VIEWS: 223 PAGES: 62


 In 1893, Caleb Bradham, a young pharmacist from New Bern, North Carolina, begins
experimenting with many different soft drink concoctions. Like many pharmacists at the turn of
the century he had a soda fountain in his drugstore, where he served his customers refreshing
drinks, that he created himself. His most popular beverage was something he called " Brad's
Drink " made of carbonated water, sugar, vanilla, rare oils, PepsiCoand cola nuts.

 One of Caleb's formulations, known as " Brad's Drink ", created in the summer of 1893, was
later renamed PepsiCoCola after the PepsiCon and cola nuts used in the recipe. In 1898, Caleb
Bradham wisely bought the trade name "Pep Cola" for $100 from a competitor from New York,
New Jersey that had gone broke. The new name was trademarked on June 16th, 1903.
Bradham's neighbor, an artist designed the first PepsiCo logo and ninety-seven shares of stock
for Bradham's new company were issued.

1898 - One of Caleb's formulations, known as " Brad's Drink " a combination of carbonated
water, sugar, vanilla, rare oils and cola nuts, is renamed "PepsiCo-Cola" on August 28, 1898.
Pepsi Cola receives its first logo.

1902 - The instant popularity of this new drink leads Bradham to devote all of his energy to
developing Pepsi Cola into a full-fledged business. He applies for a trademark with the U.S.
Patent Office, Washington D.C., and forms the first Pepsi Cola Company.

Pepsi cola started in the January 1898, from a small Drug store in the city of North Carolina. The
owner of the Drug store, Mr. Caleb Bradham, prepared a drink, which the customers called "the
Bred Drink". Bred registered this drink with the name of Pepsi Cola in 1903. Then he started his
own production at Macro level and established his own company. In 1909 this company

reached to 24 states of America with more than 250 dealers. The very first packing of Pepsi was
in 16.5 ounce.

In 1932 Pepsi cola has introduced its new packing in 12 ounce. In 1950 Pepsi Cola has started its
new Advertising Campaign with the name of "Refresh without Filling". It also changed the
chemical formula and decreased its sweetness and calories.

With the efforts of the Sales & Marketing Department, Pepsi got so much fame that it
established new plants at a rate of thirty per annum.

Today Pepsi is available in more than 155 countries of the world including Soviet Union &

Pepsi International is a world renowned brand. It is a very well organized multinational
company, which operates almost all over the world. They produce, one of best carbonated drinks
in the world. Pepsi is a symbol of hygiene, quality and service, all over the world. Pepsi is
producing Cola for more than 100 years and it has dominated the world market for a long time.
Its head office is in New York.

                                    MISSION STATEMENT

³To be the world's premier consumer Products Company focused on convenient foods and
beverages. We seek to produce healthy financial rewards to investors as we provide opportunities
for growth and enrichment to our employees, our business partners and the communities in
which we operate. And in everything we do, we strive for honesty, fairness and integrity.´

                              VISION STATEMENT

³To be the world's best beverage company´.Being the best means providing outstanding
quality, service, cleanliness and value, so that their every customer is contented and happy with
their products.´

³To increase the value of their shareholder¶s investment through sales growth, cost control and
wise investment of resources.´


 PepsiCo, one of the world s largest food and beverage companies, has offered its products
through independent bottlers in Pakistan for more than 40 years.

PepsiCo.Is offering lots of its brands in Pakistan now.

Bottled water of AquaFena is one the names which has started in Pakistan along with the
PepsiCo Cola,

They have also launched ready snacks named KurKure,

In 1971, but at that time it was involved in the business of manufacturing and marketing of
Coca-Cola. It started its manufacturing and marketing business with Pepsi Cola in 1981. The
Area allotted to it, was Gujranwala Franchise. The franchise area consists of the following nine
1.         Gujranwala

2.         Gujrat

3.         Hafizabad

4.         Mandibahauddin

5.         Jehlum

6.         Sialkot

7.         Narowal

8.         Sheikhupura

9.         Chakwal

10.       Shahdra

The company operates through a well-established network of a number of distributors. The
company has two types of delivery systems i.e.

      Direct delivery system

      Indirect delivery system

The basic difference between the direct and the indirect delivery system is that in a direct
distribution system, the company spends its own resources while in a indirect distribution, the
delaer spends hi own resources on all the factors which increased the sale. The company also
has its depots in different cities. Which helps a lot in increasing its sale and directing the
distribution system. They are in





                          1. FUTURE PLANNING

 The company operates through a well experienced, loyal and hardworking employees
exceeding 700. The first and the most basic plan it to train them according to the changing
technology and computerized environment, and satisfying their needs and requirements.
Upgrading the plant structure and installation of the new machinery are other plans. The
company is planning to increase its sales force and development in its infrastructure in the
coming time period.


Recently the company has achieved ISO 9002 Certificate, For its best production and services.
The company has already received different awards for its best quality, maximum production
and even growth.

They are

   Exemplary performance award                           1987

   International quality award                           1987

   Bottler of the year                                    1989

   Excellence on 1st position in sales                  1993

   Bottler of the year                                    1993

   Bottler of the year                                    1994

   Bottler of the year                                    1995

Currently the company holds more than 80% of the market share in its franchise area. The
company is investing a lot of capital on the development of its infrastructure and strengthening
its dealers network. For this purpose hundreds of T.O.Ts are distributed in all the cities each
      HR Objectives:

     To look out for the well being of all employees of the company.
     Provide leadership and direction to employees of the company.
     Career Development planning for all employees
     Ensure thorough training of nationwide employees.
     To provide individual employees with orientation on the company at the time of joining.
     To provide employees with solutions to their problems.
     Maintaining data records of all employees of PEPSICO (Human Resources information
     To evaluate and retain those employees who are assets to the company.

      HR Policies:
      Friendly, conversant, flexible and congruent with business environment
     Policies are legally compliant with clearly expressed processes for timely revisions
     framework in place to foster employee adherence.

       Development of interactive web-site aligned with all HR sub-functions to facilitate
      communication between employee and organization through dialogue boxes and
      speedy availability of information.
       Enhancing overall perception of HR, as with the help of HRIS the function of HR is
      hanging direction and heading towards Relationship Building, in this all the links are
      being recreated and employees are given much more weight as compared to past.


      HR planning s purpose is to determine what HRM requirements exist for current &
      future supplies & demands of workers. The organization ensures that they have the
      right number and kinds of people at the right place; this task is accomplished by regular
      recruitment and selection, performance evaluation, Promotions, Regular Training and
      development programs.

HR Functions of PEPSICO:

1- The people in the HR department of PEPSICO are extremely qualified personnel so no flaws
in decision making are prominent

2-   They have sufficient resources of getting knowledge from outside sources.

3-   They prefer new entrants of the market to increase their efficiency.


1-   the ethical issues in the PEPSICO prevail the most

2- the employees in the PEPSICO don t participate equally so there are chances of miss


Company Name:              PEPSICO

Job Title:            Assistant HR Manager Job Code:310-4

Salary:        Rs.35000

Reporting Relationships:

Assistant HR manager reports to HR Manager, and then he reports to the HR Secretary. Then all
other HR people get information from the HR secretary.

Job Summary:

 Manage the HR activities of the department. plans and develops the systems and procedures
for recruiting.

Supervises staff in accordance with company s policies and procedures.Responsible for
coaching and training.
Job Duties:

HR manager s major duties include assisting the HR activities, for instance if any recruiting
procedure needs to be implemented then the HR manager is responsible for it. HR manager in
PEPSICO has to make some plans for a assigning duties to the employees


Working conditions are normal for an office environment. Work may require occasional
weekend and/or evening work.

Performance Standards:

PEPSICO expects from its employee s specific performance expectations for each major duty
and also expects certain behaviors like friendliness, helpfulness, courtesy, and punctuality.

Job Specifications:

 In PEPSICO the minimum job requirement for a HR Manager is Master degree in HRM with
relevant work experience,

A job description clarifies work functions and reporting relationships, helping employees
understand their jobs. Job descriptions aid in maintaining a consistent salary structure.
Performance evaluations may be based on job descriptions.

Well written duty statements contain action words which accurately describe what is being

Duty statements should focus on primary, current, normal, daily duties and responsibilities of
the position (not incidental duties, an employee s qualifications or performance, or temporary
assignments). Related or similar duties should be combined and written as one statement.

Each duty statement should be a discreet, identifiable aspect of the work assignment, described
in one to three sentences, and should be outcome-based, allowing for alternate means of
performing the duty, changes in technology, preferences of employees and supervisors, and
accommodations of workers with disabilities, without altering the nature of, and/or the duty

Compares department expenses with budget...
Duty statements typically contain three parts: 1) the Verb, the Object, and a Purpose. Examples
of these parts of duty statements are shown below:

        Worksheet for task statements

                                             To               Using what              To
                                             whom             tools,                  achieve
        Who?             what
                                             or               equipment,              what
                                             what?            methods?                result?
                         Action              Object                                   In order
        Subject                                               Phrase
                         Verbs               of verb                                  to...

        Task statement

This puts the position in context and spells out broad responsibilities.

The question helps to isolate the most critical activities that the position holder is expected to

This question focuses on the specific personal qualities that are necessary to best meet the job

The content of job descriptions should identify and describe:

Mental Functions
COMPARING - Judging the readily observable functional, structural, or compositional
characteristics (whether similar to or divergent from obvious standards) of data, people, or

COPYING - Transcribing, entering, or posting data.

COMPUTING - Performing arithmetic operations and reporting on and/or carrying out a
prescribed action in relation to them.

COMPILING - Gathering, collating, or classifying information about data, people, or things.
Reporting and/or carrying out a prescribed action in relation to the evaluation is frequently

ANALYZING - Examining and evaluating data. Presenting alternative actions in relation to the
evaluation is frequently involved.

COORDINATING - Determining time, place, and sequence of operations or action to be taken on
the basis of analysis of data. May include prioritizing multiple responsibilities and/or
accomplishing them simultaneous-ly.

SYNTHESIZING - To combine or integrate data to discover facts and/or develop knowledge or
creative concepts and/or interpretations.

Relations with Others

SUPERVISION (given) - Coordinating and directing the activities of one or more subordinates.

SUPERVISION (received) - Independence of actions; authority to determine methods of

NEGOTIATING - Exchanging ideas, information, and opinions with others to formulate policies
and programs and/or jointly arrive at decisions, conclusions, solutions, or solve disputes.

COMMUNICATING - Talking with and/or listening to and/or signaling people to convey or
exchange infor-mation; includes giving/receiving assignments and/or directions.

INSTRUCTING - Teaching subject matter to others, or training others through explanation,
demonstration, and supervised practice; or making recommendations on the basis of technical

INTERPERSONAL SKILLS/BEHAVIORS - Dealing with individuals with a range of moods and
behaviors in a tactful, congenial, personal manner so as not to alienate or antagonize them.
CONTROL OF OTHERS - seizing, holding, controlling, and/or otherwise subduing violent,
assaultive, or physically threatening persons to defend oneself or prevent injury. Body strength
and agility of all four limbs is necessary.

Physical Demands (strength)

SEDENTARY - Exerts up to 10 lbs. of force occa-sionally and/or a negligible amount of force
frequently or constantly to lift, carry, push, pull, or otherwise move objects, including the
human body. involves sitting most of the time, but may involve walking or standing for brief
periods of time.

LIGHT - Exert up to 20 lbs. of force occasionally, and/or up to 10 lbs. of force frequently, and/or
a negligi-ble amount of force constantly to move objects. Physical demands are in excess of
those of Sedentary work. Light work usually requires walking or standing to a significant degree.

MEDIUM - Exert up to 50 lbs. of force occasional-ly, and/or up to 20 lbs. of force frequently,
and/or up to 10 lbs. of force constantly to move objects.

HEAVY - Exert up to 100 lbs. of force occasionally, and/or up to 50 lbs. of force frequently,
and/or up to 20 lbs. of force constantly to move objects.

VERY HEAVY - Exert in excess of 100 lbs. of force occasionally, and/or in excess of 50 lbs. of
force frequently, and/or in excess of 20 lbs. of force constantly to move objects.

Physical Demands (movement)

CLIMBING - Ascending or descending using feet and legs and/or hands and arms. Body agility is

BALANCING - Maintaining body equilibrium to prevent falling on narrow, slippery, or erratically
moving surfaces; or maintaining body equilibrium when perform-ing feats of agility.

STOOPING - Bending body downward and forward. This factor is important if it occurs to a
considerable degree and requires full use of the lower extremities and back muscles.

KNEELING - Bending legs at knees to come to rest on knee or knees.

CROUCHING - Bending body downward and for-ward by bending legs and spine.

CRAWLING - Moving about on hands and knees or hands and feet.

REACHING - Extending hand(s) and arm(s) in any direction.
HANDLING - Seizing, holding, grasp-ing, turning, or otherwise working with hand or hands.
Fingers are involved only to the extent that they are an extension of the hand.

FINGERING - Picking, pinching, or otherwise working primarily with fingers rather than with the
whole hand or arm as in handling.

FEELING - Perceiving attributes of objects, such as size, shape, temperature, or texture, by
touching with skin, particularly that of fingertips.

Physical Demands (auditory)

TALKING - Expressing or exchanging ideas by means of the spoken word. Talking is important
for those activities in which workers must impart oral information to clients or to the public,
and in those activities in which they must convey detailed or important spoken instructions to
other workers accurately, loudly, or quickly.

HEARING - perceiving the nature of sounds. Used for those activities which require ability to
receive detailed information through oral communication, and to make fine discriminations in
sounds, such as when making fine adjustments on running engines.

Physical Demands (taste/smell)

TASTING/SMELLING - Distinguishing, with a degree of accuracy, differences or similarities in
intensity or quality of flavors and/or odors, or recognizing particular flavors and/or odors, using
tongue and/or nose.

Physical Demands (vision)

NEAR ACUITY - Clarity of vision at 20 inches or less. Use this factor when special and minute
accuracy is demanded.

FAR ACUITY - Clarity of vision at 20 feet or more. Use this factor when visual efficiency in terms
of far acuity is required in day and night/dark conditions.

DEPTH PERCEPTION - Three-dimensional vision. Ability to judge distances and spatial
relationships so as to see objects where and as they actually are.

ACCOMMODATION - Adjustment of lens of eye to bring an object into sharp focus. Use this
factor when requiring near point work at varying distances.

COLOR VISION - Ability to identify and distinguish colors.
FIELD OF VISION - Observing an area that can be seen up and down or to right or left while eyes
are fixed on a given point. Use this factor when job performance re-quires seeing a large area
while keeping the eyes fixed.

Environmental Conditions and Physical Surroundings - exposure results in marked bodily

EXPOSURE TO WEATHER - Exposure to hot, cold, wet, humid, or windy conditions caused by the

EXTREME COLD - Exposure to non weather-related cold temperatures.

EXTREME HEAT - Exposure to non weather-related hot temperatures.

WET AND/OR HUMID - Contact with water or other liquids; or exposure to nonweather-related
humid conditions.

NOISE - Exposure to constant or intermittent sounds or a pitch or level sufficient to cause mark
ed distraction or possible hearing loss.

VIBRATION - Exposure to a shaking object or surface. This factor is rated important when
vibration causes a strain on the body or extremities.

ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS - Exposure to conditions such as fumes, noxious odors, dusts,
mists, gases, and poor ventilation, that affect the respiratory system, eyes or, the skin.

CONFINED/RESTRICTED WORKING ENVI-RONMENT - Work is performed in a closed or locked
facility providing safety and security for clients, inmates, or fellow workers.

Equipment Used

office equipment such as computer, typewriter, projector, casette player/recorder.

hand tools (e.g., hammer, shovel, screwdriver)

power tools (e.g., radial saw, reciprocating saw, drill, pheunomatic hammer)

vehicles (e.g., automobile, truck, tractor, lift)

 Uses of Job Analysis

Good personnel management demands both the employee and the employer to have a clear
understanding of the duties and responsibilities to be performed on a job. Job analysis helps in
this understanding by drawing attention to a unit of work and its linkage with other units of
work. More specifically, the uses of job analysis may be summarized thus:

Human resource planning: Job analysis helps in forecasting human resource requirements in
terms of knowledge and skills. By showing lateral and vertical relationships between jobs, it
facilitates the formulation of a systematic promotion and transfer policy. It also helps in
determining quality of human resources needed in an organization.

Recruitment: Job analysis is used to find out how and when to hire people for future job
openings. An understanding of the skills needed and the positions that are vacant in future
helps managers to plan and hire people in a systematic way. For example, a company might be
traditionally hiring MBA students for equity research. A recent job analysis showed that the
positions could be filled by graduates with an analytical mind. Now, this would help the
company hire equity analysts from a greater number of available graduates by offering even a
slightly lesser salary.

Selection: Without a proper understanding of what is to be done on a job, it is not possible to
select a right person. If a Super bazaar manager has not clearly identified what a clerk is to do,
it is difficult to find if the person selected must be able to position stores items, run a cash
register, or keep the account books.

Placement and orientation: After selecting people, we have to place them on jobs best suited
to their interests, activities and aptitude. If we are not sure about what needs to be done on a
job, it is not possible to identify the right person suited for the job. Similarly, effective job
orientation cannot be achieved without a proper understanding of the needs of each job. To
teach a new employee how to handle a job, we have to clearly define the job.

Training: If there is any confusion about what the job is and what is supposed to be done,
proper training efforts cannot be initiated. Whether or not a current or potential job holder
requires additional training can be determined only after the specific needs of the jobs have
been identified through a job analysis.

Counseling: Managers can properly counsel employees about their careers when they
understand the different jobs in the organization. Likewise, employees can better appreciate
their career options when they understand the specific needs of various other jobs. Job analysis
can point out areas that an employee might need to develop to further a career.

Employee safety: A thorough job analysis reveals unsafe conditions associated with a job. By
studying how the various operations are taken up in a job, managers can find unsafe practices.
This helps in rectifying things easily.
Performance appraisal: By comparing what an employee is supposed to be doing (based on job
analysis) to what the individual has actually done, the worth of that person can be assessed.
Ultimately, every organization has to pay a fair remuneration to people based on their
performance. To achieve this, it is necessary to compare what individuals should do (as per
performance standards) with what they have actually done (as per job analysis).

Job design and redesign: Once the jobs are understood properly, it is easy to locate weak spots
and undertake remedial steps. We can eliminate unnecessary movements, simplify certain
steps and improve the existing ones through continuous monitoring. In short, we can redesign
jobs to match the mental make-up of employees.

Job evaluation: Job analysis helps in finding the relative worth of a job, based on criteria such
as degree of difficulty, type of work done, skills and knowledge needed, etc. This, in turn, assists
in designing proper wage policies, with internal pay equity between jobs.


The company is giving more stress on employee empowerment by giving them right to
participate in decision making speacially those decision which directly affect the employee

Also the company gives the subordinates the right to work on the behalf of its supervisor in
absence of him.

Manpower Planning:

Manpower planning Manpower Planning (or Workforce Planning) is the process by which an
organisation determines its human resource management needs and issues, and develops and
implements plans to address them. The starting point for any human resources planning will be
the strategic plan of the business. This will give a long-term focus for Human Resources
planning. There are 4 logical stages to the manpower planning process. 1. Situation Analysis
This defines the "world" in which the organisation is planning for its manpower both externally
and internally. 2. Manpower Demand This is the activity, which links with the business and
financial planning activities within the organisation. It involves determining the current and
future requirements for key jobs. 3. Manpower Supply This involves analysing the numbers and
skills (and development capability) of people who are likely to be employed by the organisation
over a given time period. It should enable managers to understand what skills

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Human Resources Training

seminars, workshops and courses to make the most out of staff.
An executive search company firm, HR Matters pride ourselves as partners to our clients, to
help them fulfill their human resource requirements.
 We aim to identify and select the best-fit candidates within the shortest, possible time.
 We know your demands are exacting, and you need more than just a usual recruitment agency.
This is why we insist our recruitment consultants undergo a stringent selection process.

Only a select few make the grade to be with us.

Every consultant at HR Matters is hand picked for their in-depth industry knowledge and
commercial experience. We require top performers who have excelled in their field, just as you
do too. And because our consultants understand your market they know where and how to find
right people for your human resource needs.

We know the success of our search relies on professionalism, integrity and discipline. We want
you to know that this is the usual standard at hr matters.

HR Matters will maintain the highest degree of integrity while meeting the needs of our clients.
We recognize that our clients are the purpose of our existence and that our continued
existence is dependent upon our ability to continuously add value to the business of our clients.
We strive to maintain the highest standards whilst contributing to the success of our clients.

To the inexperienced, gathering business requirements may appear to be a simple process;
simply ask the user what they want. However, this is often one of the most difficult and critical
tasks a project manager must undertake. The quality and realism of the requirements gathering
process is a primary make or break' Project Management task. If the requirements lack
adequate definition, the project will fail to achieve its goals. Communications gaps that exist
between the business-savvy sponsor and the technical-minded analyst often increase the
complexity of defining business requirements. In many instances, neither party is willing or able
to adopt the dialect of the other. This is why it is critical that that the Project Manager
document a clear understanding of each requirement, couched in terms that all parties agree .

The typical executive business sponsor will frame the request in broad terms, often phrased to
coincide with the broader strategic goals of the organization. Sometimes, this phraseology is a
result of not understanding how to define the key deliverables to others. This frequently
happens when an executive instructs a subordinate to have IT develop a solution. What the
subordinate perceives as the project definition may vary significantly from what the executive
intend to convey.

To complicate the situation even more, the technology representative may have a different
interpretation of the requirements. Unfortunately, in many cases, the technology
representative enters the requirements gathering process with a preconceived (or pre-
designed) solution and meets with the stakeholder out of courtesy. The technology
representative agrees with the sponsor on the definition of the requirements, and then begins
working on the pre-designed solution, disregarding the input from the sponsor.

The results of this situation are as predictable as they are historical. The sponsors do not
receive a product that meets their needs and scope creep and poor design consume the
project. For all practical purposes, the project fails.

Some technology organizations like to consider themselves to be lean and agile' and
consequently accept the broad, generalized requirements statements, with the expectation
that the business analysts and developers will flesh out' the requirements to meet the needs of
the organization. They feel it is too much work to gather and document this information at the
beginning of the project.
In most cases, this represents flawed logic because there is an implied expectation for the
analysts and developers to finish the requirements definitions, based on historical activities.
This negates any agility and innovation the organization may try to achieve because the
technology department holds the organization captive to how things have always been done'.

In many instances, this kind of thinking from the technology department represents laziness.
Some technology managers have claimed that requirements gathering and planning require too
much work and that the developers should just begin coding because the requirements will
change anyway.

In order to control scope creep and ensure that the project team is accurately capturing the
stakeholder requirements to fulfill their expected needs, we have borrowed the SMART
objectives definition from the Human Resource industry and applied them to our requirements
gathering and definition process. In this manner, every requirement must be specific,
measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bound.

SMART stands for:
1. Specific - Requirements should specify what they are to achieve.
2. Measurable - The requirements should provide a metric whereby all stakeholders can
determine if the objectives are being met.
3. Achievable - Are the requirements' objectives achievable and attainable?
4. Realistic - Are the requirements realistic with respect to the available resources?
Using SMART Requirements, the intent is to engage in a partnership with the stakeholders in
such a fashion to ensure that all parties agree on exactly what the deliverables are and how to
measure performance to those deliverables accurately. Without any agreed upon definition of
measurement, determining completion is impossible. One way to accomplish this is to use and
enforce SMART Requirements gathering.

By asking focused questions relevant to each SMART component, the Project Manager can
ensure that the needs of the business are documented and communicated in terms understood
by all stakeholders. The Project Manager must continue to ask questions until the requirements
of the deliverables are defined accurately in accordance with the SMART concept. One must be
aware that there may be multiple distinct requirements for a single deliverable and that each
requirement mandates documentation with the SMART concept as a unique line item.

We require that the stakeholder provide SPECIFIC definitions of their requirements. The Project
Manager clarifies the requirements through a process of progressive elaboration. Remember
that a single requirements deliverable may decompose into multiple Work Breakdown
Structure (WBS) tasks, each one possibly requiring its own distinct resource. The Project
Manager must continually ask probing questions that force the sponsor to identify exactly what
is desired. Without specific definition of the deliverable, delivery is impossible.

Once defined, the requirements team must ensure that the requirement is MEASURABLE. This
metric can relate to the bottom line, sales, performance improvements, or virtually any other
aspect of the business that is quantifiable. There must be a method of determining when that
requirement has been met. The Project Manager must define this measurement clearly in
terms that all parties understand

One critical aspect of any requirement is that it must be ACHIEVABLE. If a goal or requirement is
unachievable with reasonable resources, then the purpose of that goal or requirement is
questionable. An unachievable requirement may result from lack of understanding the goal or
the capabilities of the organization and project team. While unachievable requirements are
questionable, some requirements that are unachievable in the present may become feasible in
the future.

The requirement must be REALISTIC. An unrealistic goal or requirement represents a waste of
organizational resources and may run counter to the best interests of the business. Obviously,
the Project Manager must cull unrealistic goals and requirements from the project portfolio.
The organizational cost, time, resource, and quality constraints help define the realistic aspect
of a requirement.

Any goal or business requirement must be TIME-BOUND. That is, there must be a reasonable
time or duration expectation for the performance and completion of that requirement. Without
a relationship to a time component, there is no sense of urgency and the deliverable assumes a
very low priority among competing efforts. Open-ended requirements are a recipe for disaster.
In many instances, the stakeholder and Project Manager or Business Analyst may be able to
define a business time constraint.
However, in some cases, the developer will provide this time estimate. In this instance, it is
preferable that the person doing the actual work be the one to provide the most likely'
estimate of task duration. Using PERT, the Project Manager and Business Analyst can provide
the optimistic and pessimistic task duration estimates to bring the developer's estimate into
line, if necessary.

Using SMART project requirements can improve technology projects by:
  Clearly defining the work requirements to the team members. (Each project team member
must have specific knowledge of what is required and when it is needed.)
  Allowing the Quality Assurance team to understand the specific needs of the project (This
helps reduce gold-plating' and QA-induced scope creep)
  Ensuring that the stakeholders have a document that outlines the original project
requirements that they developed and agreed with. (It is common for executives to experience
an altered perception of the project deliverables as business needs change.)
Competencies         (also    known       as       Knowledge,      Skills    and     Abilities )
Characteristics that contribute to successful job performance and the achievement of
organizational results. These include specific knowledge, skills, abilities, attributes and/or
qualities. These may be obtained through formal or non-formal education, work experience, or
other means.

Competencies, Organizational (or Core )

Competencies that apply across all levels and units of the organization.Also, competencies that
identify the most critical competencies for organizational success.

Competency Model

A set of competencies for a specific occupation, title series, or level in the organization that,
when demonstrated by an employee, is likely to produced successful job performance and
organizational results. The model is often developed by studying what top performers do in the
defined job context.
Core Competencies

See Competencies, Organizational (or Core )

An individual who performs work under the direction and control of an employer and is paid by
that employer.

Employee Development
A process for preparing employees for future job responsibilities. This may include formal and
informal training, education, mentoring, coaching etc.


Refers to the entire state administrative/executive system. On a smaller scale, any systems or
organizations that share, interact or engage with each other in one or more business function,
service, program, activity, etc.

Exit Interview
An interview with an employee who is leaving the organization. The purpose is to collect
information which, when aggregated with the responses of other exiting employees, can guide
decisions to improve overall organizational effectiveness and retention. This information would

The employee s impressions of the organization s strengths and areas for improvement;

The employee s reason(s) for leaving.

Fill Target

The number of individuals needed to fill the positions available in a given category or level.

FTE (Full-Time Equivalent)

Personnel fill targets (how many individuals are needed to fill the positions available) are
often expressed this way. The FTE may be fewer than the number of actual people because of
part-time employees (e.g. two half-time employees equals one FTE).

A major responsibility of a program or agency, with particular outcomes and outputs for
internal or external customers. E.g. computer application systems development; contract
management; customer problem resolution; auditing.


Any discrepancy between two things being assessed. In this case, it will most likely be between
the current state and a projected future state. The gap may be negative (not currently enough
positions or KSA s to address the future need, or positive (more positions or staff with particular
KSA s currently than will be needed in the future). Possible gap areas include:

Staff supply and staff need/demand

Competencies/KSA s needed compared to those currently available among staff in the
identified positions

Gap Analysis

The process of comparing information from the supply analysis and the demand analysis to
identify the differences, or "gaps." Gap analysis identifies situations in which the number of
personnel or competencies in the current work force will not meet future needs, as well as
situations in which current work force personnel or competencies exceed the needs of the
future. Gap analysis also applies to the comparison of employee competencies with a
competency model for a target occupation, level or title series.

Generational Diversity

The extent to which the employee population of an organization represents, or is influenced by,
people of the generations available in the general workforce. The organization s ability to
maximize the variety of thought, needs, and responses based on generation. Categories may

The Greatest Generation: People born between World War I and the mid-1920 s (more of an
influence than a substantial presence in the workforce)

The Silent Generation: People born between 1925 and 1945.

Baby Boomers: People born between 1946 and 1964.

Generation X: People born between 1965 and 1980.

Generation Y: People in the workforce who were born in 1981 or later.

Individual Development Plan (IDP)
A document developed by both the employee and supervisor which includes an assessment of
the employee's current skills, and an outline of the way in which the employee will develop the
knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to meet changing organizational needs and
environmental demands and/or prepare to achieve future career goals.

Job Analysis
A process for collecting information that describes in detail the criteria for successful job
performance. Typically, job analysis focuses on tasks, responsibilities, knowledge and skill
requirements, and any other abilities for successful job performance.

Job Description
A written summary of the tasks, responsibilities and duties of a job.

Knowledge, Skills and Abilities (KSAs)

See Competencies

An informal relationship where, on an ongoing basis, a more experienced individual offers
guidance and/or career advice to a less experienced colleague.

The introduction of a new employee to the organization and his/her job.

Organizational Competencies

See Competencies, Organizational (or Core )

Organizational Intervention Strategies

Steps an organization may take to ensure appropriate staff are properly deployed to achieve
program objectives and move the organization in the desired direction. Examples include staff
redeployment, reorganization, or organizational restructuring.

Performance Management
A process where the manager and employee establish goals and the plan for achieving them.
The goals are based on the operational plan of the organization and include plans for employee

A guide that establishes the parameters for decision making and action.

A budgeted line item assigned duties and responsibilities that can be performed by one person.

Process for finding and attracting suitable applicants.

The process of screening applicants to ensure that the most appropriate applicant is hired.

Skill Set

A group of skills, knowledge, and abilities that, taken together, is necessary for the proficient
performance of a particular function.

Strategic Direction

The primary goal(s) an organization plans to achieve as contained in its strategic plan, if
available. It may also be determined as a part of Step I in the Seven Step Workforce Planning

Strategic Planning

Strategic planning is the process an organization engages in to develop its medium and long-
range goals and plans, or its strategic direction . Leaders use strategic planning to define the
organization s direction. (See strategic direction".)

Succession Planning
The process of identifying and developing individuals with a high potential for taking on
leadership positions.A process designed to ensure the continued effective performance of an
organization by providing for the development and replacement of key people over time.
Succession planning is generally considered to be a strategy of work force planning.

Providing an employee with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform her/his current job.

The number of people who leave an organization during a set period of time (such as a year).
The turnover rate is calculated as a percentage of the average number of employees during the
same period.

Work Function
See Function

Workforce Planning

A systematic process for identifying the human resources required to meet organizational goals
and developing strategies to meet those requirements. It defines the activities necessary to
have "the right people with the right skills in the right positions at the right time.

                                      LABOUR RELATIONS

The company is paying more attention to strengthen the relationship among employees by
giving them equal opportunities to take advantage of the firm s incentives, because no biasness
among employees is practiced in the firm which affects the good relations among employees.


PEPSICO employs through both formal and informal ways of recruitment. Departments tell
their need to HR department. And then recruitment is done on the requirement by the project.
All candidates send their CV s by post; they are then short listed and called. So those candidates
then report at the PEPSICO from where they are sent to the Human Resource Department for
further interviews. But recently PEPSICO hasdevised a new way of recruitment i.e. Online
Applications. They give Ads in leading newspaper and use some other mass media
communication channels and then receive applications and CV s online. In this way huge paper
work is reduced and recruitment process is improved in terms of efficiency and convenience
with the use of technology.

                                     Sources of Recruitment

PEPSICO uses both Internal and External Recruitment. But the priority is given to the internal if
the employee has the capabilities, required by the management for working on that post. In
Internal recruitment they ask for employee referrals. Any employee can refer any competent
and potential person and if the referred person comes up to their expectations and hired, then
the one who referred is rewarded with a bonus. In External environment the company s
corporate Image matters a lot in a way that not only new candidates are attracted but also
people who became a part of it in past.
                                         Internal Methods

PEPSICO usually prefers Job Posting in which employees from with in the organization are
preferred but if the organization feels that the employee is not competent enough then they go
for external methods. Such announcements are made through bulletin boards, memos and
other internal sources.

                                         External Methods

PEPSICO usually prefers advertising through newspapers and their official website for their
recruitment purposes. They give an open invitation to everyone to apply, so people who are
interested come and if they are capable enough they are hired. They don t prefer any specific
universities or colleges to get the applicants, what matters are the potential talent and caliber
of the person and his commitment to work. Last year a scheme is started in which a

 team of HR professionals visit different colleges and universities to recruit fresh and passionate

Strategies for Recruitment

The recruitment process is likewise the same but minutely varies in the organization depending
upon the ranks. In recruitment PEPSICO keeps certain things in front e.g.

     What the person was getting (in terms of salary) prior to PEPSICO s Job.

     Whether the person is polished enough to adjust in their environment.

   Whether he or she has the required technical skills or the required qualification for that
specific job.

In PEPSICO they surely see qualifications but they prefer a person with required skills,
aptitudes, experience and capabilities.

Job descriptions, as a management tool, can greatly simplify an organization's human resource


1-     The factor of succession planning is prevailing

2-    They use the right techniques in recruiting.

1- At the time of the recruitment the most suitable and appropriate employee may not be


In PEPSICO, selection Criteria is based on numerous factors such as education, health,
background and previous experience

Selection process

                                      1.   The Application

The employment application is candidate s first chance to present his qualifications to the
Organization. As such, it is extremely critical for his/her continued participation in the
examination process. Before beginning, one has to review thoroughly what the Job
Announcement specifies as the requirements to qualify for the position. Candidate must meet
these criteria to be considered for the position; ensure that, otherwise candidate will be
wasting his effort in completing the application. Most entries on the form are self-explanatory,
but a few pointers on filling it out may help

                                       2. Written Exams:

Written exams are usually obtained from one of several test construction firms available to
them. These tests are designed to determine level of technical and/or analytical abilities
associated with the particular position for which candidate had applied. The test which is
conducted in PEPSICO selection purpose is TEST OF COGNITIVE ABLITIES. This test is mostly
taken from fresh graduates. Whereas, some people are selected on the basis of experience.

                                    3. Performance Exams:

Performance exams test ability to accomplish specific job-related tasks by providing the
opportunity to actually perform them. These tests are scheduled through the Human Resources
Department office, with notification in writing of the date, time, location and duration of the
test. Instructions will be given on the tasks to be completed and then asked to complete them.
Individuals with considerable relevant experience will conduct the evaluations. Safety, quality
of work, adaptability, performance under stress, etc. are evaluated.

4. Specialized Testing

Some positions will require specialized testing, such as technical skills, agility and
communication skills etc. These tests are scheduled just as like other tests.

                                       5. The Panel Interview

The results of this component of the exam process will be used to determine if candidate
should be included on the List of Eligible Candidates forwarded to the hiring authority for
consideration for a departmental Selection Interview.

This portion of the examination is normally weighted 100% (or as indicated on the Job
Announcement). Typically, previous test results are used only to qualify you for participation in
the Panel Interview.

The Panel is comprised of qualified individuals, which may or may not be employees of the City.
Normally, the panel will consist of three evaluators. These individuals will evaluate responses to
a variety of job-related questions over the scheduled time period.

                                      6. The Selection Interview

Once the List of Eligible Candidates is established it is sent to the Department(s) that is hiring to
fill a current vacancy. The Department Head is responsible for setting up Selection Interviews.
He/she may interview anyone on the list, since all persons referred to the department are
qualified. The Department Head will be looking for the candidate with the best qualifications
for their particular position. The candidate selected to fill the vacancy will undergo a medical
examination, drug screen, background investigation, and a probationary period before attaining
permanent employment status.

1-     They implement a crucial testing system which affects the selection process.

2-     They have a separate selection criteria for each job.


     They take group interview which causes many confusion.

                                  TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT
 PEPSICO has trained and developed many of its senior and fast track managers and
supervisors. For lower and technical staff the organization have a complete training calendar
for the year, if organization thinks and feel that an employee requires training to update his
knowledge about the field, he just have to report the HR department and he will be listed for
the next training program.

Training programs vary according to the needs of the employees. It is the responsibility of the
HR department to arrange the training outside or develop inside after consulting the head of

Attachment of new employees with seniors on practical basis how done adopt most
professional environment.Trainings are provided according to the recommendation of head of
department. He can better know what the weaknesses his staff has.

Trainings are provided according to the recommendation of head of department. He can better
know what the weaknesses his staff has.

On-the-job Training:

  As compared to other competitive organizations the training program of PEPSICO is quite
different. It provides full opportunity to its employee to develop themselves and also train
them according to the requirements of their job. In return they will be greatest asset for their
organization. The employee is being trained in many ways while they are on job.

External sources

These are formal training opportunities that PEPSICO offers to employees either internally or
externally. A trainer, facilitator and/or subject matter expert are brought into the organization
to provide the training session or an employee are be sent to one of these learning
opportunities during work time. These training opportunities are provided in the form of
seminars, classroom training courses and workshops.


1-   They hire foreign instructor for the training of the employees

2- The employees after getting trained perform well and become able to maximize their


1- The factor of favoritism effect the performance of certain employees.

The jobs are evaluated on yearly basis under 360o method; the competent employees are
rewarded in shape of promotions, bonus, increments and annual holidays and promotion. The
results of an appraisal can be used to identify areas for further development of the employee.

The organization also uses different questionnaires, which consist of numerous questions about
the behavior of the employee, and then on the basis of these answers personality of the
employee is judged.

When evaluation is made the unsatisfactory performers are given warning. The employee after
warning is put under observation, for some period of time and if the employees performance is
still unsatisfied then are demoted or fired.

All services are mentioned in below points like insurance, subsidized canteen, staff welfare fund


   y   Promotion

Promotion is direct shift only to the next level from the current grade, the employee s
performance is evaluated and if his performance is above average he is given promotion.
PEPSICO promotes only those candidates who are experienced and eligible for that particular

   y   Increments

The company decides at the end of the financial year, according to its financial condition,
whether increments should be given or not.

   y   Free transport

PEPSICO provide free transport to local employee.

   y   Medical facility

PEPSICO provide free medical facility to workers depending upon the position/rank of the

   y   House loans:
They give the facility of house loan only to deserving individual. The loan approval depends
upon the post of the employee.

   y   Overtime payment:

Overtime payment is pay for only those workers who are working more than their working
hours mostly overtime payment is given to low level staff.

Salary Administration:

Salaries are remains confidential in our company so no one knows the salary of other
employees.As per the Govt. law which is currently 7000.

Management staff salaries are transfer to bank accounts and less than 10,000 paid in cash.

Maximium age of employee is 60 years. Provident Fund and loan against salary is available

Pepsi products are given free to the employees. Different quantity based on seniority.

18 Year. Recruitment without CNIC is not allowed.

Through performance evaluation forms filled by head of department.

Yes one annual bonus and special bonus based on performance.

Industrial Relations:

Good working conditions are provided.

The mission and Nature ofAssociation is to provide quality beverages to the people of the
Pakistan and to enhance human stewardship of the natural world by providing the citizens of
the greater Pakistan with Quality .provide them the full opportunity to learn.provide them the
full opportunity to learn.

System of communication:
Communication in organizations encompasses all the means, both formal and informal, by ...
Almost all companies of any size have some regular method of keeping in touch with every
Yes within the organization to all and outside to selected staff.

Through email, internal web portal and automatic message on desktop from IT department.
Telephone, mobile and email facility is available.

particular problems:

poor tone of Voice,
 Poor Listening Skills,
 Not responding promptly.
Lack of Trust.

Poor Tone of Voice

          When customers call a business, they hope to get someone on the line who is helpful,
       friendly and positive. When you answer the phone, your tone of voice communicates a
       message to your customer in the first few seconds. Your tone of voice may let the
       customer know that you are excited about the opportunity to serve her and solve her
       problems. You may instead communicate that she is a bother and a waste of your time.
       If you make your customers feel this way, you will lose customers. Don't create a
       problem where none exists. Smile before answering the phone, and the customer will
       hear that smile in your voice.

Poor Listening Skills

          If you don't listen fully to each message left by your customers, you will likely miss a
       key piece of information that will help you to solve his problem. Interrupting someone
       on the phone is rude, but it also shows your lack of willingness to help. Don't listen with
       the intention of gathering evidence to explain why your company is right and the
       customer is wrong. Instead, listen with an open mind and a willingness to change your
       viewpoint if you are wrong. When speaking with employees, don't assume you are right
       until you've heard the other side of the story.

Not Responding Promptly

           In business communication, it is important to answer requests for information
       promptly. If a customer contacts you, he may be waiting on information from you
       before deciding to purchase your product or service. Even if you don't have the
       information he needs, respond quickly with a promise to follow up in a timely manner.
       An email auto responder delivers a quick response that communicates value to your
       customer. Check and respond to voice mails and emails at least once a day. If a
        customer waits longer than 24 to 48 hours for a response from you, you will likely lose
        his business.


          Many customers approach business with their guard up. They are concerned that they
        won't receive the whole truth from you. People are concerned about hidden fees and
        unpleasant surprises. They are concerned that you will tell them anything to secure the
        sale. Don't promise something your company can't deliver, and offer a guarantee to
        reduce or eliminate the risk of doing business with you. Give customers a reason to trust
        you, and keep that trust by sticking to your word and fulfilling your promises.


           In business, finding the cause of recurring problems is important. Sometimes,
        however, the fault finding becomes personal and unproductive. The goal of identifying
        mistakes should be correcting the problem going forward. Finding what went wrong and
        how to fix it is a much better use of time than finding out who is to blame.

Negotiations with Unions:
In general opinion of HR department Pakistan s environment union is burden on the company.
Cause the suitable environment is not available in the country of Pakistan for business or to
promote the activities of the union for the welfare of the company.

Building High Performance Workplaces

The Union Approach


(1) Why productivity matters (2) High Performance Work (3) What are the ingredients for HPW?

(4) High Performance techniques in manufacturing


(1) The union-employer relationship (2) How do unions get involved in creating HPW?

(3) Checklist criteria for engagement (4) Negotiating the terms of engagement

(5) Taking an industry view (6) Limitations of HPW (7) Conclusion

        Improving employment security. Creating more satisfying work. Improving living
        Providing rewards for contributions. Creating healthier, safer, cleaner and tidier
        Strengthening union membership.

       This approach means a drive to improve productivity will work for workers as well as for
      business. Crucial to achieving this is making sure workers have a voice in the decisions
      about their work. Unions are opposed to the command and control way that many
      managers operate and are putting forward more worker-friendly alternatives. workers
      have tremendous knowledge and insights about their job, their place of work and their
      industry which is often left untapped, and we want to change that. We want to see
      more and more high performance workplaces (HPWs) in Pakistanthat provide the best
      quality working life for members. High Performance Workplaces are characterised by
      improving productivity, good employment relations and high levels of worker

Having a good work environment is more than a nice to have

      We spend approximately a third of our time at work, which means having a poor work
      environment can hugely impinge on our wellbeing. By taking a more progressive
      approach we can improve job quality and more successfully address a range of issues in
      the workplace that may cause conflict and tension, from hours of work to health and
      safety, from rewards and recognition to work organization and work flow.

Workers are the difference

      In the knowledge economy, which is the type of economy that Pakistanis striving for, it
      is workers and their skills that make a difference. If workers and their unions are not
      involved in initiatives to improve performance at their workplace then initiatives are
      much less likely to succeed. Workers will lose interest if they don t have a real say in the
      changes the employer wants to introduce in the workplace and a share in the gains from
      positive change.

Unions keeping up with the play

      Employers will always be looking to increase productivity and profits irrespective of
      whether the union is on board or not. Put differently, if we don t come to the party then
      the party will carry on without us and we lose the opportunity to contribute to the
      change process! Not having input means we run the risk of members being
      disadvantaged by a drive to improve performance, the initiatives failing due to lack of
      buy-in and only the most powerful people in the company benefiting. So it is really
      important for us to come to the party and bring along our sound ideas of how to
      improve performance. In addition, many union members expect their union to be able
      to engage with the boss on business planning for the future. So not only are we
      meeting members expectations and looking out for our members best interests, we
      also helping to secure better social and economic wellbeing for workers by redefining
      the role of work in organization. This future is one where unions are much more than
      bargaining argents and grievance administrators.

Union members are the most committed

      Research tends to show that union members are concerned about the performance of
      the business they work for and want their union to work constructively with their
      employer to improve performance. Active unionists also have qualities that make them
      more likely to engage in HPW initiatives and want to make the business more successful.
      Union members tend to have

Improved health, safety and wellbeing for workers

      Greater worker wellbeing is another outcome of HPW. A productive workplace will put
      health and safety at the top of its business priorities. Often a natural outcome of
      process to improve productivity is making workplaces tidier, better organized and
      having more staff involvement. Improving health and safety also makes good economic
      sense for employers. Reducing workplace injuries means less time lost and can lead to
      reductions in ACC levies.

High Performance Work

      Ideal for low volume, highly innovative, niche production Compete on high quality
         Employment security: investment in training / high productivity Employees have
      knowledge/high participation in how work is carried out            Broader jobs with
      opportunities that require high skills and qualifications Flat organisational structure;
      direction towards self-management New pay systems: skill-based and knowledge-
      based reward systems, team-based incentives Management focus on support systems
      Wellbeing also addresses issues such as work/life balance and stress at work. The way
      HPW will be designed will help to develop less stressful workplaces and provide more
      flexible working hours.

     Teams are small groups of workers (often defined by the people who work in the same
     department or in the same area) who meet regularly to make decisions about everyday
     issues such as production requirements, work organisation, maintaining quality,
     scheduling, covering leave, working hours and meeting key performance indicators.
     Creating Productive Workplace Cultures
     For HPW to work well, the culture of the organisation may need to change. A HPW
     culture needs to be embedded amongst everyone, from the chief executive and senior
     management through to middle management, to the workers on the shop floor, so that
     even when people come and go the company sticks with it; it is a long-term
     commitment and in a medium-sized company the culture shift can take up to five years.
     Encouraging Innovation and Technology
     Innovation has two angles. One is about utilising research and developing or
     commercialising that research into new and improved products and services. The other
     angle is about finding the smartest way to carry out work so everything runs more
     efficiently. Innovation is often reliant on new machinery and technology that can help
     meet specific production requirements, reduce costs, waste and reworks, and increase
     volumes. Innovation is also dependent on workers, who
     can be the source of original ideas and are quite often the people who often turn bright
     ideas into a reality. However, the introduction of new technology can prove to be a
     dilemma for
     unions because it can sometimes result in job losses or can completely alter the work
     that existing workers do. Often problems emerge when new technology is introduced
     because those who are required to use it are involved too late in the process and
     sometimes are not trained adequately. So it is really important that the need for new
     technology is fully evaluated so businesses get the right tools for the job with the lowest
     impact on workers. To do this evaluation properly, workers have to be consulted.
     Investing in People and Skills
     Achieving high quality, meeting customers needs and building a culture of innovation
     require a workforce with a high level of technical skills, whilst devolving decision-making
     and using team-based work systems requires more generic skills such as leadership and
     communication. The knowledge held by workers is key to the future survival and growth
     of Organisation. This means companies should have a comprehensive training agenda to
     upskill and retain their current workforce.
     Highly skilled workers:
        Think beyond their own job role.          Have transferable skills.       Adapt to new
        Have better confidence to work under minimum supervision. Are enthusiastic and
      want to continuously improve. Are more efficient and effective. For workers, skills
      development and training translates into a better job with more career prospects and
      better pay scales.
      Organising Work
      Good work organisation includes good job design that promotes work/life balance,
      makes work more interesting and varied and means the time you spend at work is used
      much more efficiently. It should also make the most of people s skills and encourage
      more communication between staff and between managers and staff. This will make
      things flow more smoothly and reduce glitches and stoppages in the production
      process. For this to happen, it s important for the people who actually do the work to
      determine how it is organised.
      Networking and Collaborating
      Learning from other people s experiences and applying them to your own situation is a
      great way to make your attempts to reach high performance run much more smoothly.
      Unions can provide a great network to other workers and workplaces and will be
      collecting information on what techniques and methods have the best success rates.
      There are also a lot of other networks and organisations out there who can help. So if
      you re looking for some extra guidance then contact your union, talk to other workers,
      get in touch with some of the organisationsandlook at some of the initiatives listed on
      the next page.
      Measuring what Matters
      To know whether new work practices are working you must monitor performance.
      Monitoring will often look at a range of measures that will give you a before and after
      picture. It may include measuring how people are feeling as well as how well systems
      are operating. There needs to be a lot of consideration into what Key Performance
      Indicators you are going to measure: Workers need to be involved in identifying what
      performance indicators are measured. Workers should be kept up to date on how
      they re improving through current visual indicators being displayed in common areas.
      Workers become responsible for updating information and deciding how to
      continuously improve. All measuring should be done in a transparent way.

Recognition and reward

      Worker contributions need to be recognised. This is a tricky area of negotiations. If
      rewards are raised as the first item on the agenda then experience tells us that
      employers will get defensive and it could possibly derail further negotiations. So, one of
       the best times to broach the issue of rewards is when you discuss ways of measuring
       success and link these measures with a rewards mechanism.
       The Union-Employer Relationship

So, you may be thinking:

        HPW and worker participation is a good idea but the boss will never allow the union to
       get involved. The message unions want to convey to employers is that we are working
       a mutual goal of lifting performance. Better performance benefits each party in the
       following ways: Unions want to improve employment security and improve the living
       standards of their members.           Employers want to reduce staff turnover, lower
       absenteeism, improve efficiency, be more competitive and increase their profits. Our
       ability to contribute is totally dependent on the type of relationship we have with the
       employer. It s crucial that this relationship is conducted in good faith and built on trust.
       Although it may not necessarily be a relationship of mutual choice, it is one that both
       parties need to come to terms with if they want to meet the wants of both workers and
       their employers.

       The challenge is to create:
         Mature and steady relationships.
         Openness and honesty.
         Commitment for the long term.
       Needless to say, union involvement in creating HPW will be opposed by some employers
         sometimes more strongly than is normal on traditional work issues. Signing up to HPW
       means management have to share some of their control with the workforce, which is a
       big change for a lot of employers. Making that change happen usually takes time and
       can t be rushed. Nevertheless, employers usually warm to the idea once the positive
       results of union engagement and worker participation become apparent.

The role of management

       Management will need to make a long-term commitment and get buy-in throughout the
       entire management structure. And remember, HPW is not just an issue of what workers
       and their unions can do. Management must have the capacity, wit and patience to
       genuinely work with the union and the workforce to make the necessary changes.
       Accepting union/worker involvement as a token gesture where no real decision-making
       is involved will simply not cut it. Organisation must improve their productivity to survive
       in the global economy and this is going to require managers to manage very differently.
Management responsibilities

       Many management attempts to improve performance have been fragmented and half-
       hearted. To be successful, change must embrace the whole organization so that all
       from top to bottom are aware of it. To truly create HPW, a whole package of changes
       and activities will need to be implemented. The culture of the organisation must
       change so that the elements that make up HPW become so embedded in the business
       that they don t change, even if there is new management.

       The reason you need to decide on this is because: Rapid turnover of top management
       allows change processes to be completely abandoned. Workers, and especially union
       delegates, usually stay much longer at their workplace and generally have a greater
       commitment to the long term success of the business. CEOs need to give full support
       and commit to seeing the process through.

Training and skills requirements

       Participating in HPW will provide you with a variety of general skills and capabilities that
       are transferable in and outside of work. You should experience some general training
       around HPW, perhaps from the union or from an independent consultant. Those who
       work in facilitator roles or team leader roles will need to be trained to be able to
       perform their new responsibilities.
       Up-skilling, retraining and planning career paths through NZQA qualifications is also
       important if the business you work for is serious about adding value. All workers should
       be able to access work-related training that will offer better career opportunities.
       Consider electing a Learning Representative who can become a training champion in
       your workplace. Education to help improve basic literacy and numeracy might really
       help productivity at your workplace, especially if you or other workers on your site have
       English as a second language. The government offers a range of funding to help your
       employer send you or your work mates to these literacy and numeracy training
       schemes. If you work on a manufacturing site (dairy, food and related products,
       electricity supply, furniture, plastics and materials, printing, seafood, wood, and apparel
       or textile manufacturing) signing up to the Competitive Manufacturing Initiative (CMI)
       qualification programme may also be very useful

Unions and Industry Strategies
Unions are active in developing industry strategies. An example of this is the CTU s 2005
publication Your Job, Your Industry, Your Future . Unions are holding industry meetings
for delegates and officials to exchange experiences and learn from activities at different
workplaces and to work on pursuing the strategy. It is not unusual that due to this
ongoing dialogue employees and particular union delegates will know more about what
is happening across their industry than their managers do. Unions are also engaging at
the national industry level alongside business and Government and are increasingly
being recognised as key players in industry development. For example, unions are
contributing to a number of Government directed industry stakeholder groups such as:
   The Manufacturing Advisory Group, which has been set up to help develop initiatives
to support the manufacturing sector. It is being cochaired by the EPMU and Business.
  The Food and Beverage Task Force. The Timber Industry Strategy. It is important for
unions to pressure employers who don t work together to develop high standards for
the industry. One really vital area is industry training. German research shows clearly
that vocational training is far more effective when an employer association is involved
than when employers go it alone. For one thing it means one company alone is not
bearing the cost of training, only for others to poach the skilled employee to another
company. Training also becomes deeper and richer when it operates across an industry.
Labor union membership in the private sector has decreased dramatically in the past
few decades in the United States. But with the advent of a new union coalition Change
to Win, there has been a renewed emphasis by both the new group and the AFL-CIO to
recruit more members. Often these new recruits are in fields that normally weren't
Typically, if a labor union is trying to organize employees within a company, a few
telltale things occur. Often the process begins when an organizer who works for a union
contacts a number of employees. Or employees could contact the union on their own
accord. The union next will gather employees signatures, showing that they want the
union to represent them. The union needs signatures from 30 percent of the employees
in a proposed bargaining unit before asking the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
to hold an election.
The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) is the primary federal law governing the
relationship between labor unions and employers in the private sector. The NLRA
guarantees the rights of employees to organize and bargain collectively with their
employers. The NLRA provides for two primary processes by which a labor union can be
certified as the bargaining representative for a company's employees - the card check
and the secret-ballot election.
Disputes between management and labours:

   y   State intervention in industrial relations is essentially a modern development .

   y   Working Environment, Wage Rates , Management decisions, Part in Decision Making,

   y   With the emergence of the concept of welfare state, new ideas of social philosophy,

   y   national economy and social justice sprang up with result that industrial relation no

   y   Economic progress was a must.
   y   remains the concern of labour and management alone.

   y   List of strikes ,Strike action , Industrial unrest,Timeline of labor issues and events ,Art

   y   Berlitz Japan 2007 2008 Strike ,Bossnapping , Bull Moose Special

   y   Contingent work ,Contingent workforce ,Grievance (labour)Hilo Massacre ,

   y   Hot Autumn,Industrial action , Industrial Workers of the World tacticsInter-Enterprise
       Strike Committee ,Labor spies ,

   y   Labor unrest ,Lockout (industry)McJob, Occupation of factories,Organizational dissent ,

   y   Overtime ban


        most of the organization where union is prevailed they take union seriously.

       Many countries realized that for general progress to be assured,

       In no country is a complete laissez faire attitude now adopted in the matter of labour
       management relations.

       In all the countries, over a period of time, the state has assumed power to regulate
       industrial relations. It is the state which is now the most significant element in
       determining the legal environment within which industrial relations operate.2 Bean
       regarded state as an actor within industrial relations performing a number of distinct

       2 The distinct role that state performs are broadly, categorized by him as five. Firstly, it
       acts as a third party regulator promoting a legal framework which establishes general
ground rules for union-management inter-action, particularly in the procedure for
collective bargaining

3 . Secondly, and additionally, as a means of supporting and underpinning collective
bargaining or as a supplement to it the law can be used establish minimum standards
while collective bargaining exploits particular advantages to secure higher standards
whenever it can.

4 The third well established function in many countries is the provision of state service
for conciliation, mediation and arbitration with a view to facilitating the settlement of
industrial disputes. A fourth aspect of the role of the state that has become increasingly
important is that of a direct and primary participation as a major employer in the public
sector. In this respect, it influences the pattern of industrial relations by its own
behaviour and example. A fifth role that the state has come to play in many countries is
that of a regulator of incomes. As a result, direct and active state involvement in the
industrial relations has become much more pronounced in recent years.

.5 . Industrial Peace and industrial harmony may have the same meaning; but we are
inclined to think that the concept of industrial peace is somewhat negative and
restrictive. It emphasis absence of strife and struggle. The concept of industrial harmony
is positive and comprehensive and it postulates the existence of understanding
cooperation and a sense of partnership between the employers and the employees.
That is why we prefer to describe our approach as one is quest of industrial harmony.

6 Industrial Dispute means any dispute or difference between employer and employees
, or between employer and workmen or between workmen and workmen, which is
connected with the employment or non employment or the terms of employment or
with the conditions of Labour, or any person

7. The Scope the definition of Industrial Dispute is very wide. The words employment
and non employment in the definition are of widest amplitude and have been but in
juxtaposition to make the definition comprehensive . Any dispute concerned with
employment or non-employment constitute the subject matter of one class or
industrial disputes. The matters which can form subject matter industrial dispute are
enumerated in Second, Third and Fourth Schedule given at the end of Industrial Dispute

08 There are two types of Industrial Disputes-interest disputes and rights disputes.
Interest disputes relate to determination of new wage level and other condition of
employment while rights disputes on the other hand relate to interpretation and
application of existing standards and usually involve and individual worker or group of
       workers. Under category of rights disputes, claim is made that the workmen have not
       been treated in accordance with the rules, individual contracts of employment, laws and
       regulations and as per collective agreements. Such disputes are also described as
       grievance disputes. Such grievances may be regarding retrenchment ,dismissal, payment
       of wages, working time, overtime, demotion , promotion, transfer, seniority, job
       classification, work rules and fulfillment of obligation relating to safety and health laid
       down in an agreement. The definition of Industrial Dispute as given in the Act has a wide
       coverage. All disputes relating to employment or non- employment, or the terms of
       employment or with the condition of labour are covered under the definition.
       Settlement means a settlement arrived at in the course of conciliation proceeding and
       included a written agreement between employer and workmen arrived at otherwise
       than in course conciliation proceeding where such agreement has been signed by the
       parties there to in such manner as may be prescribed and a copy thereof has been sent
       to the officer authorized in this behalf by the appropriate government and the
       conciliation officer.

Procedures for settling labour dispute:

Collective Bargaining, Negotiation, Conciliation and Mediation, Arbitration and Adjudication are
well known methods for settlement of industrial disputes.

Collective Bargaining :- Collective Bargaining is a technique by which dispute as to conditions of
employment, are resolved amicably, by agreement, rather than by coercion. The dispute is
settled peacefully and voluntarily, although reluctantly, between labour and management.

       09 In the context of present day egalitarian society, with its fast changing social norms, a
       concept like collective bargaining is not a capable of a precise definition. The content
       and Scope collective bargaining also varies from country to country. Broadly Speaking
       Collective bargaining is a process of bargaining between employers and workers, by
       which they settle their disputes relating to employment or non-employment , terms of
       employment or conditions of the labour of the workman, among themselves, on the
       strength of the sanctions available to each side .

       10 Occasionally, such bargaining results in an amicable settlement, arrived at voluntarily
       and peacefully , between the parties. But quite often, the workers and employers have
       to apply sanctions by resorting to weapons of strike and lockouts, to pressurize one
       another, which makes both the sides aware of the strength of one another and that
       finally forces each of them to arrive at a settlement in mutual interest . It is thus the
       respective strength of the parties which determine the issue, rather than the wordy
       duals which are largely put on for show, as an element of strength in one party is by the
       same token, an element of weakness in another.

       11 The final outcome of bargaining may also depend upon the art, skill and dexterity of
       displaying the strength by the representatives of one party to the other.


Negotiation is one of the principal means of settling labour disputes. However, due to lack of
trust between the employers and workmen or their trade unions or inter-rivalry of the trade
unions and the employers being in a commanding position, many a time negotiations fail.
Through Amendment in the Act by Act 46 of 1982 Chapter II B providing for reference of certain
individual disputes to Grievance Settlement Authority has been inserted in the Act. Under this
Chapter, section 9 C has made it obligatory for the employers to make provision for Grievance
Settlement Authority for settlement of industrial disputes connected with an individual
workman employed in an establishment in which fifty or more workmen are employed or have
been employed on any day. In the preceding twelve months. This amendment however even
inspite of having been made twenty one years back has not seen the light of the day.

Conciliation & Mediation: Through conciliation and mediation a third party provides assistance
with a view to help the parties to reach an agreement. The conciliator brings the rival parties
together discuss with them their differences and assist them in finding out solution to their
problems. Mediator on the other hand is more actively involved while assisting the parties to
find an amicable settlement. Sometimes he submits his own proposals for settlement of their

Arbitration: The resort to arbitration procedure may be compulsory or arbitrary . Compulsory
arbitration is the submission of disputes to arbitration without consent or agreement of the
parties involved in the dispute and the award given by the arbitrator being binding on the
parties to the dispute. On the other hand in case of voluntary arbitration, the dispute can be
referred for arbitration only if the parties agree to the same. Section 10 A of the Act, however,
provides only for voluntary reference of dispute to arbitration. This system, however, has not
been widely practiced so far. One of the main reasons for not gaining popularly of this
procedure is lack of arbitrators who are able to command respect and confidence of the parties
to the dispute. Inter Union rivalry also sometimes makes it difficult in arriving at an agreement
on settlement of an arbitrator who is acceptable to all the trade unions in the industry.

Adjudication: If despite efforts of the conciliation officer , no settlement is arrived at between
employer and the workman, The Industrial Dispute a provides for a three tier system of
adjudication viz. Labour Courts , Industrial Tribunals and National Tribunals under section, 7 ,
7A and under section 7B respectively. Labour Courts have been empowered to decide disputes
relating to matters specified in the Second Schedule. These matters are concerned with the
rights of workers, such as propriety of legality of an order passed by an employer under the
standing orders, application and interpretation of standing orders, discharge or dismissal of
workman including reinstatement of grant of relief to workman wrongfully discharged or
dismissed, withdrawal of any customary concession or privilege and illegality or otherwise of a
strike or lockout. The industrial tribunal are empowered to adjudicate on matters specified in
both the Second and Third schedule i.e. both rights and interest disputes. The jurisdiction of the
Industrial Tribunal is wider that the labour courts.

Terms & conditions of employment:

1. Site Use

2. Unacceptable Site Use

3. User Information

4. Passwords.

5. The Company's Liability.

6. No Warranties.

7. Indemnification.

8. Limitation of Liability.

9. Links to Other Sites.


    1- Use of Material.

 The contents of the Websites, such as text, graphics, images, logos, button icons, software and
other content (the "Material"), are protected by applicable intellectual property and other laws.
All Material is the property of the Company or its content suppliers or clients. The compilation
(meaning the collection, arrangement and assembly) of all content on the Websites is the
exclusive property of the Company and are copyrights, trademarks, service marks, patents or
other proprietary rights of the Company or their respective intellectual property owners.
Unauthorized use of the Material may violate copyright, trademark and other laws. You must
retain all copyright, trademark, service mark, and other proprietary notices contained in the
original Material on any copy (permitted or not permitted) you make of any of the Material.
Except as expressly authorized by the Company, You agree not to modify, copy, reproduce, sell,
display, distribute, or create derivative works based on or contained within the Service or the
Company's Material, in whole or in part. The use of the Material on any other Website or in a
networked computer environment for any purpose is prohibited.

The Company grants you a personal, non-transferable and non-exclusive right and license to
use the Material on a single computer; provided that you do not copy, modify, create a
derivative work of, reserve engineer, decompile, reverse assemble or otherwise attempt to
discover any source code, sell, assign, sublicense, grant a security interest in or otherwise
transfer any right in the Material. You agree not to modify the Material in any manner or form,
or to use modified versions of the Material, including, without limitation, for the purpose of
obtaining unauthorized access to the Service by any means other than through the interface
that is provided by the Company for use in accessing the Service.

The Company reserves the right to terminate the accounts of Users who violate this

The Company and all of its affiliated companies respect the intellectual property of others, and
we ask our Users and content partners to do the same. The unauthorized reproduction,
copying, distribution, modification, public display or public performance of trademarked or
copyrighted works constitutes infringement of the owner's rights. As a condition to your use of
the Websites, you agree not to use the Websites to infringe the intellectual property rights of
others in any way. The Company will assist the respective owners of the various intellectual
properties in order that they may protect their rights to the fullest extent of both domestic and
international law. We reserve the right to take these actions at any time, in our sole discretion,
with or without notice and without any liability to any User.

2.   Acceptable Site Use.

The Websites may be used only for lawful purposes by individuals seeking to find out more
information or purchase the various products offered on the Websites.

3.   Prohibited Uses of the Websites.

 Users may not use or reference the Company's Websites in order to transmit, distribute, store
or destroy material in violation of any applicable law or regulation, in a manner that will
infringe the copyright, trademark, trade secret or other intellectual property rights of others or
violate the privacy, publicity or other personal rights of others, or that is defamatory, obscene,
threatening, abusive or hateful.
Users are prohibited from:

(a) accessing data not intended for such User or logging into a server or account which the User
is not authorized to access;

(b) attempting to probe, scan or test the vulnerability of a system or network or to breach
security or authentication measures without proper authorization;

(c) attempting to interfere with service to any User, host or network, including, without
limitation, via means of submitting a virus to the Websites, overloading, "flooding,"
"spamming," "mailbombing" or "crashing";

(d) sending unsolicited email, including promotions and/or advertising of products or services;

(e) forging any TCP/IP packet header or any part of the header information in any email or
newsgroup posting;

(f) using any device, software or routine to interfere or attempt to interfere with the proper
working of the Websites or any activity being conducted on the Websites;

(g) taking any action that imposes an unreasonable or disproportionately large load on the
Website's infrastructure;

(h) using or attempting to use any engine, software, tool, agent or other device or mechanism
(including, without limitation, browsers, spiders, robots, avatars and intelligent agents) to
navigate or search the Websites other than the search engine and search agents available from
the Company on the Websites as well as generally available third-party Web browsers;

(i) attempting to decipher, decompile, disassemble or reverse-engineer any of the software
comprising or in any way making up a part of the Websites;

(j) aggregating, copying or duplicating in any manner any of the materials or information
available from the Websites;

(k) framing of or linking to any of the materials or information available from the Websites
unless authorized to do so;

(l) providing false information of any kind.

4.   User Information.

When you contact the Company, you may be asked to provide the Company with certain
personal information including, without limitation, a valid email address ("Personal
Information"). Please review the Privacy Policies found on the Websites to understand how the
Company uses your Personal Information.


You expressly understand and agree that:

This site is for informational purposes only. The material, service, and information found on this
site are provided "as is," "with all faults" and "as available," and the entire risk as to satisfactory
quality, performance, accurancy, and effort is with you. To the maximum extent permitted by
applicable law, the company makes no representations, warranties or conditions, express or
implied. The company disclaims any and all warranties or conditions, express, statutory and
implied, including without limitation: warranties or conditions of merchantability, fitness for a
particular purpose, workmanlike effort, accuracy, title, quiet enjoyment, no encumbrances, no
liens and non-infringement and warranties or conditions arising through course of dealing or
usage of trade

There are no warranties that extend beyond the face of this agreement.

The company does not warrant that the functions of the site will be uninterrupted or error-free,
that defects will be corrected, or that this site or the server that makes it available are free of
viruses or other harmful components. The company does not warrant or make any
representations regarding the use or the results of the use of the material in this site in terms of
their correctness, accuracy, reliability, or otherwise.

6.   Disclaimer of liability

You expressly understand and agree that the company and its subsidiaries, affiliates, officers,
employees, agents, partners and licensors shall not be liable to you for any punitive, indirect,
incidental, special, consequential or exemplary damages, including, but not limited to, damages
for loss of profits, goodwill, use, data or other intangible losses (even if the company has been
advised of the possibility of such damages), resulting from: (a) the use or the inability to use the
company's service; (b) the cost of procurement of substitute goods and services; (c)
unauthorized access to or alteration of your transmissions or data; or (e) any other matter
relating to the service.This disclaimer of liability applies to any damages or injury caused by any
failure of performance, error, omission, interruption, deletion, defect, delay in operation or
transmission, computer virus, act of god/act of nature, communication line failure, theft or
destruction or unauthorized access to, alteration of, or use of record, whether for breach of
contract, tortious behavior, negligence, or under any other cause of action.The company does
not render legal or financial advice. The company specifically disclaims any liability, loss or risk
incurred directly or indirectly by the use of the websites, material, and service. If you need legal
or financial advice, please contact qualified professionals in your area. The company is not
involved with any decision-making or offers made from companies other than its own. The
company does not guarantee that your use of the websites will result in employment.


Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion of certain warranties or the limitation or exclusion
of liability for incidental or consequential damages. Accordingly, some of the above limitations
may not apply to you.

8.    Links to Other Sites.

The Websites may contain links to third-party websites. The Company provides these links as a
convenience only and does not endorse any of these sites. The Company is not responsible for
the content of linked third-party sites and does not make any representations regarding the
content or accuracy of materials on such third-party Websites. If you decide to access linked
third-party Websites, you do so at your own risk.

9.    No Resale or Unauthorized Commercial Use.

You agree not to reproduce, duplicate, copy, sell, trade, resell or exploit for any commercial
purposes, any portion or use of, or access to the Websites, Service or Material.

10.    Termination.

The Company reserves the right, at its sole discretion, to pursue all of its legal remedies upon
any breach by a User of this Agreement or if the Company is unable to verify or authenticate
any information a User submits to the Websites.

11.    Indemnity.

You agree to indemnify and hold the Company, its subsidiaries, affiliates, agents, shareholders,
officers, contractors, vendors and employees harmless from any claim or demand, including
reasonable attorneys' fees, made by any third party due to or arising out of your use of the
Service or Material, the violation of the Agreement by you, or the infringement by you, or any
other user of the Service or Material using your computer, of any intellectual property or other
right of any person or entity. The Company reserves the right to assume the exclusive defense
and control of any matter otherwise subject to indemnification by you.
12.   Reserved Right of Refusal.

 The Company, in its sole discretion, reserves the right to refuse fulfillment of your order, or
refuse you any involvement with the Service or Material, or to delete your assigned User name
and password if you breach any of the terms of this Agreement.

13    Modifications to Terms and Conditions.

 The Company reserves the right at any time and from time to time to modify or discontinue,
temporarily or permanently, the Service or Material (or any part thereof) with or without
notice. You agree that the Company shall not be liable to you or to any third party for any
modification, suspension or discontinuance of the Service or any Material.

14.   Email Policy.

 If you receive an email from the Company, its affiliates, advertisers, service providers, or other
third parties, your email address was obtained as a result of either your express and voluntarily
request to receive information from the Company, its affiliates, advertisers service providers, or
other third parties or your existing relationship with the Company, its affiliates, advertisers,
service providers, or other third parties. Each email sent contains an automated method to "opt
out" of receiving additional emails from the Company or its affiliates. If you no longer wish to
receive emails from the Company or its affiliates, please follow the instructions at the end of
any email. If you remove your information from the Company's database, it will no longer be
used by us for secondary purposes, disclosed to third parties, or used by us or third parties to
send promotional correspondence to you.

15.   Detailed Wireless Policy.

Data obtained from you in connection with this SMS service may include your name, address,
cell phone number, your provider's name, and the date, time, and content of your messages. In
addition to any fee of which you are notified, your provider's standard messaging rates apply to
our confirmation and all subsequent SMS correspondence. All charges are billed by and payable
to your mobile service provider. We will not be liable for any delays in the receipt of any SMS
messages, as delivery is subject to effective transmission from your network operator. SMS
message services are provided on an "AS IS" basis. You may opt-out and remove your SMS
information by sending "STOP", "END", or "QUIT" to the SMS text message you have received. If
you remove your SMS information from our database, it will no longer be used by us for
secondary purposes, disclosed to third parties, or used by us or third parties to send
promotional correspondence to you. You may also send an email to: textoptout@career- with your wireless number and the words "Stop", "Quit", or "End" in the body to
be removed.

16. Employer Posted Jobs.

Employer posted jobs represent job opportunities at actual employers or through employment
agencies. Career Network has received verification that each employer posted job listed on the
Career Network web site constitutes a job opening at the time the employer posted job was
initially listed. However, it is possible that certain of the employer posted jobs have
subsequently been filled. Career Network removes each job listing as requested by the

In some instances registered employers and/or employment agencies request that Career
Network repost jobs posted on their website onto the Career Network site. These are classified
as Employer posted jobs

Feature Jobs. The job description appearing on the prior screen is a description of a Feature
Job. A Feature Job is not an actual job. Rather, it constitutes a representative description of
actual jobs contained on the Career Network's web site that you can apply for once you have
completed Career Networks' Job Application. Upon completion of the Job Application screens,
you will be taken to a screen that contains job descriptions of employer posted jobs, and you
will be able to elect which jobs, if any, you want to apply for. You application will automatically
be sent to the employer whose job is

17.   Entire Agreement.

These Terms and Conditions constitute the entire agreement between you and the Company
and govern your use of the Services and Materials, superseding any prior version of this Terms
and Conditions between you and the Company. You also may be subject to additional terms
and conditions that may apply when you use or purchase certain other Company services,
affiliate services, third-party content or third-party software.

18.   Choice of Law and Forum.

This Agreement and the relationship between the parties will be exclusively governed by and
interpreted in accordance with the laws of the State of Florida, without regard to the conflicts
of laws principles thereof. The parties agree that any and all claims, causes of action or disputes
(regardless of theory) arising out of or relating to this Agreement, or the relationship between
you and the Company shall be brought exclusively in the courts located in Orange county
Florida or the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Florida. You agree to submit to the
personal jurisdiction of the courts located within Orange county Florida or the Middle District of
Florida, and agree to waive any and all objections to the exercise of jurisdiction over the parties
by such courts and to venue in such courts.

19.     Captions.

The section titles in this Agreement are for convenience only and have no legal or contractual

20.     Statute of Limitations.

You agree that regardless of any statute or law to the contrary, any claim or cause of action
arising out of or related to use of the Services, Materials, or these Terms and Conditions must
be filed within one

1) year after such claim or cause of action arose or be forever barred.

21.     Waiver and Severability of Terms.

The failure of the Company to exercise or enforce any right or provision of this Agreement shall
not constitute a waiver of such right or provision. If any provision of the Agreement is found by
a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, the parties nevertheless agree that the court
should endeavor to give effect to the parties' intentions as reflected in the provision, and the
other provisions of the Agreement remain in full force and effect.

      For increasing the profit of organization,
      For increasing of Sales volume,
      For increasing the Capital Formation,
      To show to itself as Market leader.
      To increasing the assests of the organization.

      Even as rewards are good motivators, it is not the only motivating factor around. People
      also get motivated when they are working for a leader who has the following traits:

             1. Good memory
                2. Genuine interest in people
                3. Integrity
                4. The ability to communicate effectively
                5. Decisiveness
                6. The ability to relax
                7. Genuine enthusiasm.

         Termination and dismissal clauses
Termination of employment is the end of an employee's duration with an employer.
Depending on the case, the decision may be made by the employee, the employer, or mutually
agreed upon by both.

Voluntary termination

Voluntary termination is a decision made by the employee to leave the job. Such a decision is
commonly known as "resignation," "quitting," "leaving," or "giving notice." Some common
reasons for voluntary termination include:

   y   Personal dissatisfaction with the job, employer, hours, or working conditions, or in more
       severe cases, burnout.
   y   Factors in employee's personal life not related to the job that make holding or
       performing the job impossible or more difficult. These may include family obligations,
       education, health, or moving to a new location.
   y   Hire at a new job. Reasons for wanting a different job may be better working conditions,
       better hours, a shorter distance to work, better pay, graduation, career progression or
       preparation for entry into a new career, or a career change.
   y   Feared or anticipated involuntary termination. The employee may wish to take matters
       into his/her own hands in order to leave more honorably- either completely on their
       own initiative, or as an offered alternative to being fired (this is also known as mutual
       consent in some parts).
   y   Retirement. This may be as a result of the employee's age (which may vary, depending
       on job type and benefits available following retirement) or else an injury, disability, or
       other medical condition forcing early retirement.

Depending on the employee's reason, comfort with the employer, and dedication to the job,
voluntary termination may be sudden and abrupt without warning to the employer, or with a
certain amount of notice given. Generally, employers prefer that a departing employee provide
at least some notice to the employer, often at least two weeks, this often called a two-weeks
notice. Those in compliance with this requirement are more likely to be rehired by the same
employer in the future, to receive their full benefits from the employer, and to get a better
reference for future employers.

Involuntary termination

Involuntary termination is the employee's departure at the hands of the employer. There are
two basic types of involuntary termination, known often as being "fired" and "laid off." To be
fired, as opposed to being laid off, is generally thought of to be the employee's fault, and
therefore is considered in most cases to be dishonorable and a sign of failure. Often, it may
hinder the new job-seeker's chances of finding new employment, particularly if he/she has
been fired from earlier jobs. Job-seekers sometimes do not mention jobs which they were fired
from on their résumés; accordingly, unexplained gaps in employment, and refusal to contact
previous employers are often regarded as red flags.[1]


Dismissal is the employer's choice to let the employee leave, generally for a reason which is the
fault of the employee. The most common colloquial term for dismissal in America is being
terminated whereas in Britain the term 'getting the sack' is used.


A less severe form of involuntary termination is often referred to as a layoff (also redundancy or
being made redundant in British English). A layoff is usually not strictly related to personal
performance, but instead due to economic cycles or the company's need to restructure itself,
the firm itself is going out of business, or due to a change in the function of the employer (for
example, a certain type of product or service is no longer offered by the company, and
therefore jobs related to that product or service are no longer needed). One type of layoff is the
aggressive layoff. In such a situation, the employee is laid off for a just cause, but not replaced
as the job is eliminated.

In a postmodernrisk economy, such as that of the United States, a large proportion of workers
may be laid off at some time in their life, and often for reasons unrelated to performance or
ethics. However, employment termination can also result from a probational period, in which
both the employee and the employer reach an agreement that the employer is allowed to lay
off the employee if the probational period is not satisfied.

Often, layoffs occur as a result of "smallsizing", "reduction in force" or "redundancy". These are
not technically classified as firings; laid-off employees' positions are terminated and not re-
filled, because either the company wishes to reduce its size or operations, or otherwise lacks
the economic stability to retain the position. In some cases, a laid-off employee may be offered
a re-hire by his/her respective company, though by this time, s/he may have found a new job.

Some companies resort to attrition (voluntary redundancy in British English) as a means to
reduce their workforce.[2] Under such a plan, no employees are forced to leave their jobs.
However, those who do depart voluntarily are not replaced. Additionally, employees are given
the option to resign in exchange for a fixed amount of money, frequently a few years of their
salary. Such plans have been carried out by the United States Federal Government under
President Bill Clinton during the 1990s,[3] and by the Ford Motor Company in 2005.[4]

However layoff may be specifically addressed and defined differently in the articles of a
contract in the case of union work.
Termination by mutual agreement

Some terminations occur as a result of mutual agreement between the employer and
employee. When this happens, it is sometimes debatable if the termination was truly mutual. In
many of these cases, it was originally the employer's wish for the employee to depart, but the
employer offered the mutual termination agreement in order to soften the firing (as in a forced
resignation). But there are also times when a termination date is agreed upon before the
employment starts (as in an employment contract).

Some types of termination by mutual agreement include:

   y   The end of an employment contract for a specified period of time (such as an internship)
   y   Mandatory retirement. Some occupations, such as commercial airlinepilots, face
       mandatory retirement at a certain age.
   y   Forced resignation

Changes of conditions

Firms that wish for an employee to exit of his or her own accord, but do not wish to pursue
firing or forced resignation, may degrade the employee's working conditions, hoping that he or
she will leave "voluntarily". The employee may be moved to a different geographical location,
assigned to an undesirable shift, given too few hours if part time, demoted (or relegated to a
menial task), or assigned to work in uncomfortable conditions. Other forms of manipulation
may be used, such as being unfairly hostile to the employee, and punishing him or her for
things that are deliberately overlooked with other employees.

Often, these tactics are done so that the employer won't have to fill out termination papers in
jurisdictions without at-will employment. In addition, with a few exceptions, employees who
voluntarily leave generally cannot collect unemployment.Such tactics may amount to
constructive dismissal, which is illegal in some jurisdictions.

Rehire following termination

Depending on the circumstances, one whose employment has been terminated may or may not
be able to be rehired by the same employer.

If the decision to terminate was the employee's, the willingness of the employer to rehire is
often contingent upon the relationship the employee had with the employer, the amount of
notice given by the employee prior to departure, and the needs of the employer. In some cases,
when an employee departed on good terms, s/he may be given special priority by the employer
when seeking rehire.

An employee who was fired by an employer may in some cases be eligible for rehire by that
same employer, although in some cases it is usually related to staffing issues.
An employee may be terminated without prejudice, meaning the fired employee may be
rehired readily for the same or a similar job in the future. This is usually true in the case of

Conversely, a person can be terminated with prejudice, meaning an employer will not rehire
the former employee to a similar job in the future. This can be for many reasons:
incompetence, misconduct (such as dishonesty or "zero tolerance" violations), insubordination
or "attitude" (personality clashes with peers or bosses).

Termination forms ("pink slips") routinely include a set of check boxes where a supervisor can
indicate "with prejudice" or "without prejudice".

During the Vietnam War, the CIA used this terminology with regard to its locally hired
operatives. In the case of severe misconduct, it is alleged that the CIA would assassinate them
or "terminate with extreme prejudice".
      Rights of the employee?

Exclusive Negotiations with CSEA

The State will not negotiate or meet with any other employee organization or employee group
with reference to terms and conditions of employment of employees. When such organizations
or employee groups, whether organized by the employer or employees, request meetings for
any other purpose, notice shall be sent to the local CSEA representative and CSEA shall be
afforded the opportunity to attend such meetings in order that CSEA may fulfill its obligation as
a collective negotiating agent to represent these employees and groups of employees.

Payroll Deductions

     a. CSEA shall have exclusive payroll deduction of membership dues and premiums for all
        forms of insurance sponsored by CSEA and no other employee organization or any other
        organization shall be accorded any such payroll deduction privilege for membership
        dues and/or premiums for any form of insurance. Credit unions shall not be accorded
        any payroll deduction privilege for insurance premiums unless such insurance is
        incidental to a loan.
     b. The parties agree that CSEA shall have an exclusive payroll deduction for all CSEA unit
        represented employees who elect to participate in the AFSCME program known as
        "Public Employees Organized for Political and Legislative Equality."
     c. The parties agree that voluntary deductions for CSEA dues and other authorized
        deductions allowed by Section 110-b of the Retirement and Social Security Law will
        continue to be available to all CSEA retirees who retired on or after January 1, 1987.
Bulletin Boards

          a. The State shall provide a reasonable amount of exclusive bulletin board space in
             an accessible place in each area occupied by a substantial number of employees
             for the purpose of posting bulletins, notices and material issued by CSEA, which
             shall be signed by the designated official of CSEA or its appropriate local. Such
             bulletin boards may be made secure pursuant to local level labor/management
             agreement. No such material shall be posted which is profane, obscene, or
             defamatory of the State or its representatives, or which constitutes election
             campaign material for or against any person, organization or faction thereof. No
             other employee organization except employee organizations which have been
             certified or recognized as the representative for collective negotiations of other
             State employees employed at such locations shall have the right to post material
             upon State bulletin boards; provided, however, that such right shall not be
             exclusive during campaign periods or periods of challenge as defined in Section
             208 of the Civil Service Law.
          b. The number and location of bulletin boards as well as arrangements with
             reference to placing material thereon and removing material therefrom shall be
             subject to mutual understandings at the departmental or agency level; provided,
             however, that any understanding reached with respect thereto shall provide for
             the removal of any bulletin or material objected to by the State which removal
             may be contested pursuant to the contract grievance procedure provided for

Office Space

          c. In those facilities specified in the Lease Agreement effective April 1, 1982, CSEA
             shall have office space which shall be used solely for the purpose of conducting
             representation duties as provided by Civil Service Law, Section 208, provided
                 1. the Civil Service Employees Association, Inc. shall reimburse the State for
                     such space by payment of a single yearly fee;
                 2. such space shall be subject to a standard State lease for use of State
                 3. CSEA shall provide a comprehensive liability insurance policy regarding
                     such space; and
                 4. such use shall be subject to the State s need for the space.

               In the event that the State needs to reoccupy such space, reasonable advance
               notice shall be given to CSEA. The term "office space" as used herein, shall not
               include the use of State equipment, furnishings or supplies.

          d. In the event that, after the execution of this Agreement, CSEA shall demonstrate
             a need for space in addition to that provided in paragraph (a) above for the
             purposes stated therein, the State shall consider requests presented by CSEA at
             the department or agency level, which shall make its recommendation to the
             Governor s Office of Employee Relations. The determination whether to rent
             additional space shall be made by the Governor s Office of Employee Relations in
             accordance with the best interests of the State and subject to the provisions
             contained in paragraph (a) above.
          e. Grievances alleging violation of Section 4.4 shall not be arbitrable, but shall be
             processed pursuant to Article 34.1(b).

Meeting Space

       No other employee organization except employee organizations which have been
       certified or recognized as the representative for collective negotiations of other State
       employees, shall have the right to meeting space in State facilities. No employee group
       shall have the right to meeting space in State facilities for the purpose of discussing
       terms and conditions of employment which are the responsibility of the collective
       bargaining agent.

Access to Employees

          f. CSEA representatives shall, on an exclusive basis, except during campaign
             periods and periods of challenge as defined in Section 208 of the Civil Service
             Law, have access to employees during working hours to explain CSEA
             membership, services and programs under mutually developed arrangements
             with department or agency heads. Any such arrangements shall ensure that such
             access shall not interfere with work duties or work performance. Such
             consultations shall be no more than 15 minutes per employee per month, and
             shall not exceed an average of 10 percent per month of the employees in the
             operating unit (e.g., institution, DDSO, hospital, college, main office or
             appropriate facility) where access is sought.
          g. Department and agency heads may make reasonable and appropriate
             arrangements with CSEA whereby it may advise employees of the additional
             availability of CSEA representatives for consultations during non-working hours
             concerning CSEA membership, services and programs.
          h. Access to employees for purposes related to grievance and discipline is provided
             in Section 4.9 of the Agreement.

Lists of Employees

       The State, at its expense, shall furnish the CSEA Director of Contract Administration, on
       at least a quarterly basis, information showing the name, address, unit designation,
       social security number, payroll agency, alphabetic title, classified seniority date*, date of
       original appointment to State service and veteran status code of all new employees and
       any current employee whose payroll agency or address has changed during the period
       covered by the report.

Leave for Internal Union Affairs

                  1. The State shall grant a total of 750 workdays of employee organization
                     leave during each year of the Agreement to CSEA as a whole
                     (Administrative, Division of Military and Naval Affairs, Institutional and
                     Operational Units) for the use of employees attending internal CSEA
                     committee and Board meetings. Within 30 days of the execution of this
                     Agreement, CSEA shall provide the State with a list of committees and
                     boards in the categories described above, along with the names and work
                     locations of employees appointed to those committees and boards. Only
                     employees so designated shall be entitled to authorized employee
                     organization leave and only for the committees and boards provided as
                     required above. CSEA shall notify the State in writing of any addition or
                     deletion of committees and boards and/or employees assigned to those
                     committees or boards. Failure to notify the State accordingly can result in
                     the forfeiture of use of employee organization leave for the desired
                     purpose at the State s discretion.

                      In the event that CSEA exceeds the 750 workday employee organization
                      leave maximum described herein, CSEA shall reimburse the State for the
                      actual cost of the involved employee(s) salary.

                  2. Employee organization leave shall be granted for one (1) delegate
                      meeting per year, not to exceed five (5) days duration. In addition,
                      reasonable travel time shall be granted for such meetings.
                  3. Present methods and procedure for approving applications for
                      attendance at such meetings described in (1) and (2) above shall continue
           j. A reasonable number of employees serving on CSEA statewide negotiating teams
              shall be granted employee organization leave, including reasonable time for
              preparation and travel time, for the purpose of negotiating with representatives
              of the State.
           k. Employee organization leave pursuant to subdivision (a) of this section may not
              be granted unless CSEA provides to the Director of the Governor s Office of
              Employee Relations or the Director s designee at least five (5) days advance
              notice of the purpose and dates for which such leave is requested and the names
              and work stations of the employees for whom such leave is requested. The
              granting of such leave shall be subject to the reasonable operating needs of the
           l. CSEA shall provide to the Director of the Governor s Office of Employee
              Relations, on a quarterly basis, a list of CSEA officers and directors, local officers,
              and other employees eligible for employee organization leave, together with
              official work stations, departments and agencies of such employees. Where a
              CSEA Local is comprised of employees from more than one agency and/or work
              location, CSEA shall so indicate. An employee whose name does not appear on
              the list can be denied employee organization leave, at the State s discretion.
           m. Under special circumstances and upon advance request, additional employee
              organization leave may be granted by the Director of the Governor s Office of
              Employee Relations.

       Contract/Non-Contract and Disciplinary Grievance Investigation and Representation

           n. CSEA Local representatives shall be granted reasonable and necessary employee
              organization leave, including travel time, for the investigation of claimed
              grievances and processing of grievances pursuant to the provisions of Article 33
              and 34 of this Agreement subject to the following conditions:
                  1. Employees Designated as Representatives

Beginning April 1, 1999, and quarterly thereafter, CSEA shall provide the Director of the
Governor s Office of Employee Relations with a listing of grievance representatives including
official work station and departments/agencies of such employees. Between quarterly listings,
CSEA shall notify the State in writing on the first of each month of any addition or deletion
affecting the employees eligible for employee organization leave for this purpose.

Where a CSEA Local is comprised of employees from more than one agency and/or work
location, CSEA shall so indicate. An employee whose name does not appear on the list can be
denied employee organization leave, at the State s discretionWhen such activities extend
beyond the employee s scheduled working hours, such time shall not be considered as in paid

Leave for Labor/Management Activity

A reasonable number of employees shall be granted a reasonable amount of employee
organization leave, including travel time, for the purpose of participating in mutually scheduled
joint meetings of special committees established pursuant to other Articles of this Agreement
or mutually scheduled joint meetings of management and employees.

Travel Time

Travel time as used in this Article shall mean actual and necessary travel time not to exceed five
(5) hours each way.

Leave of Absence Information
The State shall provide an employee who is going on an authorized leave of absence with
information regarding continuation of coverage under the State s Health Insurance Program
during such leave. The State shall also provide to such an employee a memorandum prepared
by CSEA regarding necessary payments for CSEA dues and insurance premiums during such
  Date of initial permanent appointment to a classified position followed by continuous state

Working hours and nature of employment in organization according to the environment of
Pakistan which is suitable for the employee. 8 Hours are worked and then extra time for bonus
& incentives given to the employees f the organization like multi national companies.

    Industrial relations and Islamic frame work:
It is now commonly known that despite their universal appeal, Islamic teachings are subject to
numerous interpretations under the influence of factors such as socio-cultural traditions,
history, and religious denominations.2 Based on a reading of the principal Islamic texts (and
their various interpretations

In particular, Islam is focused on an intuitive understanding of the role of the divine in human
existence. Therefore, at least in principle, ethical considerations may take precedence over
productivity considerations in IR in an Islamic society.

With a population exceeding 160 millions, Pakistan is the second largest Muslim majority
country in the world. The country came into being in 1947 as a separate homeland for Muslims
of the South Asian subcontinent. In 1956, Pakistan produced its first national constitution
formally pronouncing itself as an Islamic republic. This status has been reaffirmed in the current
constitution which was promulgated in 1973. In 1978, General Zia-ul-Haq (late military ruler of
Pakistan 1977- 1988) proclaimed the supremacy of Islamic sharia laws, by which all civil law had
to conform to Islamic teachings.

Pakistan at its inception in 1947 inherited the framework of the Bombay Presidency labor laws,
involving a tradition of active state intervention in IR.The colonial paternalistic approach
towards labor relations was embraced by Pakistan's bureaucracy. It may be noted that the
founder of Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, was himself a labor leader and a
supporter of workers cause. He was the elected president of the All India Postal Staff Union in
1925, which had as many as 70,000 members in its fold (APFOL, 2003).
Human development and approach in organization under industrial relation are as under:
Health Economics, Public Health policies, Growth, poverty, inequaltiy and human development,
health inequlities and public health services provision, and capability approach, rural health
issues and development and human welfare approaches. Human and economic development;
international trade and industrial policy; governance; social policy and social development

Five basic essential characteristics of institutional change:

       1. The continuous interaction of institutions and organizations in the economic setting
       of scarcity and hence competition is the key to institutional change.

       2. Competition forces organizations to continually invest in skills and knowledge to
       survive. The kinds of skills and knowledge individuals and their organizations acquire will
       shape evolving perceptions about opportunities and hence choices that will
       incrementally alter institutions.

       3. The institutional framework dictates the kinds of skills and knowledge perceived to
       have the maximum pay-off.

       4. Perceptions are derived from the mental constructs of the players.

       5. The economies of scope, complementarities, and network externalities of an
       institutional matrix make institutional change overwhelmingly incremental and path


1- They should develop such system in their HR department that no ethical issues can be

2-   The employees should participate in all the activities of the department.

3- They should choose plan in such a way that when there is a need of recruitment the
proper candidate must be available.

4-   The factor of favoritism must be eliminated from the department of HR.

5- They should hold meetings of the HR employees more frequently for eliminating any

PepsiCoa name of standard and quality product.PepsiCois stressing more on its short term
planning strategies to make its image good enough in the world community.And is
stressing more on the customer services and health and nutrition factors. It has a strong
management to keep the PepsiCoon the height of professionalism and commitment to

Management functions have a strong impact in the PepsiCo.

The management of the PepsiCodoes not compromise on the quality and the values to be
followed. This way the company is prospering by accelerating its functions in a well
mannered way.

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