Food hygiene Food

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					Food hygiene                                              Storage of perishable food                                 Eyes: may be a source of infection, avoid rubbing
All measures necessary to ensure the safety &             Separate refrigerated unit for: meat & potry, fish,        the yes, inflamed or infected eyes-no permission to
wholeseness of food during: delivery, storage, prep,      dairy products, cold cuts-sausages-other meat              handle food
cooking, hot & cold holding, plating up, service.         products, eggs, fruits&vegs, cooked foods                  Bad habits
Main aim of food hygiene:                                 Deep freezer                                               Possibilitie to contamination. Touching, sctarthing
 to prevent food becoming contaminated                   The prep – Control points                                  the face, ears, etc. Picking the nose, ears, teeth.
 to prevetn the multiplication of any food               Covers all activities on goods before they are cooked      Spitting. Chewing gum and smoking-hand-to-mouth
                poisonoing microbe which do get into      or served raw:                                             contact.smoking, taking snuff-induces coughing or
                food                                      preparation takes place at room T                          sneezing. Licking fingers
 to destroy any food poisoning microbes be               products when unwrapped are subject to                     General requirements
                present int he food                       contamination                                               Daily shower-to remove sweat, dirt and germs
How much microbes get into the kitchen/food?              products are handled by humans-cough, sneeze or             Regular shampping of the hair-to reduce the
raw material for food prep                                direct contanct                                                             number of microbes ont he scalp
food handlers                                             Prep for cooking                                            Use of deodorants-sweat smell-due to bacterial
 animals:rodents (mice,rat), pets(dog, cat),             Prep area: between storage and cooling area                                 activity int he pores/ont he skin
                birds,insects(flies,cockroaches)          Tools and equipments used exclusively for raw food          Use of perfume, scented soaps and scented hand
 air(dust,drops of water)                                Color codes                                                                 creams-can taint food
 equipment & work surfaces                               Hygiene of prep: microbial level reduced, minced            Clean clothing: clean neat appearance, outdoor
                                                          meat )special regulations), thawing of meat(under
 waste food                                                                                                             clothes-contaminated with a wide raneg of germs
 moist clothes & sponges                                                                                                dirt, udt from the may carry
                                                          Prep of minced meat                                            the remains of faecal material and soil.
Basic principles of premises design & kitchen layout
                                                          Meat: excellent nutrient for bacteria, high water              Protective clothes during work. Footwear during
The aim should be ti design & build a building
                                                          cointent, high protein content, pH:5.5-6.2 neutral to          work-non-slip, waterproof , comfortable, and
                                                          sligthly acidic                                                used only int he kitcen
Provides adequate workspace
                                                          Raw meat: bacteria occupy the surface region onléy         Jewellery
Linear workflow principle:
                                                          Minced meat: surface area is increased, structure of       Use is not peritted: may fall off into the food, food
Continous workfolw: linear system
                                                          muscle tissue destroyed, easy-to-attack texture,           practices can accumulta under it-suitable for
Production should flow progressively without return
                                                          bacteria from the surface region inoculate the whole       microbial growth
on cross-trafic receiving foods->storage->prep-
                                                          amount of minced meat                                      Rings: patterned rings-can accumulate dirt and large
                                                          Minced meat is hazardous-special regulations               number of bacteria
Eliminates cross-contamination
                                                          Prep of minced meat: ont he spot, ont he day of            Hygiene and the law
Separation of functional areas: dirty process,
                                                          preparing a dish with it, time is limited for storing it   Legal aspects of food safety and hygiene: the law
delivery, storage, prep of vegs, meat prep, thawing
                                                          int hte fridge, deeep freezing is prohibited in H,         sets min standards of practices, codifies manager’s
of meat, wash up, waste storage, clean process,
                                                          mincing machines-one for raw meat and another for          moral obligations, penalizes those falling in these
cooking, hot-holding, plating up, salad assembly,
                                                          cooked food.                                               obligations
storage of clean plates & glasses
                                                          Thawing foods properly                                     Primary legislation-law authorized by Acts of
Physical separation: barriers, walts
                                                          Under refrigeration(4C): inhibits the growth of            Parlaiment: eg Food Safety Act 1990 UK
Layout of equipment: equipment must be arranged
                                                          pathogenic bacteria, pre-planning is important             Secondary legislation: Regulations(orders)
so that chances for food contamination are nor
                                                          As a part of the conventional cooking process: items       European community legislation
                                                          are prepared for this purpose freezing, pre-planning       Influence of the WHO
Segregation of work areas: pre-cooke area and past-
                                                          In microwave oven? If the cooking process is               National legislation
cook area
                                                          uninterrupted                                              Quality assurance
The menu planning
                                                          Under running tapwater                                     Traditional quality control-left testing to the .. of the
Menu is the first control point int he food prep
                                                          Prep of eggs                                               production line. Modern approach-preventive
                                                          Remove visible prticles of soil from shell                 methods-HACCP
Menus influence th hygiene & safety of food
                                                          Immerse eggs into a solution of disinfectant(eg. 2%        HACCP(Hazard Analysis and Critical Control
production directly or inidirectly through the:
                                                          solution of sodium hypochlorine) for 5-10 min
 number of itmes                                                                                                    Points)
                                                          Rinse residues of chlorine with warm running               Developed int he USA int he late 1960s-mid 1970
 type of items                                           tapwater(40C)
 equipment required                                                                                                 by NASA. Used by food manufacturers and
                                                          The cookin-Control points                                  processors. Increasingly used int he catering indutry.
 daily sequence                                          Cooking control points desigened to: destroy               Enables to prevent problems by identifying hazards
 value of production                                     harmful germs, increase digestibility of food,             associated with each step of the operation.
The receiving control points:                             increase palatibility by altering fom, flavour, colour,    General adventages of the application:
Receiving comes into focus after                          texture and appearance of raw ingredients                  preventive,systematic, complies with the law-due
the menu has been planned                                 Often it is not possible to cook all dishes during         diligence, it is preventive(in contrast to testing the
products (according to the menu have been                 intense run periods                                        end product), enables to prevent problems before
purchased)                                                Some menu items are prepared in advance                    they arise, covers all the (hygiene) areas(personnel,
Hygiene of food prep process-Delivery of foods            Hot-holding is a critical point(>63C): not for             plant/equipment) process in a systematic way-no
 Delivery are: situated near to the storage area         noodles, product quality must be maintained,               essentials are left out, provides the user with a sound
 Trainde staff                                           microbiological hazards must be minimized (remain          basis to demonstarte that all reasonable steps have
 Goods must never be placed directly ont he floor        safe)                                                      been taken to eliminate hazards from an operation
 Separation of raw and processed foods                   Personal hygiene                                           (due diligence)
 Refrigerated & frozen product-time spent outside        Human body : potential vector of contamination             Hazards: anything that has the potential to cause
                a fridge/freezer cut to a min             Legal & moral responsibilities to practice the highest     harm to the customer: physical(glass, metal),
 Check of:conditions of packages(undamaged),             standards of personal hygiene.                             chemical(cleanig chemicals), biological(microorgs,
                expiry dates, T, signs of                 Personal cleanlines: hands & nails, face, teeth, hair,     pests)
                thawing(frozen product), signs of         clean body, clean clothes and footwear                     Risk: the lokelihood that the hazard will occur and
                infestation, signs of spoilage, fresh     Helth conditions                                           actually cause harm
                look of fruits and vegs, swollen cans     Basic knowledge of hygiene and use of suitable             Hazard analysis-first step in a HACCP
The storing-Control points                                practices                                                  programme:identify hazards, classify hazards by
Aim: protection of purchased goods until use.             Healthy way of life: balanced diet, sufficent rest and     considering the potential harm they migth cause,
Spoilage & cintamination must be minimised                sleep, good use of leisure time                            rationalize & eliminate hazards as far as possible
Storage                                                   Personal cleanlines: Hands                                 Critical control points(CCP):the step int he process
 Storage area: north side of the buildinig,              Sources of contamination. Handling raw                     which must be controlled to ensure that the hazards
                ventillated, vermin-proof, easy to        foods.visiting the toilet. Scartching other part of the    indentified ar either eliminated or reduced to a level
                clean                                     body.wiping the face.                                      which is state
 Storage of perishable and noonperishable foods          Fingernails: short-under the nails dirt can                Stages of HACCP
 Stock rotation (FIFO system)                            accumulate(ie nutrients for bacteria), regular use of      Analyse the hazards: prpare the lists of everything
                                                          nail brush to remuve dirt
 Regular inspection                                                                                                 that could cause harm
                                                          Nail polish : can chip and flate off into the
 Storage of different products                                                                                      Identifying the control points: the stage int he
                                                          food(physical contamination), make difficult to see
 Dry goods area, storage of eggs. Storage of fruits                                                                 process where control is essential to prevent hazards
                                                          how clean the nails are                                    Find way to control(eliminate or minimize) hazards:
                & vegs, chilled storage, deep freeze      Skin disease                                               establish safe routines
                storage, other goods(beverages,
                                                          Cuts : must be covered by dressing which is                Establish monitoring: to verify that control measures
                packaging materials, cleaning             waterproof( protect food from fluids of the wound),        have been carried out correctly
                material&equipments, refuse &
                                                          blue(easily noticable if fallen off into the food)         Documentation
                waste)                                    Septic cuts, boils, pimples and withlows contain pus:
Storage of dry goods                                      large numbers of bacteria, excluded from food
Dry goods area: cool, dry and well ventillated,           handling until chored by a doctor
vermin prof, proper package (metal or plastic),           Hair, dandruff and beard
shelwing raised from floor, wet cleaning(not              Physical contamination. Biological
allowing dust)                                            contamination:carrier of bacteri, bacterial spores.
Types of food: flour, sugar, rice, pulses, dried fruit,   Bad habits: straching while working, combing hair
pasta, soup powders, prepared mixes for cakes,            whilest wearing protective clothing. Use of head
herbs & spices.                                           covering, beard net
Storage of fruits and vegs                                Face
Very few, mid refrigeration. Humidity of the air,         Face: cosmetics may flake or powder into food, false
roots vegs: contaminated by soil, manure.                 eyelashes
Storage of eggs                                           Nouse, mouth,ears: moist and warm environment for
Separated storing room. Int he store of vegs.             germs, Staphylococcus-very common

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