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Pakistan Behavior Change Communication Strategy

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Pakistan Behavior Change Communication Strategy Powered By Docstoc
					  Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion
Program for Peri-Urban Areas of Lusaka, Zambia

“…if our current state is left unchecked, disease will come and we and our children will
                                        suffer…”




                 STRATEGY DOCUMENT
                                       31 January 2009
                                                                     Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                                             Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                                               (31 January 2009)



                                                              Table of Contents


1.     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY......................................................................................................................... 1
2.     INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................... 11
3.     BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................................................... 11
4.     STRATEGY PRINCIPLES ..................................................................................................................... 12
     4.1        MARKETING SANITATION................................................................................................................... 13
     4.2        PROMOTING HYGIENE ........................................................................................................................ 14
     4.3        UNDERSTANDING MARKETING AND PROMOTION ............................................................................... 14
5.     RESEARCH .............................................................................................................................................. 15
6.     KEY RESEARCH FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS......................................................................... 17
     6.1        CONSUMER......................................................................................................................................... 17
     6.2        PROVIDER .......................................................................................................................................... 19
     6.3        ENABLING ENVIRONMENT ................................................................................................................. 22
7.     CONSUMER ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................ 23
8.     PROVIDER AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT IMPLICATIONS ................................................. 24
9.     STRATEGY FRAMEWORK .................................................................................................................. 26
     9.1        INTERVENTION AREAS ....................................................................................................................... 26
     9.2        REQUIREMENTS TO ENABLE CHANGE ................................................................................................ 27
10.         STRATEGY OVERVIEW .................................................................................................................. 27
     10.1       STRATEGY VISION, GOAL, AND OBJECTIVES ...................................................................................... 28
     10.2       MARKETING AND PROMOTION ........................................................................................................... 28
     10.3       STRATEGY FOUNDATIONS .................................................................................................................. 32
     10.4       STRATEGY AT A GLANCE ................................................................................................................... 32
11.         STRATEGY DETAILS ....................................................................................................................... 35
     11.1       DETAILS OF SERVICE DELIVERY ........................................................................................................ 35
     11.2       DETAILS OF PROMOTION .................................................................................................................... 46
     11.3       DETAILS OF ENABLING ENVIRONMENT .............................................................................................. 51
12.         MONITORING AND EVALUATION PLAN ................................................................................... 61
13.         INVESTMENT PLAN ......................................................................................................................... 63
14.         IMPLEMENTATION PLAN .............................................................................................................. 66
15.         PLAN OF ACTION ............................................................................................................................. 68


APPENDICES
Appendix A:             Starting Point Latrine Specifications
Appendix B:             Draft Communication Plan
Appendix C:             Investment Plan Explanations
Appendix D:             Investment Plan – Excel File
Appendix E:             Costing out Latrines and Sewer Connections– Excel File




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                                                                  Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                                          Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                                            (31 January 2009)




List of Figures
Figure 1:        Strategy Intervention Areas .......................................................................................................... 26
Figure 2:        Increasing the Likelihood of Behavior Change ............................................................................ 27
Figure 3:        Sample Technological Options ..................................................................................................... 37
Figure 4:        Product Sales Entry Points ............................................................................................................ 38
Figure 5:        Pricing Affordable to the Consumer on Selected Products ........................................................... 39
Figure 6:        Training Entry Points .................................................................................................................... 43
Figure 7:        Present Structure of LWSC Peri-Urban Unit ................................................................................ 52
Figure 8:        Sample Cash Flow Analysis ......................................................................................................... 56
Figure 9:        Sample Cost Benefit Analysis ...................................................................................................... 56
Figure 10:       Total Quality Management Paradigm ........................................................................................... 57



List of Tables
Table 1:     Marketing Tactics ................................................................................................................................ 4
Table 2:     Strategy-at-a-Glance ............................................................................................................................ 6
Table 3:     Overview of Three-Year Investment Plan ........................................................................................... 8
Table 4:     Year One Plan of Action Overview -1April 2009 to 31 December 2009 ............................................ 9
Table 5:     Research-Identified Consumer Opportunities and Constraints.......................................................... 24
Table 6:     Implications of Handwashing and Safe Drinking Water Feasible Practices ..................................... 24
Table 7:     Implications of Communal and Household Latrine Feasible Practices ............................................. 25
Table 8:     Strategy Primary Target Consumers.................................................................................................. 29
Table 9:     Consumer Practices and Doable Steps to Promote ............................................................................ 29
Table 10:       Marketing Tactics ......................................................................................................................... 31
Table 11:       Strategy-at-a-Glance ..................................................................................................................... 33
Table 12:       Infrastructure Details .................................................................................................................... 35
Table 13:       Product Details ............................................................................................................................. 38
Table 14:       Service Improvement Details ....................................................................................................... 40
Table 15:       Provider Capacity Tables to be Completed .................................................................................. 42
Table 16:       Training Details ............................................................................................................................ 43
Table 17:       Training Plan ................................................................................................................................ 45
Table 18:       Communication Details ................................................................................................................ 46
Table 19:       Advocacy Details .......................................................................................................................... 48
Table 20:       Mobilization Details ..................................................................................................................... 49
Table 21:       Policy Details ................................................................................................................................ 51
Table 22:       Implementation Capacity Details.................................................................................................. 52
Table 23:       Financing Details .......................................................................................................................... 54
Table 24:       Institutional Arrangement Details ................................................................................................. 57
Table 25:       Player Roles and Responsibilities ................................................................................................. 59
Table 26:       Suggested M&E Plan .................................................................................................................... 61
Table 27:       Three-Year Strategy Investment Plan Specifics ........................................................................... 63
Table 28:       General Phased Implementation Plan ........................................................................................... 66
Table 29:       Year One Plan of Action Specifics-1April 2009 to 31 December 2009 ....................................... 68




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                                      Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                              Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                (31 January 2009)



                             ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
LWSC would like to take this opportunity to express our appreciation for the support and
cooperation from involved individuals during this strategy development process for Lusaka’s
peri-urban settlements.




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                                Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                        Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                          (31 January 2009)



                              ACRONYMS
AIM      Ability, Influence, Motivation
BCHOD    Brian Colquhoun Hugh O’Donnell & Partners
CBE      community-based enterprise
CBO      community-based organization
CSO      Central Statistics Office
CU       commercial utility
DCC      direct consumer contact
DfID     Department for International Development
DHID     Department of Housing and Infrastructure Development
DTF      Devolution Trust Fund
ECZ      Economic Commission of Zambia
EU       European Union
FBO      faith-based organization
FGD      focus group discussion
FNDP     Fifth National Development Plan
GDP      Gross Domestic Product
GIDD     Gender in Development Division
GRZ      Government of the Republic of Zambia
HMIS     Health Management Information System
HW       handwashing
HWWS     handwashing with soap
ICTAR    Institute for Corporate Training and Applied Research
ISMS     International Social Marketing Specialist
JICA     Japanese International Cooperation Agency
LCC      Lusaka City Council
LWSC     Lusaka Water and Sewerage Company Limited
M&E      Monitoring and Evaluation
MAR      Market Analysis Report
MCDSS    Ministry of Community Development and Social Services
MDGs     Millennium Development Goals
MLGH     Ministry of Local Government and Housing
MOE      Ministry of Education
MOH      Ministry of Health
NHHC     Neighborhood Health Committees
NGOs     non-governmental organizations
NUWSSP   National Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Program
NWASCO   National Water and Sanitation Council
NWSSP    National Water Supply and Sanitation Program
PPP      Public-Private Partnership
PQC      product quality control
PRSP     Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
PUA      peri-urban areas
PUWSSS   Peri-Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy
QCS      quality customer service
SAN      sanitation
SDW      safe drinking water
SM&HP    Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion
SPSS     Statistical Program for Social Sciences
TQM      total quality management
WASHE    water, sanitation and hygiene education committees
WAT      water
WDA      women’s development associations
WDCs     Ward Development Committees
WHO      World Health Organization
WSP/AF   Water and Sanitation Program/Africa
WSPIP    Water Sector Performance Improvement Project
WSS      water supply and sanitation
WTFs     Water Trust Funds
WUP      Water Utilities Partnership
ZK       Zambian Kwacha




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                                        Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                  (31 January 2009)



1.   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

LWSC has received funding from the World Bank, through the Water Sector Performance
Improvement Project (WSPIP), to complement its efforts to improve operational efficiency,
financial viability, commercial and technical performance improvements and service
delivery, including improving access to water and sanitation in the peri-urban areas (PUAs).
In an effort to elevate attention and action on sanitation, the LWSC has recently introduced a
sanitation levy and set up a sanitation fund to be used to improve sanitation in the peri-urban
areas. With support from the Water and Sanitation Program-Africa (WSP/AF), LWSC is in
process of developing/refining and rolling out a strategy for effective delivery of water
supply and sanitation services to PUAs. This document expounds a strategy for expanding
sanitation and hygiene promotion services to Lusaka’s PUAs based on a sanitation marketing
approach.

A sanitation marketing approach has been chosen to test in Lusaka to give people a choice, to
ensure financial sustainability, and to promote behavior change. A sanitation marketing
strategy requires understanding the present demand (the market analysis conducted in 2008),
stimulating continued and new demand, facilitating development of the supply-side to
develop a sanitation industry, and regulating and coordinating the market operation as well as
assuring safe disposal and treatment of human waste. It is a technical, social and political
process. Lusaka will be the fore-runner to inform the NUWSSP and the NWSSP (check
acronyms) on the use of this approach and in applying the strategy programmatically.
Everyone has a role to play, especially the communities. Financing will no longer guide the
process and implemented activities. This strategy will guide all players under the leadership
of LWSC.

The basis of success for this sanitation marketing and hygiene promotion effort is solid,
credible, and valid research with potential consumers/customers and present and potential
suppliers of products, services and communication activities and on the enabling environment.
This research was conducted from 15 February to 20 September 2008 in all 26 PUAs. Both
quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used – survey, observations, focus group
discussions, mapping, desktop review, audit and interviews.

Research included: With the consumers (landlords and tenants, women and men with at least
one child under five), 364 consumer surveys were administered and household observations
conducted, and 15 consumer FGDs were conducted with 149 consumers. With providers and
suppliers, 17 interviews with and observations conducted at public facilities; 8 provider
FGDs conducted with 46 product and service providers at the community-level; 50 interviews
conducted with product and service providers at the city- and community-levels; 34
interviews conducted with national-level water, sanitation, and hygiene players representing
29 organizations and/or agencies; and 84 marketplace product cost audits and product and
services availability audits conducted in 20 PUAs. Complete findings can be found in the
November 2008 Market Analysis Report.

Major consumer conclusions consist of:
1. Money does not exist within the present household budgets to spend on sanitation and
    hygiene.
2. Key product/service attributes include regularity, consistency quality, durability, safety,
    and ease.


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                                         Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                 Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                   (31 January 2009)



3.    Key consumer appeals comprise dignity, pride, long life, and healthy life.
4.    Communal latrines are not a first choice of consumers.
5.    There is wide access to some form of latrine.
6.    A clean and well-maintained latrine is of high value.
7.    Latrine maintenance and use knowledge and value have not translated into practice.
8.    Actual households are on the bottom rung of the sanitation ladder – simple, traditional
      latrines.
9.    Perceptions of a “good” latrine are positive.
10.   Skills to self-build are inadequate.
11.   Willingness to pay for upgrades is evident. Actual ability to afford these upgrades is
      not.
12.   Present pit emptying knowledge and abilities of consumers are non-existent.
13.   At Promotion targeting “parents” on sanitation spending is possible.
14.   Present reported practice of handwashing with soap at most critical times is low.
15.   Possible appeals to handwashing are visibly clean and soft.
16.   Handwashing knowledge and value have not translated into practice.
17.   Products required for proper handwashing are available, but not “packaged” well within
      the households.
18.   Safe drinking water is available and accessible but inconsistent.
19.   For the most part, safe drinking water knowledge has translated into practice in the
      households.
20.   Products to purify drinking water are readily available.
21.   LWSC is not perceived as a sanitation or hygiene provider.
22.   Possible appeals to safe drinking water are health and safety.
23.   Willingness and ability to pay for at least 7 buckets daily of drinking water are evident.
24.   Public facilities are not viable alternatives to family latrines.
25.   Radio should be a prime channel for promotion.
26.   Direct consumer contact should be a prime format for promotion.

Major provider conclusions comprise:
1. With the exception of soap and plastic products, city- and community-level service and
    product provision does not go to the people, but rather, has the people to come to it.
2. With the exception of soap, product and services availability is inadequate. Providers
    and selected products are not easy to find.
3. Clustered marketing conforms to the “old way” of doing business and does not
    demonstrate or promote consumer-driven business.
4. Present pricing for latrines is outside the capital available to consumers for sanitation
    improvements or products.
5. Present and estimated improved or expanded capacities are insufficient to meet the
    potential demand to be created for household latrines.
6. Training is sufficient among public-sector providers.
7. Promotion and communication channels have been selected because they are the norm,
    not because they are the most effective approaches to changing behavior. Feasible
    practices have not been promoted. Messaging is inconsistent.
8. Support for the work of city-level providers is inadequate and inconsistent.
9. LCC has a prime role to play, but has not been enabled to perform it.
10. LWSC has no perceived role in sanitation and hygiene in the communities.
11. Insufficient community participation has been encouraged.



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                                         Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                 Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                   (31 January 2009)



12. Awareness of the value of sanitation and hygiene is high among private and commercial
    providers at both the city- and community-levels. Most do not associate quality
    customer service with service improvements.
13. City-level private providers have formal training, certification and business registration.
14. Community-level private providers lack the necessary formal training, certification, and
    registration.
15. Private providers demonstrate social responsibility towards communities.
16. Government has a large role to play in maintaining and establishing private provider
    security and legitimacy and fostering growth, but it has not effectively engaged in this
    role to date.
17. Little or no interaction between like-product or like-service private providers takes
    place.
18. Standards for production and service provision and for quality control are inadequate
    among private providers.
19. All private providers are willing to increase demand for sanitation and hygiene service
    and products; however, they need different levels of support to do so.
20. Among private providers, needed supplies and materials for sanitation and hygiene are
    available to produce, but a trained workforce to provide is not.
21. Collection, disposal, and treatment of human waste services and standards are
    inadequate to meet present demand.
22. Public facilities are available and adequately stocked and equipped.
23. Knowledge and awareness of sanitation and hygiene requirements of a public facility
    have not translated into practice in the facility.
24. No consumer-driven demand for public facilities exists.
25. Personnel and infrastructure to effectively run and maintain public facilities are derisory.
26. Public facilities are non-profit making enterprises.
27. Media players demonstrate social responsibility for health affairs and the community.
28. Skilled media players support promotional efforts, if information is provided.

Major enabling environment conclusions encompass:
1. There is an existing commercial entity, LWSC, through which commercial sanitation
    and hygiene activities can be conducted.
2. There is no clear sanitation policy.
3. There is no clear sanitation legislation or ability to enforce existing by-laws.
4. Substantial advancements have been made on which to build.
5. No agreed upon standards or definitions exist.
6. A lack of national-level leadership is evident.
7. Clear sanitation and hygiene roles and responsibilities have not been detailed.
8. Funding is available, but not clearly earmarked for sanitation or hygiene.
9. LWSC has initial start-up monies immediately available.
10. Subsidy policies and criteria do not exist.
11. Criteria for requesting sanitation or hygiene grant/funding is inadequate.
12. Capacity, skills and human resources, are insufficient at all levels.
13. LWSC must be perceived by the communities as an appropriate sanitation and hygiene
    provider to be effective.
14. Community structures exist through which activities could be conducted.

Table 1 provides the marketing tactics identified as a result of research analysis.



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                                                          Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                                  Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                                    (31 January 2009)



Table 1:      Marketing Tactics
            Issue                                       Recommendation                                           Rationale
PEOPLE - To achieve the                           PUA Landlords – Father
                                    Household Latrines                                                These audiences
strategy goals and                                and Mother                                          (consumers) are the most
objectives, with whom                             PUA Mother Tenants                                  affected, will benefit most,
should the products,     Toilet blocks            PUA Landlords – Father                              and will be the most
services, and practices be                        and Mother                                          responsive to change.
encouraged?                                       PUA Tenants – Father and
PRIMARY TARGET                                    Mother
AUDIENCE                 Handwashing              PUA Mothers with children
                                                  under five
                         Safe Drinking Water PUA Mothers
PRACTICES – What is feasible to expect these audiences to practice?
HANDWASHING with MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN                           2.   Wash the hands of your small child every time you wash your
UNDER FIVE:                                                           hands
1. Wash your hands with soap and clean water
TOILET BLOCKS with LANDLORDS:                                    TOILET BLOCKS with TENANTS:
1. When possible, consider one toilet block (four-stall) for     1. Lock toilet block to guard against unauthorized use or vandalism
    four households according to agreed upon standard:           2. Clean each stall of toilet block once daily with disinfectant and
2. Keep the toilet block maintained on the outside                   water
3. Keep the toilet block emptied as needed                       3. Purchase or make hole lids for each stall of toilet block
HOUSEHOLDS LATRINES with LANDLORDS:                              HOUSEHOLD LATRINES with MOTHER TENANTS:
1. Provide household latrine according to standards and          1. Negotiate with landlord for a new roof on household latrine
    selection/upgrade table for your plot and/or tenant          2. Request a proper slab for the household latrine from the landlord
    households                                                   3. Use water and disinfectant at least once daily to clean household
2. Empty full household latrine                                      latrine
3. Upgrade the household latrine with metal roof, proper         4. Purchase needed products (latrine disinfectant, hole cover/or make
    slab with lid, permanent walls, and/or wooden door               one) for household latrine
4. Keep the household latrine maintained on the outside
5. Keep the household latrine emptied as needed
SAFE DRINKING WATER with MOTHERS:                                6.   Place your drinking water out of reach of children.
1. Treat unsafe drinking water OR                                7.   Place it within reach of the elderly and adults.
2. Purchase safe drinking water                                  8.   Wash container or bucket with clean water before filling with safe
3. Serve your drinking water with a long-handled cup or               drinking water.
    pour it out                                                  9.   Cover container or bucket to carry it home.
4. Purchase needed safe drinking water products
5. Store your drinking water in a covered container.
            Issue                                       Recommendation                                           Rationale
PRODUCT - What                       Quality latrine roof (one piece)                                These products and
products and services are            Quality slab (1.2m x 1.2m) with lid                             services are potentially
needed to enable these               Slab lid                                                        required to enable the
practices?                           Lightweight, durable latrine door with built-in                 consumer to effectively and
                                      lock                                                            consistently carry out the
                                     Septic tank                                                     feasible practices
                                     Squat pan                                                       promoted. These products
                                     Pre-fabricated columns for walls                                will ultimately depend on
                                     Concrete blocks, stabilized blocks and/or treated               final strategy decisions.
                                      wood
                                     20-litre bucket/container with attached
                                      (permanent) lid
                                     Mountable handwashing water-saving dispenser
                                     Self-contained handwashing station with attached
                                      soap holder
                                     Latrine lock
                                     Soap, cleaning products, and water purification
                                      products
                                     Environmentally-friendly chemical pit treatment
                                      products
PROVIDERS - By who                  Providers:                       Equipment Needs:                 Stakeholders at all levels,
should the products,                 National-, provincial, city-  Pit emptying                     in all sectors, bringing all
services, and practices be            level government, NGOS,           trucks/vans                   aspects of required skills
promoted and supplied?                and international agencies      Portable pit                   need to be involved in the
SECONDARY TARGET                      personnel and promoters           emptying tanks                program. A more specific



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                                                  Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                          Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                            (31 January 2009)



          Issue                                 Recommendation                                        Rationale
AUDIENCES                    MLGH, MOH, LCC and               Treatment                    list will be detailed with the
                              NWASCO, LWSC                       facilities                  strategy. Specifics on
                             City-level private               Pit digging and              equipment will also be
                              providers: latrine                 lining                      detailed in the strategy.
                              contractors/builders,            Slab molds
                              masons                           Latrine models
                             Community-level private
                              providers: slab makers,
                              diggers, builders, masons
                             Community-level leaders,
                              groups, associations,
                              committees
PERSUASION - What           For consumers:                                                   These were identified from
appeals/triggers/drivers    Healthy life, long life, good quality life, dignity,             the research as the
should be accentuated?      and pride                                                        recurring
(consumer-centric)                                                                           appeals/triggers/drivers for
                                                                                             most sanitation and
                                                                                             hygiene action or behavior
                                                                                             adoption.
PACKAGING - What            For consumers:                                                   These were identified from
product and service         Regularity, consistency, quality, durability, safety,            the research as the qualities
qualities should be         ease, environmentally-friendly                                   consumers want in
emphasized? (product-                                                                        sanitation and hygiene
centric)                                                                                     products and services.
PRICES - What prices         Quality latrine roof                       25,000 to 50,000    These prices are based on
should be established for    Quality slab (1.2m x 1.2m)                75,000 to 150,000    an amount derived by
                              with lid
the required products and    Slab lid                                   To be determined    examining income,
services that are            Lightweight, durable latrine               40,000 to 75,000    expenditures, household
affordable for consumers?     door with built-in lock                                        budget priorities, etc.
                             20-litre bucket with attached               15,000 to 25,000   These prices are not yet set
                              (permanent) lid
[All suggested prices are                                                                    and would need to be (1)
                             Mountable handwashing                       25,000 to 60,000
listed in Zambian             water-saving dispenser                                         tested for at least 6 months
Kwacha.]                     Self-contained handwashing                 To be determined    in the market and (2) once
                              station                                                        tested and agreed to, frozen
                             Latrine lock                               To be determined    in the market for at least
                             Sub-structure only (pit dug                To be determined
                              and lined, water tight)
                                                                                             another year. Decisions
                             Super-structure only-built                 To be determined    would need to be made
                              latrine                                                        regarding this affordable
                             Fully-built latrine with skilled       800,000 to 1,500,000    price, the price a provider
                              labor                                                          needs to charge and the
                             Fully-built latrine with               600,000 to 1,000,000
                              unskilled labor                                                gap.
PLACE - Where should        At central marketplaces within each PUA, on                      Products and services need
these products, services,   roving markets with scheduled visits to the PUAs, 5              to be moved to closer to the
and practices be made       central latrine “showrooms” in 5, to be selected,                consumers so that they can
available?                  PUAs, through basket marketers from the                          easily access required.
                            communities
PROMOTION - How can         Direct consumer contact, radio mass media,                       Suggestions are based on
these products, services,   personal/community-based events and mobilization,                consumer preferences and
and/or practices be         quarterly galas, community and household contests,               known approaches to
encouraged?                 provider contests, vouchers, rewards programs                    encourage practices.



Table 2 provides the strategy-at-a-glance. Full details can be found in the body of this
strategy document.




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                                                                                                                         Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                                                                                                 Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                                                                                                   (31 January 2009)



Table 2:   Strategy-at-a-Glance
VISION                     TO BE DETERMINED by consensus with stakeholder group in Year 1
GOAL                       “Over three years, improve sanitation and/or hygiene conditions for one fourth of households in each of the 26 peri-urban areas (approximately
                           51,250 households).”
TIMEFRAME                  From April 1, 2009 to December 31, 2011
OBJECTIVES                 1. Increase PUA mothers with children under five who reportedly wash their hands with soap and clean water from 24.3% to 50%.
                           2. Increase PUA mothers who reportedly clean their drinking water storage container before putting in new, clean drinking water from 24.9% to 50%.
                           3. Increase PUA mothers who reportedly serve their drinking water safely (either pour or use long-handled cup) from 33.7% to 50%.
                           4. Encourage PUA landlords to build toilet blocks following agreed upon standards for 24 households in each PUA.
                           5. Ensure these PUA landlords empty 50% of these toilet blocks once a year.
                           6. Assure 50% of PUA mother tenants reportedly clean their toilet block stall with disinfectant and water once daily.
                           7. Boost the PUA landlords who build household latrines for their tenants following agreed upon standards for 615 households per PUA.
                           8. Ensure these PUA landlords empty 35% of these household latrines at least once in a three-year period
                           9. Increase PUA tenants who clean their household latrines with disinfectant and water once daily from 10.5% to 35%.
PRIMARY TARGET             Household Latrines                                            PUA Landlords – Father and Mother AND PUA Mother Tenants
AUDIENCES                  Toilet Blocks                                                 PUA Landlords – Father and Mother AND PUA Tenants – Father and Mother
                           Handwashing                                                   PUA Mothers with children under five
                           Safe Drinking Water                                           PUA Mothers
SECONDARY TARGET            National-, provincial-, city-level government, NGOS, and international  Community-level private providers: slab makers, diggers, builders,
AUDIENCES                     agencies personnel and promoters                                            masons
                            MLGH, MOH, LCC and NWASCO, LWSC                                            Community-level leaders, groups, associations, committees
                            City-level private providers: latrine contractors/builders, masons
FEASIBLE                   HANDWASHING with MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN UNDER FIVE:                                    2. Wash the hands of your small child every time you wash your hands
                           1. Wash your hands with soap and clean water
PRACTICES TO BE            TOILET BLOCKS with LANDLORDS:                                                         TOILET BLOCKS with TENANTS:
PROMOTED                   1. When possible, consider one toilet block (four-stall) for four households          1. Lock toilet block to guard against unauthorized use or vandalism
                              according to agreed upon standard:                                                 2. Clean each stall of toilet block once daily with disinfectant and water
                           2. Keep the toilet block maintained on the outside                                    3. Purchase or make hole lids for each stall of toilet block
                           3. Keep the toilet block emptied as needed
                           HOUSEHOLDS LATRINES with LANDLORDS:                                                   HOUSEHOLD LATRINES with MOTHER TENANTS:
                           1. Provide household latrine according to standards and selection/upgrade table for   1. Negotiate with landlord for a new roof on household latrine
                              your plot and/or tenant households                                                 2. Request a proper slab for the household latrine from the landlord
                           2. Upgrade the household latrine with metal roof, proper slab with lid, permanent     3. Use water and disinfectant at least once daily to clean household latrine
                              walls, and/or wooden door                                                          4. Purchase needed products (latrine disinfectant, hole cover/or make one) for
                           3. Keep the household latrine maintained on the outside                                  household latrine
                           4. Keep the household latrine emptied as needed
                           SAFE DRINKING WATER with MOTHERS:                                                     6. Place your drinking water out of reach of children.
                           1. Treat unsafe drinking water OR                                                     7. Place it within reach of the elderly and adults.
                           2. Purchase safe drinking water                                                       8. Wash container or bucket with clean water before filling with safe drinking
                           3. Serve your drinking water with a long-handled cup or pour it out                      water.
                           4. Purchase needed safe drinking water products                                       9. Cover container or bucket to carry it home.
                           5. Store your drinking water in a covered container.




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                                                                          INTERVENTION AREAS AND ACTIVITIES
                 SERVICE DELIVERY                                                 PROMOTION                                                     ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
Infrastructure                                                     Communication                                               Policy
1. Develop improved latrine specifications                         18. Produce a PUA-wide communication campaign               28. Support ongoing sanitation and hygiene policy development
2. Facilitate consumer selection of appropriate latrine facility   19. Develop ongoing communication budget                    29. Agree on improved latrine standards
    and/or upgrading                                               20. Launch program                                          30. Lobby for sanitation and hygiene
3. Explore new sewerage connections in all elected PUAs            Advocacy                                                    Implementation Capacity
4. Construct 520 toilet blocks, 20 per PUA                         21. Develop an advocacy kit                                 31. Strengthen LWSC peri-urban unit implementation team
5. Rehabilitate existing and expand sanitary waste disposal        22. Facilitate quarterly speakers’ bureau                   32. Establish technical committee to guide process
    and treatment capabilities as needed                           Mobilization                                                33. Facilitate quarterly power breakfasts with technical committee and
Products                                                           23. Form community-based sanitation and hygiene social          invited guests as needed to discuss progress, impact, and help needed
6. Increase range of product options available                         responsibility team                                     34. Develop sustainability criteria and indicators
7. Produce proto-types for products that do not yet exist in       24. Facilitate quarterly sanitation and hygiene community   35. Monitor
    the Zambian marketplace                                            meeting in each PUA                                     36. Evaluate
8. Establish fair, market-based pricing on required products       25. Establish yearly PUA, community and household hygiene   Financing
9. Develop “hygiene” package                                           contests                                                37. Fully commit to supporting sanitation and hygiene strategy
Service Improvements                                               26. Develop feedback mechanisms for the community           38. Develop clear subsidy policy and criteria
10. Finalize provider capacity tables                                                                                          39. Develop accessible sources and funding mechanisms for providers
11. Create provider small-business enterprises and/or                                                                              and consumers
    associations                                                                                                               40. Develop commercial cash flow and cost-benefit analyses
12. Expand sanitation and hygiene product and services                                                                         Institutional Arrangements
    availability and consumer access                                                                                           41. Build leadership of LWSC peri-urban unit
13. Manage pits and expand septic tank empty capabilities                                                                      42. Coordinate work in PUAs
Training                                                                                                                       43. Create business standards and appropriate registration
14. Develop training of trainers program                                                                                       44. Develop 2012-2014 strategy for continuation of program activities
15. Develop providers materials                                                                                                    building on successes of first three years
16. Create training programs for providers on both hardware
    and software

17. Celebrate successes with providers                             27. Celebrate successes of communities and consumers        45. Celebrate successes with all players
POTENTIAL PARTNERS
MLGH                            Latrine Contractors                MLGH                            MCDSS                       MLGH                                   MOF
LWSC                            Slab Manufacturers                 LWSC                            MOE                         LWSC                                   Donors
LCC                             Pit & Tank Empty Services          MOH                             Media                       NWASCO                                 Media
Plastic Manufacturers           Waste Disposal & Treatment         LCC                             International NGOs and      MOH                                    Soap Manufacturers
                                Providers                                                          Agencies                    LCC




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Table 3 provides an overview of the three-year investment plan required to carry out this strategy. This investment plan and the previous
strategy-at-a-glance will allow for the desired programmatic approach to sanitation and hygiene in Lusaka’s PUAs.

Total cost: $11,361,52              [All costs listed in USD million]

Table 3: Overview of Three-Year Investment Plan
   Three-Year Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy Investment Plan OVERVIEW – 1 April 2009 to 31 December 2011
            Line Items                   TOTAL                     Year 1                Year 2                    Year 3

I.     SERVICE DELIVERY                          $             9,273,920        $       2,649,800    $            3,620,000         $               3,004,120
A.     Infrastructure                           $              6,875,000    $           1,560,000   $             2,745,000        $                2,570,000
B.     Products                                 $                786,000    $             287,000   $               325,000        $                  174,000
C.     Service Improvements                     $              1,064,800    $             532,800   $               300,000        $                  232,000
D.     Training                                 $                548,120    $             270,000   $               250,000        $                   28,120

II.    PROMOTION                                 $             1,422,900     $            218,900    $              602,000         $                 602,000
A.     Communication                            $                246,900    $             146,900   $                50,000        $                   50,000
B.     Advocacy                                 $                 90,000    $              26,000   $                32,000        $                   32,000
C.     Mobilization                             $              1,086,000    $              46,000   $               520,000        $                  520,000

       ENABLING
III.   ENVIRONMENT                               $                664,700    $             84,900    $              280,900         $                 298,900
A.     Policy                                   $                  52,000   $              32,000   $                10,000        $                   10,000
B.     Implementation Capacity                  $                 454,700   $              11,900   $               224,900        $                  217,900
C.     Financing                                $                  57,000   $              15,000   $                21,000        $                   21,000
D.     Institutional Arrangements               $                 101,000   $              26,000   $                25,000        $                   50,000

                            TOTAL                    $      11,361,520              $   2,953,600        $       4,502,900               $         3,905,020




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An overview of the first year plan of action has been provided below in Table 4. Year One's purpose is three-fold: (1) Put in place sufficient
ability to supply (Service Delivery); (2) Develop the promotional pieces to create the initial consumer demand (Promotion); and (3) Facilitate
this supply and demand (Enabling Environment). When supply and enabling environment are in place, launch the program (create demand)
using the promotional pieces. How to build, maintain and clean a latrine and handwashing will be the behavioral foci for Years One and Two,
safe drinking water practices will be added in Year Three. No cost-sharing building/construction of latrines or toilets by LWSC should take
place until demand has been created and service delivery is in place.

Table 4:    Year One Plan of Action Overview -1April 2009 to 31 December 2009
                                                                                              YEAR ONE - 2009 (9 months) OVERVIEW
                                   Activity
                                                                         April   May   June     July    August September October                    November        December
   I.   SERVICE DELIVERY
  A.    Infrastructure
 1.     Identify two PUAs for new sewer connection installation.
 2.     Assess functioning of two selected treatment plants and rehab.
 3.     NO construction of toilet blocks.
  B.    Products
 4.     Develop priority products list.
 5.     Assist providers in manufacturing priority products..
 6.     Purchase limited number of products for promotion.
  C.    Service Improvements
 7.     Create 26 franchises.
 8.     Expand 3 marketplaces.
 9.     Purchase and test portable pit/septic tank emptying equipment.
  D.    Training
 10.    Develop training materials.
 11.    Conduct training of trainers for 30 trainers.
 12.    Conduct provider training workshops for 52 providers.
 13.    Conduct hygiene promoter workshops for 52 promoters.
 14.    Assure certification and licensing trained providers.
  II.   PROMOTION
  A.    Communication
 15.    Share strategy.
 16.    Hire ad agency.
 17.    Develop communication campaign.
 18.    Produce print and non-print for distribution and airing.
 19.    Launch program.

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                                                                                            YEAR ONE - 2009 (9 months) OVERVIEW
                                  Activity
                                                                       April   May   June     July    August September October                    November        December
 B.    Advocacy
20.    Develop advocacy kit
21.    Create speaker's bureau and meet quarterly.
 C.    Mobilization
22.    Organize social responsibility team and meet quarterly.
23.    Develop consumer feedback mechanisms.
III.   ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
 A.    Policy
24.    Participate in Sanitation and Hygiene Policy development.
25.    Lobby for decision-maker and politician support.
26.    Establish standards for latrine and product quality.
 B.    Implementation Capacity
27.    Establish technical committee and meet quarterly.
28.    Refine Monitoring and Evaluation plan and develop tools.
29.    Monitor progress (process indicators).
30.    Develop Year Two Plan of Action
 C.    Financing
31.    Agree on subsidy policy for National Policy.
32.    Create consumer rewards and voucher programs
33.    Develop fund mechanisms for provider start-up investments.
 D.    Institutional Arrangements
34.    Develop structure for decision-making and lines of authority.
35.    Negotiate business registration for trained providers.




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2.   INTRODUCTION

LWSC has received funding from the World Bank, through the Water Sector Performance
Improvement Project (WSPIP), to complement its efforts to improve operational efficiency,
financial viability, commercial and technical performance improvements and service
delivery, including improving access to water and sanitation in the peri-urban areas (PUAs).
In an effort to elevate attention and action on sanitation, the LWSC has recently introduced a
sanitation levy and set up a sanitation fund to be used to improve sanitation in the peri-urban
areas. With support from the Water and Sanitation Program-Africa (WSP/AF), LWSC is in
process of developing/refining and rolling out a strategy for effective delivery of water
supply and sanitation services to PUAs.

This document expounds a strategy for expanding sanitation and hygiene promotion services
to Lusaka’s PUAs based on a sanitation marketing approach.

A sanitation marketing approach has been chosen to test in Lusaka to give people a choice, to
ensure financial sustainability, and to promote behavior change. A sanitation marketing
strategy requires understanding the present demand (the market analysis conducted in 2008),
stimulating continued and new demand, facilitating development of the supply-side to
develop a sanitation industry, and regulating and coordinating the market operation as well as
assuring safe disposal and treatment of human waste. It is a technical, social and political
process. Lusaka will be the fore-runner to inform the National Urban Water Supply and
Sanitation Program (NUWSSP) and the National Water Supply and Sanitation Program
(NWSSP) on the use of this approach and in applying the strategy programmatically.
Everyone has a role to play, especially the communities. Financing will no longer guide the
process and implemented activities. This strategy will guide all players under the leadership
of LWSC.

3.   BACKGROUND

Zambia has, through the years, moved from a time in the mid-1980’s when abundant and
fully subsidized water and sanitation services were available; to a time, in the 2000’s when
due to unprecedented urban growth and lack of sufficient infrastructure to accommodate this
growth, has resulted in even the most basic of services being universally unavailable.

In the last twenty years, the peri-urban areas have taken the bulk of Zambia’s population
growth. The percentage of peri-urban population in relation to formal urban areas is estimated
to range from about 40% in the smaller towns to 80% in the big cities. In the peri-urban
areas, where 50-70% of the urban-population live, water supply and sanitation services are
poor, inadequate and unreliable; at least 56% of the population do not have access to a water
supply, and as much as 90% do not have access to satisfactory sanitation facilities (Fifth
National Development Plan-FNDP). Available estimates indicate that at least 70% (FNDP)
of the peri-urban population has access to sanitation facilities (FNDP) or pit latrines provided
by the landlords or the tenants. A few individuals with higher income have water borne toilets
with septic tanks and soak-away. Some properties located in site and service areas near trunk
sewers are connected to the main water-borne sewerage system in the city, although these are
very few.




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Provision of water and sanitation services in Lusaka City is the responsibility of LWSC, a
private liability company that is wholly owned by Lusaka City Council (LCC) and the only
institution under the current regulatory systems licensed to provide water supply services
throughout the cities and townships. The company was established in 1988 starting
operations in 1990. The vision for LWSC is to be the water and sanitation industry leader in
Africa. LWSC is further guided by a mission of providing water and sanitation services to
the residents of Lusaka (pulled from the LWSC Draft Peri-Urban Policy, January 2005).
LWSC serves a population of more than 1.75 million people, with more than 65% of this
population living in the peri-urban areas. By the end of 2003, the commercial utility, which
had 482 permanent staff, was producing a monthly average of 76.3 million M3 of treated
water, supplied through 34,500 connections. In line with the national policy action plan for
water and sanitation services in peri-urban area, LWSC set up a peri-urban unit to cater for
the services of the Lusaka peri-uban areas.

Lusaka City has 26 (Central Statistics Office, 2005) peri-urban areas, which account for well
over 65% of the city’s population, more than 1,000,000. Some peri-urban areas are relatively
small with population ranging from 10,000 to 40,000 residents, but larger areas such as
Kanyama, Chawama, George, and Chipata have very large populations of 80,000 or more
(Aquatis Information System, Lusaka Technical Profile Sheet, August 2005). The main
characteristic of these areas is lack of adequate or no basic services provided by the
municipality, making the living environment unhealthy. According to the 2004 Poverty
Reduction Strategy, only 10% of Lusaka poor perceive “living in a clean environment” as
part of a good life.

In all forms of technologies employed, financing and construction are borne by the property
owners or their tenants. There are no consistent designs or construction approach to take into
account issues of contaminating groundwater or the geology of the areas in which the toilet
facilities are built. The facilities are built according to what the residents can afford, or deem
convenient. Sanitation facilities consist mainly of ordinary pit latrines often in close
proximity to the individual/private shallow wells. Providing adequate sanitation in Lusaka is
also made a bit difficult by the fact that the city of Lusaka lies on a dolomite aquifer with
high ground water table, in some cases less than 2m below ground level. This poses a
challenge to the construction and maintenance of toilet facilities, and makes pit latrines a
difficult technological option in some places.

The coverage levels reported are based on installed capacity and not on current operational
situation. There has been significant deterioration of urban services and infrastructure over
the last ten years. This appears to be most severe in urban populations living in the high-
density low-cost peri-urban and informal settlements as evidenced by the high incidence of
water borne diseases especially in the rain season. Water supply services in Lusaka peri-
urban areas vary widely from one settlement to another even within the same urban center.
Service consists mainly of public standpipes and traditional and unprotected shallow wells.
Existing water supply systems in peri-urban and informal settlements are inadequate for the
level of demand and are poorly maintained because local authorities lack capacity to sustain
these services.

4.   STRATEGY PRINCIPLES

This strategy utilizes sanitation marketing and hygiene promotion.


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4.1 Marketing Sanitation
Sanitation marketing ensures that all activities and efforts carried out are consumer-driven
and that needed products, industry and waste treatment and disposal are in place.

4.1.1 Sanitation Marketing Overview
Sanitation marketing creates a demand for a sanitation product, service, or practice. It
promotes an improved sanitation practice. Provision of hardware is not enough. Sanitation
marketing ensures that the hardware, the appropriate media mix, and the required enabling
environment are all in place. It identifies where people are on the sanitation ladder and
moves them up by providing multiple options.

Sanitation marketing can ensure people choose what they want and are willing to pay for;
what is financially sustainable; and what is cost-effective and can be taken to scale.
Successful marketing is based on (1) understanding what people want and what people are
willing to use and maintain, (2) detailing which sanitation technologies are locally
appropriate, and (3) understanding this demand and how it can be encouraged.

Sanitation marketing entails a six-step process:
1. Gain consensus – this requires a policy that establishes minimum standards, a policy on
    subsidies, and generally identifies a person to champion and make sure things happen.
2. Learn about the market – this entails research of the consumers, the market, and product
    availability.
3. Overcome barriers and promote demand – this requires a supportive environment;
    appropriate policy and regulations; solid, well-targeted advertising and campaigns; and
    the development of small manageable steps to achieve behavioral outcomes.
4. Develop the right products – this means affordable, appropriate, and bottom-up products
    with government investment in new products as needed; products that are designed to a
    target price and market niche first, then examine technical specifications.
5. Develop a thriving industry – consumer demand creates the “pull,” now it is necessary to
    create the PUAh, i.e. capacity-building through training, credit and other services for
    small businesses, continued research to monitor the evolving market, monitoring to
    ensure public-sector interests of serving the under/unserved and private-sector interests of
    greater financial gains.
6. Regulate waste transportation and final disposal – this ensures sustainability by asking
    the appropriate, needed questions, e.g., Can they dig a new hole when present pit is full?
    What is the lifetime of a pit? Is there a safe/hygienic pit emptying method? Are there
    emptying services which can extend the life of the household investment? Are there
    public subsidies and regulations outside the home?

4.1.2 Role of the Government and Public-Sector
Solid government and public-sector involvement in sanitation marketing and hygiene
promotion is essential to the success of the marketing effort. The public-sector:
must:                                                   must talk to:
 understand existing demands and limits                 consumers,
 overcome limits and promote demand                     manufacturers, builders, etc of sanitation facilities
 stimulate development of right products to meet        providers of supply services, e.g. pit emptying,
   demand                                                 septic tanks, etc.
 facilitate development of sanitation industry          other public departments, e.g. urban land tenure,
 regulate and coordinate transportation and final        environment, small business development.



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      disposal of wastes

4.1.3 Role of Private-Sector
Furthermore, significant involvement of the private-sector/commercial-sector is required if
any marketing and promotion are to succeed. The private-/commercial-sector:
must:                                             must seek to:
 understand the market and their customers        gain new customers
 be competitive                                   expand customer-base
 ensure quality of their products to meet         work collaboratively
    expectations                                    with government and
 have business skills to manage and invest         public-sector
    in the future
 meet and grow with the demand as it
    expands
 provide appropriate, needed products and
    services

4.2 Promoting Hygiene
Hygiene promotion advances three inter-related and inter-connected domains: handwashing
with soap; safe disposal of feces; and safe storage and use of drinking water. While research
shows that any one domain can reduce diarrheal disease in children under five by 32% to
45%1, research shows that advocating a combination of these domains increases the
likelihood of behavior change and sustained practices2.

Hygiene promotion seeks to encourage specific behavioral practices in each area of
handwashing with soap, safe feces disposal, and safe storage and use of drinking water.
Specifically:
Handwashing with soap           Safe disposal of feces        Safe storage and use of
  Wash hands with soap            Use proper facility       drinking water
     and clean water at at least  Keep it clean from           Drink only safe water
     2 critical times                 odor, flies, and          Cover drinking water
       • After defecation             feces/urine               Keep out of reach of small
       • After handling child’s                                    children
         feces                                                  Remove water with long-
       • Before eating                                             handled cup
       • Before preparing food
       • Before feeding child

4.3 Understanding Marketing and Promotion
This strategy will answer the following nine, key “P” questions to determine for whom, by
whom, how, what, when, where, and why activities will take place.
1. People - To achieve the strategy goals and objectives, with whom should the products,
     services, and practices be encouraged?
2. Practice - What feasible consumer practices should be encouraged?
3. Product - What products and services are needed to enable these practices?
4. Providers - By who should the products, services, and practices be promoted and
     supplied?
5. Persuasion - What appeals/triggers/drivers should be accentuated?

1
    Curtis, et. al., “Saving Lives,” 2004.
2
    EHP II, “Changing Hygiene Behaviors,” 2002.


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6.   Packaging - What product and service qualities should be emphasized?
7.   Price - What prices should be established for the required products and services?
8.   Place - Where should these products, services, and practices be made available?
9.   Promotion - How can these products, services, and/or practices be encouraged?

5.   RESEARCH

The basis of success for the eventual sanitation marketing and hygiene promotion effort is
solid, credible, and valid research with potential consumers/customers and present and
potential suppliers of products, services and communication activities. An enabling
environment scan was carried out in Phase I. This scan provided insight into the present
environment in which the marketing research would be conducted and the strategy would be
developed and implemented. Phase II carried out demand-side and supply-side research.
Demand-side research was conducted with potential consumers/customers to assess what
sanitation and hygiene they want, what they can afford, and what they are willing to use and
maintain. The supply-side research was conducted with present and potential “suppliers” of
sanitation products, handwashing products, training and capacity-building, and
media/communication provision. This research confirmed existing research and collected
new information as required.

Primary demand-side data sources comprised women and men of children under five years
old, and tenants, owners, and landlords living in the selected peri-urban areas. Primary
supply-side data sources comprised government/public providers at city- and community-
levels and private/commercial-sector providers at city- and community-levels. More
particularly, the commercial-sector was broken down by (a) maintenance services (exhauster
and emptying); (b) soap manufacturers; (c) cement, iron, metal, and plastic manufacturers
and suppliers; (d) slab manufacturers; (e) bricklayers/masons; (f) latrine/toilet construction;
and (g) community-based enterprises. Enabling environment data sources included major
governmental players at national-, provincial-, district- and community-levels; international
donors, agencies and non-governmental organizations; and local community-based
organizations, enterprises, and groups.

Research design, preparation and conduct were carried out from February 15 to September 20,
2008. For demand-side research, all 26 peri-urban areas (PUA) were chosen from the total
number of 26 settlements available. For supply-side research conduct, site selection used 20
PUAs randomly selected from these 26 PUAs and all 26 PUAs were used in researching
public facilities.

The enabling environment scan utilized (1) a desktop review of relevant documents, (2) an
in-depth interviews, and (3) a mapping process which detailed who is providing, supplying,
and/or promoting sanitation and hygiene. The mapping matrix provides a list by audience-
type of what organizations are working in sanitation, handwashing, and/or water and broadly
indicates what type of activities each conducts.

The supply-side research employed two quantitative and qualitative methodologies. A
products and services audit was conducted of products and services available. The audit
examined proximity and frequency of availability. A costs audit was carried out to detail the
present, actual market cost/value of selected products and services. Interviews were
conducted to examine service and product provision and market demand. A second set of


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interview questions combined with an observation checklist focused on communal/public
sanitation facilities examining operational costs, community preferences, and challenges and
benefits of these types of facilities. A limited amount of quantitative data was collected
during interviews as well. Finally, focus group discussions (FGDs) were used with (1)
government players, (2) international NGOs, (3) local NGOs, and (5) commercial-sector,
specifically (a) maintenance services (exhauster and emptying); (d) slab manufacturers; (e)
bricklayers/masons; and (f) latrine/toilet construction.

Demand-side research utilized both one quantitative and qualitative methodology. A market
survey and observation checklist was used. This survey assessed housing details, sanitation
and water use patterns, as well as income, assets, ability to pay information, etc. The survey
included a section that allowed data collectors to corroborate reported information with
observations. Three types of FGDs were used employing photos and/or puzzles as well as
guiding questions to examine facilitators and motivators to sanitation and hygiene, consumer
financial priorities, and willingness, ability and costs.

Research for this work included: 364 consumer surveys administered and household
observations conducted, 15 consumer FGDs conducted with 149 consumers; 17 interviews
with and observations conducted at public facilities; 8 provider FGDs conducted with 46
product and service providers at the community-level; 50 interviews conducted with product
and service providers at the city- and community-levels; 34 interviews conducted with
national-level water, sanitation, and hygiene players representing 29 organizations and/or
agencies; and 84 marketplace product cost audits and product and services availability audits
conducted in 20 PUAs.




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6.   KEY RESEARCH FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS

This section represents a brief summary of major findings and the conclusions drawn from
each summary. All conclusions, consumer, provider, and enabling environment, assisted in
the consumer behavioral analysis of each potential area – household latrines, handwashing,
safe drinking water, and communal facilities – as well the delineation of provider and
enabling environment implications. Complete findings can be found in the November 2008
Market Analysis Report.

6.1 Consumer
(1) Average monthly incomes are ZK 175,000 to ZK 275,000, monthly expenditures are
ZK 90,000 to ZK 250,000 and monthly rents are ZK 30,000 to ZK 200,000. Money does not
exist within the present household budgets to spend on sanitation and hygiene.
(2) Key product/service attributes include regularity, consistency quality, durability,
safety, and ease.
(3) Key consumer appeals comprise dignity, pride, long life, and healthy life.

6.1.1 Household Latrines
(4) Communal toilets3 are not liked, are dirty, and promote more disease among children
than they reduce. Communal latrines are not a first choice of consumers.
(5) The majority has access to some form of household latrine4 located on the household
plot, but usage is heavy with five to twelve users. Most were observed to be accessible5 to
elderly, sick and children. There is wide access to some form of latrine.
(6) Cleanliness is the number one quality and value of a good latrine. Half of the
household latrines observed were clean, no visible feces. Most were not odorless or private
and only one third of the consumers being satisfied with their present household latrines.
Cleaning the latrine is cited as the number one priority. A clean and well-maintained latrine
is of high value.
(7)     Consumers are knowledgeable about sanitation matters, but they still want/need
constant reminders and help to perform these practices well. The need for concrete slabs was
seldom mentioned as essential. Products and tools needed for latrine cleaning, i.e.
disinfectant exist within the households. Latrine maintenance and use knowledge and value
have not translated into practice.
(8) The most common type of latrine seen was a traditional latrine with mud floor, some
form of roof, generally cloth or plastic, plastic/cloth walls, and a semi-permanent door, such
as plastic or cloth. Very few have actual concrete slabs. There is little or no demand for
slabs, but high demand for roofs. Actual households are on the bottom rung of the
sanitation ladder – simple, traditional latrines.
(9) Consumers want to be perceived as having a latrine with a plastic roof, concrete slab,
metal or cloth door and brick walls. An ideal latrine is described as an iron roof, VIP slab
with vent hole and lid, wooden door, and cement walls. Perceptions of a “good” latrine are
positive.



3
  A communal latrine has been defined as a latrine facility shared by several households with two or more stalls
centrally located for user households.
4
  A household latrine has been defined as a latrine facility used by one household or one plot with only one stall
located on that plot.
5
  Accessibility has been defined as the ability to get to and use the item or facility.


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(10) Technical know-how to build a quality latrine is low. Pits are shallow, structures are
unstable, and floors are made of mud or sticks. One third provided labor in building their
latrines. Skills to self-built are inadequate.
(11) Upgrading has been possible, with installing a slab of some sort, but not necessarily
concrete or adding bricks to the walls. Most see roofing as a priority upgrade, but
unaffordable. Many indicate the intention and desire to upgrade with slabs or roofs, but need
financial or material assistance to do so, paying back any monies monthly. Most are willing
to pay, on the average, up to ZK 235,000 to upgrade their latrines. Willingness to pay for
upgrades is evident. Actual ability to afford these upgrades is not.
(12) Pit emptying is a priority concern. Consumers are unaware of how, how much and
when to empty; how to properly use the latrines so that emptying is possible; and where and
how to construct the latrine so that emptying is safe and feasible. Present pit emptying
knowledge and abilities of consumers are non-existent.
(13) At least half of the households jointly, mother and father together, make decisions about
household improvements and large purchases. Promotion targeting “parents” on sanitation
spending is possible.

6.1.2 Handwashing
(14) Most report washing their hands with water only and after using the latrine. Less than
half report using soap and wash their hands before eating, but few, including mothers, wash
their hands after cleaning a baby’s bottom. One quarter of those observed actually used soap.
Present reported practice of handwashing with soap at most critical times is low.
(15) The prime quality and value of clean hands is “visibly not dirty” and softness. Possible
appeals to handwashing are visibly clean and soft.
(16) They are knowledgeable about ways to prevent water-borne diseases and diarrhea, i.e.
wash hands with soap and clean water. Handwashing6 with soap before eating is the number
two priority. Handwashing knowledge and value have not translated into practice.
(17) Some form of bar, liquid or powder soap is readily available in the household – both
reported and observed. At least half of the households have some form of handwashing
station, i.e. basin and source of water, though most stations did not include soap anywhere
nearby and not all pieces were necessarily together. Few stations were located near the
latrines or the cooking areas. Products required for proper handwashing are available, but
not “packaged” well within the households.

6.1.3 Safe Drinking Water
(18) Communal taps are the most widely used source of drinking water7, with less than one
quarter having individual connections. Three quarters have a communal tap within three
minutes of their home. Most felt their safe drinking water access was satisfactory. Water is
consistency available. Consumers feel they cannot perform well without consistent sources
of water. Safe drinking water is available and accessible but inconsistent.
(19) They are knowledgeable about ways to prevent water-borne diseases and diarrhea, i.e.
purchase safe drinking water, purify or boil water, and cover water. The majority report
covering and were observed to cover the drinking water they stored at home. About one half
store this water out of reach of small children. For the most part, safe drinking water
knowledge has translated into practice in the households.

6
  Handwashing has been defined as washing hands with clean water and some form of soap after using the
latrine, before preparing food, before eating, before feeding children, and after cleaning a baby’s bottom.
7
  Safe drinking water has been defined as water drawn from a safe source, transported properly, and stored and
served well in the household.


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(20) Most have available and use liquid purification products. Products to purify drinking
water are readily available.
(21) While the majority of consumers cite LWSC as the prime water provider, none cite it as
a sanitation or hygiene provider. LWSC is not perceived as a sanitation or hygiene provider.
(22) Clear is cited as a prime quality of clean drinking water as well as healthy and safe.
Possible appeals to safe drinking water are health and safety.
(23) The majority pay for their safe drinking water either by the bucket or monthly through
their individual connections. The average spent monthly, on per bucket purchase, is ZK
24,000 (ZK 800 per day) and for individual connection is ZK 6500. The majority of
consumers are willing to pay for their drinking water. Willingness and ability to pay for at
least 7 buckets daily of drinking water are evident.

6.1.4 Public Facilities
(24) Consumers do not want to use a public facility8 as their household alternative. Though
these facilities are accessible and within fifteen minutes of the household, consumers cite
expense, unfriendliness, dirtiness, and location as the four main reasons for their lack of
satisfaction with these facilities. Public facilities are not viable alternatives to household or
communal latrines.

6.1.5 Communication Channels and Promotion
(25) While at least half have access to a TV, almost all consumers possess a radio. Most
listen to the radio in the morning and in the evening. Radio should be a prime channel for
promotion.
(26) Door-to-door visits, workshops, sensitization campaigns, clinic events, and radio news
and music programs in local vernacular, specifically, Nyanja and Bemba, were the most
requested channels and formats. Direct consumer contact should be a prime format for
promotion.

6.2 Provider
(1) PUA populations are served from the providers place of business which is usually
home-based or close-to-home kiosks or from central stores in two or more city centre
marketplaces. With the exception of soap and plastic products, city- and community-level
service and product provision does not go to the people, but rather, has the people to come
to it.
(2) Soap products for handwashing are widely available. Few packaged handwashing
stations are available. Door makers, soap suppliers, plastic goods suppliers were available,
but only in select areas. Concrete slabs have limited availability and again are only found in
select areas. With the exception of soap, product and services availability is inadequate.
Providers and selected products are not easy to find.
(3) Products and services are “clustered” in a few PUAs, not widely dispersed throughout
all PUAs. Clustered marketing conforms to the “old way” of doing business and does not
demonstrate or promote consumer-driven business.
(4) Cost for a VIP latrine is ZK 6,000,000 for a VIP latrine using skilled labor. The
average cost for a concrete slab is ZK 175,000. An average cost for roofing material is ZK
8,000. The average cost to empty a pit is ZK 150,000. Present pricing for latrines is
outside the capital available to consumers for sanitation improvements or products.

8
 A public facility has been defined as an open to the public, for-fee toilet/latrine found within the community
characterized by male/female stalls, some with shower and laundry facilities, most often located near the market.


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(5) Presently, on the average, 288 slabs, 35 households, and 10 latrines respectively per
year per provider are produced or serviced. An estimated improved or expanded capacity is
1500 slabs produced, 150 households exhausted, and 95 VIP latrines built per year per
provider. Present and estimated improved or expanded capacities are insufficient to meet
the potential demand to be created for household latrines.

6.2.1 Public-Sector and Government Providers – City- and Community-Levels
(6) City-level public providers and hygiene promoters have received significant training
and most have “sound ability and confidence” to do the work. Only a few community-level
promoters have received limited training. Training is sufficient among public-sector
providers.
(7) Sensitization, brochures, school visits and events, drama and door-to-door visits are the
main methods used to educate and inform populations on sanitation and hygiene. Promotion
efforts to date have been unsuccessful because alternatives have not been offered and/or
practices promoted have been unreasonable. Promotion and communication channels have
been selected because they are the norm, not because they are the most effective
approaches to changing behavior. Feasible practices have not been promoted. Messaging
is inconsistent.
(8) City-level public providers lack the human and financial resources to meet any
increased demand. Equipment, such exhausters, transportation, personnel and volunteers,
materials, financial resources are hard to obtain. Support for the work is inadequate and
inconsistent.
(9) LCC has prime responsibility for sanitation and hygiene work in PUAs, but does not
enforce” by-laws in communities. LCC has a prime role to play, but has not been enabled
to perform it.
(10) LWSC has not been fully involved in sanitation service delivery and has not partnered
with locals. LWSC has no perceived role in sanitation and hygiene in the communities.
(11) Community members are not responsibility toward their communities and households,
but they are willing to pay for hygiene practices that improve their health. Insufficient
community participation has been encouraged.

6.2.2 Private and Commercial Providers – City- and Community-Levels
(12) Providers understand the importance of good sanitation, hygiene and safe drinking
water. They are confident and knowledgeable about the service that they provide.
Awareness of the value of sanitation and hygiene is high. Most do not associate quality
customer service with service improvements.
(13) City-level private providers have received formal training and hey are confident in their
ability to provide products and services. City-level private providers have formal training,
certification and business registration.
(14) Community-level providers have received informal or observational training only.
They have the “technical skills” required to perform well, though some were unclear how to
produce/build the “best.” They do not have registration or certification, but are willing to pay
for the training required to be certified. Community-level private providers lack the
necessary formal training, certification, and registration.
(15) Most private providers provide support to the communities in which they work, but do
not have any formal or ongoing mechanisms to provide social support to communities.
Private providers demonstrate social responsibility towards communities.
According to all private providers, government policies hinder their business efficiency and
financial banking laws favor big companies with capital to invest. Present business


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regulations and certification favor medium- to large-scale and foreign businesses and not
small community-based enterprises. Government has a large role to play in maintaining
and establishing private provider security and legitimacy and fostering growth, but it has
not effectively engaged in this role to date.
(16) Private providers have formed no associations, do not interact to discuss challenges or
needs, do not cooperate, and do not share tactics or techniques on quality and quality control.
Little or no interaction between like-product or like-service providers takes place.
(17) Lack of competition among most providers; however, has discouraged them from
expanding and providing quality. No standard prices are set and outside providers do not
respect any local agreements. Standard pricing and building codes, so that the “community
gets a fair deal” have not been established. Standards for production and service provision
and for quality control are inadequate.
(18) Private providers need to expand or improve their present materials and equipment
capacity to increase demand and meet it. They want to expand, but need financial assistance,
an understanding of sanitation and hygiene demand, and assistance in creating it and meeting
this demand once created as well as for community-level private providers, a permanent
trading place and training. All private providers are willing to increase demand for
sanitation and hygiene service and products; however, they need different levels of support
to do so.
(19) Needed supplies and materials are available in the markets. Staff or laborers to provide
many services are inadequate. Larger, city-level contractors bring their own workers,
bricklayers/masons, and builders and do not use PUA-local workforce. Needed supplies and
materials for sanitation and hygiene are available to produce, but a trained workforce to
provide is not.
(20) Emptying and disposal pick-up equipment and trucks are limited and in disrepair.
Disposal collection points and containers are insufficient and standards for disposal and
treatment are inadequate. Treatment facilities are too few for an increase in demand.
Collection, disposal, and treatment of human waste services and standards are inadequate
to meet present demand.

6.2.3 Public Facilities Providers
(21) All public facilities providers provided latrine services with soap, some sort of
ventilation and running water available. Public facilities are available and adequately
stocked and equipped.
(22) They were aware of and understood the importance of good sanitation in their facilities
and the dangers of poor management to public health. Based on observations, most were
clean, but few were fly- or odor-less or safe and private. They have little management
experience or training on running a public facility. Knowledge and awareness of sanitation
and hygiene requirements of a public facility have not translated into practice in the
facility.
(23) To date, demand had come for market committees, LCC or international
agencies/NGOs. No consumer-driven demand for public facilities exists.
(24) Public toilets are difficult to maintain and managers would like community volunteers
to clean the toilets. Most have a “desperate” need for running water and have no sewerage
systems and poor drainage. Few have ever treated or emptied their systems. Personnel and
infrastructure to effectively run and maintain public facilities are derisory.
(25) Reported average monthly income is ZK 950,000 and reported average monthly
expenses are ZK 1,450,000. It takes six months to one year to build with the cost to build a
public toilet ranging from ZK1.5 million to ZK 25 million, but finding land on which to build


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is a problem. A LCC-imposed levy and the lack of sufficient number of customers force the
need to partner with donors. Public facilities are non-profit making enterprise.

6.2.4 Communication and Promotion Providers
(26) Media players run “health” broadcast or project, but not on an ongoing, year-round
campaign basis for sanitation or hygiene. They carry out regular community volunteer
projects involving their staff. Media players demonstrate social responsibility for health
affairs and the community.
(27) They generally “just run” the information and do not develop the concepts, but one
does provide funding to develop programs. They are skilled and capable at listening
monitoring and evaluation. Skilled media players support promotional efforts, if
information is provided.

6.3 Enabling Environment
(1) Zambia established an independent regulatory agency - National Water Supply and
Sanitation Council (NWASCO). As well, it commercialized water and sanitation provision.
There are 10 CUs, including LWSC, operating in Zambia covering 90% of the urban and
peri-urban population. There is an existing commercial entity, LWSC, through which
commercial sanitation and hygiene activities can be conducted.
(2) No “sanitation only” policy or strategy was identified. While policies cite sanitation,
emphasis is still on water. There is no clear sanitation policy.
(3) No “sanitation only” legislation was found. Clear, cohesive by-laws need to be
established with a clear line of authority for enforcement of these by-laws. LCC, to date, has
been unable to enforce most by-laws in PUAs. There is no clear sanitation legislation or
ability to enforce existing by-laws.
(4) Tangible achievements have been made: service delivery decentralization;
establishment of ten commercial utilities; improved performance in the sub-sector; and the
creation of the Devolution Trust Fund (DTF) which supports water supply and sanitation
service providers to with the peri-urban poor. Substantial advancements have been made
on which to build.
(5) Standards and definitions have been detailed; but no documented agreement reached on
these standards or definitions, e.g., per-urban areas, sanitation coverage, and sustainable
access. No agreed upon standards or definitions exist.
(6)      Six agencies/units play a role in sanitation and hygiene with the MLGH/DISS
assigned primary responsibility. The other five include MEWD, MOH, NWASCO, LCC and
CUs. While appropriate units/agencies are on board to participate, no direction has been
provided. A lack of national-level leadership is evident.
(7) The delineation of sanitation sector roles is unclear. A “functioning management
system” is required to coordinate and implement activities. Other well-placed agencies have
been insufficient involved. International NGOs are involved in sanitation and hygiene, but
not Lusaka-wide. Clear sanitation and hygiene roles and responsibilities have not been
detailed.
(8) Zambian Kwacha (ZK) 644.3 billion has been budgeted for water and sanitation. No
amount has been allotted solely to sanitation or hygiene. No breakdown exists for urban area
work or peri-urban services and improvements. Funding is available, but not clearly
earmarked for sanitation or hygiene.
(9) LWSC has collected ZK 5 billion since 2006 from its sanitation levy. This sanitation
levy has been temporarily suspended until clear plans for these funds have been delineated.
LWSC has initial start-up monies immediately available.


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(10) Cost-sharing is considered the way to move forward, but with cost-recovery has the
eventual “ideal” goal to achieve. There is no clear policy on use of subsidies and guidelines
need to be established for all to adhere. Subsidy policies and criteria do not exist.
(11) No clear criteria for obtaining grants for sanitation or for accessing funds, in most cases,
has been delineated. Soft loans have been suggested as a possible mechanism, a thought
echoed by providers, but no guidelines exist from how these might be administered. One
agency clearly stated that any loan mechanisms put in place should empower communities,
promote the creation of new businesses, and/or support the maintenance of existing
community-based businesses. In addition to the traditional sanitation funding sources, i.e.
JICA, WSP, DfID, EU, etc.; the DTF provides another mechanism, according to prescriptive
plans, to access funds for sanitation activities. It is unclear whether these same funds can be
assessed for hygiene activities. Criteria for requesting sanitation or hygiene grant/funding
is inadequate.
(12) Current capacity of players and LWSC, both skills and humans resources, is
insufficient. Training in quality customer services and management at a minimum is
required. Capacity, skills and human resources, is insufficient at all levels.
(13) Before a CU can implement or supervise sanitation, it needs to be familiar with grass-
roots-level management and understand the needs and challenges of the peri-urban
communities. LWSC must be perceived by the communities as an appropriate sanitation
and hygiene provider to be effective.
(14) Community structures exist through which activities could be conducted.

7.     CONSUMER ANALYSIS

Drawn from these findings and conclusions, the analysis examined potential target audiences,
derived pricing, ideal behaviors, opportunities and constraints (Table 5) to these ideal
behaviors, and potential feasible practices to promote in the four topic areas researched –
household latrines, handwashing, safe drinking water, and public facilities as well
implications of these feasible behaviors for providers and the enabling environment. An
analysis done in this manner, not only allows for a clear behavioral perspective, which will be
required for success, but necessarily dictates that all decisions will be taken from a consumer
point of view to ensure that the strategy is consumer-driven. The following represents a
synopsis of this examination. The complete analysis can be found in the full report. This
analysis led to the suggestion of several feasible consumer practices (Table 9) and potential
marketing tactics for the strategy (Table 8 and 10). Based on international standards of
potential ideal behaviors for household latrines, handwashing, safe drinking water, and toilet
blocks, the following consumer opportunities and constraints were identified for/to these
ideal practices. Consumer-driven, generic behavioral objectives were prepared to guide the
process:9
1. Increase the number of mothers with children under five who use some form of soap and
    clean water to wash their hands.
2. Increase the number of toilet blocks as an interim option to personal household latrines.
3. Increase the number of households who have upgraded their present latrines and
    maintained them properly.
4. Increase the number of community members who transport, store, and serve their
    drinking water properly to maintain its quality.


9
    These will be revised and fine tuned as part of the strategy development process.


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Table 5: Research-Identified Consumer Opportunities and Constraints
Consumer Opportunities                    Consumer Constraints/Barriers
- Accessibility of household drinking water for elderly        -   Ability to afford upgrades is minimal
  and sick and of present drinking water sources               -   Access for emptying
- Availability of cleaning products                            -   Accessibility of household drinking water for small children
- Casual labor available                                       -   Community participation inadequate
- Clear dissatisfaction with present latrines                  -   Cost of construction, emptying, priority products, treatment
- Confident can perform good practices                         -   Inconvenient and time consuming
- Demand by tenants for partnership and participation          -   Increased risk of disease if communal facility is dirty
- Desire for dignity, improved conditions, individual          -   Insufficient disposal and treatment facilities
  privacy, long, healthy life, quality                         -   Lack of present consistency, safety and ease
- Desire for soft, clean hands, the latrine to be safe and     -   Lack of standards for building or upgrading
  easy for all users                                           -   Lack of technical know-how to construct oneself
- Desire to take good care of family and children              -   No perceived need to use clean water, use soap, or use of
- Good reported treatment practices are high                       concrete slab
- High demand for roofing                                      -   Handwashing stations items are scattered in the household
- Items needed to “put together” a handwashing station         -   Communal not first choice for latrine
  are found in the households                                  -   Perception that “clear” water is safe to drink
- Knowledge and awareness are high for most issues             -   Public facilities not a choice of community
- Materials and supplies available, in limited quantities      -   Reduced dignity and privacy
- More opportunities for tenants                               -   More constraints for landlords
- Often maintain and share cleaning burden now                 -   Landlords feel little or no responsibility toward tenants
- Often share smaller latrines now with neighbors              -   Resistance to taking on responsibility for facility
- Pride of “ownership”                                         -   Skilled labor unavailable
- Reasonable requests for improvements – none                  -   Some products not readily found in marketplaces
  suggested or requested flush or pour-flush                   -   Space requirements
- Recognize need to improve situation                          -   Sub-standard super- and sub-structures presently in place
- Willingness to pay up to ZK 235,000 for latrine              -   Unavailability of appropriate slabs, consistent water, emptying
  improvements                                                     equipment
- Willingness to provide labor                                 -   Unrealistic financial support expectations


This examination of consumer opportunities and constraints allowed the team to detail
specific feasible practices and doable steps to promote (see Table 9 in Section 10.2).

8.      PROVIDER AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT IMPLICATIONS

These feasible practices, as detailed in Table 9, have implications for the providers and for
the enabling environment. These implications have been cited in Tables 6 and 7.

Table 6: Implications of Handwashing and Safe Drinking Water Feasible Practices
Implications of Consumer Handwashing and Safe Drinking Water Feasible Practices
                                                                     Enabling Environment
     Provider           Provider        Provider Implications
                                                                          “Must-Do’s”
  Opportunities        Constraints        There is a need to:
                                                                   Leaders and players must:
-    Skilled government     -   Lack of sufficient    -   Establish fair, market-based         -   Fix hygiene product prices
     promoters                  volunteers,               product pricing                      -   Support key messages and
-    Interested                 personnel             -   Produce/design needed priority           campaign
     community              -   “Volunteer” need          products, e.g. water-conserving      -   Provide funding for promotional
     members                    for payment               dispenser, drinking water,               efforts
-    Work regularly in      -   Insufficient              buckets with “attached” cover,
                                                          mounted dispensers
                                                                                               -   Work through existing
     communities                promotion                                                          community structures to conduct
-    Most products              materials             -   Develop clear promotion                  activities
     conveniently           -   Lack of business          campaign that all agree to
                                                          adhere
                                                                                               -   Coordinate work in PUAs
     available                  skills in
                                community-level       -   Include these activities in social
                                                                                               -   Train community and staff in
-    Existence of semi-                                                                            proper hygiene promotion
     skilled personnel in   -   No “bundling” of          responsibilities programs
     the communities            hygiene products      -   Train in quality customer
                                                                                               -   Select appropriate
                                                                                                   communication channels to
                                                          service (QCS)
                                                                                                   encourage practice adoption




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Furthermore, these implications and “must-do’s” have been translated into activities and/or tasks in the program strategy.

Table 7: Implications of Communal and Household Latrine Feasible Practices
Implications of Consumer Communal and Household Latrine Feasible Practices
      Provider                                                Provider Implications                                                       Enabling Environment “Must-Do’s”
                           Provider Constraints
  Opportunities                                                 There is a need to:                                                           Leaders and players must:
-   Desire to increase        -   Inadequate skilled manpower at city-         Organize locations to view selection table         Establish sanitation leadership and take charge
    businesses and                and community-levels                          options, ask questions, and pick best household    Prepare selection and standards table
    demand                                                                      fit (physical and technological options matched    Develop household latrine standards and toilet block
                              -   Lack of sufficient supplies and
                                                                                to consumer desires)                                standards
-   Willingness to pay to         materials
                                                                                                                                   Develop criteria for subsidies – financial, material and
    be certified                                                               Develop professional funding arrangements
                              -   Reliance on foreign businesses and not       Consider traveling and permanent product and        labor
-   Desire to improve             local businesses                              services provision                                 Develop QCS and PQC criteria standards and training
    conditions in the         -   Lack of certification and registration       Establish standards and corresponding product       materials
    communities                   among community-level                         quality control (PQC) measures                     Support key messaging and campaign and coordinate
-   Present participation     -   Clustered markets inconveniently             Re-orient provider-driven marketing to              communication campaign and phasing
    in social                     located for consumers                         “untapped market” consumer-driven marketing        Provide funding for promotional efforts
    responsibilities                                                            by educating them on the value of consumer-        Develop funding mechanisms for reward program
    programs
                              -   Pricing has been provider-driven                                                                 Work through existing community structures to conduct
                                                                                driven markets.
-   Some skilled city-
                              -   Lack of government support
                                                                               Train and test all personnel in QCS and PQC         activities
                              -                                                                                                    Coordinate work in PUAs
    level providers               Lack of required equipment                   Develop combination product and services
                                                                                                                                   Establish criteria for and opportunities to obtain provider
-   Desire to increase the    -   Insufficient disposal and treatment sites     packages, e.g., combine hygiene rewards with
                                                                                                                                    certification and registration
    value of Zambian-         -   Inadequate capital to invest                  positive sanitation and household latrine use
                                                                                                                                   Celebrate successes with consumers and stakeholders
    made products and                                                           and maintenance
                              -   Insufficient understanding of sanitation
                                                                               Provide feedback mechanisms to PUA
                                                                                                                                   Develop think tank to expand creative technological
    services                      marketing and hygiene promotion                                                                   options
-   Willingness to “listen”                                                     consumers to praise QCS and PQC and offer
                              -   Unfavorable regulations                                                                          Develop clear roles and responsibilities for players as well
    to the consumers                                                            suggestions and complaints
                                                                                                                                    as terms of reference for working
                              -   Lack of quality control                      Promote same consistent, feasible practices
-   Existence of                                                                                                                   Put in place increased number of effectively functioning
                              -   Insufficient number of providers solely       across providers and PUAs                           disposal and treatment facilities
    community-based
                                  for slabs or latrine construction            Involve more media players on an ongoing           Designate and budget clear money for sanitation-only and
    structures
                                                                                basis in activities and efforts
-                             -   Unreasonable cost of slabs and roofing                                                            for hygiene-only
    Desire for standards,
                                  materials                                    Develop new sources of pit emptying providers      Develop multi-tiered, phased program for sanitation and
    quality and safety                                                         Investigate emptying technologies suited to
                              -   Lack of marketing and business skills                                                             hygiene
-   Request for security                                                        limited access                                     Utilize LWSC ZK 5 billion sanitation levy to carry out
                                  at community-level
    and legitimacy                                                             Continue to compile player profile                  Phase I of this program




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9.   STRATEGY FRAMEWORK

The framework for this strategy encompasses overarching and overlapping intervention areas as
well as enabling behavior change.

9.1 Intervention Areas
It is essential to ensure all the needed elements are in place to enable consumers to adopt and
practice promoted behaviors. Figure 1 delineates the overarching intervention areas required for
an effective strategy to bring out sustained change.

Figure 1: Strategy Intervention Areas

                                   Strategy Intervention Areas


                              Service Delivery                                        Promotion

                              •Infrastructure                                       •Communication
                              •Products                                             •Advocacy
                              •Service Improvements                                 •Mobilization
                              •Training
                                                            Enabling
                                                           Environment
                                                      •Policy
                                                      •Implementation Capacity
                                                      •Financing
                                                      •Institutional Arrangements




There are three broad strategy areas to consider: (1) infrastructure, products, and services
improvements; (2) hygiene promotion; and (3) enabling environment. It is essential to ensure all
the needed elements are in place to enable consumers to adopt and practice promoted behaviors.

9.1.1 Service Delivery
Infrastructure specifies what needs to be built to enable the desired practices e.g. build safe
water points, construct latrines, etc. Products lists other materials, items or hardware necessary
to effectively practice the health behavior, e.g. soap, water storage containers, handwashing
facilities, etc. Service Improvements recommends possible changes to present services that will
facilitate the adoption and sustained practice of health behaviors, e.g. open new local markets
with slabs, provide emptying services in hard-to-reach locales, etc. Training delineates possible
training audiences, training needs, and training content, e.g. train non-government organization
(NGO) workers in proper handwashing, etc.

9.1.2 Promotion
Communication Activities details specific materials that can be developed to encourage the
behavior change and activities during which these materials can be used, e.g. brochures, videos,
etc. They bring mass media and direct consumer contact methods, e.g. road shows, into an
effective promotional mix. Advocacy provides guidance on with whom and how to address
issues of enabling environment. Mobilization proposes additional activities that can take place
within the community to encourage the health behavior change and help to sustain its practice,


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e.g. Hygiene Day, marketing of water purification tablets, etc. Training and mobilization
interventions are usually used in conjunction with communication and social marketing activities
and tools.

9.1.3 Enabling Environment
Policies and direction suggest ways that the government can create a more favorable
environment in which to practice the desired health behaviors, e.g. inclusion of hygiene
messages into ongoing programming, hygiene line item in national, provincial, and district health
budgets, etc. Institutional arrangements and implementation capacity provide guidance on the
systems and organizational structures needed as well as capacity building required to support an
effort, e.g. hygiene management committee, community water committees, “threshold”
assurance, etc. Financing itemizes options and choices for financing the necessary elements, e.g.
use of existing credit unions for investment capital needs, voucher system for latrines, soap
coupons, grants for NGO communication activities, etc.

9.2 Requirements to Enable Change
The ultimate goal of any sanitation and hygiene strategy is to affect change in health conditions
and the behaviors that improve those conditions within the communities and households. While
any one above strategy intervention areas (Figure 1) can encourage healthy practices, all used
together effectively, increase the likelihood that the practice will be adopted and that it can be
sustained. Figure 2 illustrate how, if the main intervention areas and their respective activities
happen in the same places at the same time, it can increase the likelihood of behavior change.

Figure 2: Increasing the Likelihood of Behavior Change

                                      Behavior Change


                                      Service                    Promotion
                                      Delivery
                                                   Increased
                                                 likelihood of
                                                    behavior                     When all the
                                                     change
                                                                             conditions exist in
                                                                             the same place at
                                                                              the same time, it
                                                  Enabling                      increases the
                                                 Environment                     likelihood of
                                                                             behavior change.




10. STRATEGY OVERVIEW

This strategy provides a menu of activities and a plan of phased implementation so that activities
build upon one another constructing the foundation for solid sanitation marketing and hygiene
promotion in peri-urban areas as well as conducting activities in a manner appropriate to the
needs of the consumer and the capacity of the providers. The more comprehensive the
implementation of program activities, the more likely it will be that the program can have the
desired impact and outcomes. If subsequent changes are made, it is essential that reviewers and


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implementers go back to the “PUA Market Analysis Report, 21 November 2008” to ensure that
decisions continue to be consumer-driven and evidence-based.

10.1 Strategy Vision, Goal, and Objectives
An overarching vision, broad strategy goal and specific behavioral objectives guide the strategy
and focus the evaluation of strategy success. The vision and goal reflects not only the GOZ’s
desire to improve sanitation and hygiene conditions in PUAs and meet sanitation MDGs, but also
(MLGH and) LWSC aspiration to be a driving force in this improvement.

10.1.1 Vision
The vision will need to be developed collaboratively with all partners, players and stakeholders.
This vision will extend far beyond the three period of this initial program strategy.

10.1.2 Goal
The goal for this sanitation marketing and hygiene promotion strategy is “Over three years,
improve sanitation and hygiene10 conditions for one fourth of households in each of the 26 peri-
urban areas (approximately 51,250 households).11”

10.1.3 Objectives
Over three years12 (by end of 2011)13:
1. Increase PUA mothers with children under five who reportedly wash their hands with soap
   and clean water from 24.3% to 50%.
2. Increase PUA mothers who reportedly clean their drinking water storage container before
   putting in new, clean drinking water from 24.9% to 50%.
3. Increase PUA mothers who reportedly serve their drinking water safely (either pour or use
   long-handled cup) from 33.7% to 50%.
4. Encourage PUA landlords to build toilet blocks following agreed upon standards for 24
   households in each PUA.
5. Ensure these PUA landlords empty 50% of these toilet blocks once a year.
6. Assure 50% PUA mother tenants reportedly clean their toilet block stall with disinfectant and
   water once daily.
7. Boost the PUA landlords who build household latrines for their tenants following agreed
   upon standards for 615 households per PUA.
8. Ensure these PUA landlords empty 35% of these household latrines at least once in a three-
   year period
9. Increase PUA tenants who clean their household latrines with disinfectant and water once
   daily from 10.5% to 35%.

10.2 Marketing and Promotion

10
   What is meant by “sanitation” and “hygiene” has been defined through the objectives and the outcome indicators.
11
   This figure has been derived based on an approximate total PUA population of 1,230,000 with an average of 6
members per household for a total of 205,000 households. ¼ of this total number of households is approximately
51,250 households.
12
   Only those behaviors that fell below social norms percentages of 60% (as based on research) were selected as
objectives for this first three-year period.
13
   All statistics are based on quantitative findings of the 2008 November Market Analysis Report.


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                   “Sacrifice is Essential to Focus and Focus is Essential to Impact!!!”

This strategy cannot be all things to all people. If it is to have an impact on behavior and
ultimately on the reduction of diarrheal diseases and improvement of sanitation and hygiene, it
must stay focused; focused on targeted, segmented consumers, focused on specific providers,
and especially focused on key feasible practices, promise and message. This means while there
might be many things that could be done, this strategy will focus on what research has shown to
be the priorities, the essentials to bring about sustained changes over the next three years. It is
with this in mind, that the following “Ps” are proposed (Tables 8-10). Table 8 provides specifics
on the primary target consumers.

Table 8:      Strategy Primary Target Consumers
            Issue                       Recommendation                                                      Rationale
PEOPLE - To achieve the           Household Latrines          PUA Landlords – Father             These audiences
strategy goals and                                            and Mother                         (consumers) are the most
objectives, with whom                                         PUA Mother Tenants                 affected, will benefit most,
should the products,              Toilet blocks               PUA Landlords – Father             and will be the most
services, and practices be                                    and Mother                         responsive to change.
encouraged?                                                   PUA Tenants – Father and
PRIMARY TARGET                                                Mother
AUDIENCE                          Handwashing                 PUA Mothers with children
                                                              under five
                                  Safe Drinking Water         PUA Mothers

As detailed in the Consumer Analysis section, feasible practices and doable steps to promote
emerged from the opportunities and constraints expressed by the consumers towards sanitation
and hygiene practices. Table 9 provides the set of feasible practices and doable steps being
proposed. The feasible practices represent the actual behavior desired and doable steps provide
consumers with some guidance on how to facilitate the practice of these desired behaviors.

Table 9: Consumer Practices and Doable Steps to Promote
  Feasible Practices and Doable Steps to Consider over 3 years by Audience and Practice Area
                                      HANDWASHING
MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN UNDER FIVE
1. Wash your hands with soap and clean water:
 Create two handwashing stations with clean water and soap (1) near latrine and (2) near cooking area
 Purchase/Obtain two handwashing basins
 Purchase/Obtain two bars of soap
 Purchase:/Obtain two bar soap holders
2. Wash the hands of your small child every time you wash your hands
                                                    TOILET BLOCKS
LANDLORDS
1. When possible, consider one toilet block for four households according to agreed upon standard:
 Assess physical possibilities of constructing a toilet block
 Consider possibility of septic tank
 Provide at least four-stall toilet block
LANDLORDS
2. Keep the toilet block maintained on the outside
 Develop a list of responsibilities f or outside structure maintenance, e.g. financing, materials, labor
3. Keep the toilet block emptied as needed
 Sign contract to empty the toilet block for tenants when full.



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    Feasible Practices and Doable Steps to Consider over 3 years by Audience and Practice Area
TENANTS
1. Lock toilet block to guard against unauthorized use or vandalism
 Buy locks for all fur doors (one door per toilet stall)
 Provide each household with copies of their specific stall door key
 Designate a place to keep the toilet block door key with easy access for user households
2. Clean each stall once daily with disinfectant and water:
 Develop cleaning schedule per household for their individual stall
 Jointly purchase cleaning supplies
 Jointly purchase water needed to clean toilet block
 Store products in central, locked location
 Store cleaning water near the toilet block
 Provide each household with product storage key
 3. Purchase or make hole lids for each stall
                                             HOUSEHOLD LATRINES
LANDLORDS
1. Provide household latrine according to standards and selection/upgrade table for your plot and/or tenant households
 Request selection/upgrade flow chart from LWSC
 Meet with tenants and LWSC to discuss options
 Choose an option and budget it
 Identify funding options
 Build or upgrade latrine
MOTHER TENANTS
1. Negotiate with landlord for a new roof
2. Request a proper slab from the landlord.
LANDLORDS
2. Upgrade, in order listed below:
 Add metal roof
 Provide slab with lid
 Put in permanent walls
 Supply wooden door
LANDLORDS
3. Keep the latrine maintained on the outside
 Develop a list of responsibilities f or outside structure maintenance, e.g. financing, materials, labor
4. Keep the latrine emptied as needed
 Sign contract to empty the household latrine for the tenants when full.
MOTHER TENANTS
3. Use water and disinfectant at least once daily to clean latrine
 Store water near the latrine
 Store disinfectant and cleaning broom near the latrine
4. Purchase needed products (latrine disinfectant, hole cover/or make one)
                                            SAFE DRINKING WATER
MOTHERS
1. Treat unsafe drinking water OR
2. Purchase safe drinking water:
 Identify the closest safe drinking water source to your home.
3. Serve your drinking water with a long-handled cup or pour it out.
4. Purchase needed products
 purification product as required
 one long-handled cup for use with your safe drinking water
 one, 20-liter covered container or bucket for the family
MOTHERS
5. Store your drinking water in a covered container.
6. Place your drinking water out of reach of children.
7. Place it within reach of the elderly and adults.
MOTHERS
8. Wash container or bucket with clean water before filling with safe drinking water.
9. Cover container or bucket to carry it home.




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The final pieces to the Marketing Ps comprise recommendations on product, providers,
packaging, persuasion, prices, place, and promotion - all essential details to encouraging
behavior adoption. Table 10 provides the specifics.

Table 10: Marketing Tactics
        Issue                                 Recommendation                                       Rationale
PRODUCT - What                Quality latrine roof (one piece)                          These products and
products and services are     Quality slab (1.2m x 1.2m) with lid                       services are potentially
needed to enable these        Slab lid                                                  required to enable the
practices?                    Lightweight, durable latrine door with built-in           consumer to effectively and
                               lock                                                      consistently carry out the
                              Septic tank                                               feasible practices
                              Squat pan                                                 promoted. These products
                              Pre-fabricated columns for walls                          will ultimately depend on
                              Concrete blocks, stabilized blocks and/or treated         final strategy decisions.
                               wood
                              20-litre bucket/container with attached
                               (permanent) lid
                              Mountable handwashing water-saving dispenser
                              Self-contained handwashing station with attached
                               soap holder
                              Latrine lock
                              Soap, cleaning products, and water purification
                               products
                              Environmentally-friendly chemical pit treatment
                               products
PROVIDERS - By who           Providers:                        Equipment Needs:          Stakeholders at all levels,
should the products,          National-, provincial, city-  Pit emptying               in all sectors, bringing all
services, and practices be     level government, NGOS,            trucks/vans            aspects of required skills
promoted and supplied?         and international agencies       Portable pit            need to be involved in the
SECONDARY TARGET               personnel and promoters            emptying tanks         program. A more specific
AUDIENCES                     MLGH, MOH, LCC and               Treatment               list will be detailed with the
                               NWASCO, LWSC                       facilities             strategy. Specifics on
                              City-level private               Pit digging and         equipment will also be
                               providers: latrine                 lining                 detailed in the strategy.
                               contractors/builders,            Slab molds
                               masons                           Latrine models
                              Community-level private
                               providers: slab makers,
                               diggers, builders, masons
                              Community-level leaders,
                               groups, associations,
                               committees
PERSUASION - What            For consumers:                                              These were identified from
appeals/triggers/drivers     Healthy life, long life, good quality life, dignity,        the research as the
should be accentuated?       and pride                                                   recurring
(consumer-centric)                                                                       appeals/triggers/drivers for
                                                                                         most sanitation and
                                                                                         hygiene action or behavior
                                                                                         adoption.
PACKAGING - What             For consumers:                                              These were identified from
product and service          Regularity, consistency, quality, durability, safety,       the research as the qualities
qualities should be          ease, environmentally-friendly                              consumers want in
emphasized? (product-                                                                    sanitation and hygiene


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           Issue                                Recommendation                                         Rationale
centric)                                                                                      products and services.



PRICES - What prices         Quality latrine roof                         25,000 to 50,000   These prices are based on
should be established for    Quality slab (1.2m x 1.2m)                  75,000 to 150,000   an amount derived by
                              with lid
the required products and    Slab lid                                    To be determined    examining income,
services that are            Lightweight, durable latrine                40,000 to 75,000    expenditures, household
affordable for consumers?     door with built-in lock                                         budget priorities, etc.
                             20-litre bucket with attached                15,000 to 25,000   These prices are not yet set
                              (permanent) lid
[All suggested prices are                                                                     and would need to be (1)
                             Mountable handwashing                        25,000 to 60,000
listed in Zambian             water-saving dispenser                                          tested for at least 6 months
Kwacha.]                     Self-contained handwashing                  To be determined    in the market and (2) once
                              station                                                         tested and agreed to, frozen
                             Latrine lock                                To be determined    in the market for at least
                             Sub-structure only (pit dug                 To be determined
                              and lined, water tight)
                                                                                              another year. Decisions
                             Super-structure only-built                  To be determined    would need to be made
                              latrine                                                         regarding this affordable
                             Fully-built latrine with skilled         800,000 to 1,500,000   price, the price a provider
                              labor                                                           needs to charge and the
                             Fully-built latrine with                 600,000 to 1,000,000
                              unskilled labor                                                 gap.
PLACE - Where should        At central marketplaces within each PUA, on                       Products and services need
these products, services,   roving markets with scheduled visits to the PUAs, 5               to be moved to closer to the
and practices be made       central latrine “showrooms” in 5, to be selected,                 consumers so that they can
available?                  PUAs, through basket marketers from the                           easily access required.
                            communities
PROMOTION - How can         Direct consumer contact, radio mass media,                        Suggestions are based on
these products, services,   personal/community-based events and mobilization,                 consumer preferences and
and/or practices be         quarterly galas, community and household contests,                known approaches to
encouraged?                 provider contests, vouchers, rewards programs                     encourage practices.

10.3 Strategy Foundations
This strategy is predicated on the following, the strategy will:
 Support and encourage innovation.
 Promote cost-sharing eventually leading to cost-recovery.
 Be demand-driven and consumer-oriented.
 Balance the needs of the consumer with the needs of the providers.
 Utilize a programmatic approach, i.e. all players will feed into and fund aspects of this
   strategy for PUAs in Lusaka.

10.4 Strategy At a Glance
The strategy includes vision, goal, timeframe, behavioral objectives, primary and secondary
target audiences, activities by intervention area and component, as well as possible partners for
the intervention area activities. Table 11 provides this information “at-a-glance.” More details
have been provided in Section 10.5.




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Table 11: Strategy-at-a-Glance
VISION                     TO BE DETERMINED by consensus with stakeholder group in Year 1
GOAL                         “Over three years, improve sanitation and/or hygiene conditions for one fourth of households in each of the 26 peri-urban areas (approximately
                             51,250 households).”
TIMEFRAME                    From April 1, 2009 to December 31, 2011
OBJECTIVES                   1. Increase PUA mothers with children under five who reportedly wash their hands with soap and clean water from 24.3% to 50%.
                             2. Increase PUA mothers who reportedly clean their drinking water storage container before putting in new, clean drinking water from 24.9% to 50%.
                             3. Increase PUA mothers who reportedly serve their drinking water safely (either pour or use long-handled cup) from 33.7% to 50%.
                             4. Encourage PUA landlords to build toilet blocks following agreed upon standards for 24 households in each PUA.
                             5. Ensure these PUA landlords empty 50% of these toilet blocks once a year.
                             6. Assure 50% of PUA mother tenants reportedly clean their toilet block stall with disinfectant and water once daily.
                             7. Boost the PUA landlords who build household latrines for their tenants following agreed upon standards for 615 households per PUA.
                             8. Ensure these PUA landlords empty 35% of these household latrines at least once in a three-year period
                             9. Increase PUA tenants who clean their household latrines with disinfectant and water once daily from 10.5% to 35%.
PRIMARY TARGET               Household Latrines                                            PUA Landlords – Father and Mother AND PUA Mother Tenants
AUDIENCES                    Toilet Blocks                                                 PUA Landlords – Father and Mother AND PUA Tenants – Father and Mother
                             Handwashing                                                   PUA Mothers with children under five
                             Safe Drinking Water                                           PUA Mothers
SECONDARY TARGET              National-, provincial-, city-level government, NGOS, and international  Community-level private providers: slab makers, diggers, builders,
AUDIENCES                       agencies personnel and promoters                                            masons
                              MLGH, MOH, LCC and NWASCO, LWSC                                            Community-level leaders, groups, associations, committees
                              City-level private providers: latrine contractors/builders, masons
FEASIBLE                     HANDWASHING with MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN UNDER FIVE:                                    2. Wash the hands of your small child every time you wash your hands
                             1. Wash your hands with soap and clean water
PRACTICES TO BE              TOILET BLOCKS with LANDLORDS:                                                         TOILET BLOCKS with TENANTS:
PROMOTED                     1. When possible, consider one toilet block (four-stall) for four households          1. Lock toilet block to guard against unauthorized use or vandalism
                                according to agreed upon standard:                                                 2. Clean each stall of toilet block once daily with disinfectant and water
                             2. Keep the toilet block maintained on the outside                                    3. Purchase or make hole lids for each stall of toilet block
                             3. Keep the toilet block emptied as needed
                             HOUSEHOLDS LATRINES with LANDLORDS:                                                   HOUSEHOLD LATRINES with MOTHER TENANTS:
                             1. Provide household latrine according to standards and selection/upgrade table for   1. Negotiate with landlord for a new roof on household latrine
                                your plot and/or tenant households                                                 2. Request a proper slab for the household latrine from the landlord
                             2. Upgrade the household latrine with metal roof, proper slab with lid, permanent     3. Use water and disinfectant at least once daily to clean household latrine
                                walls, and/or wooden door                                                          4. Purchase needed products (latrine disinfectant, hole cover/or make one) for
                             3. Keep the household latrine maintained on the outside                                  household latrine
                             4. Keep the household latrine emptied as needed
                             SAFE DRINKING WATER with MOTHERS:                                                     6. Place your drinking water out of reach of children.
                             1. Treat unsafe drinking water OR                                                     7. Place it within reach of the elderly and adults.
                             2. Purchase safe drinking water                                                       8. Wash container or bucket with clean water before filling with safe drinking
                             3. Serve your drinking water with a long-handled cup or pour it out                      water.
                             4. Purchase needed safe drinking water products                                       9. Cover container or bucket to carry it home.
                             5. Store your drinking water in a covered container.




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                                                                          INTERVENTION AREAS AND ACTIVITIES
                 SERVICE DELIVERY                                                 PROMOTION                                                           ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
Infrastructure                                                     Communication                                                     Policy
1. Develop improved latrine specifications                         18. Produce a PUA-wide communication campaign                     28. Support ongoing sanitation and hygiene policy development
2. Facilitate consumer selection of appropriate latrine facility   19. Develop ongoing communication budget                          29. Agree on improved latrine standards
    and/or upgrading                                               20. Launch program                                                30. Lobby for sanitation and hygiene
3. Explore new sewerage connections in all elected PUAs            Advocacy                                                          Implementation Capacity
4. Construct 520 toilet blocks, 20 per PUA                         21. Develop an advocacy kit                                       31. Strengthen LWSC peri-urban unit implementation team
5. Rehabilitate existing and expand sanitary waste disposal        22. Facilitate quarterly speakers’ bureau                         32. Establish technical committee to guide process
    and treatment capabilities as needed                           Mobilization                                                      33. Facilitate quarterly power breakfasts with technical committee and
Products                                                           23. Form community-based sanitation and hygiene social                invited guests as needed to discuss progress, impact, and help needed
6. Increase range of product options available                         responsibility team                                           34. Develop sustainability criteria and indicators
7. Produce proto-types for products that do not yet exist in       24. Facilitate quarterly sanitation and hygiene community         35. Monitor
    the Zambian marketplace                                            meeting in each PUA                                           36. Evaluate
8. Establish fair, market-based pricing on required products       25. Establish yearly PUA, community and household hygiene         Financing
9. Develop “hygiene” package                                           contests                                                      37. Fully commit to supporting sanitation and hygiene strategy
Service Improvements                                               26. Develop feedback mechanisms for the community                 38. Develop clear subsidy policy and criteria
10. Finalize provider capacity tables                                                                                                39. Develop accessible sources and funding mechanisms for providers
11. Create provider small-business enterprises and/or                                                                                    and consumers
    associations                                                                                                                     40. Develop commercial cash flow and cost-benefit analyses
12. Expand sanitation and hygiene product and services                                                                               Institutional Arrangements
    availability and consumer access                                                                                                 41. Build leadership of LWSC peri-urban unit
13. Manage pits and expand septic tank empty capabilities                                                                            42. Coordinate work in PUAs
Training                                                                                                                             43. Create business standards and appropriate registration
14. Develop training of trainers program                                                                                             44. Develop 2012-2014 strategy for continuation of program activities
15. Develop providers materials                                                                                                          building on successes of first three years
16. Create training programs for providers on both hardware
    and software

17. Celebrate successes with providers                             27. Celebrate successes of communities and consumers              45. Celebrate successes with all players
POTENTIAL PARTNERS
MLGH                            Latrine Contractors                MLGH                            MCDSS                             MLGH                                   MOF
LWSC                            Slab Manufacturers                 LWSC                            MOE                               LWSC                                   Donors
LCC                             Pit & Tank Empty Services          MOH                             Media                             NWASCO                                 Media
Plastic Manufacturers           Waste Disposal & Treatment         LCC                             International NGOs and            MOH                                    Soap Manufacturers
                                Providers                                                          Agencies                          LCC




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11. STRATEGY DETAILS

This section on strategy details offers more specifics on activities and steps to completing them as well as explanations on suggestions made in
the activities. It explains what, why, and how.

11.1 Details of Service Delivery
Infrastructure, products and service improvements must be in place prior to or at the same time as the promotion activities begin. If they are
place, consumers can successfully practice the promoted behaviors. If they are not in place, the program runs the risk of frustrating and
alienating the consumers, and, thus, discouraging behavior adoption.

Infrastructure activities provide the needed hardware to practice promoted feasible behaviors. Table 12 details activities, tasks and further
explanations for infrastructure.

Table 12: Infrastructure Details
         ACTIVITY (What)                                                TASKS (How)                                                       Further Explanations
1. Develop improved latrine              a. Detail “parts” of improved latrine, i.e. slab, roof, door, walls, pit               Specifications should include provision of
   specifications and standards          b. Detail physical conditions found in PUAs impacting on latrine construction and      covers to septic tanks, access to emptying
                                            maintenance                                                                         all types, considerations for determining
                                         c. Detail requirements to certain technologies                                         site, location, topographical features, water
                                         d. Pull together “parts” specification from three countries                            sources and lines, and wind direction as well
                                         e. Write and agree upon each part specification                                        as particular structural needs such as
                                         f. Test specifications with eight providers and at 20 households in four PUAs          reinforcement, concrete mix ratio, and
                                         g. Adjust specifications as needed                                                     should establish criteria to prevent ground
                                         h. Prepare illustrations and specifications for each type of latrine/toilet to be      water and soil contamination, provision of
                                            included in choices provided, including toilet block, septic, VIP, pour flush       vent pipes with fly screens for adequate
                                            single                                                                              ventilation, access features for children,
                                         i. Produce a minimum standards building manual for latrine and toilet                  elderly and infirm and proper soak away.
                                            construction                                                                        (See Appendix A for starting point
                                         j. Finalize for use in training workshops and distribution                             specifications on selected latrines.)
2. Facilitate consumer selection of      a. Assist selection by consumer and provider through participatory decision            Selection of latrine and toilet type needs to
   appropriate latrine facility and/or      making                                                                              be made easier for both the consumer and
   upgrading                             b. Create selection flow chart                                                         the provider. Developing a flow chart can
                                         c. Detail technological options available, possible, and to consider                   assist with this process through participatory
                                         d. Detail consumer-based latrine attributes and appeals                                decision making. Putting in place a
                                         e. Organize a location in each PUA where “options” presented in flow chart can         “viewing” location will allow the consumer


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         ACTIVITY (What)                                                   TASKS (How)                                                       Further Explanations
                                             be physically viewed, options discussed, financing discussed, questions               to see what s/he might be buying and the
                                             answered and latrine facility or upgrade selected                                     provider to better explain visually the flow
                                                                                                                                   chart options identified.
3. Explore new sewerage connections in     a. Link all decisions to LWSC’s sewerage Master Plan                                    Several possibilities exist to expand the
   selected PUAs                           b. Contact “Output-Based Aid” and see what funding opportunities might exist            sewerage connections, but carefully
                                              for expansion of sewerage connections                                                consideration and investigation need to be
                                           c. Assess capacity of existing truck mains (sewers) and identify areas of need for      carried out to determine where and how.
                                              connections
                                           d. Expand 2 PUAs per year starting in Year One – for a total of 6 PUAs.
4. Construct 520 toilet blocks, 20 per     a. Determine selection criteria for toilet block construction, including land           A toilet block consists of four separate, but
   PUA                                        ownership, no increased cost to tenants, emptying responsibilities                   connected toilets/latrines emptying into a
                                           b. Reconfirm numbers for construction, e.g. % of total population in each PUA           common pit or septic tank. Privacy is
                                           c. Detail cost-sharing arrangements between responsible landlord and program            assured as each household would have its
                                           d. Advertise construction possibilities to landlords                                    own locked door entrance. Ease of use is
                                           e. Select landlords                                                                     assured as the toilet block would be in
                                           f. Construct per established standards                                                  between the households. While this activity
                                                                                                                                   states “construct,” the landlord would still
                                                                                                                                   be expected to contribute to the building of
                                                                                                                                   this toilet block in a cost-sharing
                                                                                                                                   arrangement.
5. Rehabilitate existing and expand        a. Link all decisions to LWSC’s Master Plan                                             As the demand for sanitation increases so to
   sanitary waste disposal and treatment   b. Investigate the possibility of marketing manure to farmers                           will the need to safely dispose and treat
   capabilities                            c. Consider concentrating rehabilitation on treatment systems of sewerage,              human waste. Before expanding this
                                              conventional such as screens, communal detritus, block filters, thickeners and       capability, it will be essential to rehabilitate
                                              unconventional such as stabilization ponds.                                          existing plants.
                                           d. Assess at least 1 plant per year and rehabilitate




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                                        Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
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Figure 3 depicts some technological options traditionally available to PUAs. It will be the
responsibility of the program to expand these options and develop the flow chart that will
allow consumers and providers to select the best option for consumer needs.

Figure 3: Sample Technological Options
Arbor Loo                              Fossa-Type (alternate pits)
 The latrine                            Twin pit with .6m
 that walks.                              diameter and 1
                                           meter deep.
Superstructure                             Single house
 moved when                              covers both pits.
pit is full and                            Ash or soil is
placed on new                           thrown in the pit
 pit while tree                              after use
 is planted on
     old pit



Upgraded Traditional Latrine            SkyLoo ( twin pits)
 Traditional                             Sky loo with
    latrine                             twin pits build
 constructed                             above ground
without lining                           level. Useful
in areas with                            for area with
 stable soil.                              high water
                                              table.
Must be 30m                                 Preferred
from shallow                            where manure
    well                                 is in demand:



VIP latrine
 Latrine type
approved For
urban areas as
  minimum
   standard
  Ventilated




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Products provide essential products required to perform feasible practices. Table 13 details activities, tasks and further explanations for products.

Table 13: Product Details
        ACTIVITY (What)                                                    TASKS (How)                                                               Further Explanations
6. Increase range of product options       a. Develop “priority products” listing, i.e. those required to successfully perform            Based on feasible practices to be promoted,
   available                                  promoted practices                                                                          priority products include:
                                           b. Detail standards and product quality control (PQC) measures for these priority               Quality latrine roof (one piece)
                                              products                                                                                     Quality slab (1.2m X 1.2m)
                                           c. Incorporate these standards and PQC measures into Training                                   Slab lid
                                           d. Specify product packaging requirements, including logo and tagline on all,                   Lightweight, durable latrine door with
                                              color-identification, bio-degradable, easy to open/operate, illustrated user’s                built-in lock
                                              guide, use of local languages.                                                               20-litre water bucket/container with
                                           e. Delineate product sales entry points                                                          attached lid
                                                                                                                                           Mountable handwashing water dispenser
                                           Figure 4: Product Sales Entry Points                                                            Self-contained handwashing station with
                                                                                                                                            soap holder
                                                                                                                                           Latrine lock
                                                               Traveling          PUA              Permanent                               Soap
                                                                Kiosks           Central             Kiosks                                Latrine/toilet cleaning disinfectant
                                                                                 Markets                                                   Environmentally-friendly chemical pit
                                                                                                                                            treatment
                                                                   Mother &                  Mother &                                      Septic tank
                                                                    Father                   Father
                                                                   Landlords                 Tenants
                                                                                                                                           Squat pan
                                                                                                                                           Pre-fabricated columns for walls
                                                                                                                                           Concrete blocks
                                                                                                                                           Stabilized earth blocks
                                                                                                        Traveling                          Treated wood
                                                            Permanent          City centre               Kiosks
                                                              Kiosks            Markets

7. Produce proto-types for products that   a. Detail list of “must” develop products                                                      It is important to promote innovation in new
   do not yet exist in the Zambian         b. Investigate to see in what other countries these products might exist and obtain            product development. Some discussed
   marketplace                                samples, such as the foot-operated water dispenser in Senegal                               products to be developed include:
                                           c. Design two-three possible proto-types of each product                                        Mounted handwashing water-economizing
                                           d. Test proto-types in 20 households in four PUAs (different households and                      dispenser
                                              different PUAs than used in latrine specifications testing)                                  Long-handled drinking water cup
                                           e. Select ONE proto-type for each product to produce and adjust as needed based                 Foot-operated water dispenser
                                              on testing                                                                                   Bucket/container with attached water-tight

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                                                                                                                                              Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                                                                                                (31 January 2009)



         ACTIVITY (What)                                                       TASKS (How)                                                             Further Explanations
                                          f. Produce limited numbers for “give-away” introduction and introduce through                       lid that is easy to clean
                                             road show and community event
                                          g. Manufacture and distribute for sales
8. Establish fair, market-based pricing   a. List all priority products                                                                     Pricing of sanitation and hygiene products
   on all priority products               b. Delineate appropriate price ranges for all priority products                                   requires a balance between what has been
                                          c. Encourage suppliers to focus on least-cost-value-for-money range of products                   determined affordable for the consumer
                                          d. Detail “economies-of-scale” to determine these “least-cost-value-for-money”                    (Price A) (see Figure 5) and what the
                                             price ranges                                                                                   provider/supplier needs to spend to produce
                                          e. Support start-up investment on new products                                                    or manufacture the same (Price B). It is
                                          f. Negotiate advertising opportunities for sponsorship of costs                                   often, in the beginning of a sanitation
                                          g. Test prices for three months in all PUAs and adjust as needed                                  marketing program, necessary to make up
                                          h. Freeze finalized prices on all priority products for one year                                  the difference between Price A and Price B
                                                                                                                                            through other means such as vouchers,
                                          Figure 5: Pricing Affordable to the Consumer on Selected Products                                 investment grants, etc. What is important;
                                           Based on market research findings, the following have been determined                            however, it that any kind of initial cost-
                                           affordable for the consumers:                                                                    sharing program be designed to move from
                                            Quality latrine roof                                        25,000 to 50,000
                                                                                                                                            partial cost-recovery to eventual full cost-
                                            Quality slab (1.2m x 1.2m) with lid                        75,000 to 150,000
                                            Lightweight, durable latrine door with built-in lock        40,000 to 75,000                   recovery.
                                            20-litre bucket with attached (permanent) lid               15,000 to 25,000
                                            Mountable handwashing water-saving dispenser                25,000 to 60,000
                                            Fully-built latrine with skilled labor                  800,000 to 1,500,000
                                            Fully-built latrine with unskilled labor                600,000 to 1,000,000
9. Develop “hygiene” package              a. List items to be included in hygiene package, for example, scrubber, broom,                    A hygiene package is a combination of two
                                             disinfectant, and gloves put in a latrine/toilet sanitary bin.                                 or more products required to practice the
                                          b. Set combination price that is less than total of each product individually                     promoted behaviors. By combining them,
                                          c. Package and introduce through road show and community event                                    the price can be reduced for the consumer
                                          d. Distribute for sales                                                                           (less than if all products were purchased
                                                                                                                                            separately), while demonstrating the value of
                                                                                                                                            practicing the behaviors and using these
                                                                                                                                            products as well as making it easier to
                                                                                                                                            practice by obtaining all products at one
                                                                                                                                            time. A package of this sort is best promoted
                                                                                                                                            for “first-time” use as the entire package
                                                                                                                                            might not be needed the second time, but just
                                                                                                                                            replacement of selected items.




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Service improvements ensure consumer-driven services. Table 14 details activities, tasks and further explanations for service improvements.

Table 14: Service Improvement Details
         ACTIVITY (What)                                                    TASKS (How)                                                        Further Explanations
10. Finalize provider capacity tables       a. Continue to compile capacity tables from Market Analysis Report (see Table           For service delivery to succeed, a certain
                                               15 below)                                                                            level of provider capacity will need to be
                                            b. Detail yearly capacity quotas to reach                                               found in the PUAs. This will require a re-
                                            c. Build these capacity quotas in to the Training Plan                                  examination of research findings on the
                                                                                                                                    existing capacity and a determination of
                                                                                                                                    where this capacity needs to be taken to
                                                                                                                                    ensure that a consumer has access to a
                                                                                                                                    provider s/he needs when s/he need this
                                                                                                                                    provider.
11. Create provider small-business          a. Detail franchise/association requirements, rules and regulations – compliance        A franchise is a small-business enterprise
    enterprises and/or associations            and non-compliance                                                                   that has been trained, certified, and licensed
                                            b. Enumerate what franchising and associating brings to each provider and why           by the program to operate as part of the
                                               participating is advantageous                                                        program. Receiving this “stamp” of
                                            c. Determine and detail benefits of participating in the LWSC sanitation                approval from the program will also entitle
                                               marketing and hygiene promotion program                                              the provider to any other programs benefits
                                            d. Organize city- and community-level meetings to introduce franchise- and              to be determined. If an individual prefers to
                                               association-concept to potential providers                                           work with others, s/he can form an
                                            e. Recruit providers, train and provide signage for franchise/association               association, receive the same training and
                                            f. Hold quarterly franchise/association meetings                                        function as a group rather than along.
                                            g. Assess adherence of providers to franchise/association regulations
12. Expand sanitation and hygiene           (1) Consider creating marketplace stall for services and product provision in each      At present, marketplaces are clustered
    product and services availability and   PUA                                                                                     requiring that the consumer go to the
    consumer access                         a. Investigate the details of obtaining a marketplace stall                             provider. If stationary, in every PUA,
                                            b. Determine the dimensions and equipment requirements for a functioning                sanitation and hygiene market stalls could be
                                               sanitation and hygiene stall                                                         created, it would greatly facilitate availability
                                            c. Detail the needed members of a full sanitation and hygiene team to staff the         and access for the consumers. As well,
                                               stall                                                                                presently existing kiosks could be
                                            d. Advertise for team providers                                                         strengthened so that availability and access
                                            e. Organize sanitation and hygiene teams                                                are increased.
                                            f. Assess existing skills and capacities of team members and develop training
                                               program                                                                              Providers running these stalls or kiosks
                                            g. Train                                                                                would be trained by the program.
                                            h. Specify team-rotation calendar so that 6 days a week a full-team is available at


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                                                                                                         Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                                                                                 Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                                                                                   (31 January 2009)



        ACTIVITY (What)                                                 TASKS (How)                                                       Further Explanations
                                            the stall for consumers
                                         (2) Consider creating cadre of traveling product providers                            In addition to permanent stalls or kiosks,
                                         a. Detail roles and skills required for “traveling sales persons” including           many of the required products could be taken
                                            establishing minimum qualifications for participation, if any                      to the homes of the consumers via traveling
                                         b. Advertise for participants                                                         sales persons offering everything from soap
                                         c. Assess existing skills and capacities of team members and develop training         to disinfectant. The more often the products
                                            program                                                                            are available and accessible, the more often
                                         d. Train                                                                              the consumers will purchase and use.
                                         e. Equip with needed supplies and products
                                         f. Meet quarterly city-wide to discuss challenges and find solutions                  Traveling providers would be trained by the
                                                                                                                               program.
13. Manage pits and expand septic tank   a. Investigate pit emptying technologies and options for “limited space”              Access to many latrines is extremely difficult
    empty capabilities                      conditions                                                                         and equipment to reach these locations is
                                         b. Investigate innovative on-site desludging equipment, e.g. scooping shovels,        unavailable. New equipment will need to be
                                            hand tractors with trailers                                                        found and tested and providers located and
                                         c. Support purchase on desludging vacuum tankers (total to be determined)             trained in their use. As well, these providers
                                         d. Purchase two portable emptying options per PUA (52 total)                          will need to have access to disposal locations
                                         e. Train new cadre and existing, interested providers in use of portable              so that they can easily and safely dispose of
                                            equipment (at least 1 provider per PUA or 26 total providers)                      human waste. For larger areas, more easily
                                                                                                                               accessible and/or septic tank emptying,
                                                                                                                               additional equipment and providers will be
                                                                                                                               needed that service the PUAs to meet the
                                                                                                                               increased demand.




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                                                          Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                                  Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
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Table 15 provides an overview of the capacity as assessed during the research phase from 20
February to 20 September 2008. Additional information will need to be collected, possibly
through advertisements on who exists where serving what PUAs and with what capacity.
This will enable the program to reexamine as needed the training plan to ensure that all PUAs
are adequately covered for increased demand.

Table 15: Provider Capacity Tables to be Completed
                                Private-Sector City-Level Services and Product Providers
 Type of         Length of      Equipment      Number of      Monthly         Customers     Cost per           Materials       Volume
Service or        Time in        Available     Households     Income           Served      Household            Needed         Managed
 Product         Business                      Served per                                    (to the                            Daily
                                                  Year                                     Household)
Sewer            8 years       2 tankers:      1200           15              Garden       470,000          N/A                6000 cum
service                        12 cubic                       million
                               meters (cum)
                               20 cm
Sewerage         50 years      11 tankers      Not provided   Not             Local        Not provided     Not provided       32,000
Treatment                      6                              provided        community                                        cum
                               sedimentation
                               trucks
VIP              8 years       Excavation      2 to 4         2.5             Mid- to      8,000,000        Blocks             N/A
Latrine                        machine                        million         upper        [10-15% of       Cement
Contractor                     Base maker                                     income       cost is labor]   Vent pipe
                               Slab mold                                                                    Roofing
Waterless        1 year        Excavation      400            200             Mid- to      25,000,000       1200 litre         8
Toilets                        machine                        million         upper                         polythane
                                                                              income                        tank
                             Private-Sector Community-Level Services and Product Providers
  Type of           Length       Equipment      Number of       Monthly            Customers           Cost per            Materials
 Service or        of Time       Available      Households      Income              Served            Household             Needed
  Product             in                        Served per                                              (to the
                   Business                        Year                                               Household)
Exhauster,         17 years      2 vehicles     50             1,000,000        Garden               150,000             N/A
Septic Tank
Exhauster,         6 years       Truck          20             200,000          Low-cost areas       Not cited           N/A
Septic Tank
Building           2 years       Not cited      10             Income           Local PUA plot       1,350,000           Blocks
Contractor14                                                   not from         owners                                   Cement
                                                               pit latrines                                              Stones
Rock Seller        3 years       Chisel         N/A            10,000,000       Local PUA plot       Not cited           Rocks
                                 Hammer                                         owners
Rock Seller        2 years                      N/A            6,000,000        Construction         Not cited           Rocks
                                                                                companies
Transportation     2 years       Wheelbarrow    N/A            500,000          Local PUA plot       Not cited           N/A
                                                                                owners




14
     Not a “latrine contractor” only, builds latrines as part of a larger construction business.


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                                                                                                                                          Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                                                                                            (31 January 2009)



Training strengthens the capacity of providers to supply quality products and quality services. Table 16 details activities, tasks and further
explanations for training.

Table 16: Training Details
         ACTIVITY (What)                                                     TASKS (How)                                                           Further Explanations
14. Develop training of trainers program   a. Using training topics detailed in Table 17, prepare corresponding TOT                     Training activities will first need to create a
                                              materials with a focus on quality customer service (QCS) and product quality              cadre of trainers in the areas needed. These
                                              development/assurance                                                                     trainers can be pulled from any provider
                                           b. Delineate training entry points (see Figure 6)                                            category as appropriate and desired. These
                                           c. Finalize training plan – with whom, how many, on what, when, how long                     trainers will then be available to train and
                                                                                                                                        certify provides on the needed hardware and
                                           Figure 6: Training Entry Points                                                              software topics. All materials developed for
                                                                                                                                        the training should contain the overarching
                                                                                                                                        theme key concept and promise.
                                                                                  Government
                                                                                   Ministries
                                                                                                                                        Topics to be covered include:
                                                                  NWASCO            INGOS         International          Media
                                                                                                                                         Business
                                             National-level
                                                                                                    Agencies                             Marketing
                                                                                                                                         Quality customer service (QCS)
                                                                                                                                         Quality control and inspections
                                                 City-level        Private          Transit       Lusaka City            LWSC            Quality installation and production
                                                                   Sector           Points         Council                               Latrine construction
                                                                                                                                         Slab casting
                                                                                                                                         Peer education
                                            Community-level         WDCs            Hygiene
                                                                                   Promoters
                                                                                                  NGOs, CBOs,
                                                                                                    FBOs
                                                                                                                                         Monitoring and evaluation
                                                                                                                                         Program management
                                                                  Schools           WDAs           WASHEs,                               Community development
                                                                                  Water Trusts     NHHCs                                 Computer skills
                                                                                    Market
                                                                                   Health C.                                            See Table 17 for suggested “audiences” for
                                                                                                                                        the different training topics. As well,
                                                                                                                                        trainers and trainees should be pulled from
                                                                                                                                        all 7 constituencies in Lusaka.
15. Develop providers materials            a. List out all providers materials to be developed, to include:                             There will need to materials on all training
                                            Social responsibility community-based monitoring tools                                     topics, both for trainers and for trainees. It
                                            Building manuals (developed as part of Infrastructure)                                     will be especially necessary to provide
                                            Training of Trainers (TOT) facilitation guide                                              trainees with manuals they can take with


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                                                                                                                                 Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                                                                                   (31 January 2009)



         ACTIVITY (What)                                                TASKS (How)                                                       Further Explanations
                                        b. Prepare materials in conjunction with consumer materials                            them and use regularly as well as provide
                                                                                                                               certain tools and equipment required.
16. Create training programs for        a. Delineate quality customer service (QCS) standards                                  Training should be 1 week for the easier
    providers – hardware and software   b. Design QCS training module for all providers                                        software topics and from 2 to 3 weeks for the
                                        c. Detail minimum standards for provider participation                                 hardware content.
                                        d. Advertise for participants
                                        e. Assess present capabilities in required hardware and software skills                QCS will be the heart of all training. To
                                        f. Train in hardware: PQC, Quality latrine construction, Quality slab                  effectively market, it is essential for a
                                           manufacturing, Quality roof installation                                            provider to present him/herself well, to treat
                                        g. Train in software: Business plan development, QCS, Value of consumer-               the consumer with respect and to work with
                                           driven marketing, Hygiene promotion                                                 the consumer to meet his/her needs. As well,
                                        h. As part of the training process, continue to identify locally appropriate           for the consumer to continue practicing a
                                           solutions to supply and production needs                                            behavior, s/he needs to perceive the value
                                        i. Distribute program certification and signage of certification and process           and see and experience the quality.
                                           business registration at training
17. Celebrate successes for providers   See #44                                                                                Praise is essential to continued success.




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                                                                                                                                        Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                                                                                                                Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (31 January 2009)




Table 17 delineates a draft training plan showing the provider audiences to be trained, the training to be given, and number to be trained over the
course of three years. This plan will need to be finalized along with a list of training materials needed – what is already available and what
needs to be developed. As well, certification/accreditation criteria will need to be detailed. Training for the providers will need to cover detailed
technical information, technical skills, and communication skills. The number of trainers listed under “TOT” indicates total number needed of
each audience type. As well, the training program should provide certification, licensing and registration as part of the process.

Table 17: Training Plan




                                                                                                                                                    LWSC Peri-
                                                                 Community




                                                                                                                                                                            Community


                                                                                                                                                                                        Grass-roots
                                                                                                                                                    Urban Unit




                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sanitation
                                          Promoters




                                                                             Landlords




                                                                                                                           Pit Liners
                                                                                                              Pit/Septic
                                                                  Members




                                                                                                                                                                 LCC Site
                                                                                                              Emptiers
                                                                                                   Builders




                                                                                                                                                                                         Ministry
                                           Hygiene



                                                      Environ



                                                                  Selected




                                                                                                                                                                 Officers
                                                                                                                                           Masons




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   TOTAL
                                                                                                   Latrine
                                                                                         Casters




                                                                                                                                                                                                       Team15
                                                                                                                                                                              Media
                                                       Techs




                                                                                                                Tank




                                                                                                                                                       Staff




                                                                                                                                                                                           Staff

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Task
                                                                                                                                                                                           level
                                                                                          Slab
               Topics

TRAINERS                                    2           2           2        2             2         2           1         1               2           2           4          1             3            4         30
SERVICE PROVISION
CAPACITY
Business                                                            X                     X          X           X         X               X           X                                                 X
Marketing                                              X            X                     X          X           X         X               X           X           X          X             X            X
Quality customer services (QCS)             X                                             X          X           X         X               X           X           X                        X            X
Quality control and inspections                        X            X                                                                                  X           X                                     X
Quality installation and
production
                                                                             X            X          X           X         X               X
Latrine construction                                                                                 X                                     X
Slab Casting                                                                              X
Peer Education                              X          X            X                                                                                                                       X
Hygiene promotion                           X          X            X        X                                                                         X                                    X            X
PROGRAM
IMPLEMENTATION
CAPACITY
Monitoring and evaluation                   X          X                                                                                               X           X                                     X
Program management                                                                                                                                     X                                                 X
Community development                       X                       X                                                                                  X           X                        X            X
Computer skills                                                                                                                                        X
                         TOTAL             52           5          13        26           26        13          13         13              26          6          26          4            26           10         259


15
     See Implementation Capacity for details on Sanitation Task Team.

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11.2 Details of Promotion
Promotion efforts must be well-designed, focused, and clear so that consumers can understand what is expected of them and feel that they can
successfully fulfill those expectations because they want to and perceive the need to adopt the promoted practices.

Communication ensures that consumers know what to do, how to do it, what is needed, where to find the needed to do it, and the benefits of
doing it by promoting the same, consistent feasible practices across all PUAs and among all participating providers and players. Table 18 details
activities, tasks and further explanations for communication.

Table 18: Communication Details
        ACTIVITY (What)                                                 TASKS (How)                                                         Further Explanations
18. Produce a PUA-wide communication   a. Select local communication firm to design, develop and produce                         The campaign is the heart to the promotion
    campaign                              communication campaign. Tasks for firm comprise:                                       effort. See Appendix B: Communication
                                          (1) Delineate a key promise and message as a tagline to be used on ALL                 Plan - Communicating for Behavior Change
                                               materials, media and signage                                                      for additional information to assist the Ad
                                          (2) Develop logo for program                                                           Agency and assist in the development of the
                                          (3) Develop a program sogn                                                             Campaign.
                                          (4) Develop promotion plans/creative briefs (one per target audience and
                                               topic area)                                                                       The Communication Campaign will cover all
                                          (5) Develop media plan                                                                 of Lusaka and will saturate the marketplaces
                                          (6) Identify program mascot                                                            with constant reminders of sanitation and
                                          (7) Generate musical jingle to include tagline                                         hygiene.
                                          (8) Utilize appropriate channels of communication to include: Radio spots,
                                               Road show, Weekly radio program, Community drama and/or comedy,
                                               Life-size puppet show
                                       b. Have players participate in ad agency campaign development and sign “letter
                                          of commitment” to campaign design and principles
                                       c. List all elements that require a “quality” cue/indicator, i.e. trained providers,
                                          well-produced products, etc.
                                       d. Detail recognizable “quality” cues
                                       e. Prepare signage, name badges, etc. with logo and tagline
                                       f. Distribute signs, badges, etc. to providers who have received training, opened
                                          program-supported small business and/or joined association
19. Develop communication budget       a. Detail costs for:                                                                      Appendix B provides some tools to assist
                                        Ad Agency – campaign development, testing and roll out                                  with this process.
                                        Media – ongoing distribution, airing, and activity conduct


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        ACTIVITY (What)                                 TASKS (How)                                                     Further Explanations
                           Mobilization Events
20. Launch program        a. Organize launch day                                                             How the press embraces this program can
                          b. Prepare and distribute press kit:                                               ensure its success and their continued
                           2-minute radio spot (script only)                                                support throughout implementation. Provide
                           Newsletter article                                                               them with all the information they need to
                           5-minute TV spot (text only)                                                     print, air, talk about the program positively
                           Photos                                                                           and accurately. Write the pieces for them.
                           Contact information
                           Souvenir (key chain or bag) with program logo and key message




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Advocacy heightens awareness on necessity of sanitation and hygiene practices, activities, policies and support. Table 19 details activities, tasks
and further explanations for advocacy.

Table 19: Advocacy Details
         ACTIVITY (What)                                                      TASKS (How)                                                      Further Explanations
21. Develop an advocacy kit                 a.   Delineate information needs for each issue and material-type required (kit)        This kit will be a multi-media kit developed
                                            b.   Prepare first drafts of each kit piece and test at with audience                   once in the first year of the program and used
                                            c.   Finalize pieces                                                                    throughout for lobbying, for meetings, for
                                            d.   Distribute pieces of kit at speakers’ bureau discussions as appropriate            speakers’ bureau issues.
22. Facilitate quarterly speakers’ bureau   a.   Delineate purpose and function of speakers’ bureau                                 A speakers’ bureau allows “experts” to come
                                            b.   Detail calendar of advocacy issues to be discussed at speakers’ bureau             and appeal to decision-makers and program
                                            c.   Invite speakers                                                                    management on issues of important to the
                                            d.   Involve PUA councilors to minimize roadblocks in the field                         success of the program. Topics could
                                            e.   Hold meetings quarterly                                                            include:
                                                                                                                                     Promoting “Made in Zambia Products”
                                                                                                                                     Easing the Tax Burden of Water,
                                                                                                                                      Sanitation, and Hygiene Providers




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Mobilization assures community and consumer participation and decision-making. Table 20 details activities, tasks and further explanations for
mobilization.

Table 20: Mobilization Details
        ACTIVITY (What)                                                      TASKS (How)                                                         Further Explanations
23. Form community-based sanitation       a. Detail structure and rights and responsibility of a “social responsibility” team such      It would be most effective if these teams
    and hygiene social responsibility        as community-based monitoring, conduct of quarterly meeting, design and                    are formed using already existing
    team                                     organize contests, give health talks                                                       structures. But when one doesn’t exist,
                                          b. List existing community structures through which promotion can be conducted                consider a team with a member of the
                                          c. Use existing when can, when one doesn’t exist, create the team                             water trust, a community development
                                          d. In PUAs where there are no existing structures, work through WDAs to form team             assistant, a member of a home-based care
                                          e. Distribute necessary tools and materials to perform functions agreed upon                  group, CBO, NHHC, CBE, FBO, WDA,
                                                                                                                                        WDC for example.
24. Facilitate quarterly sanitation and   a. Identify list of topics for ten meetings                                                   Meetings could be combined with
    hygiene community meeting in each     b. Detail calendar of meetings                                                                training on special topics or skills.
    PUA                                   c. Organize participants, facilitators, actors, etc. and supplies, products, etc needed       Decisions for these meetings –when,
                                             for each meeting                                                                           where, how, who-should be the
                                          d. Prepare budget for conduct of ten meetings                                                 responsibility of the team with LWSC
                                          e. Obtain community approval of meetings                                                      supporting only.
                                          f. Organize each meeting one month prior to conduct
                                          g. Advertise meeting and gain community support
25. Establish yearly PUA, community       a. Design contest rules and participation                                                     The program should consider organizing
    and household hygiene contests        b. Enumerate criteria for selecting winners                                                   yearly competitions for PUAs,
                                          c. Decide “prize” for winning at PUA-, community- and household-levels                        communities, and households. Criteria
                                          d. Prepare budget for conduct of contests                                                     for competing and for success would
                                          e. Lobby public/private for contest sponsorships                                              need to be established. Clear prizes
                                          f. Organize committee to review and decide winners                                            would need to be budgeted and
                                          g. Announce winners and present prizes at organized community event                           advertised. Prizes could include: for a
                                                                                                                                        winning PUA, a four-stall public latrine
                                                                                                                                        in the location of their choice; for a
                                                                                                                                        winning community, two new water
                                                                                                                                        kiosks; and for winning household, a full
                                                                                                                                        VIP latrine with cleaning supplies for
                                                                                                                                        one year.
26. Develop feedback mechanisms for       a. Categorize types of feedback to elicit, such as on QCS, on promotion activities, on        It will be important to ensure that the
    the community                            PQC and methods to elicit this feedback                                                    feedback is two- way:
                                          b. Advertise feedback points and methods                                                      Community                 LWSC


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        ACTIVITY (What)                                                  TASKS (How)                                                      Further Explanations
                                         c. Share how have utilized and acted upon feedback through media players                The program should consider feedback
                                         d. Investigate possible use of existing Landlord/Tenant Association.                    mechanisms like door-to-door, drama.
27. Celebrate successes of communities   See #44.                                                                                Consumers and communities need to
    and consumers                                                                                                                know they are doing a good job.




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11.3 Details of Enabling Environment
Enabling environment activities must be secured and in place by the time promotion efforts and provision of infrastructure, products and service
improvements measures begin. If these pieces are in place, players, providers and consumers will be confident and encouraged in their actions.

Policy provides a clear policy framework. Table 21 details activities, tasks and further explanations for policy.

Table 21: Policy Details
         ACTIVITY (What)                                              TASKS (How)                                                       Further Explanations
28. Support ongoing sanitation and     a. Request an invite for LWSC to attend meetings                                     LWSC will need to be involved and even
    hygiene policy development         b. Provide policy development group with updates and ongoing information             initiate action for this policy development. It
                                          from consultant work (see #29)                                                    can facilitate the work by sponsoring some of
                                       c. Host at least 2 working meetings                                                  the working meetings.
29. Agree upon improved latrine        a. Liaise with local and international organizations on standards to be used         It would be best if an outside consultant
    standards                          b. Include ECZ during the formulation of policy and standards                        worked on developing the standards for
                                       c. Contract consultant to:                                                           approval. This person could focus on the
                                        Compile standards from three countries                                             details as well as focus on the task at hand.
                                        Design standards list                                                              S/he could assist in developing the
                                        Prepare definitions of key terms                                                   specifications, standards, definitions, and
                                        Present and review with technical committee and agree upon standards and           language as well as in designing and testing
                                         definitions                                                                        the latrine selection flow chart (see #2).
                                        Prepare standards and definitions document to use in training, distribute and
                                         include in policy paper
30. Lobby for sanitation and hygiene   a. Advocate for public-private partnerships (PPP)                                    See Advocacy Kit 21. When lobbying,
                                       b. Provide detailed information to decision-makers and politicians on sanitation     consistency is essential. It would be useful, if
                                          and hygiene                                                                       the same person could deal with decision-
                                       c. Assign one Peri-Urban unit staff member with “lobbying” responsibilities          makers and politicians, only pulling in others
                                                                                                                            as expertise or support is required.




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Implementation capacity strengthens the capacity of leaders and program managers to guide, supervise, and encourage the program process.
Table 22 details activities, tasks and further explanations for implementation capacity.

Table 22: Implementation Capacity Details
        ACTIVITY (What)                                               TASKS (How)                                                   Further Explanations
31. Strengthen LWSC peri-urban unit   a. List skills required of implementation team                                     At present, the peri-urban unit is composed of
    implementation team               b. Reexamine structure of LWSC peri-urban unit (see Figure 7 below for present     strong, qualified individuals. However, clear
                                         structure) and adjust if needed                                                 roles and responsibilities as they relate to this
                                      c. Develop job descriptions for each team member and adjust as needed              strategy need to be detailed. As well, team
                                      d. Train as needed                                                                 strengthens and weaknesses should be
                                      e. Orient others and other LWSC staff on strategy and program:                     elucidated so that gaps can be filled and
                                       LWSC top management                                                              strengthens can be maximized.
                                       LWSC directors and managers
                                       LWSC superintendents and support staff
                                       WDC, water trusts, LCC settlement officers, active CBOs, NGOs, FBOs
                                      f. Consider hiring 1-2 more unit staff

                                      Figure 7: Present Structure of LWSC Peri-Urban Unit



                                                                     Commercial
                                                                      Director


                                                                     Manager
                                                                     Peri-Urban




                                            ZONE HEAD           ZONE HEAD          ZONE HEAD     SENIOR
                                              SOUTH               EAST               WEST       ENGINEER



                                                                                                ENGINEER

                                         Supt.               Supt.                Supt.
                                         Water               Water                Water




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         ACTIVITY (What)                                                     TASKS (How)                                                      Further Explanations
32. Establish technical committee to        a. List skills and decision-making powers required of technical committee to be        This team should be made up of LWSC,
    guide process                              called “Sanitation Task Team”                                                       WDC, LCC, water trusts, international
                                            b. Specify terms of reference for each task team member                                organizations, and other CBOs.
                                            c. Particularize a calendar of meetings for each year                                  Responsibilities for this team could include
                                                                                                                                   identifying the availability of land space for
                                                                                                                                   construction of facilities, examining the
                                                                                                                                   recruited landlords to ensure they meet
                                                                                                                                   established criteria, ensuring the quality of
                                                                                                                                   materials and constructions, just to name a
                                                                                                                                   few. See Table 17, Training Plan for more
                                                                                                                                   topics on which this team should be trained.
33. Facilitate quarterly power breakfasts   a.   Itemize power breakfast calendar of events (topics should be based on needs)      These breakfasts will be organized around
    with technical committee and invited    b.   Organize and invite quarterly speaker                                             specific topics corresponding to ongoing
    guests as needed to discuss progress,   c.   Prepare information kit for each power breakfast                                  activities and tasks at the time. This will
    impact, and help needed                 d.   Celebrate successes                                                               allow the program to directly address issues
                                            e.   Detail specific support and help required from attendees                          as needed and ask for the support or help
                                            f.   Hold awards ceremony for up to four members                                       required.
34. Develop sustainability criteria and     a.   Define sustainability for strategy components and feasible practices              This activity must consider sustainability of
    indicators                              b.   Delineate assessment tool to incorporate into monitoring and evaluation plan      program, of behaviors, of durability of
                                                                                                                                   products, of services, of ability to meet
                                                                                                                                   demand, etc.
35. Monitor                                 a. Review and revise program strategy M&E plan                                         M&E will need to look at compliance of
36. Evaluate                                b. Using November 2008 Market Analysis Report, establish baseline. For any             providers/suppliers, of consumers, usability
                                               missing data, conduct pocket survey.                                                and effectiveness of latrine selection flow
                                            c. Delineate 10, 3-month process monitoring benchmarks                                 chart.
                                            d. Detail 10-15, 10-month outcome monitoring and evaluation benchmarks
                                            e. Prepare tools for monitoring and for evaluation (adapted from market analysis
                                               research)
                                            f. Conduct routine compliance inspections by multidisciplinary team
                                            g. Build M&E activities into ongoing events, meetings, and social responsibility
                                               team activities




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Financing details how activities and efforts that fall within the scope of this PUA-wide strategy will be funded. Table 23 details activities, tasks
and further explanations for financing.

Table 23: Financing Details
        ACTIVITY (What)                                                    TASKS (How)                                                       Further Explanations
Financing: Finance activities and efforts that fall within the scope of this PUA-wide strategy.
37. Fully commit to supporting sanitation a. Request that LWSC monies be specifically earmarked for sanitation and                Negotiations with NWASCO will be ongoing,
    and hygiene strategy                      hygiene activities                                                                  but if the available monies could be approved
                                           b. Assign agreed upon amount of specifically earmarked monies to activities and        for use on certain Year One activities, it
                                              efforts falling within this strategy                                                would allow LWSC to continue moving
                                           c. Request from NWASCO for removal of sanitation levy hold and for use of              forward and maintain the momentum built.
                                              funds where deemed appropriate in Year 1
38. Develop clear subsidy policy and       a. Detail subsidy policy to recommend                                                  In the beginning of an effort such as this, full
    criteria                               b. Share and discuss with all players                                                  cost-recovery will be difficult. Instead, a
                                           c. Revise and present to government for approval                                       compromise needs to be made between what
                                           d. Incorporate into all subsidies applied by all players                               the consumer can afford (see Pricing under
                                                                                                                                  Products) and what the provider needs to
                                                                                                                                  earn. The difference will need to be covered
                                                                                                                                  through some form of subsidy, but with the
                                                                                                                                  intend to phase out the subsidies as the
                                                                                                                                  products and behaviors become social norms
                                                                                                                                  and no financial differences exist between
                                                                                                                                  what the consumer can pay and what the
                                                                                                                                  provider needs to make.
39. Develop accessible sources and         CONSUMER:                                                                              As previously mentioned, though the eventual
    funding mechanisms for providers       a. Create a consumer incentive program                                                 goal to full cost-recovery, the gap between
    and consumers                          b. Detail voucher program for slabs and roofs                                          what a consumer can afford and what a
                                           PROVIDER:                                                                              provider needs to make is evident. While
                                           c. Create centralized funding source (Utilize existing funding source) for PUA         balancing out this gap, funding mechanisms
                                              sanitation and hygiene providers and suppliers with consistent criteria applied     will be required that move the market toward
                                              across the board for accessing funds, such as must fulfill activity from            full cost-recovery.
                                              program strategy; must have been trained, certified and registered through
                                              program; must agree to QCS and PQC standards and pricing.                           Consumer incentive programs could include
                                           GENERAL:                                                                               hygiene rewards for positive sanitation use
                                           d. Funnel ALL funding received through this strategy encouraging a                     and maintenance – free disinfectant for
                                              programmatic approach to sanitation and hygiene in PUA of Lusaka                    cleanest latrines, etc. Reward programs could
                                                                                                                                  entail discount on purchase price, for


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         ACTIVITY (What)                                                   TASKS (How)                                                      Further Explanations
Financing: Finance activities and efforts that fall within the scope of this PUA-wide strategy.
                                                                                                                                 landlords buy one slab get one free, etc.

                                                                                                                                 As well, since providers will be asked to
                                                                                                                                 improve them quality and accessibility, it will
                                                                                                                                 be necessary to assist them, in the beginning,
                                                                                                                                 with start up costs, initial investments and/or
                                                                                                                                 capital assets. Access to these funds need to
                                                                                                                                 be clear and easy.
40. Develop commercial cash flow and       a. Detail cash flow analysis for Years One to Three (see Figure 8 for an              To ensure that this program is eventually
    cost-benefit analyses                     example)                                                                           revenue-based and profit-making, it will be
                                           b. Enumerate a cost-benefit analysis (see Figure 9 for a simple example) for:         essential to track the cash flow in the first
                                            Construction of toilet blocks                                                       three years to determine changes required and
                                            Rehabilitation of treatment plants                                                  progress made. Though the goal is to market
                                            Communication campaign                                                              sanitation so that it is profit-making,
                                            Lobbying                                                                            admittedly this will not happen in the first
                                            Training                                                                            three years and most likely, will take at least
                                                                                                                                 10 years to get to this stage. Nevertheless, all
                                                                                                                                 transactions need to be handled in a
                                                                                                                                 professional and commercial manner from
                                                                                                                                 day one. Developing these analyses will
                                                                                                                                 assist with this process.




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Figure 8 provides a sample of a very simple cash flow analysis.

Figure 8: Sample Cash Flow Analysis




Figure 9 details a cost-benefit analysis sample of monthly costs amortized over three year.

Figure 9: Sample Cost Benefit Analysis
Cost Benefit Analysis - Purchase of New Stamping Machine
(Costs shown are per month and amortized over three years)

    1.  Purchase of Machine .................... -$20,000
        includes interest and taxes
    2. Installation of Machine ..................... -3,125
        including screens & removal of existing stampers
    3. Increased Revenue .......................... 27,520
        net value of additional 100 units per hour, 1 shift/day, 5 days/week
    4. Quality Increase Revenue ..................... 358
        calculated at 75% of current reject rate
    5. Reduced material costs ...................... 1,128
        purchase of bulk supply reduces cost by $0.82 per hundred
    6. Reduced Labor Costs ....................... 18,585
        3 operators salary plus labor o/h
    7. New Operator ................................. -8,321
        salary plus overhead. Includes training
    8. Utilities ............................................ -250
        power consumption increase for new machine
    9. Insurance ......................................... -180
        premiums increase
    10. Square footage ...................................... 0
        no additional floor space is required
Net Savings per Month ........................... $15,715

This cost benefit analysis clearly shows the purchase of the stamping machine is justified. The machine will
save the company over $15,000 per month, almost $190,000 a year.




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Institutional arrangements assure total quality management of PUA sanitation and hygiene activities. Table 24 details activities, tasks and
further explanations for institutional arrangements.

Table 24: Institutional Arrangement Details
        ACTIVITY (What)                                                   TASKS (How)                                                          Further Explanations
41. Build leadership of LWSC peri-urban   a. Detail total quality management protocol (Figure 10)                                 Program management will be essential if this
    unit                                  b. Incorporate sanitation M&E into LWSC M&E plan                                        program is to succeed. Training might be
                                          c. Delineate clear roles and responsibilities for all players and partners (see # 42    required for the peri-urban unit team, but it
                                             and Table 25)                                                                        will pay off ten-fold.

                                          Figure 10: Total Quality Management Paradigm


                                               Improve                      Decreas e
                                               Quality                      Costs


                                                                                                   Productivity
                                                                                                   improves
                                                          Capture marke t with
                                                          better quality, affordable
                                                          service



                                              Profitability                                 Greater
                                              Sustainability                                Impact


42. Coordinate work in PUAs               a. Organize “think tank” to expand creative options for technologies, examine           There are many players, partners, and
                                             and investigate other country creative promotion activities, etc.                    stakeholders involved in and concerned by
                                          b. Define clear roles, responsibilities, and terms of references for national-level     sanitation and hygiene in PUAs. Collectively
                                             players                                                                              the creativity and innovation abound. Use it.
                                                                                                                                  Provide them with a clear role and let them
                                                                                                                                  carry out their individual activities to achieve
                                                                                                                                  the program strategy.
43. Create business standards and         a. Describe certification requirements                                                  Each provider trained through the program
    corresponding registration            b. Obtain necessary government approval and support                                     will be certified: (1) Month 1 - receive

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         ACTIVITY (What)                                                     TASKS (How)                                                        Further Explanations
                                           c.   Detail three-stage certification program                                           training, (2) Months 2-4 - have work
                                           d.   Train and certify providers involved in the program                                monitored, (3) Last Week on Month 4 - attend
                                           e.   Detail present requirements and procedures for business registration               refresher discussion, and (4) be certified. For
                                           f.   Examine ways to streamline, detail, and present for approval                       those whose monitoring revealed more
                                           g.   Incorporate business registration process into training workshop as a last step    training was required, a plan would be
                                                                                                                                   developed to get them up to speed in
                                                                                                                                   providing QCS and quality products/services.
                                                                                                                                   As part of this training and certification
                                                                                                                                   process, it would be most effective to be able
                                                                                                                                   to grant licensing/registration for each
                                                                                                                                   business. This would facilitate the process for
                                                                                                                                   providers and encourage them to participate.
44. Develop 2012-2014 strategy for         a. Conduct final evaluation of 2009 to 2011 strategy implementation, impact,            This activity must take place in the last three
    continuation of program activities        and outcomes                                                                         months of this strategy, from 1 October to 31
    building on successes of first three   b. Delineate successes and changes needed                                               December 2011 so that the program can
    years                                  c. Prepare revised market analysis report based on evaluation findings                  continue smooth functioning into its next
                                           d. Prepare 2012-2014 program continuation strategy                                      three-year phase.
                                           e. Present and agree upon continuation strategy
45. Celebrate successes with all players   a. Hold “celebrations” every six-months – 5 total                                       It is vital to celebrate the successes of the
                                           b. Ask stakeholders to nominate consumers, providers, implementers for                  program, of the consumer, of the provider, and
                                              outstanding performance                                                              of the players as well as celebrate these
                                           c. Develop criteria for this “honoring”                                                 successes with the consumer, provider and
                                           d. Form committee from persons who are not involved in any way in the                   players.
                                              program to review possible honorees and select
                                           e. Honor consumers, providers, implementers whose performance was
                                              outstanding
                                           f. Advertise the winners every six months at the celebration and through other
                                              media sources




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Table 25 details present and potential roles and responsibilities of sanitation and hygiene players. This table needs to be completed as
institutional arrangements are finalized and players are brought on board and oriented on the strategy and the sanitation marketing and hygiene
promotion program.

Table 25: Player Roles and Responsibilities
         Stakeholder                                   Present Role(s)                                       Suggested Additional Responsibilities
Government
MLGH/DHID                        Formulate policy                                              Provide clear leadership by attending and chairing all sanitation
                                 Develop national budget proposals on sanitation and hygiene   marketing and hygiene promotion activity events
                                 Mobilize funds                                                Clarify and reinforce legislation
                                 Take responsibility for water and sanitation utilities        Finalize National Sanitation and Hygiene Policy

MOH                              Provide monitoring and inspection                             Work together with local authorities/LCC to inspect health and
                                 Monitor water quality                                         hygiene activities
                                 Coordinate WASHEs and NHHCs                                   Expand hygiene services
                                 Provide disinfectants                                         Enhance coordination with other players on the ground
                                 Provide Public Health inspectors
MOF                              Approve budget                                                Create a vote on sanitation (MLGH)
                                 Solicit funds from partners
                                 Coordinate national planning such as Fifth National
                                 Development Plan
MCDSS                            Mobilize communities for development                          Create steering committee on line Ministries (steering committee
                                 Fund community projects                                       exists in MOE/PS)
                                 Monitor community projects
                                 Coordinate community-based organizations – women’s
                                 development associations
MOE                              Educate communities on health issues                          Participate in field mobilization and community events
                                 Work in schools on health and hygiene
LCC                              Execute sanitation and hygiene directives                     Develop enforcement protocols and cadre to enforce within players
                                 Enforce by-laws                                               Supervise provision of municipal services of Ministries
                                 Is patron of water utilities                                  Reinforce city planning regulations
                                 Mobilize communities                                          Work in partnership with LWSC to implement program
                                 Conduct city planning
NWASCO                           Promote sustainability of service provision, improve          Provide tariff guidelines (not setting up tariffs)
                                 efficiency and profitability of commercial utilities
                                 Provide business registration                                 Work with scheduled training activities to provide business
                                                                                               registration as part of training process

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           Stakeholder                                      Present Role(s)                                        Suggested Additional Responsibilities
International Non-governmental Organizations/Agencies
Funders such as DTF, WSP, JICA,    Inject financial support into activities                          Provide funding through support of strategy activities and in
EU, CEEC, etc.                                                                                       programmatic approach
INGOs, such as CARE, WaterAid,     Provide specialized training                                      Work within strategy activity details in each of the PUAs supported,
Plan, Concern, World Vision, etc.  Construct sanitation facilities                                   conducting the same activities being carried out in the other PUAs
                                   Provide logistics in implementation                               Create revolving fund through cost-recovery – partial then full
                                                                                                     Share best practices and new technologies in technical areas
Technical Assistance agencies, such                                                                  Share best practices and new technologies in technical areas
as UNICEF, WSP
Local Non-governmental Organizations, Community- and Faith-based Organizations
WDAs                                Conduct meetings for WASHE groups                                Provide water/sanitation advocacy
                                    Provide information and training on health related issues
WDCs                                Facilitate water and sanitation issues                           Provide quarterly monitoring visits to randomly selected sites to
                                    Consult on planning, budgeting, implementation and M&E           inspect compliance
                                    Work in partnership with LCC/NGOs                                Participate in inspection and M&E on sanitation related issues
                                    Mobilize community participation                                 Empower water trusts to incorporate sanitation issues
                                    Link the community and LWSC/NGOs
                                    Propose and plan ward projects including sanitation projects
Hygiene Promotion Agencies, such    Line toilets, spray of cholera affected homes and take care of   Participate actively in M&E on sanitation issues
as WASHE and NHHC                   cholera victims
                                    Chlorinate and bury of shallow wells
                                    Distribute of chlorine during outbreaks
                                    Sensitize the community on cholera issues
Private-Sector
LWSC                                Mobilize resources                                               Provide firm leadership to coordinate and implement program
                                    Plan for water supply and sanitation                             Facilitate and supervise construction of latrines and toilets
                                    Provide water and sanitation services                            Take responsibility for program execution
                                    Collect revenue from customers
                                    Provide technical assistance to water trusts
                                    Builds capacity of community kiosk agents
                                    Disseminates information on health and hygiene
                                    Monitors and evaluates
Media – national-, city- and        Air public service announcements, airs health messages,          Participate in communication and mobilization activities
community-levels – such as MUVI,    provides coverage of health issues                               Participate in development of communication campaign
etc.                                Disseminate information on sanitation and hygiene



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                                                                           Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                             (31 January 2009)



12. MONITORING AND EVALUATION PLAN

Table 26 provides a simple monitoring and evaluation (M&E) plan based on the strategy
goals, objectives, and activities. The figures used here are based on findings of November
2008 Market Analysis Report. To make this M&E effective, it will be necessary to establish
an agreed upon baseline for each indicator listed here and new ones added. The Market
Analysis Report provides this baseline and should be used as the starting point. Any
additional baseline information required should be detailed and gathered before any activities
start. As well, it has been suggested in the Strategy Activities and Tasks table that process
and outcomes indicators be broken down further by 6-month monitoring benchmarks and 10-
month evaluation benchmarks that can be tracked during regular monitoring and interim
evaluations. Evaluation should include an Interim Evaluation during Month 10 (January
2010) and Month 20 (November 2010) and a Final Evaluation for first three years of program
in Month 31 (October 2011).

Table 26: Suggested M&E Plan
Strategy Objectives:
1. Increase PUA mothers with children under five who reportedly wash their hands with soap and clean water from 24.3% to
   50%.
2. Increase PUA mothers who reportedly clean their drinking water storage container before putting in new, clean drinking
   water from 24.9% to 50%.
3. Increase PUA mothers who reportedly serve their drinking water safely (either pour or use long-handled cup) from 33.7% to
   50%.
4. Encourage PUA landlords to build toilet blocks following agreed upon standards for 24 households in each PUA.
5. Ensure these PUA landlords empty 50% of these toilet blocks once a year.
6. Assure 50% of PUA mother tenants reportedly clean their toilet block stall with disinfectant and water once daily.
7. Boost the PUA landlords who build household latrines for their tenants following agreed upon standards for 615 households
   per PUA.
8. Ensure these PUA landlords empty 35% of these household latrines at least once in a three-year period
9. Increase PUA tenants who clean their household latrine with disinfectant and water once daily from 10.5% to 35%.
Target Audiences:
Household Latrines - PUA Landlords – Father and Mother AND PUA Mother Tenants
Toilet Blocks - PUA Landlords – Father and Mother AND PUA Tenants – Father and Mother
Handwashing - PUA Mothers with children under five
Safe Drinking Water - PUA Mothers


Evaluation Questions         Information Needed
What do you want to know
about your key behaviors?    Type of Information           Indicators
                             What type of information      What will indicate success?
                             do you need to answer your
                             questions?

IMPACT                       Prevalence rates of           1. 2% reduction in diarrheal disease in under five year olds
How have the practiced       diseases                         in target areas
behaviors affected THE                                     2. 51,250 households with improved sanitation and/or
PROBLEM?                                                      hygiene
(reflection of vision and
goal)




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                                                                         Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                           (31 January 2009)



Evaluation Questions        Information Needed
What do you want to know
about your key behaviors?   Type of Information          Indicators
                            What type of information     What will indicate success?
                            do you need to answer your
                            questions?

OUTCOME                     Observed or reported         3. 50% of mothers reportedly wash hands with soap and
How well is the intended    behaviors                       clean water
audience practicing the                                  4. 50% of mothers reportedly clean their drinking water
promoted behaviors?                                         container before adding new drinking water
(reflection of behavioral                                5. 50% of mothers reportedly serve drinking water with a
objectives)                                                 long-handled cup
                                                         6. 50% of toilet block stalls observed to be clean and
                                                            disinfectant used
                                                         7. 35% of household latrines observed to be clean and
                                                            disinfectant used
                                                         8. 35% of household latrines reportedly emptied by landlord
                                                            at least once
                                                         9. 50% of toilet blocks reportedly emptied by landlord at
                                                            least once
PROCESS                     Access to needed             10. 67% of households observed to have one handwashing
To what extent are the      services                         station
activities being carried    Access to needed             11. 35% of households observed to have long-handled cup
out?                        materials, equipment,        12. 45% of households observed to have durable latrine roof
(reflection of doable       and products                 13. 55% of households observed to have a quality slab
steps and strategy          Completion of                14. 78% of toilet blocks observed to be well-built, according
activities)                 communication, training          to standards
                            and other activities         15. 65% of household latrines observed to be well-built,
                                                             according to standards
                                                         16. 200 qualified sanitation and hygiene providers trained
                                                             and certified
                                                         17. 78 sanitation and hygiene businesses facilitated
                                                         18. 85% of the communication activities carried out on time
                                                             and as planned




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                                                                                                                                       Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                                                                                         (31 January 2009)



13. INVESTMENT PLAN

This investment plan details expenditures by year. Table 27 provides line items that correspond to the Strategy-at-a-Glance. Necessary
investment plan details explanations are included in Appendix C. [Appendix D provides this investment plan as well as the overview plan found
in the Executive Summary in Excel and Appendix E provides detailed costs for toilets/latrines by type as well as sewer connection costs.] If
deemed necessary, the investment plan can be broken down by PUA, but for the most part, expenditures are spread evenly over the 26 PUAs.

Total cost: $11,361,52                   [All costs listed in USD million]

Table 27: Three-Year Strategy Investment Plan Specifics
   Three-Year Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy Investment Plan SPECIFICS – 1 April 2009 to 31 December 2011
                 Line Items                    TOTAL                     Year 1                Year 2                 Year 3

I.    SERVICE DELIVERY                                                  $    9,273,920           $ 2,649,800                      $ 3,620,000                 $ 3,004,120
A.    Infrastructure                                                $        6,875,000       $     1,560,000                  $     2,745,000             $     2,570,000
      Develop improved latrine specifications ($$ under
1     Policy)                                                       $                -   $                 -               $                 -         $                 -
      Facilitate consumer selection of appropriate
2     latrine facility and/or upgrading                         $               50,000   $            50,000               $                 -         $                 -
      Explore and add new sewerage connections in all
3     selected PUAs                                             $            2,510,000   $           510,000              $          1,500,000        $           500,000
4     Construct 520 toilet blocks, 20 per PUA                   $            1,675,000    $                -              $            925,000        $           750,000
      Rehabilitate existing and expand sanitary waste
5     disposal and treatment capabilities as needed             $            2,640,000   $         1,000,000              $           320,000         $          1,320,000
B.    Products                                                      $          786,000       $       287,000                  $       325,000             $        174,000
6     Increase range of product options available               $              200,000   $            75,000              $            75,000         $             50,000
      Produce and distribute proto-types for products
7     that do not yet exist in the Zambian marketplace          $              400,000   $           150,000              $           150,000         $           100,000
      Establish fair, market-based pricing on required
8     products                                                  $               16,000   $            12,000              $             2,000         $             2,000
9     Develop and distribute “hygiene” package(s)               $              170,000   $            50,000              $            98,000         $            22,000
C.    Service Improvements                                          $        1,064,800       $       532,800                $         300,000           $         232,000
10    Finalize provider capacity tables                         $               10,000   $            10,000               $                -          $                -
      Create provider small-business enterprises and/or
11    associations                                              $               36,000   $            12,000              $            12,000         $            12,000
      Expand sanitation and hygiene product and
12    services availability and consumer access                 $                9,800   $             3,800              $             3,000         $             3,000
      Manage pits and expand septic tank empty
13    capabilities                                              $            1,009,000   $           507,000              $           285,000         $           217,000

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                                                                                                                                                                 (31 January 2009)



      Three-Year Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy Investment Plan SPECIFICS – 1 April 2009 to 31 December 2011
                   Line Items                     TOTAL                     Year 1                Year 2                 Year 3
D.      Training                                             $         548,120       $       270,000                $       250,000            $          28,120
14      Develop training of trainers program             $             100,000   $           100,000               $              -            $               -
15      Develop providers materials                      $              20,000   $            15,000              $           5,000            $               -
        Create training programs for providers on both
16      hardware and software                            $             413,120   $           150,000              $         240,000           $           23,120

17      Celebrate successes with providers               $              15,000   $             5,000              $            5,000          $            5,000

II.     PROMOTION                                                $   1,422,900           $   218,900                    $   602,000                 $   602,000
A.      Communication                                        $         246,900       $       146,900               $         50,000             $         50,000
        Produce and run a PUA-wide communication
18      campaign (includes hiring an ad agency)          $             230,000   $           130,000              $          50,000           $          50,000
19      Develop ongoing communication budget             $               6,900   $             6,900               $              -            $              -
20      Launch program                                   $              10,000   $            10,000               $              -            $              -
B.      Advocacy                                             $          90,000    $           26,000               $         32,000            $         32,000
21      Develop an advocacy kit                          $               6,000   $             6,000               $              -            $              -
22      Facilitate quarterly speakers’ bureau            $              84,000   $            20,000              $          32,000           $          32,000
C.      Mobilization                                         $       1,086,000    $           46,000                $       520,000             $       520,000
        Form community-based sanitation and hygiene
23      social responsibility team                       $              26,000   $            26,000               $                -          $                 -
        Facilitate quarterly sanitation and hygiene
24      community meeting in each PUA                    $              30,000   $            10,000              $          10,000           $           10,000
        Establish yearly PUA, community and household
24      hygiene contests                                 $           1,000,000    $                -              $         500,000           $         500,000
26      Develop feedback mechanisms for the community    $              10,000   $            10,000               $              -            $              -

        Celebrate successes of communities and
27      consumers                                        $              20,000   $                 -              $          10,000           $           10,000

III. ENABLING ENVIRONMENT                                        $    664,700            $    84,900                    $   280,900                 $   298,900
A.      Policy                                               $          52,000    $           32,000               $         10,000             $         10,000
        Support ongoing sanitation and hygiene policy
28      development                                      $              17,000   $             2,000              $            7,500          $            7,500
        Agree on improved latrine standards (includes
29      consultant contract)                             $              25,000   $            25,000               $              -            $              -
30      Lobby for sanitation and hygiene                 $              10,000   $             5,000              $           2,500           $           2,500
B.      Implementation Capacity                              $         454,700    $           11,900                $       224,900             $       217,900
31      Strengthen LWSC peri-urban unit implementation   $             359,500   $             2,500              $         177,000           $         180,000

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     Three-Year Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy Investment Plan SPECIFICS – 1 April 2009 to 31 December 2011
                  Line Items                     TOTAL                     Year 1                Year 2                 Year 3
       team
32     Establish technical committee to guide process      $            5,000   $          2,000              $            1,500          $            1,500
       Facilitate quarterly power breakfasts with
       technical committee and invited guests as needed
33     to discuss progress, impact, and help needed        $            3,600   $          1,200              $           1,200           $            1,200
34     Develop sustainability criteria and indicators      $            1,000   $          1,000               $              -            $               -
35     Monitor                                             $           15,600   $          5,200              $           5,200           $            5,200
36     Evaluate                                            $           70,000    $             -              $          40,000           $           30,000
C.     Financing                                               $       57,000    $        15,000               $         21,000            $          21,000
       Fully commit to supporting sanitation and hygiene
37     strategy                                            $            3,000   $          1,000              $            1,000          $            1,000
38     Develop clear subsidy policy and criteria           $            1,500   $          1,500               $               -           $               -
       Develop accessible sources and funding
39     mechanisms for providers and consumers              $           50,000   $         10,000              $          20,000           $           20,000
       Develop commercial cash flow and cost-benefit
40     analyses                                            $            2,500   $          2,500               $              -            $               -
D.     Institutional Arrangements                              $      101,000    $        26,000               $         25,000            $          50,000
41     Build leadership of LWSC peri-urban unit            $           42,000   $         14,000              $          14,000           $           14,000
42     Coordinate work in PUAs                             $           30,000   $         10,000              $          10,000           $           10,000
       Negotiate business standards and appropriate
43     registration                                        $            1,000   $          1,000               $                -          $                 -
       Develop 2012-2014 strategy for continuation of
       program activities building on successes of first
44     three years                                         $           25,000   $              -               $                -         $           25,000

45     Celebrate successes with all players                $            3,000   $          1,000              $            1,000          $            1,000

                                              TOTAL            $   11,361,520        $ 2,953,600                   $ 4,502,900                 $ 3,905,020




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                                        Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                  (31 January 2009)



14. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

Phasing of feasible practice introduction and promotion is recommended to facilitate
implementation and M&E. Practices on building, maintaining and properly using a latrine
and toilet block (Objectives 4-9) will be promoted first, followed by practices on
handwashing (Objective 1) that can overlap at the end of the first phase, ending with practices
on safe drinking water (Objectives 2-3). This phasing not only corresponds to what activities
need to be completed before others can be carried out, but also reflects movement of the
consumers through the behavior change continuum (see Appendix A). Table 28 shows, in
general, what types of activities should be conducted in what quarter and in what year.
Specifics will need to be worked out in a yearly Plan of Action for each of the three years.
See Section 15 for Year One Plan of Action. Adjustments should be made based on ongoing
monitoring and yearly interim evaluations.

In general Year One will put in place sufficient ability and capacity to supply (Service
Delivery); develop the promotional pieces to create the initial consumer demand (Promotion);
and facilitate this supply and demand (Enabling Environment). When supply and enabling
environment are in place, launch the program using the promotional pieces. Years Two and
Three will then build and expand on service delivery put in place in Year One, maintain the
practice promotion, and continue to strengthen the infrastructure. How to build, maintain and
clean a latrine and handwashing will be the behavioral foci for Years One and Two, safe
drinking water practices will be added in Year Three.

Table 28: General Phased Implementation Plan
   Activities             2009                            2010                                2011
                  ---   Q2    Q3    Q4     Q1           Q2    Q3          Q4       Q1       Q2    Q3          Q4
PUT IN PLACE
SERVICE
DELIVERY
(Prepare to meet
demand)
Develop standards         X      X
for production and
construction
Create new                       X                       X                          X
industry and
businesses
Train and certify                X      X                X        X                 X        X
providers and
suppliers
Rehabilitate                     X      X       X        X        X        X        X        X        X        X
needed plants
Provide new               X             X                X                 X                 X                 X
connections
Manufacture                      X      X                X        X                 X        X
products and
supplies
Construct toilet                                         X                 X                 X                 X
blocks in cost-
sharing
arrangement with
consumers
DEVELOP
PROMOTION


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                                                                Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
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    Activities                 2009                       2010                                2011
                       ---   Q2    Q3   Q4     Q1       Q2    Q3          Q4       Q1       Q2    Q3          Q4
Prepare                      X     X    X
communication
campaign and all
materials
Launch program                          X
Update and revise                                                 X                          X
materials as
required
CREATE
ENABLING
ENVIRONMENT
Establish policy             X     X
and standards
Lobby and                          X            X                 X                 X                 X
advocate for
sanitation and
hygiene
CONDUCT
PROMOTION
(Create Demand)
Air, distribute,                                X        X        X        X        X        X        X        X
conduct messages
on household
latrines and toilet
blocks
Air, distribute,                                                  X        X        X        X        X        X
conduct messages
on handwashing
Air, distribute,                                                                             X        X        X
conduct messages
on safe drinking
water
MONITOR on an
ongoing basis
Provide regular              x     x    X        x       x        X        x        x        X        x        x
quality assurance
visits
EVALUATE
Establish baseline           X     X
Conduct interim                                 X                          X
evaluation
Make adjustments                                         X                          X
Conduct final                                                                                                  X
evaluation for first
three years
[Small “x” indicates on an ongoing manner combined with other activities.]




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                                                                                                 Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                                                                         Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                                                                           (31 January 2009)



15. PLAN OF ACTION

The first year plan of action has been provided below in Table 29. Years Two and Three should be developed in the last quarter of the year
basing activities on monitoring and evaluation results. As previously stated, Year One's purpose is three-fold: (1) Put in place sufficient ability
to supply (Service Delivery); (2) Develop the promotional pieces to create the initial consumer demand (Promotion); and (3) Facilitate this
supply and demand (Enabling Environment). When supply and enabling environment are in place, launch the program (create demand) using
the promotional pieces. How to build, maintain and clean a latrine and handwashing will be the behavioral foci for Years One and Two, safe
drinking water practices will be added in Year Three. No cost-sharing building/construction of latrines or toilets by LWSC should take place
until demand has been created and service delivery is in place.

Table 29: Year One Plan of Action Specifics-1April 2009 to 31 December 2009
                                                                                            YEAR ONE - 2009 (9 months) - SPECIFICS
                                  Activity
                                                                       April   May   June      July    August September October                    November        December
  I.   SERVICE DELIVERY
  A.   Infrastructure
       Identify two PUAs where new sewer connections can be
 1.    installed and install
       a. Develop selection criteria
       b. Contact Output-Based Aid for co-financing, and begin
          installation.
       c. Select 2 PUAs
       d. Begin installation
       Assess functioning of two selected treatment plants and begin
 2.    rehabilitation.
       a. Prepare engineering specifications for assessment
       b. Contract in-house and conduct assessment
       c. Begin rehabilitation
 3.    NO construction of toilet blocks.
  B.   Products
       Develop priority products list (those that are required for
 4.    consumers to practice the feasible behaviors promoted.)
       Assist providers in manufacturing priority products in
 5.    sufficient quantities.
       a. Agree on manufacturing standards and initial prices
       b. Develop prototypes


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                                                                                                Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                                                                        Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                                                                          (31 January 2009)



                                                                                           YEAR ONE - 2009 (9 months) - SPECIFICS
                                Activity
                                                                      April   May   June      July    August September October                    November        December
      c. Test prototypes
      d. Determine start up costs required and provide
      e. Produce
6.    Purchase limited number of products for promotion.
 C.   Service Improvements
7.    Create 26 franchises - 1/PUA (grant for start-up costs).
      a. Develop funding qualifications
      b. Detail program and participation
      c. Advertise
      d. Invite to participate in training and program
8.    Expand 3 marketplaces - 1/PUA
      a. Select 3 PUAs based on criteria
      b. Visit and discuss with potential businesses
      c. Advertise
      d. Invite to participate in training and program
      Purchase and test portable pit and septic tank emptying
9.    equipment and train providers - 26 total - 1/PUA
      a. Hire consultant to investigate what is available
      b. Purchase 1-3 types and test
      c. Purchase equipment deemed appropriate
 D.   Training
10.   Develop training materials.
      a. Design standards and specifications guidelines (see #26)
      b. Prepare user manuals
11.   Conduct training of trainers - 30 trainers
12.   Conduct provider training workshops - 52 providers - 2/PUA
      a. Develop selection criteria
      b. Advertise and select (be sure to include providers from #7
         and #8)
13.   Conduct hygiene promoter workshops - 52 promoters - 2/PUA
      Assure certification and business registration of 52 trained
14.   providers.
      a. Enumerate certification criteria and responsibilities
      b. Complete registration negotiations and license as part of
         training process

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                                                                                                 Lusaka Peri-Urban Area Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Program
                                                                                                                         Sanitation Marketing and Hygiene Promotion Strategy
                                                                                                                                                           (31 January 2009)



                                                                                            YEAR ONE - 2009 (9 months) - SPECIFICS
                                  Activity
                                                                       April   May   June      July    August September October                    November        December
 II.   PROMOTION
 A.    Communication
15.    Share strategy through orientation meetings.
       a. Orient LWSC top management
       b. Orient other LWSC staff
16.    Hire ad agency.
17.    Develop communication campaign.
       Produce materials - print and non-print for distribution and
18.    airing and mobilization activities.
       a. Develop media plan
       b. Put together press kit for launch
19.    Launch program.
 B.    Advocacy
20.    Develop advocacy kit
21.    Create speaker's bureau and meet quarterly.
 C.    Mobilization
22.    Organize social responsibility team and meet quarterly.
       a. Establish existing structures and interested structures
       b. Prepare roles and responsibilities and tools
23.    Develop consumer feedback mechanisms.
III.   ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
 A.    Policy
       Participate in National Sanitation and Hygiene Policy
24.    development.
       a. Gather what has been prepared to date
       b. Share standards and specifications presently available to
          LWSC
       Lobby for decision-maker and politician support of sanitation
25.    and hygiene for PUAs in Lusaka.
       Establish standards for latrine specifications and product
26.    quality.
       a. Hire consultant
       b. Prepare standards and specifications guidelines
       c. Design flow chart (decision making tool for consumer)
 B.    Implementation Capacity

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                                                                                                                                                          (31 January 2009)



                                                                                           YEAR ONE - 2009 (9 months) - SPECIFICS
                                 Activity
                                                                      April   May   June      July    August September October                    November        December
27.   Establish technical committee and meet quarterly.
28.   Refine Monitoring and Evaluation plan.
      a. Establish baseline using November 2008 Market Analysis
         Report.
      b. Establish M&E benchmarks
      c. Develop tools
29.   Monitor progress (process indicators).
30.   Develop Year Two Plan of Action
 C.   Financing
      Agree on subsidy policy and include in National Sanitation
31.   and Hygiene Policy.
32.   Create consumer rewards and voucher programs
      Develop funding mechanisms for provider start-up
33.   investments (see 4 above).
      a. Determine mechanisms principles, e.g. soft loan or grant,
         contractual agreements, requirements, etc.
      b. Put together full budget for providers/businesses to be
         supported in Year One (see #7 and #8)
 D.   Institutional Arrangements
34.   Develop structure for decision-making and lines of authority.
35.   Negotiate business registration for trained providers.
      a. Identify agency responsible for business registrations
      b. Prepare and present concept paper to have registrations
         facilitated and granted at end of training process




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