Training
                                        Charity                  50         5.0        5.4             96.2
                                        Ambulance
                                                                  5          .5         .5             96.7
                                        Service



Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                                       21
                                        Careers and
                                                                2          .2            .2     97.0
                                        Guidance
                                        Prisons/Probati
                                                              27          2.7          2.9      99.9
                                        on
                                        102                    1          .1            .1     100.0
                                        Total                919        92.4         100.0
                   Missing              99                    76         7.6
                   Total                                     995       100.0
 2007-08           Valid                University            30         2.4           2.6       2.6
                                        6th Form
                                                              43          3.4          3.8       6.4
                                        College
                                        Local Authority       96          7.6          8.4      14.7
                                        Police                19          1.5          1.7      16.4
                                        Health/Nursing        58          4.6          5.1      21.5
                                        Self-Employed         29          2.3          2.5      24.0
                                        College of HE         92          7.3          8.0      32.0
                                        Secondary
                                                              14          1.1          1.2      33.2
                                        School
                                        Armed Forces          18          1.4          1.6      34.8
                                        Fire Service           6           .5           .5      35.3
                                        Youth and
                                                              21          1.7          1.8      37.2
                                        Community
                                        Private
                                                              77          6.1          6.7      43.9
                                        Training
                                        College of FE        535         42.2         46.7      90.6
                                        In-House
                                                              26          2.1          2.3      92.8
                                        Training
                                        Charity               58          4.6          5.1      97.9
                                        Ambulance
                                                                3          .2            .3     98.2
                                        Service
                                        Careers and
                                                                2          .2            .2     98.3
                                        Guidance
                                        Prisons/Probati
                                                              18          1.4          1.6      99.9
                                        on
                                        131                    1          .1            .1     100.0
                                        Total               1146        90.4         100.0
                   Missing              99                   122         9.6
                   Total                                    1268       100.0
 4                 Missing              99                     1       100.0
 99                Valid                Private
                                                                1        25.0         33.3      33.3
                                        Training
                                        College of FE           2        50.0          66.7    100.0
                                        Total                   3        75.0         100.0
                   Missing              99                      1        25.0
                   Total                                        4       100.0
(Note: Data for 2005-06 relates overwhelmingly to Cert Ed trainees and includes only a very
few PGCE trainees)




Trainee Profiles (P. Noel: Version 3)                                                     22

								
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