Chapter 16-The (Roaring) Twenties (1920s): Sections 1-3
-_________ ______ did not invent, but began using mass production (rapid manufacture
of large numbers of products), Ford was the first to use _____________ management
(evaluate every step to reduce manufacturing time, effort, and cost) and the _________
_______ (division of _______) to manufacture automobiles
-Price of the _________ dropped from $850 in 1908 to $350 in 1916, many people could
afford a car: ____% of population owned a car in 1919, up to ____% in 1927
-Henry Ford made other innovations: gave his workers an ___ hour workday and raised
wages from $2.35/day to $5.00/day in 1914, gave workers ____. & ____. off in 1926
-Popularity of ______________ stimulated other industries: steel, rubber, glass, asphalt,
road construction, gasoline, insurance, tourism, restaurants, hotels, advertising, etc.

-Buying on _________ became popular in the 1920s: _____________ buying=small
down payment, then make monthly payments to cover the remainder of debt, many
people also practiced buying on the _________ (loan to buy stock, with the stock as
____________) to invest in the stock market, which was a bull market (rising prices) for
most of the 1920s, people ____________ their stock would make a _________
-_________ and ______________ areas were booming economically, business owners
and managers were getting rich, industrial workers‘ wages were ____________
-________ areas struggled: many ___________ moved to urban or suburban areas,
farmers that remained saw their income __________ during the 1920s

-Part of Pres. Warren G. Harding‘s ―Return to ___________‖ was a ―________-______‖
approach to the economy that favored business, Harding appointed steel tycoon _______
__________ as Sec. of Treasury, whose idea was to cut _________ (by more than 80%
since WWI) and cut _______, especially on corporations, raised the tariff to 25%,
Harding appointed Herbert _________ as Sec. of Commerce

-____________ in Harding‘s administration: Harding admitted he was not the most
intelligent president, often relied on advisers to make important decisions; too many of
his advisers in the ―_____ _____‖ practiced graft & corruption: took _______, received
kickbacks (Attorney General Harry Daughtry, Sec. of Veterans Affairs Charles Forbes,
and Sec. of Interior ________ _______, who started the _________ _______ scandal:
Fall transferred the _______‘s oil reserves in the West to his control, where he sold rights
to drill to private oilmen, _________ died before he or the country knew about Teapot

-After Harding‘s death, VP ________ ___________ became Pres., known for being
_______, honest, and frugal, also supported big business to keep the economy booming –
Coolidge continued ________‘s policies of cutting spending, the debt, and taxes, to give
incentives to businesses

-How to prevent another World War? ____________ ________ Conference in 1921-22
led to some disarmament; limited construction of large __________ between US, Britain,
Japan, also _________-_________ Pact ―outlawed war‖ in 1928, ratified by 62 countries
-Germany still face a huge ______ to Britain & France, who both owed large debts to the
_____, led to the Dawes Plan=US bankers would make loans to Germany, who could
pay off Britain & France, who could pay off the US, seemed like a good plan until the
stock market crash in _______, when US bankers had no more money to lend

-Before the 1920s, the US had been split culturally between North/South or East/West,
during the 1920s, the main cultural split was between ______/______ areas, led to the
battle between traditionalism and _____________ (growing trend to emphasize science &
secular values over traditional ideas about religion); _______ Americans embraced a
much more traditional approach to religion, science, and culture

-________ became more important in urban areas: learning advanced math, science, plus
studying literature, philosophy, etc. could lead to higher paying jobs, still rarely an option
in rural areas, where the ―______‖ [Readin, ‗Ritin‘, ‗Rithmetic] were still the only skills
that farmers expected their children to know, had little use for ―______ learning‖, needed
children home to work on the farm (NC required only a __ month school year until 1970)

-Christian _______________ (belief in a Biblical worldview; that every word in the
_______ is true; _________ interpretation) emerged in the 1920s as a backlash against
modernism in the US, Soviet Communist attacks against the Russian Orthodox church,
and Mexican revolutionaries‘ attacks against the Roman Catholic church, general
-__________________ believed the answer to every scientific & moral question is found
in the _______, ideas took root in all parts of America, strongest in _______ areas

-Fundamentalism led to _________ Trial/―_________ Trial‖ in 1925 over teaching
evolution in schools in ____, where a state law made it illegal to teach evolution, the
ACLU hired _________ _________ to defend John Scopes, who had been arrested for
teaching evolution in a ________ class, _________ J. ________ served as special
prosecutor, was called to testify by Darrow, Scopes was found ___________ (never
really in doubt whether or not he broke the law teaching evolution), fined $100, but the
trial made evolution a politically charged issue, debate still goes on today
-Should America restrict ____________? American ―___________‖ said yes, claimed
the never ending tide of immigrants threatened traditional religious, political, and cultural
-How could an immigration restriction law be worded? All Americans had
______________ in their family tree if they looked back far enough

-WWI, __________ Revolution, & _____ Scare strengthened the nativist position,
Congress passed the Emergency _______ Act of 1921 & National ________ Act of 1924,
to establish a quota system (# immigrants from a country could not exceed 2% of total #
from that country all ready in the US in 1890; targeted restricting _________ &
__________ Europeans from emigrating)

-New emergence of the ________________ in 1920s against the ―new America‖ forming
in the cities, KKK was still against African-Americans, now also against ____________,
___________, ________, also claimed to be against lawbreaking, immorality, crooked &
corrupt politicians, etc., new KKK grew to __________ members, but dwindled after
Klan leaders‘ immorality & corruption was exposed: leaders paid bribes, stole from
members, lied to members, and top leader jailed for assault & 2nd degree murder

-______________ (of alcoholic beverages) enacted for the entire US with ____ Amend.,
enforced by the ___________ Act (gave feds. the authority to eradicate liquor from the
US), more polarization in America between ―______‖ (said Prohibition was a _______
experiment; strengthened families & made a better society) and ―_____‖ (said that people
will drink anyway; made America ―safe for _________‖, increased organized ______)

-_____________ (illegally making liquor in homemade ______, so named as people may
transport their liquor in a flask hidden in their ______) and _______________ (secret
drinking establishments, where the bartender may tell clients to ‗speak easy‘/softly)
became popular as many Americans violated the _____ Amendment & Volstead Act

-_____________, gang leader in _________, among those that benefited from
bootlegging (in addition to running a drug ring, prostitution ring, and being involved with
numerous robberies and murders)
-Policemen & politicians often did not _________ the federal law (18 th Am./Volstead
Act), may have taken _________ from bootleggers and speakeasy owners
              Chapter 16-The (Roaring) Twenties (1920s): Sections 4-5
-Most urban politicians pushed for the 18th Amendment to be __________ in mid 1920s,
opposed by many in ______ areas that still supported Prohibition, pointed to how
___________ and ______ disease had declined, grouped the alcohol problem with
evolution, immigration and modernism and what was ruining America, ____ Am.

-1933-____ Amendment ratified to repeal the ___ Amendment, and give ________ the
power to regulate the _________ industry

-As more people lived in ________, entertainment changed (farmers would work all day,
little time for play, family may play simple games, read, or sing at night), cities allowed
for time for play, especially with how the average _____________ was dropping (70 hrs.
in 1850, 55 in 1910, 45 by 1930) and as __________ were rising

-Early movies: The earliest movies were black & white ________ films (no dialogue or
talking; usually with _______ playing), appealed especially to immigrants that could not
speak ________, _________ _________=major director and actor of the silent era, The
first of the ―_________‖ (movie with talking) was The _____ _______, starring _______

-Phonographs and ________ also important to entertainment in the 1920s, produced a
________________ culture in America (as people in the North, South, East, and West
may hear the same music, radio shows, sporting events, etc.)

-1920s=The Golden Age of Sports: George Herman ―_____‖ ______=leading sports
hero; baseball star for NY __________, also Red Grange (__________), Bobby Jones
(______), Bill Tilden (________), Jack Dempsey (________)

-______________________=first American to fly solo and non-stop across the _______;
flew from Long Island, NY to Paris in ______ on the Spirit of __________, 33 hour flight

-__________=nickname for the new woman of the 1920s, characterized by shorter
hemlines, more __________, shorter hair, drank _________, smoked, and _________ in
public at speakeasies, challenged the traditional ladylike expectation of the ___________
Era (Gilded Age years)
-Not all women were __________, most were still _____________, but life for them got
easier in the 1920s: ___________ vacuum cleaners, dishwashers, irons, etc.

-New American Literature during the 1920s, Writers wrote about and were often called
the ______ ____________ (generation of Americans that lost their faith in Victorian
culture, especially after ________), many were _____________ (left the country),
including ______________________ (famous for A Farewell to Arms, The Sun Also
Rises), _______________________ (famous for The Great Gatsby), ________________
(coined the phrase ‗Lost Generation‘), others to know: Sinclair Lewis (Main Street),
_____________________ (The Sound and the Fury, As I Lay Dying, Sanctuary, all based
in the ________)

-The ________ Renaissance and the New ―Black Consciousness‖ of the 1920s: Many
blacks left the South for the cities in the ___________ & ___________: better pay as an
industrial worker than a ________________, easier (and actually possible) to become
part of the middle or upper class, but still faced massive __________ & oppression, still
usually relegated to the lowest paying jobs, and thus often lived in a city‘s ________ area
-Harlem, NY became a center of people of color that had been in the North for years,
those that moved from the _______, and those that moved from the ___________ islands

-_________ _________ emerged in the 1920s, began a ―_____ to ________‖ movement,
called for ―black nationalism‖, founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association,
did not call for racial harmony like _______ T. ___________ and W.E.B. ___________;
Garvey and his followers favored _____________ (including total withdrawal), said that
blacks in America were exploited everywhere, should not participate in their own

-1920s=The ______ Age (phrase coined by F. Scott Fitzgerald), Jazz=musical form that
combines African-American & European forms, could include blues, ragtime, ironically
features structure and ________________, especially popular in ____ _________, stars
included _______ ___________ (―Satchmo‖, played in NY, NO, CHI), Duke
____________, Bessie Smith (―Empress of the Blues‖, highest paid African-American
entertainer in the 1920s)

-Harlem __________________=cultural outpouring of African-American novelists,
essayists, poets, artists celebrating Black American culture in the 1920s, led by Claude
McKay (Jamaican writer), ____________ __________ (poet, writer, see p. 563, said the
core of the Harlem Renaissance was not about politics, but celebrating Black American
culture), and _______ _______ _______________ (Their Eyes Were Watching God);
from Florida, wrote to speak for blacks and all________, longing for ________________

-Harlem Renaissance ended (as did many other aspects of the 1920s) with the Great
________________ and all the financial problems faced in America
                          Chapter 17-The Great Depression
-America had a false sense of security during the Roaring __________ with the economy
booming; most businessmen thought the economy/________ market was immune to the
____________ cycle

-Pres. __________ (Elected 1920, died in 1923), ____________ (Harding‘s VP, Elected
in 1924, _________ (Elected in 1928) often given credit for the prosperity, using
__________-______ style economics (gov‘t stays out), allow business to grow, economy
to expand

-Hoover (R) defeated _________ _______ (D) in 1928, promised ―a __________ in
every pot, a ______ in every garage‖, believed in ______________ between workers,
management, and the government, and did not believe in ______________ intervention
in economic problems

-_________ never experienced the economic boom of the 1920s, always in ______ from
buying land and equipment, prices dropped after WW I, farmers often stuck with
_________ crops, still had to deal with natural disasters, forced to rely on _________

-Uneven distribution of wealth and Over___________: wages did rise for industrial
workers in the 1920s, but it was the corporate owners and ____________ who really got
rich: In ______, the income of the wealthiest 0.1% of the population = the income of the
bottom ____% of the population, the lower middle class and the poor simply could not
afford to buy all the products and crops produced in the __________ and ________

-Easy ________ and/or ____________ plans could hide problems: About ____ of the
luxury goods of the 1920s were bought on credit, also much buying on the __________,
people spent $ they did not have, assumed they would still have their ______ and be able
to make monthly payments, people had _____________ in the market and the economy

-_______________=investors pouring money into ________ they thought would make
them rich, essentially a _________ trying to get rich quick, people began to realize the
dangers of speculation, lost ____________, and took money out of the stock market, led
to a slide, then a freefall, and eventually to ______ ___________ (Oct. 23, ______),
―Great _______‖, millions of ________ of stock sold, __________ of dollars lost, proved
that the US economy was not immune to the ___________ cycle

-Stock Market crash was the beginning of the Great ______________ (major _________
in the economy from ______-______ with massive _______________), Crash set off
another chain of events that made everything worse:
_______ Failure=after the stock market crash, people went to get their $ out of banks, ($
that banks soon ran out of, and could not give back)—led to 600+ banks closing in 1929,
1350 in 1930, 1700 in 1931, fewer banks made the depression worse
(Remember banks only keep a small amount of deposited $ in their _____________)

-Businesses forced to close as stock prices dropped and banks failed: as _____________
dropped, ___________ by the businesses dropped, led to many people losing their _____,
(one example=Henry Ford closing plants in __________ cost 75,000 workers their job),
_____% of all Americans were unemployed by 1933

-Congress passed the _______-_______ Tariff in 1930 to try to help American producers
(urge Americans to buy ________ products by raising the tariff to a record high), had the
reverse effect because it shut down the global market after __________ nations countered
with their own tariffs, led to a huge _________ of American industrial goods and crops
-_________ also in a Depression: American bankers that were funding WW I reparation
(________ Plan) payments could no longer afford to help __________ pay Britain and
France, led to depression in Europe with recession, bank failure, high unemployment, etc.

-Causes of Great Depression=Under____________, Over____________, Uneven
Distribution of _________, Easy _______/Buying on the _________, climax with Stock
Market ________
-Effects of Great Depression=Stock Market Crash, ______ Failure, Un______________,
Tariff, Depression spreads to __________

-During the 1920s, US unemployment was never above __%, but rose to 25% by 1933,
many people that were employed had their ______ or ________ cut, often eventually
______ _____, for many Americans, the only place to find food was ______ lines and
______ kitchens, where parents and children could receive free meals from _________ or
public agencies

-Unemployment led to hunger & _______________, people were forced to sell furniture,
pawn jewelry, move to much cheaper lodgings; the poorest were forced to sleep on park
__________, empty __________ cars, or ____________ _______; in many cities,
shantytowns emerged called ___________________, largest in Central Park in NYC,
______________ were called Hoover Blankets, Empty _________ turned inside out
called Hoover Flags, Cardboard boxes called Hoover _________, Campfires called
Hoover _________, etc.

-__________ again hit hard: Remember the farmers had never benefited during the
Roaring ____, then the _____________ made conditions even worse, also a major
drought in the ________ _________ prevented crops from growing, nearly 1 __________
farmers lost farms when creditors ______________ between 1930-1934

-Drought in Great Plains (KS, OK, TX, NM, CO, etc.) led to the area being known as the
_______ _______, after nearly all of the land had been plowed under, massive ________,
loose topsoil, and high _______ led to massive dust storms, often made the sun invisible,
killed cattle, birds, fish
-Many people left the Dust Bowl to look for a chance to start over; known as _________
(though not all of them came from ____), usually went to ____________ to look for work

-Change in family life: Some ______________ men tirelessly looked for work, while
others gave in to ___________, many that still had work felt ashamed, and also realized
their next ____________ could be their last
-Women and Children often tried to find work where they could; many kids quit _______

-Depression also tough on Minorities: African Americans were often ―the last to be
______ and the first to be ______‖ (_____% unemployment rate), _________-Americans
competed for jobs with the Okies in the _____, many whites called for _______________
(forcing ________________ to return to their native country)

-_________ did not cause the depression, but many consider him the _______ president
ever because he did not do enough to help solve the problems, he tried many ideas
(______________, localism), some helped, but none ended the depression

-Hoover was against _______ relief (idea that the fed. gov't would give jobs, $, etc.), he
believed in ―_________ _________________‖; the idea that people could make their
lives better through their own __________

-Some Americans said the ___________ needed a radical change; more direct control
through federal government: some suggested ____________, (similar to Communism in
_________) others looked to fascism (similar to _________, ________)

-_______ ______=group of WW I _________ that marched on _____________ in 1931
to seek an advance on the bonus $ they were scheduled to receive in ______, Congress
passed a bill to pay the Bonus Army but Hoover _________ the bill, led to protest march
-Hoover ordered the __________ to break up the protest, General ______________ used
_____ _____ and forceful removal with bayonets and swords, resulted in 1000+ veterans
being injured, last straw for the American people with _________ as president, he had
nearly no chance to win re-election in _______
                                Chapter 18-The New Deal
-__________ had almost no chance of losing in 1928 for president, and almost no chance
of winning in _______, after so many people lost their jobs, their savings, their homes,
lives, etc. due to the Great _____________
-In 1932, Democrats chose ____________________ to run against Hoover for president,
he was relatively unknown, though he had been governor of _______, a state Senator in
_____, and US Assistant Secretary of the ______ under Pres. Wilson

-FDR's campaign promise was a _____________ for the American people: idea that it
was the ____________'s duty to be active in helping people out of the ______________
-Hoover's campaign refused to support the idea for direct _________, many Republicans
and swing voters supported FDR, who won by 7 million votes

-FDR elected in ______, 1932, but did not take office until _______, 1933, waiting
period (before _____ Amendment) saw many more banks close and unemployment rise

-FDR assembled a team of advisers known as the ―________ ________‖, included some
Democrats AND Republicans (whoever he thought was best for the job), and included
Frances Perkins (first female Cabinet member), FDR also counted on his wife _________

-―The __________ Days‖= FDR's first _____ days in office: The First ______________
had three goals were R_________, R____________, and R__________
-Congress quickly passed 15 bills, including the Emergency __________Bill, allowed
FDR to order all _______ to close, before they re-opened, FDR gave a speech on the
radio called the first ____________ ______, where he tried to convince Americans to
not withdraw all of their savings

-FDR also convinced Congress to approve the FDIC _____________________________,
to insure all bank customers up to $_________ (insured today up to $100,000), Congress
also approved the SEC ______________________________ to regulate the stock market
and make it a much safer place for investments

-Help for farmers: AAA ______________________________________: wanted to end
overproduction: paid farmers subsidies to NOT grow certain crops & kill off surplus
livestock (controversial because many people were still starving from _____________),
but FDR's goals were accomplished, as __________ were rising by 1934

FDR's plan to solve ________________=have the _____________ provide jobs:
TVA (_____________________________)-built a series of dams for _______________
power in the South, in areas where many people did not all ready have electricity
FDR & Congress create more jobs: CCC _____________________________________:
gave jobs to 2 million young men: planting forests, digging ditches, fighting fires, etc.

More New Deal ―Alphabet Soup‖
-PWA=__________________________________: built bridges, dams, power plants,
gov't buildings, created more jobs
-NIRA _____________________________________ created National Recovery Admin.
to regulate competition, establish minimum wages, minimum prices, to increase profits

Opposition to _______________: claim that the fed. gov't should not be so powerful,
both conservative ______________ and conservative _______________ formed interest
groups, wrote books, etc. that criticized _________ for expanding federal power, while
Socialists and Communists said the _____________ did not do enough to help America

Major critics of FDR: ____________________ was a Catholic priest with radio
broadcasts; called the New Deal the ―______ Deal‖, was Canadian; could not run for
president, but would support _________________, Louisiana Gov. & US Senator,
wanted to tax the wealthy and large corporations, redistribute wealth, would have been
FDR's primary competiton for re-election in 1936, but was assassinated

Second _____________ began in 1935, similar ideas: support the elderly, the poor, the
unemployed, first major act was creating the WPA ______________________________
to create more fed. gov't jobs building highways, dredging rivers, etc., paid for by deficit
spending, encouraged by John Maynard __________, British economist, who believed it
was necessary for the country to go into ______ if that would help get out of the _______

__________ ______________ Act provided money for the elderly: pension plan for
retired people, many flaws in system, but goal was for elderly to have an __________ ,
especially those unable to work, also provided ______________ insurance

REA (________ __________________ _______) provided ____________ to farmers,
other non-urban areas, gave people jobs while increasing the number of farmers with
power from 10% to 80% between 1930-1950

-FDR wanted to raise standard of living for industrial workers: signed the ____________
Act: recognized the rights of laborers to join _______ that engaged in _______________
_______________, created the NLRB (_______________________________________)

-FDR also signed the Fair _______ ______________ Act in 1938, which created a
___________ ______ of $0.25/hour and set the regular workweek at _____ hours
Union success: AFL (American ____________ of _______) included _______ workers,
such as plumbers, electricians, carpenters, etc., would not recognize other workers such
as coal miners or manufacturers, led to _________________ and others to found the CIO
(_____________________________________), a union for non-skilled laborers, quickly
led to the UAW forming (___________________________), who led a _________ strike
at GM plant in MI, lasted 44 days, gov't threatened force, both sides finally compromised

-FDR easily re-elected in 1936, but met opposition in the Supreme Court, judges struck
down many New Deal programs as _____________________, FDR attempted to
persuade Congress to expand the # of Justices from 9 to ____, allowing him to ―______‖
the court with judges he would choose, hurt FDR politically, but the existing Supreme
Court upheld the ___________ Act, and soon after some of the justices ___________

-New Deal did not end the _______________, US economy again in a tailspin by 1937;
after FDR cutback on federal spending to reduce the _______, but at the same time the
Fed raised ____________ rates, making it difficult to borrow $, led to ______________
winning many seats in Congress in 1938, but _______________ still had a majority

-Women involved in New Deal, _______________________, ____________________
-_________________________ also one of the first to try to improve civil rights at a
conference in __________________, AL,

-FDR had an unofficial ___________________, including educational equality champion
________________________, but he did not always heed their advice; FDR feared he
would lose support of Congressmen from the _______ if he focused on civil rights

-FDR also included a New Deal for _________, restored control over land to tribes

-New Deal ____________ (voting bloc) included Southern whites, Northern ____ collar
workers, Midwestern __________, and ____________________ from the North & South

-New Deal marked a general change in the black vote, most African-Americans had been
_________________ since Reconstruction, but support shifted to _________________
during New Deal

-CCC, WPA served as a ________________ for people of different cultures to work
together, come to appreciate each other, and mold an American ____________
-___________ restored America‘s faith in banks
-___________ restored America‘s faith in the stock market
-_______ provided low interest loans, more people owned their own homes
-Labor union membership boosted with ____________ Act

-New Deal moved the USA toward becoming a _____________ state, where the
____________ takes care of poor, elderly, sick, disabled, unemployed, idea resented by
conservative _________________

-New Deal tried to end the _____________ in the Great Plains, as it symbolized the
nation during the _____________, New Deal also led to the creation of many new
national ________, such as Shenandoah (VA), Kings Canyon (CA), etc.

-FDR changed the nature of the ______________‘s job, creation of new federal agencies
gave the _____________ branch more power, FDR became the only president to ever
serve more than ____ years, was actually elected ____ times, but died in office in ______

-________________ first became big business during the 1930s, with CBS, NBC, MGM,
Warner Bros., 20th Century Fox, Paramount, many others, those that could afford it
wanted to be entertained, something different from misery at work or at home

-The ___________ of _____ and ________ with the _________, and Mr. _______ goes
to _______________ were all famous movies of the 1930s

-In 1935, 2/3 of Americans owned a _______, by 1940, 90% of Americans did
-Orson Welles‘ radio drama _____________________ scared many Americans, fear that
the Earth was being invaded by aliens from Mars

-________ music became popular with ______ Ellington, _______ Goodman, others,
also _______ music with songwriter Woody __________

-WPA hired many Americans as Artists (painted ________), Writers, Theater Actors

-_______ ____________=author of The _________ of _________: story of ―Okies‖
who left the Dust Bowl, moved to ______, met many troubles

-___________ __________=author of __________ ________: story of racial prejudice
in Northern cities

Shared By: