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Organelle Project Standards

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					     IB Organelle Requirements for Student PowerPoint Presentation Project

Unknown: Explain how vesicles are used in cells, including the way in which they form and are
     reabsorbed.



                                              Ribosomes:
Def. found on IB Exam Question: Small spherical structures, consisting of two subunits.


Structure and function                           translation occurs here

Contents                                         know differences between free and rER ribosomes

Characteristics                                  not enclosed in a membrane

Proteins produced: free vs. attached             composed of 2 subunits

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic cells ribosomes       channel protein

70S Ribosomes                                    80S Ribosomes

Know names and structures in ribosome and what they look like: DNA, small (sub) unit, large (sub) unit,
tRNA, mRNA

                               Rough Endoplasmatic Reticulum:
Function example

Has transport function

Know functions

Structure

Content

Identify from micrograph

                                             Cell Membrane:
 Aka membranes, plasma membrane, cell surface membrane                     osmosis requirements

ID from a micrograph image                                                 structure

Structure and function of Phospholipids (how do their properties help maintain the structure of the cell
surface membrane?)
function

Membrane proteins (also known amino acids) and function of                function of membrane proteins

Draw and label diagram of structure                                       function of vesicles

Passive and active transport

Principal components of membranes = proteins and lipids          (OVER)

Integral protein is part of plasma membrane—ID from diagram

Fluid mosaic model and identify from diagram: glycoprotein, hydrophilic phosphate head, integral
protein

Function of membrane protein as it relates to enzymatic activity

Why are the amino acids in the plasma membrane polar?

Structure and function of phospholipids: to maintain cell membrane structure

Diagram of channel protein in a membran



                                               Cell Wall:
Specific to plant cells and prokaryotic cells like bacteria NOT IN ANIMAL CELLS

Explain Composition and Function                 Structure

                                              Lysosome:
Def. found on IB Exam Question: Spherical organelles, surrounded by a single membrane and
containing hydrolytic enzymes. Digestion of structures that are not needed within cells.


Function example

Structure               Contents

Helps digest microbe and diagram of it doing so that you have to tell what organelle it is




                                          Golgi Apparatus:
Function example                         has transport function

Know functions                           contents of it

                                                Nucleus
Def. found on IB Exam: Region of the cell containing chromosomes, surrounded by a
double membrane, in which there are pores. Provides for storage and protection of chromosomes


Function example                         location where transcription occurs, nucleolus?

Structure                                identify nucleus from micrograph picture

Contents                                 contains DNA and RNA

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic               Haploid nucleus + diploid nuclei

Nuclear membrane




                                           Mitochondrion:
Def found on IB Exam: Organelles surrounded by two membranes, the inner of which is
folded inwards.


Acetyl-CoA produced in mitochondria through oxidation of fatty acids

Function example                                  structures within

Contents                                          prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic

Structure features related to function            cell respiration –part of this process occurs here

Cristae present in mitochondria                   compare mitochondrion to chloroplast

Carries out key reactions in the cells of eukaryotes

Where in the mitochondrion are the enzymes of krebs cycle found?

Processes and know location where each occur in this organelle

Krebs cycle                                       identify structures on electron micrograph

ATP Synthetase occurs in mitochondria             Chemiosmosis occurs here
What is contained in the inner membranes of mitochondria

                                              Chloroplast:
Structure, draw and label                         content

Enzymes found here                                thylakoids—advantage of small volume inside

Relationship of structure of chloroplast to its function

RuBP carboxylase                                  know structure as seen on micrograph

Calvin Cycle—where in the chloroplast are the enzymes of the calvin cycle located =stroma

Compare structure of chloroplast to structure of mitochondrion

Thylakoids of chloroplast gets + protons using energy derived from light

Chlorophyll in the Chloroplast:

Function                         structure                       pigments-wavelengths

Why do plants appear green?               Colors(wavelengths of light) chlorophyll absorbs most?
                                  Misc Stuff to add in:

                              Exam Question #1 Example

      The electron micrograph below shows part of several pancreatic islet cells.

                                                                          Capillary



                                                                          I


                                                                          Storage vesicles



                                                                          II




                                                                          III



(a)   Identify the structures labelled I, II and III in the micrograph above and give a role for
      each one.

                        Structure                    Role
            A.
            B.
            C.
            D.
                                                                                                   (3)

(b)   (i)    Using the letter A, identify one location on the micrograph where transcription
             takes place.
                                                                                                   (1)
            (ii)         Using the letter B, identify one location on the micrograph where chemiosmosis
                         occurs.
                                                                                                              (1)
                                                                                                  (Total 9 marks)


                                             Markscheme Example #1
(a)   Award [1] for each correct structure and its role.

                             Structure                        Role
                  I:         mitochondria                     produce ATP / site of (aerobic) respiration;
                                                              contains genetic information / produces
                  II:        nucleus                          RNA /
                                                              site of replication;
                                                              (site of) translation / protein production /
                             (rough) endoplasmic
                  III:                                        protein
                             reticulum
                                                              transport;

                                                                                                      3
      (b)   (i)          A in nucleus / A in mitochondria                                             1
            (ii)         B in a mitochondrion                                                         1

                                            Exam Question Example #2

The electron micrographs below show mitochondria in longitudinal section. The mitochondrion in
      A is from a bat pancreas cell and that in B is from a mouse liver cell.

                            A.




                            B.
                    [Source: Tribe and Whittaker, Chloroplasts and Mitochondria, (1972), 31, pp 28–29]

      (a)   Annotate the micrographs to show two similarities in the structure of the
            mitochondria.
                                                                                                                                                   (2)

      (b)   The mitochondria differ in size. State two other differences that are visible in the
            mitochondria.

            1.        ..........................................................................................................................

            2.        ..........................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                   (2)

      (c)   Predict, with two reasons, which of the mitochondria would have been able to produce
            ATP at a greater rate.

            ....................................................................................................................................

            ....................................................................................................................................

            ....................................................................................................................................

            ....................................................................................................................................

            ....................................................................................................................................
                                                         Markscheme Example 2
(a)   both have two (outer) membranes;
            both have cristae;
            both have a matrix (with a grainy appearance) / ribosomes;                                                                  2 max
      (b)   shape;
            arrangement of cristae;
            density of cristae;
            amount of matrix granules / any reference to dark dots;
            (do not accept ribosomes)                                                                                                   2 max
      (c)   A / bat’s;
            larger size / volume;
            greater surface area of cristae / more cristae;
            closeness of mitochondria in B mouse reduces rate;                                                                          3 max
                                                                                                                                                   [7]
                                     Exam Question Example #3

The diagram below shows a channel protein in a membrane. Which parts of the surface of the
      protein would be composed of polar amino acids.




      A.      I and II only

      B.      II and III only

      C.      III and IV only

      D.      I and IV only
                                                                                        (Total 1 mark)
                                       Markscheme Example 3
Answer is A
                                       Exam Question Example #4



The diagram below shows part of a plasma membrane. What label should be used for structure I?

                                   I




      A.    Peripheral protein

      B.    Phospholipid

      C.    Cholesterol

      D.    Integral protein
                                                                                        (Total 1 mark)


                                        Markscheme Example 4
                                             Answer is D
                                       Exam Question Example #5



The diagram shows a model of a biological membrane. What do labels I, II, and III illustrate?




                         I                         II                        III
        A.                                                        Hydrophobic phosphate
             Integral protein           Peripheral protein
                                                                  head
        B.                                                        Hydrophilic phosphate
             Peripheral protein         Glycoprotein
                                                                  head
        C.                                                        Hydrophilic phosphate
             Glycoprotein               Integral protein
                                                                  head
        D.                                                        Hydrophobic phosphate
             Glycoprotein               Peripheral protein
                                                                  head
                                                                                           (Total 1 mark)
                                        Markscheme Example 5

                                           Answer Is C
                                                      Exam Question Example #6



Which processes are represented by the labels in the diagram below?




                                                                               I

                                                                                                 II




                                           I                                                                  II
       A.    A phagocyte ingesting a microbe by                               Digestion of the microbe with the help of
             exocytosis.                                                      the Golgi apparatus.
       B.    A phagocyte ingesting a microbe by                               Digestion of the microbe with the help of
             endocytosis.                                                     a lysosome.
       C.    A phagocyte ingesting a microbe by                               Digestion of the microbe with the help of
             exocytosis.                                                      a lysosome.
       D.    A phagocyte ingesting a microbe by                               Digestion of the microbe with the help of
             endocytosis.                                                     the Golgi apparatus.
                                                                                                                                          (Total 1 mark)
                                                      Markscheme Example 6
                                                     Answer to this question is B


                                                      Exam Question Example #7

(a)   Distinguish between the terms resolution and magnification when applied to electron
            microscopy.

            .....................................................................................................................................

            .....................................................................................................................................
      .....................................................................................................................................

      .....................................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                               (2)

The electron micrograph below shows part of a cell.




                                                   [Source: M Turmaine, UCL]

(b)   Identify the structures labelled I and II.

      I ................................................................................................................................. .

      II ................................................................................................................................ .
                                                                                                                                               (2)

(c)   State one function of the structure labelled II.

      .....................................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                               (1)

(d)   Deduce, with a reason, whether this cell is eukaryotic or prokaryotic.

      .....................................................................................................................................

      .....................................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                               (1)
                                                                                                                                   (Total 6 marks)
                                           Markscheme Example 7
(a)   resolution: separate points / focus clearly / greater detail / clarity;
            magnification: size of image / view / picture;                          2
      (b)    I: membrane / (nuclear) envelope;
             II: mitochondrion / mitochondria;                                      2
      (c)    aerobic respiration;
             correct specific reaction / pathway occurring in mitochondria /
             ATP production;                                                    1 max
             Do not accept “energy production” alone.
      (d)    eukaryotic, internal membranes / membrane bound organelles /
             presence of mitochondria / double nuclear membrane;                1 max
                                                                                        [6]

				
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