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Shri Shri Anandamurti-Ujjawala jha

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									                     Shri Shri Anandamurti:
                A 20th Century Indian Phlishopher
                                                     Ujjwala Jha,Director
                                                     Centre of Advanced
                                                     Study in Sanskrit
                                                     University of Pune.
                                                     Pune - 411007
" Those  who perform sadhana twice a day regularly - the thought of Parama
- purusa will certainly arise in their minds at the time of death; their
liberation is a sure guarantee. Therefore every Anandmargi will have to
perform sadhana twice a day invariably; verily is this the command of the
Lord. Without yama and niyama sadhana is an impossibility; hence the
Lord's command is also to follow yama and niyama. Disobedience to this
command is nothing but to throw oneself into the tortures of animal life for
crores of years. That no one should undergo torments such as these, that
everyone might be enabled to enjoy the eternal blessedness under the loving
shelter of the lord, it is the bounden duty of every Anandamargi to
endeavour to bring all to the path of bliss. Verily is this a part and parcel of
sadhana, to lead others along the path of righteousness."
These are the words of Shri Anandamurti who is the founder of the Ananda
Marga. These words may be taken as the basic philosophy of the
Anandamarga which advises the follower of Anandamarga to observe
celibacy and lead the life of righteousness individually and also to guide
others to do the same.

In this paper an attempt is made to look into the contribution of Shri
Anandamurti to philosophy in general and to Indian philosophy in particular.
Before that let us also look into his life in a brief manner to have an idea of
what kind of personality we are talking about. Thus, the paper is divided into
the following parts:

(i) Shri Anandamurti: A multifaceted personality;
(ii) His Philosophy and
(iii) Observations.

(i) Shri Anandamurti : A Multi-faceted Personality
Shri Anandamurti's original name was Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar. He is more
known by his spiritual name Shri Shri Anandamurti and was affectionately
called ' Baba ' by his disciples. He was born in Bihar in 1921.
One may describe him as a social revolutionary, a poet, a linguist, a great
philosopher and so on …. He founded the Ananda Marga in 1955.
Anandamarga means Path of Bliss i.e. the path which takes a human being to
the highest bliss - the goal of human life. After he founded this path he

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became one of the great spiritual teachers of Tantra and Yoga of the
twentieth century.
He wrote profusely on social, cultural, national and ecological issues. He
worked on environmental awareness and propounded the philosophy of neo-
humanism. This philosophy is that of love for animals, plants and even the
inanimate. He started a global plant-exchange programme to save different
plant-species and also contributed towards the establishment of animal
sanctuaries around the world.
He firmly opined that the single species of homosapiens is divided into four
so-called races such as white, black, brown and yellow. But there is no
reason whatsoever to conceive of one of the races as superior to the others.
The external differences in the constitution among these human communities
cannot alter their basic human traits such as love and affection, pleasure and
pain, hunger and thirst etc. So, basic biological instincts and mental
capacities and potentials are found equally in all human beings of all
complexions in all countries and in all ages alike.
He also explained the external difference in the complexion and physical
structure. Humanity had to fight against adverse onditions to preserve its
very existence and in that process the outword physical structure of the same
changed. But today, the human society has turned into a global village i.e.
has become a universal society. And all educated, cultured and noble class
believes that humanity is one and indivisible.
The theory of Microvita, propounded by Shri.Anandamurti is his
contribution to the field of science. This theory points out that the basic
building blocks of life are microvita - emanations of pure consciousness.
He wrote over one hundred books on very many subjects such as:
mysticism, cosmology, history, sociology, yoga, medicine, ethics,
psychology, humanities, linguistics, ecology, farming, music, literature etc.
etc. He delivered many lectures and wrote more than five thousand songs
(5018 to be precise). He himself set them to tunes which created a new style
of music which is known as Prabhat Sangeet. Subhas Sarkar observes that '
this grat work Prabhata Sangeeta speaks of our eternal quest of self offering,
a kind of a quest which involves total surrender or prapatti.(vide He Lived
Among Us p.88)
Many scholars have studied the contributions of Anandamurti from
different points of view but still there is more scope to study him, to
understand him and to follow his path. This is just by way of introduction to
the great personality. Now, let us look into his contribution to Indian
Philosophy.
ii) Anandmurti's Philosophy
V. N. Jha observes and rightly so :As the six orthodox systems of Indian
Philosophy are presented first in sutra - form so he presents his
philosophical thoughts in sutra form in the Ananda sutram (AS).(vide:

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HeLived Among Us pp.27-28) Let us look into some of the sutras to say
something about his philosophy.
The AS consists of eighty five sutras divided in five chapters.
The very first sutra is: Shivshaktyatmakam Brahma (AS.I.1) * This means
the ultimate Reality is the Brahma which is a composite of Shiva and
Shakti. Shiva and Shakti model is comparable with the Purusa and Prakrti
model of the Sankhya philosophy. Purusa and Prakrti are inseparable.
Purusa is consciousness and Prakrti is the operative principle in the cosmic
entity.
The second sutra reads: Shaktih Sa Shivasya Shaktih (AS.I.2). So the
operative principle is the Sakti or fouce of Shiva.
The first chapter of this book deals with the creation of the world by Shiva,
through his Sakti. It explains the role of gunas i.e. the three gunas namely,
Sattva, Rajah and Tamah in the process of creation.
So the basis of the AS seems to be the Sankhya Philosophy. But the influence
of Kashmir saivism is obvious from the use of the siva-sakti terminology.
But Anandamurti writes the 4th sutra : Paramasivah Purusottamah visvasya
Kendram (AS.I.4). The word purusottama, through can be an attribute to
siva, instantly reminds the reader of Visnu and one appreciates has
beautifully Anandamurti suggests that Siva and Visnu are different names of
the same Cosmic rntity. In his Prabhat Sangeeta he has surrendered to Visnu
as well as Siva which confirms the above suggestion.
In the second chapter the author of AS defines Sukh in the very first sutra:
Anukulavedaniyam Sukham (AS II.1) and states in the second :
Sukhanuraktih parama jaeviivrttih (AS.II.2).
It is natural for a Jeev to be attracted to Sukh. Bacause it is the very nature
of Jeev. And what is Sukh ? It is infinite happiness.
Sukhamanantamanandam. The same is Brahma anandam brahma
ityahuh The nature of Brahma is bliss.
Once the Jeev Knows this he becomes the bliss because all his desires go
away by that knowledge. Tasminnupalabdhe parama trsnanivrttih
So the nature of jeev is Sukh and the nature of Brahma is also Anand.
Hence the Jeeva always is in search of ' bliss '. Whenever there is
experience of joy it is nothing else but just a glimpse of his own nature.
This is upanisadic philosophy which is reflected in the AS. So,
according to Anandamurti the nature of ¨Moksha” is attaining the infinite
Bliss. It is the positive goal of human life.
One is reminded of the discussion and controversy in Indian philosophy,
particularly the nyaya position, regarding whether the absolute absence of
pain is the nature of Moksha or it is infinite bliss. To explain : the
nyayasutra states that absoluted absence of pain is the goal of human life. In
other words, the nature of moksa is : absolute absence of pain and all
qualities of soul i.e. Atmani.(vide :Tadatyantvimokshopvarg &
(Nyayasutra I.22 ). Later by tenth century A.D. this position is challenged
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and the same system has held the view that the aim of human life should be
positive and it is the infinite bliss – Anand or Atyantananda.
Bhasarvagya particularty propounded this view.
Anandamurti has taken this view and has shown the path that leads to the
absolute blisss Anand Marga. For following this path it is necessary to
follow the yama and niyama, the main two two folds of the astangayoga. In
the book Yogsadhana we find his views on the Yoga philosophy.
To turn to the AS again, in the third chapter of the same we find :
Hitaesanapresito pavargah & (AS III.7). Apavargah is guided by the
divine longing for welfare. Muktyakaunksaya Sadgurupraptih: (AS
III.8). out of the intense desire of Mukti one attains one's perfect master
(Sadguru). And then specifies Brahmaeva gururekah: Napar : (AS III.9).
Bramha alone is the guru and no one else is.
Further he says Badha or obstacles coming on the way of sadhana establish
the sadhaka firm on the marga towards Bliss. This thought also is in keeping
with the Yoga philosophy.
He does not beliene in unnecessary rituals and makes the following
point : Prarthanarchana matraeva bhramamulam (AS III.11). And
futher shows the real path Bhakirbhagadbhavana na sturirnarcana
identified with Bhakti, Bhakti is Bhagvadbhavana - constant thought of
God.
This is a similar thought as put forth by Narad in his Bhaktisutra. Narada
says: Sa Tvsmin Parampremrupa (Narada Bhakti Sutra 2) also sutra
19. Elsewhere Anandamurti has said Bhakti is not a means but the goal of
human life ,which shows his acquaintance with the philosophy of Bhakti. A
Bhakta never wants, never wishes for Upavargah or moksha but longs for
the close association of the Istdevta. This is what Narad states in his
Bhaktisutra. But Anandamurti interpretes: one gets established in Bhakti
by means of Gyan & Karm, through relentless service to humanity and
purification of mind. This interpretation of his, in my opinion, makes him a
20th century philosopher.
In the 4th chapter of the AS he talks about the role of the three gunas and
Bhairav - Bhairavi or Bhav - Bhavani so far as the process of creation is
concerned. This, perhaps, explains the plurality of the world experienced by
us.
In the 5th i.e. the last chapter he talks about his social philosophy. He
believes in the Varnapradhanata so far as the social cycle is concerned (
Varnapradhanata Chakradharayam. (AS.V) and states that at the centre
of the social cycle. are the Sadvipra who control the cycle. Cakrakendre
sadviprah cakradharayam (AS V 2) And then defines Kranti-Viplav-
vikranti prativiplav and Parikranti (p.41 - 43) This shows his hold on
social structure-social philosophy and what not. He hints at his philosophy
through the following two sutras: Atiriktam Pradatvyam Gunanupaten
and
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Sarvanimnamanavardhanam samajajiivalaksanam* (AS.V.11).
There should be equal distribution of wealth in meritorious
people as per the degree of their merit and that the society is alive it has not
lost its vigour can be understood from its focus on the increasing of the
Maan & Jeevanman both of the weak section of the same.
In the last sutra he states: Deshkalpatrye : Upyoga: Parivaratante te
upyoga Pragatishila Bhaveyu, this is the Progressive Utilisation Theory
of Shri Anandamurti. This says that the method of utilization should vary in
accordance with the changes in time, space and person and such utilization is
of the Progressive nature.
This is in short what one finds in the AS. Here, the author has talked about
the individual as well as the collective welfare of humans.
(iii) Observations:
Whatever we have discussed so far, perhaps, points to the fact that Shri
Anandamurti drew heavily upon our upanisadic philosophy, Darsana
philosophy as also on Bhakti philosophy, but employing his intellect and
intuition interpreted the same as relevant to the modern times and gave many
useful and hence beautiful tips to humanity to progress in a better manner for
the betterment of humanity itself. In the true sense of the term, his is the
Anandamarga. Whosoever follows this path as shown by him will
certainly attain Ananda - both individually and collectively. perhaps, a
human being needs to understand (and it is already high time) that unless the
whole attains the bliss it is not possible to attain bliss by a part!
One point is sure that more people need to study the philosophy of
Anandamarga as there are many vital issues concerning humanity that he
has tonched upon.
In the book Yogasadhana he talks about the yoga insisting upon many points
such as : * A yogi must certainly be a Theist.
                        * Purification of the Kosas & yogasadhana.
which appear to be traditional but when he talks about Bio -
psychology, yoga - psychology & yoga - sadhana he talks about the glands
in human body & sub glands their secretions - the functim of the same – how
to concentrate upon a particular gland which will affect the different aspect
of yoga - sadhana and this makes him the twentieth century philosopher. His
interpretation of Bhakti as a goal of human life which means relentless
service of humanity etc. are worth - noting.
One feels that a more concentrated and deep study of his philosophy may
give more encouraging results.




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