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									FINAL WORK PLAN FOR
Bioaugmentation Viability Demonstration Project
Hickam Air Force Base Site CG110
Oahu, Hawaii


Revision 3

June 23, 2008


Submitted to:

CH2M HILL
1132 Bishop Street, Suite 1100
Honolulu, Hawaii 96813



Submitted by:



590-B Paiea Street
Honolulu, Hawaii 96819-1835
Table of Contents________________________________________________

List of Figures ................................................................................................................................................. i
List of Tables .................................................................................................................................................. i


1.0          Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 1
2.0          Biodegradation Process..................................................................................................................... 1
3.0          Bioaugmentation Culture Production ................................................................................................. 1
4.0          Viability Demonstration Methodology................................................................................................. 2
             4.1 Field Preparation ..................................................................................................................... 3
             4.2 In Situ Biodegradation Process ............................................................................................... 6
5.0          Schedule............................................................................................................................................ 7
6.0          Health and Safety Plan ...................................................................................................................... 8




List of Figures __________________________________________________

Figure 1                 Location Map, Proposed Injection Well Locations and Monitoring Well Locations................ 5




List of Tables ___________________________________________________

Table 1                  Individuals Responsible for Site Health and Safety............................................................... 9
Table 2                  Emergency Information....................................................................................................... 10




Response to Comments




HonoTP                                                                                                                                                      Work Plan
Project No. 130919                                                                i                                                                         June 2008
                                                                                               Revision 3




1.0            Introduction

This bioaugmentation viability demonstration project will be conducted to determine the
effectiveness of bioaugmentation for treatment of chlorinated ethenes at Site CG110 at Hickam
Air Force Base, Oahu, Hawaii. The following sections describe the technical approach that will
be employed to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation in the shallow aquifer at selected
locations at Site CG110.

2.0            Biodegradation Process

The conceptual design of the project will be to distribute a fermentable organic substrate (sodium
lactate) with a dechlorinating microbial consortium that is indigenous to Hawaii (Hawaii-05).
The indigenous microbial organisms will use the hydrogen generated during the fermentation
process to reduce aquifer chemicals such as nitrate, manganese, iron, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.
This reduction process will result in the increased solubility of manganese and iron as well as the
production of nitrite, sulfide, and methane. The dechlorinating microbial bioaugmentation
culture will use the hydrogen generated during the fermentation of the lactate to reductively
dechlorinate the chlorinated ethenes in the aquifer. The fermentation of lactate will result in the
production of acetic and propionic acids, which will continue to enhance the degradation process
as the acids are further degraded. It is anticipated that the substrate will remain in the aquifer for
approximately 90 to 120 days after injection. The reductive dechlorination process will degrade
the parent compound, trichloroethene and result in the sequential production and degradation of
daughter compounds including dichloroethene and vinyl chloride. The reductive dechlorination
of vinyl chloride will result in the production of non-toxic ethene.

3.0            Bioaugmentation Culture Production

The microbial culture used for this pilot test will be the indigenous Hawaiian microbial culture
(Hawaii-05) previously applied at the LF-05 site at Hickam Air Force Base. The culture will be
grown in a fermentor to a minimum density of approximately 1010 cells per liter. During
fermentation, the levels of lactate and other fatty acids, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and
dissolved gases (ethane, ethene, and methane) will be quantified with time. The density of
Dehalococcoides ethenogenes will also be determined using quantitative Polymerase Chain
Reaction. Once the cells reach the desired density, the volume will be concentrated to a
Dehalococcoides sp concentration of at least 1011 cells per liter to reduce shipping costs and
remove residual fermentation substrates and products. Cell concentration will be performed
using a commercial-scale membrane system. After concentration is performed, the culture will



HonoTP                                                                                           Work Plan
Project No. 130919                                1                                              June 2008
                                                                                               Revision 3



be transferred into stainless steel shipping vessels, which will be shipped in coolers to the Shaw
Environmental, Inc. (Shaw) Honolulu office. These vessels are designed to maintain anaerobic
conditions during shipping and have fittings that allow injection of the culture into a well using
pressurization by a standard nitrogen cylinder.

All fermentors, including the 750-liter unit, will be steam-sterilized prior to inoculation. This is
standard procedure, and ensures to the extent possible that cultures do not become contaminated
with bacteria present in the laboratory. In addition, after the culture growth in the 17-liter unit, a
small subsample will be sent to an outside laboratory for analysis of common pathogens, such as
Salmonella, fecal coliforms, and Camplyobacter. These organisms were not observed in the
previously generated culture, and it is unlikely that these organisms will be introduced during the
fermentation process, but the analysis will confirm the absence of such bacteria.

Upon completion of the field preparation procedures described below, the culture will be shipped
from Shaw’s Biotechnology Laboratory to Shaw’s Honolulu office. The culture will be
immediately transported to the site for immediate amendment in the injection water and
subsequent injection. The Hawaii-05 culture is presently permitted for application for
bioaugmentation projects in Hawaii by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture. The present
permit is applicable until June 26, 2008. Since the current schedule projects that injection will
occur between July 11 and July 17, an extension will be obtained prior to the culture arriving on
island.

4.0            Viability Demonstration Methodology

The bioaugmentation viability demonstration project will evaluate the applicability of high-
pressure injection to distribute substrate and dechlorinating culture throughout the treatment
zone. Substrate and culture distribution will be accomplished by high-pressure injection at
15 locations at the CG110 Site. The injections will occur in the area of highest VOC
concentration, centered approximately in the area of monitoring well CG110-MW012. This is
also the area with the high soil vapor concentrations as reported in Draft Technical
Memorandum, Summary of April 2008 Soil Gas Sampling Results at Site CG-110, May 1, 2008
by CH2M HILL.

During the monitoring phase, groundwater will be sampled and analyzed by CH2M HILL. The
injection process will be conducted using sodium lactate mixed with groundwater. Site
groundwater will be used in the injection process to eliminate the negative effect of mixing site
groundwater, which would change the geochemical conditions of the aquifer.




HonoTP                                                                                           Work Plan
Project No. 130919                                2                                              June 2008
                                                                                                       Revision 3




4.1            Field Preparation
The field preparation will include utility clearance, monitoring well installation, and groundwater
extraction. Utility clearance and monitoring well installation will be conducted by CH2M HILL.
Groundwater extraction will be conducted by Shaw. These activities are described below:

Monitoring Well Installation
CH2M HILL will install four additional monitoring wells in the treatability study area to
evaluate the effectiveness of the in-situ biodegradation process. These wells will be installed
approximately 50 feet apart, covering the area with the highest VOC concentrations and centered
approximately around monitoring well CG110-MW012. The locations of the four additional
wells are shown on Figure 1, “Location Map, Proposed Injection Well Locations and Monitoring
Well Locations.” Borings will typically be completed to a maximum depth of 15 feet with a
direct-push rig. Temporary microwells will be installed within the borings to the depth specified
by CH2M HILL.

Details on well construction are as follows:

               • Borings will be continuously sampled from the ground surface to the bottom extent of
                     each borehole using a split-spoon sampler and logged by a CH2M HILL geologist.
                     No analytical soil samples will be collected. In the event of sampler refusal after three
                     attempts, the direct-push rig will be switched to auger mode, and the soil boring will
                     advance using augering until the resistant lithology is breached. Once boring past the
                     resistant layer has occurred, the rig will be switched back to direct-push techniques,
                     and the split spoon sampler will again be used to collect samples for lithology.
                     Alternatively, if there is refusal, the boring may be abandoned and a new boring will
                     be advanced within a few feet of the refusal location.
               • Four microwells will be installed to a maximum depth of 15 feet below ground
                     surface. The water table is expected to be encountered between 7 and 8 feet below
                     ground surface. These wells will be constructed with 5 feet of 1-inch diameter
                     Schedule 40 PVC unslotted well casing and 10 feet of 1-inch diameter Schedule 40
                     PVC factory-slotted prepack casing with 0.020 inch slotting, with approximately 3 feet
                     positioned above groundwater, and 7 feet positioned below groundwater. All well
                     casings, slotted and unslotted, shall be flush threaded.
               • Monterey silica sand, size #3, will be used as a filter pack around the prepack well
                     casing. Sand will be added up to a level of 2 to 3 feet above the top level of the well
                     screen. Two to three feet of bentonite pellets will be added on top of the sand.
                     Bentonite will be thoroughly hydrated once it is added to the annular space in the
                     borehole.




HonoTP                                                                                                   Work Plan
Project No. 130919                                         3                                             June 2008
                                                                                                      Revision 3



               • Microwells will be immediately developed after installation using a peristaltic pump
                     and/or a bailer. Microwells will be surged concurrently with addition of the sand filter
                     pack. Once the microwell installation is completed, the well will be pumped to
                     thoroughly remove sediment.
               • Temporary wells will have traffic-rated well covers installed with concrete support at
                     the ground surface.

Groundwater Extraction
Site groundwater will be used to prepare the injection solution. The advantage of using site
groundwater is that it will not change the groundwater chemistry, it eliminates the potential for
further expanding the plume by adding additional water, and it contains chlorinated ethenes that
are necessary for growth of the bioaugmentation culture and will allow better evaluation of the
degradation process. Prior to injection, groundwater from existing well(s) will be pumped into a
20,000-gallon storage tank. Presently, it is assumed that groundwater will be extracted from
monitoring well CG110-MW012. It is anticipated that groundwater can be extracted at more
than 5 gallons per minute from this well. If groundwater is extracted from this well at less than
5 gallons per minute, additional groundwater may be extracted from other wells (i.e.,
CG110-GW-019, and 1055B-MW002) within the chlorinated ethene plume. Approximately
17,000 gallons of groundwater will be pumped into the on-site storage tank. The proposed
location of the storage tank is shown on Figure 1.

Prior to injection, the extracted groundwater will be amended with substrate. Approximately
200 kilograms of lactate will be mixed with the groundwater to establish an in situ target
concentration of 3 grams lactate per liter. Once the desired volume has been achieved and the
substrate is added, the tank will be allowed to equilibrate, and physical parameters, including
dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential, and pH, will be monitored. Groundwater
parameters in the tank will be measured prior to adding the microbial culture to ensure reducing
conditions are present and the environment is conducive for the viability of microorganisms. It
is anticipated that reducing conditions will be established in the amended water within 5 days
prior to injection.




HonoTP                                                                                                  Work Plan
Project No. 130919                                         4                                            June 2008
                                                                                            Revision 3




4.2            In Situ Biodegradation Process
The in situ biodegradation process will include substrate and culture injection and biodegradation
monitoring. Substrate injection will be conducted by Shaw, and biodegradation monitoring will
be conducted by CH2M HILL. These activities are described below:

Substrate and Culture Injection
Prior to injection of amended groundwater, each injection location will be cleared of utilities.
Each location will be cored and hand-augered to a minimum of 3 feet below ground surface. The
injection process will be accomplished using direct-push technology. At each selected location,
the direct-push rig will push a permeable drive point to the predetermined depths. Injection
depths will begin at the water table and occur at approximate depths of 0, 3, 6 and 9 feet below
the groundwater table. During this process, substrate and groundwater will be directed from a
water storage tank to the direct-push rig. Amended water will be transferred from the
aboveground water storage tank to the push rig using a transfer pump and integrated flexible
piping. Approximately 300 gallons of amended groundwater water will be injected at each depth
interval. The pressure and flow rate will be maximized to achieve the greatest radius of
distribution while preventing surfacing of amended water during the injection process. The
radius of influence is anticipated to be 12 feet from the point of injection. Injections will occur
at 3-foot intervals from the surface to a minimum depth of 10 feet below the water table;
however, the actual radius of influence will be controlled by the conditions in the aquifer.

Biodegradation Monitoring
A biodegradation monitoring program will be established and performed by CH2M HILL. The
monitoring program will consist of baseline groundwater sampling and post injection sampling
from the four new temporary monitoring wells described in Section 4.1, “Field Preparation.” In
addition, baseline sampling and one post injection sampling event (Event 3) will be conducted at
well CG110-MW012. These samples will be analyzed for VOCs and field parameters to
evaluate the effect of bioaugmentation at this well, which has historically contained greatest
chlorinated ethene concentrations at the site.

Baseline groundwater sampling will be conducted after monitoring well installation and prior to
substrate injection. During this sampling event, groundwater will be analyzed for the following
parameters:

               • Volatile organic compounds
               • Dissolved gasses (including ethene, ethane, and methane)
               • Nitrate/nitrite
               • Ferrous iron
               • Manganese
               • Sulfate
               • Alkalinity



HonoTP                                                                                        Work Plan
Project No. 130919                                   6                                        June 2008
                                                                                            Revision 3



During sample collection, groundwater will be analyzed for the following parameters:

               • Dissolved oxygen
               • Oxidation-reduction potential
               • pH
               • Specific conductance
               • Temperature

Subsequent to injection, groundwater samples will be collected immediately after injection and
at the scheduled frequency proposed in the schedule below. Groundwater samples will be
analyzed for all the above parameters with the addition of volatile organic acids including lactic,
acetic, and propionic acids.

Groundwater samples will be collected using low-flow purging techniques, and the field
parameters described above will be measured using a flow-through cell during sample
collections. CH2M HILL will provide the analytical data to Shaw for review and interpretation
as to the effectiveness of the bioaugmentation technology in regards to the treatment of
contaminants at Site CG110. Shaw will provide CH2M HILL with a draft and final letter report
that will describe the results of the bioaugmentation study and incorporate stakeholder comments
as necessary. CH2M HILL will present this letter report in a technical memorandum that
summarizes the results of this study.

5.0            Schedule

The tentative schedule for the bioaugmentation viability demonstration project is listed as
follows:

               • May 14, 2008—Shaw submits Draft Work Plan to CH2M HILL and Air Force Center
                     for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE)
               • May 21, 2008—Draft Bioaugmentation Work Plan comments received from AFCEE

               • May 23, 2008—Draft Bioaugmentation Work Plan submitted to State of Hawaii
                     Department of Health (HDOH)
               • June 6, 2008—Draft Bioaugmentation Work Plan comments received from HDOH

               • June 9, 2008—Start culture fermentation

               • June 9 through 20, 2008—Stakeholder comments addressed; Final Bioaugmentation
                     Work Plan submitted
               • June 25 through 27, 2008—CH2M HILL installation of temporary monitoring wells




HonoTP                                                                                        Work Plan
Project No. 130919                                     7                                      June 2008
                                                                                            Revision 3



               • June 30, 2008—CH2M HILL well development and baseline sampling of temporary
                     monitoring wells
               • June 30 through July 10, 2008—Shaw mobilization, staging, groundwater extraction,
                     and substrate preparation
               • July 11, 2008—Culture arrival in Hawaii

               • July 11 through 17, 2008—Shaw substrate and culture injections

               • July 21, 2008—CH2M HILL post-injection groundwater monitoring Event 1

               • September 1, 2008—CH2M HILL post-injection groundwater monitoring Event 2

               • November 3, 2008—CH2M HILL post-injection groundwater monitoring Event 3

               • December 17, 2009—Shaw Draft Letter Report to CH2M HILL

               • January 7, 2009—CH2M HILL Draft Technical Memorandum

               • January 7, 2009—Environmental Resources Program Information Management
                     System (ERPIMS) Delivery
               • January 14, 2009—CH2M HILL Draft Technical Memorandum to HDOH

               • February 11, 2009—HDOH and AFCEE comments addressed by Shaw and
                     CH2M HILL
               • February 18, 2009—Final Shaw Letter Report

               • February 25, 2009—Final CH2M HILL Technical Memorandum


6.0            Health and Safety Plan

CH2M HILL prepared a Health and Safety Plan (HASP) and appended it to the Dynamic Work
Plan: Remedial Investigation / Feasibility Study at Sites CG110 and SS101, Hickam Air Force
Base, Oahu, Hawaii. This HASP will be implemented during this project and establishes the
guidelines for health and safety practices and personal protection for fieldwork conducted in
conjunction with this project. The HASP contains detailed information pertaining to site
activities, potential hazards, chemical information, contingency plans, and communication
procedures intended to maintain the health and safety of site personnel, the general public, and
the environment. In addition to the information presented in the HASP, Shaw has prepared site-
specific hazard analyses and the following tables to identify project personnel and emergency
response information.




HonoTP                                                                                        Work Plan
Project No. 130919                                   8                                        June 2008
                                                                                                       Revision 3



Table 1
Individuals Responsible for Site Health and Safety

                              Position                                                    Individual

Shaw Project Manager                                            Joe Strzempka
                                                                (808) 840-2058 (office)
                                                                (808) 354-1058 (mobile)
Shaw Site Safety and Health Officer                             Joe Strzempka
                                                                (808) 840-2058 (office)
                                                                (808) 354-1058 (mobile)
Shaw Project Health and Safety Manager                          Michael D. Coyle, CSP CHMM
                                                                (808) 840-2016 (office)
                                                                (808) 349-3178 (mobile)
       CSP denotes Certified Safety Professional.
       CHMM denotes Certified Hazardous Material Manager.




HonoTP                                                                                                   Work Plan
Project No. 130919                                          9                                            June 2008
                                                                                                                        Revision 3




Table 2
Emergency Information

Primary Facility for medical        Kapiolani Medical Center at Pali Momi Medical Center
emergencies                         98-1079 Moanalua Road
(e.g., uncontrolled bleeding,       Aiea, Hawaii
trouble breathing)                  (808) 486-6000
Directions                          Exit gate turn north to Kamehameha Hwy. Turn right on Pali Momi Street. Pali Momi
                                    Hospital will be on the left-hand side. Emergency entrance is off Moanalua Road, which
                                    intersects Pali Momi Street.
Secondary facility for              The Medical Corner
medical / first-aid treatment       300 Rodgers Blvd.
                                    Honolulu, Hawaii
                                    (808) 836-3900
Shaw Environmental, Inc. Contacts
Shaw Project Manager               Joe Strzempka
                                   (808) 840-2058 (office)
                                   (808) 354-1058 (mobile)
Shaw Site Safety and Health         Joe Strzempka
Officer                             (808) 840-2058 (office)
                                    (808) 354-1058 (mobile)
Shaw Project Health and             Michael D. Coyle, CSP CHMM
Safety Manager                      (808) 840-2016 (office)
                                    (808) 349-3178 (mobile)
Emergency Contacts
Police, Fire and Ambulance          911
       CSP denotes Certified Safety Professional.
       CHMM denotes Certified Hazardous Material Manager.




HonoTP                                                                                                                       Work Plan
Project No. 130919                                              10                                                           June 2008
                                                                               ACTIVITY HAZARD ANALYSIS #1

 ACTIVITY             Vehicle Operations                                  ANALYZED BY/DATE                M. Coyle /5-12-2008            REVIEWED BY/DATE


 PRINCIPAL STEPS                                    POTENTIAL HAZARDS                                RECOMMENDED CONTROLS
 Vehicle Operations                                 Backing                                               •      Back into parking spaces upon arrival whenever possible.
                                                                                                          •      Walk around the vehicle before backing in or out to identify any new conditions
                                                                                                                 or obstructions.
                                                                                                          •      Use a spotter when backing in or out whenever possible.
                                                                                                          •      Understand hand signals.
                                                                                                          •      Sound horn prior to backing in or out.
                                                                                                          •      Check the rearview and side mirrors prior to backing, remembering mirrors do
                                                                                                                 not show everything. (Note: All vehicles, other than automobiles, must have
                                                                                                                 small convex mirrors attached to the side mirrors.)
                                                                                                          •      Back slowly in areas of obstructed vision.
                                                                                                          •      Anticipate others who may be backing out into your pathway and adjust
                                                                                                                 accordingly.

                                                    Unfamiliar with vehicle                               •      Familiarize yourself with the vehicle before moving.
                                                                                                          •      Review the dashboard controls, steering radius, overhead, and side clearances.
                                                                                                          •      Properly adjust seat then mirrors.
                                                                                                          •      Locate windshield wipers and lights.




 EQUIPMENT TO BE USED                               INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS                          TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
 Valid drivers license; seatbelt; vehicles          Inspect vehicles daily; ensure airbag            Review activity hazard analyses with all site personnel; review Shaw E & I Procedure
 equipped with passenger airbags; a spare           switch is turned on (pickup truck)               No. HS800, “Motor Vehicle Operations: General Requirements”; Shaw safe-driver training
 tire and jack; first-aid kit, fire extinguisher,
 and flashlight; operations manual for the
 vehicle; insurance card, vehicle registration,
 and Shaw Accident forms

Page 1 of 6                                                                                 Project No. 130919                                                                    Vehicle Operations
                                                                               ACTIVITY HAZARD ANALYSIS #1

 ACTIVITY             Vehicle Operations                                  ANALYZED BY/DATE                M. Coyle /5-12-2008            REVIEWED BY/DATE


 PRINCIPAL STEPS                                    POTENTIAL HAZARDS                                RECOMMENDED CONTROLS
 Vehicle Operations                                 Airbags (if equipped)                                 •      Familiarize yourself with the vehicle airbag system.
 (continued)                                                                                              •      Adjust seat so the driver is outside the inflation envelope of the airbag and can
                                                                                                                 still operate the pedals comfortably.
                                                                                                          •      Vehicles equipped with airbags control switches (i.e., pickup trucks) must be
                                                                                                                 turned on.

                                                    Speed                                                 •      Obey all posted speed limits.
                                                                                                          •      Radar detectors are prohibited in all company-owned, -leased, or -rented vehicles.
                                                                                                          •      Reduce travel speed during hazardous conditions (i.e., rain, fog, snow).
                                                                                                          •      Identify if your vehicle has Anti-Lock Brakes (ABS). If it does, DO NOT pump
                                                                                                                 the brakes to stop when the vehicle has begun to skid. Apply steady pressure to
                                                                                                                 the brakes. If the vehicle does not have ABS, you will want to pump the brakes to
                                                                                                                 stop during slippery conditions.




 EQUIPMENT TO BE USED                               INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS                          TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
 Valid drivers license; seatbelt; vehicles          Inspect vehicles daily; ensure airbag            Review activity hazard analyses with all site personnel; review Shaw E & I Procedure
 equipped with passenger airbags; a spare           switch is turned on (pickup truck)               No. HS800, “Motor Vehicle Operations: General Requirements”; Shaw safe-driver training
 tire and jack; first-aid kit, fire extinguisher,
 and flashlight; operations manual for the
 vehicle; insurance card, vehicle registration,
 and Shaw Accident forms

Page 2 of 6                                                                                 Project No. 130919                                                                      Vehicle Operations
                                                                               ACTIVITY HAZARD ANALYSIS #1

 ACTIVITY             Vehicle Operations                                  ANALYZED BY/DATE                M. Coyle /5-12-2008             REVIEWED BY/DATE


 PRINCIPAL STEPS                                    POTENTIAL HAZARDS                                RECOMMENDED CONTROLS
 Vehicle Operations                                 Distances/spacing                                     •      Follow the 3-second rule.
 (continued)                                                                                              •      Increase the 3-second rule as necessary during hazardous travel conditions (add
                                                                                                                 one second for each hazard).
                                                                                                          •      Always leave yourself an “out” during travel.
                                                                                                          •      When stopping, make sure that you leave enough distance between you and the
                                                                                                                 car in front of you. You should be able to see the rear tires of the vehicle in front
                                                                                                                 when stopped.
                                                                                                          •      Drive defensively.
                                                                                                          •      When at a red light and it turns green, use the “delayed start” technique by
                                                                                                                 counting to three before you take your foot off the brake.
                                                                                                          •      DO NOT TAILGATE.

                                                    Skids                                                 •      If the vehicle has begun to skid out of control, turn the steering wheel in the
                                                                                                                 direction of the skid (the direction you want the vehicle to go) and re-adjust the
                                                                                                                 wheel, as necessary.
                                                                                                          •      Slow travel speeds during hazardous travel conditions.
                                                                                                          •      Use 4-wheel drive, if available, when driving vehicles off road, on steep inclines,
                                                                                                                 muddy conditions, etc.
                                                                                                          •      Do not take vehicles “Off Road” if they can not be operated safely.



 EQUIPMENT TO BE USED                               INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS                          TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
 Valid drivers license; seatbelt; vehicles          Inspect vehicles daily; ensure airbag            Review activity hazard analyses with all site personnel; review Shaw E & I Procedure
 equipped with passenger airbags; a spare           switch is turned on (pickup truck)               No. HS800, “Motor Vehicle Operations: General Requirements”; Shaw safe-driver training
 tire and jack; first-aid kit, fire extinguisher,
 and flashlight; operations manual for the
 vehicle; insurance card, vehicle registration,
 and Shaw Accident forms

Page 3 of 6                                                                                 Project No. 130919                                                                        Vehicle Operations
                                                                               ACTIVITY HAZARD ANALYSIS #1

 ACTIVITY             Vehicle Operations                                  ANALYZED BY/DATE                M. Coyle /5-12-2008             REVIEWED BY/DATE


 PRINCIPAL STEPS                                    POTENTIAL HAZARDS                                RECOMMENDED CONTROLS
 Vehicle Operations                                 Blind spots                                           •      Become familiar with any blind spots associated with your vehicle.
 (continued)                                                                                              •      Adjust mirrors properly.
                                                                                                          •      Make sure you use your directional signals.
                                                                                                          •      Always look over your shoulder to ensure the lane is clear when changing lanes.
                                                                                                          •      Be cautious when approaching other driver’s blind spots.

                                                    Cellular phones                                       •      Do NOT USE handheld cellular phones while driving.
                                                                                                          •      Pull over to the side of the road when making a call. (The shoulder of the freeway
                                                                                                                 or expressway is not an authorized or a safe place to conduct phone calls. It is for
                                                                                                                 emergencies only.)

                                                    Accidents                                             •      In the event of an accident: Stop and call for medical assistance, notify the police,
                                                                                                                 and complete/submit the Vehicle Accident Report to your supervisor.
                                                                                                          •      If a Shaw employee is injured, the Health Resource, Return to Work, Medical
                                                                                                                 Release and Treatment of Injury/Illness forms must be completed at the health
                                                                                                                 clinic or emergency room.




 EQUIPMENT TO BE USED                               INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS                          TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
 Valid drivers license; seatbelt; vehicles          Inspect vehicles daily; ensure airbag            Review activity hazard analyses with all site personnel; review Shaw E & I Procedure
 equipped with passenger airbags; a spare           switch is turned on (pickup truck)               No. HS800, “Motor Vehicle Operations: General Requirements”; Shaw safe-driver training
 tire and jack; first-aid kit, fire extinguisher,
 and flashlight; operations manual for the
 vehicle; insurance card, vehicle registration,
 and Shaw Accident forms

Page 4 of 6                                                                                 Project No. 130919                                                                        Vehicle Operations
                                                                               ACTIVITY HAZARD ANALYSIS #1

 ACTIVITY             Vehicle Operations                                  ANALYZED BY/DATE                M. Coyle /5-12-2008            REVIEWED BY/DATE


 PRINCIPAL STEPS                                    POTENTIAL HAZARDS                                RECOMMENDED CONTROLS
 Vehicle Operations                                 Equipment failure                                     •      Perform daily inspections of your vehicle.
 (continued)                                                                                              •      Any vehicle with mechanical defects that may endanger the safety of the driver,
                                                                                                                 passengers, or the public shall not be used.
                                                                                                          •      Ensure safety equipment is in the vehicle. Safety equipment should include a
                                                                                                                 spare tire, jack, first-aid kit, fire extinguisher, and flashlight. Flares and/or
                                                                                                                 reflective triangles should be available in larger trucks.
                                                                                                          •      Ensure the proper documentation is in the vehicle. Documentation should include
                                                                                                                 the operations manual for the vehicle, insurance card, vehicle registration, and
                                                                                                                 Shaw accident forms.

                                                    Influenced by drugs and alcohol                       •      NEVER DRIVE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DRUGS OR ALCOHOL.
                                                                                                          •      Disciplinary actions, including termination, will be taken against anyone who is
                                                                                                                 convicted of or pleads no-contest to the charges of driving under the influence in
                                                                                                                 accordance with Shaw Health and Safety Procedure No. HS800.
                                                                                                          •      Project-assigned hourly employees are not permitted to operate company-owned,
                                                                                                                 -leased, or -rented vehicles after 10:00 p.m. without written authorization from
                                                                                                                 their supervisor.




 EQUIPMENT TO BE USED                               INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS                          TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
 Valid drivers license; seatbelt; vehicles          Inspect vehicles daily; ensure airbag            Review activity hazard analyses with all site personnel; review Shaw E & I Procedure
 equipped with passenger airbags; a spare           switch is turned on (pickup truck)               No. HS800, “Motor Vehicle Operations: General Requirements”; Shaw safe-driver training
 tire and jack; first-aid kit, fire extinguisher,
 and flashlight; operations manual for the
 vehicle; insurance card, vehicle registration,
 and Shaw Accident forms

Page 5 of 6                                                                                 Project No. 130919                                                                      Vehicle Operations
                                                                               ACTIVITY HAZARD ANALYSIS #1

 ACTIVITY             Vehicle Operations                                  ANALYZED BY/DATE                M. Coyle /5-12-2008           REVIEWED BY/DATE


 PRINCIPAL STEPS                                    POTENTIAL HAZARDS                                RECOMMENDED CONTROLS
 Vehicle Operations                                 Driver alertness, attitude, and physical              •      Do not operate any vehicle when abnormally tired, temporarily disabled, or under
 (continued)                                        condition                                                    the influence of drugs or alcohol.
                                                                                                          •      Keep an even temper when driving. Do not let the actions of others affect your
                                                                                                                 attitude.
                                                                                                          •      No employee is authorized to operate a company vehicle (including rentals) after
                                                                                                                 having been on duty for a period of 16 hours.
                                                                                                          •      No employee may drive for more than 12 hours in a single on-duty period.

                                                    Vehicle loading                                       •      DO NOT OVERLOAD the vehicle.
                                                                                                          •      Secure all equipment within the body of the vehicle.
                                                                                                          •      Do not block side view mirrors with loads.
                                                                                                          •      Do not transport Department of Transportation-manifested hazardous materials
                                                                                                                 without a commercial driver’s license.
                                                                                                          •      Dispatch all equipment and personnel with proper forms and identification.




 EQUIPMENT TO BE USED                               INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS                          TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
 Valid drivers license; seatbelt; vehicles          Inspect vehicles daily; ensure airbag            Review activity hazard analyses with all site personnel; review Shaw E & I Procedure
 equipped with passenger airbags; a spare           switch is turned on (pickup truck)               No. HS800, “Motor Vehicle Operations: General Requirements”; Shaw safe-driver training
 tire and jack; first-aid kit, fire extinguisher,
 and flashlight; operations manual for the
 vehicle; insurance card, vehicle registration,
 and Shaw Accident forms

Page 6 of 6                                                                                 Project No. 130919                                                                    Vehicle Operations
                                                                       ACTIVITY HAZARD ANALYSIS #2

 ACTIVITY           Mobilization and Site Setup                    ANALYZED BY/DATE          M. Coyle / 5-12-2008           REVIEWED BY/DATE


 PRINCIPAL STEPS                             POTENTIAL HAZARDS                          RECOMMENDED CONTROLS
 Installation of Barriers and Site Control   Noise                                           •      All personnel shall wear earplugs whenever heavy equipment is operating.
 Measures

                                             Injury from vehicular traffic                   •      All personnel shall wear Class 2, high visibility clothing.
                                                                                             •      All vehicles will have spotters when backing up or maneuvering in restricted
                                                                                                    clearance areas.

                                             Strains from manually moving materials          •      Direct personnel to use proper lifting techniques such as keeping back straight,
                                             and equipment                                          lifting with legs, limiting twisting, and getting help in moving bulky/heavy
                                                                                                    materials and equipment.
                                                                                             •      Mechanical equipment will be used whenever possible.

                                             Slips, trips, and falls                         •      Visually inspect work areas, and mark, barricade, or eliminate slip, trip, and fall
                                                                                                    hazards.
                                                                                             •      Maintain good housekeeping.
                                                                                             •      Maintain proper illumination in work areas.

                                             Injury from use of power and hand tools         •      Personnel shall maintain a steady pace when using tools and take adequate rest
                                                                                                    periods.
                                                                                             •      Tools shall be appropriate for the task and maintained in good condition.
                                                                                             •      Inspect all power and hand tools before each use.
                                                                                             •      Train personnel in the use of all power equipment.
                                                                                             •      Keep electric cords tangle-free and out of the way of rotating tools.



 EQUIPMENT TO BE USED                        INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS                    TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
 Hand and power tools; pickup truck          Daily and before use;                      Only licensed personnel will operate trucks.
                                             Equipment certification performed by a
                                             competent person

Page 1 of 2                                                                    Project No. 130919                                                                 Mobilization and Site Setup
                                                                      ACTIVITY HAZARD ANALYSIS #2

 ACTIVITY           Mobilization and Site Setup                   ANALYZED BY/DATE            M. Coyle / 5-12-2008           REVIEWED BY/DATE


 PRINCIPAL STEPS                              POTENTIAL HAZARDS                          RECOMMENDED CONTROLS
 Installation of Barriers, and Site Control   Injury from use of power and hand tools         •      Use pneumatic or double-insulated power tools when possible.
 Measures                                     (continued)                                     •      Protect electric tools with ground fault circuit interrupters.
 (continued)

                                              Heat stress                                     •      Monitor for heat stress in accordance with Shaw E & I Procedure No. HS400,
                                                                                                     “Heat Stress.”
                                                                                              •      Drink plenty of water and minimal electrolyte replacement fluids, such as
                                                                                                     Gatorade®.
                                                                                              •      Take scheduled breaks, preferably in the shade or tented area.




 EQUIPMENT TO BE USED                         INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS                    TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
 Hand and power tools; pickup truck           Daily and before use;                      Only licensed personnel will operate trucks.
                                              Equipment certification performed by a
                                              competent person

Page 2 of 2                                                                     Project No. 130919                                                                    Mobilization and Site Setup
                                                                        HAZARD ANALYSIS #3

   ACTIVITY     Direct Push Operations                             ANALYZED BY/DATE              M. Coyle 5-12-2008        REVIEWED BY/DATE


 PRINCIPAL STEPS                         POTENTIAL HAZARDS                   RECOMMENDED CONTROLS
 Direct Push Operations                  Sharp objects                            •     Wear cut-resistant work gloves over sample gloves when the possibility of lacerations or
                                                                                        other injury may be caused by sharp edges or other objects.
                                                                                  •     Inspect glass sample containers for cracks and/or sharp edges.
                                                                                  •     Maintain all hand and power tools in a safe condition.
                                                                                  •     Keep guards in place during use.

                                         Handling heavy objects                   •     Observe proper lifting techniques and limits.
                                                                                  •     Use mechanical lifting equipment to move large, awkward loads (drums, drilling
                                                                                        equipment).
                                                                                  •     Personnel shall maintain appropriate work/rest cycles to minimize fatigue.
                                                                                  •     Hydraulic/mechanical equipment shall be used when possible for inserting and extracting
                                                                                        samplers, down-hole hammers, and drill flights to prevent back strains.
                                                                                  •     Elevate decontamination containers to near waist level to avoid back strain.

                                         Slips, trips, and falls                  •     Clear walkways of equipment, vegetation, excavated material; maintain good
                                                                                        housekeeping.
                                                                                  •     Mark, identify, or barricade other obstructions.
                                                                                  •     Maintain proper illumination in work areas.

                                         Inhalation and contact with              •     Workers will wear proper eye, skin, and respiratory protection as defined in the Health
                                         hazardous substances                           and Safety Plan.




 EQUIPMENT TO BE USED                    INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS              TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
 Geo-Probe (direct push) rig             Daily before each use                Only trained equipment operators may operate drill rig.
                                                                              Personnel will have specific training for sampling techniques.

Page 1 of 3                                                                 Project No. 130919                                                                 Direct Push Operations
                                                                       HAZARD ANALYSIS #3

   ACTIVITY     Direct Push Operations                           ANALYZED BY/DATE              M. Coyle 5-12-2008       REVIEWED BY/DATE


 PRINCIPAL STEPS                         POTENTIAL HAZARDS                 RECOMMENDED CONTROLS
 Direct Push Operations                  Inhalation and contact with            •     Ambient air monitoring and visual monitoring may be used to verify selection of
 (continued)                             hazardous substances                         personal protective equipment.
                                         (continued)                            •     Proper decontamination of drilling and sampling equipment shall be performed after use.
                                                                                •     All soil cuttings, and well and decontamination water shall be properly containerized,
                                                                                      labeled, and stored.

                                         High ambient temperature               •     Personnel shall take breaks and replenish fluids as needed to prevent heat stress and
                                                                                      follow Shaw E & I Procedure No. HS400, “Heat Stress.”

                                         Noise                                  •     Earplugs shall be worn whenever drill rig is in operation.
                                                                                •     Personnel shall follow Shaw E & I Procedure No. HS402, “Hearing Conservation
                                                                                      Program.”

                                         Injury from use of drilling            •     Drilling equipment shall be inspected before each use.
                                         equipment                              •     Inspect wire ropes, sheaves, pulleys, hydraulic hoses, shackles, and clamps for damage.
                                                                                •     Personnel shall have been trained in the use of drilling equipment.
                                                                                •     Site personnel must be familiar with Shaw E & I Procedure No. HS316, “Drill Rig
                                                                                      Operations.”
                                                                                •     Chock or block wheels when equipment is parked.
                                                                                •     Do not operate equipment without guards.




 EQUIPMENT TO BE USED                    INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS            TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
 Geo-Probe (direct push) rig             Daily before each use              Only trained equipment operators may operate drill rig.
                                                                            Personnel will have specific training for sampling techniques.

Page 2 of 3                                                               Project No. 130919                                                                Direct Push Operations
                                                                       HAZARD ANALYSIS #3

   ACTIVITY     Direct Push Operations                           ANALYZED BY/DATE              M. Coyle 5-12-2008        REVIEWED BY/DATE


 PRINCIPAL STEPS                         POTENTIAL HAZARDS                 RECOMMENDED CONTROLS
 Direct Push Operations                  Injury from use of drilling            •     Stay clear of rotating augers and pinch points, such as cables, pulleys, impact, and slide
 (continued)                             equipment                                    hammers.
                                         (continued)                            •     Use long-handled shovels to remove cuttings from the auger.
                                                                                •     Do not wear loose-fitting clothes during drilling operations.
                                                                                •     Outriggers must be placed on firm footing. Use jack pads when necessary.




 EQUIPMENT TO BE USED                    INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS            TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
 Geo-Probe (direct push) rig             Daily before each use              Only trained equipment operators may operate drill rig.
                                                                            Personnel will have specific training for sampling techniques.

Page 3 of 3                                                               Project No. 130919                                                                   Direct Push Operations
                     Response to Comments




HonoTP                                      Work Plan
Project No. 130919                          June 2008
                                      REVIEW COMMENTS AND RESPONSES 6/13/08
                         Draft Work Plan: Bioaugmentation Viability Demonstration Project (5/22/2008)
                           Reviewer: Roger Brewer, Hawaii Department of Health (email 5/27/2008)

 PAGE        SECTION                         COMMENT                                   CONTRACTOR RESPONSE

 General      Figure 1        Include TCE isoconcentration contours on     TCE isoconcentration contours of baseline data and
Comment                       the figure that depicts inject point and     post substrate/culture injection data will be presented
                              monitoring well locations.                   in the technical memorandum summarizing the results
                                                                           of this study, but not in this Workplan.
                                                                           TCE data from the baseline sampling event will
                                                                           include well MW-012 and the four new temporary
                                                                           monitoring wells. Without these new data, a TCE
                                                                           isoconcentration contour would just be a 1 mg/L
                                                                           ellipse centered approximately on well MW-012 in an
                                                                           east-west direction as depicted in the locations of
                                                                           proposed monitoring wells on Figure 1 of the
                                                                           Workplan.
                                                                           A TCE concentration of 1.95 mg/L was measured at
                                                                           well MW-012 during the last sampling event; however
                                                                           this well is screened from 12-24 feet. Data obtained
                                                                           from the four new temporary monitoring wells
                                                                           (screened from approximately 5-15 feet) will be used to
                                                                           draw isoconcentration contours depicting pre and post
                                                                           injection conditions.

 General        4.2           Test the extracted groundwater to be         A sample will be collected from the extracted water
Comment    Biodegradation     amended and re-injected for chlorinated      tank and analyzed for chlorinated volatile organic
             Monitoring       solvents (background levels in re-injected   compounds (VOCs) by Method 8260B prior to starting
                              water).                                      injection, such that baseline levels in the re-injected
                                                                           water are known.




                                                                                                                                 1
     PAGE        SECTION                         COMMENT                                        CONTRACTOR RESPONSE

     General        4.2         Include analysis for total organic carbon in       Total organic carbon (not field filtered) analyses will be
    Comment    Biodegradation   pretreated groundwater, the injected water         added to the monitoring program.
                 Monitoring     and post-treated groundwater (used to help
                                determine spread of the injected water,
                                degradation of lactate, dilution effects, etc.).

     General        NA          It would also be useful to estimate the mass       If possible, dissolved phase mass of the chlorinated
    Comment                     of chlorinated solvents in the treatment           solvents in the treatment area will be estimated in the
                                area. If this can be done, include separate        technical memorandum summarizing the results of
                                estimates of dissolved-phase mass and              this study using data from the four new temporary
                                sorbed-phase mass.                                 monitoring wells. Estimating sorbed-phase mass is
                                                                                   beyond the scope of this viability demonstration
                                                                                   project. If feasible, an estimate of the dissolved phase
                                                                                   mass prior to injection, and mass remaining after
                                                                                   bioaugmentation, will be conducted.




2
                             Responses to Comments on the
          Draft Work Plan for Bioaugmentation Viability Demonstration Project,
                  Site CG110, Hickam Air Force Base (HAFB), Hawaii


This document presents the responses to comments received June 6, 2008; from Remedial
Project Manager Maria Eloisa Q. Reyes of the State of Hawaii Department of Health, Hazard
Evaluation and Emergency Response Office; on the Draft Work Plan for Bioaugmentation
Viability Demonstration Project, Site CG110, Hickam Air Force Base (HAFB), Hawaii. State of
Hawaii Department of Health comments are in regular font and Air Force responses are in bold
italics.


GENERAL COMMENTS:

1.     Was the Dehalococcoides ethenogenes culture, to be used in this pilot test, originally
       isolated from a HAFB site?

Response:

Yes. This is a Dehalococcoides sp (DHC) containing consortium that is indigenous to Hawaii
and has been successfully applied for bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes at HAFB and
Pearl Harbor.

2.     Why was sodium lactate chosen as the substrate?

Response:

Sodium lactate is a food-grade substrate that is easily fermentable and readily utilized by the
indigenous organisms for generation of hydrogen which is subsequently used by the
dechlorinating organisms (DHC) for degradation of the chlorinated ethenes. It has been
successfully applied at HAFB for biodegradation and therefore it’s’ biodegradation process is
well understood. Utilization of sodium lactate, as opposed to lactic acid or some other
substrates will not result in substantial decrease in groundwater pH if the aquifer is not
sufficiently buffered. Low pH can inhibit the biodegradation process. Sodium lactate is also
very soluble; therefore, it can be distributed over a larger area by direct injection than less
soluble substrates. Because of the solubility, it will disperse by diffusion more readily than
emulsified oils and therefore result in treatment of larger areas. Because it is so readily
available it is anticipated to achieve degradation of the chlorinated organics in the treatment
area much quicker than a slower release compound such as emulsified vegetable oils. Because
of the short duration of the pilot test, it is preferred to achieve rapid degradation of the
chlorinated ethenes to permit evaluation of the bioremediation process.


3.     Please explain why it is anticipated that the sodium lactate will remain in the aquifer for
       approximately 90 to 120 days after the injection.

                                                                                Response to State of Hawaii
                                                                             Department of Health Comments
                                           Page 1 of 2
Response:

The anticipated duration is based on the results of the in situ treatability test conducted at the
previous pilot test conducted at Site LF05 at HAFB. At that location, the majority of the
substrate was depleted by 120 days. The actual substrate utilization rates however are
controlled by site specific characteristics and may vary from those observed at LF05. The
substrate utilization will be monitored during the pilot test.

4.     Please explain why the radius of influence is expected to be 12 feet from the point of
       injection.

Response:

The anticipated radius of influence is based on work conducted at other sites with similar
hydrogeologic conditions such as the Selma Superfund site. At that site, substrate was
observed to be distributed radially more than 15 feet by direct injection. The actual distribution
will depend on site hydrogeologic conditions and maximum flow rate and injection pressures
as well as diffusion and advective transport occurring after substrate injection. To be
conservative a smaller value (twelve feet rather than fifteen) was used to assure adequate
distribution of substrate. The radius of distribution will be evaluated by measurement of
substrate in monitoring wells subsequent to injection.

5.     It would appear to be prudent to conduct more frequent (i.e., biweekly) post-injection
       groundwater sampling in the first couple of months after injection, and then do monthly
       sampling for the remaining monitoring period, instead of just three (3) sampling events
       post-injection, spaced out approximately at two (2) month intervals. Please extend the
       monitoring period to six (6) months.

Response:

The objective of the bioaugmentation study is to determine if chlorinated solvents are degraded upon
the amendment of the culture and substrate, and we believe the monitoring program we have planned
will meet those objectives. Additional monitoring events will exceed the project’s budget. The amended
substrate is predicted to be consumed at about the same time the proposed monitoring program ends.
Once the substrate is consumed, future degradation of chlorinated compounds (if still present) would
be minimal. The extremely low groundwater gradient on Site ensures that the samples we collect will
be representative of water that was amended with the substrate and culture during the monitoring
period planned for this project. The Air Force will seek additional funding to perform post-injection
sampling at the suggested higher frequency, and the requested additional sampling will be performed
should funds become available.




                                                                                    Response to State of Hawaii
                                                                                 Department of Health Comments
                                             Page 2 of 2

								
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