Docstoc

ChildCare_Final_AW_10-20-08

Document Sample
ChildCare_Final_AW_10-20-08 Powered By Docstoc
					                                     Child Care
“Since the late 1980’s, the majority of American mothers with young children have worked outside the
home. Therefore, most young children spend some part of their day in out-of-home care. To meet this
demand, child care, family child care and preschool education are evolving into essential components of
the economic infrastructure for our society and indispensable support systems for the families that rely on
their services…Parents and policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of early
learning, including an increasing understanding of how children develop, which is leading to more public
demand for quality [1, 2].”



The Importance of Child Care
Child Development. Many professionals are beginning to use the term “Early care and
education” to refer to child care as quality child care provides both care and nurturing
for the child as well as early learning. Child care supports healthy child development. For
low-income families quality child care is critical. High-quality child care settings provide
safe places for kids to be and grow, offer food programs and good nutrition, provide
environments for socialization, physical development and learning. These are all aspects
that contribute to child development and have effect into the teen and ultimately adult
years. The first three years of a child’s life are critical to healthy development. During
these years, proper stimulation of all the facets of the growing brain is crucial. Some
experts believe that the critical period extends up to even 5 and 6 years old.

An investment into children’s futures. Studies have shown that high quality child care
not only enhances children’s development, but also assists a child’s learning abilities
while reducing risk factors that may lead to problem behavior. For example, one study
indicated that young people who spend their early years in high-quality child care are
half as likely to be arrested later [3]. The study compared the juvenile arrest records of
1,000 18-year-olds who, as children, had been enrolled in high quality child care centers
with similarly at-risk youths who had received full-day kindergarten, but not the pre-
school and parent-coaching program provided by the centers. Of those who had only
kindergarten, 26 percent (26%) had had at least one juvenile arrest and 15 percent
(15%) had had two or more arrests as juveniles. Of those who had attended the pre-
school program, 16 percent (16%) had had at least one arrest and 8 percent (8%) had
had two or more. These figures indicate that those children who had been enrolled in
high-quality child care centers were at lower risk for criminal activity later in their lives.

Economic importance. A growing number of studies, including Wyoming-based
research, are showing the broader economic impacts of quality early education
experiences not only on individuals as they grow into adulthood, but also on the general
economic well being of communities.



Laramie County GAPS Analysis                          CC-1/Page                                        September 2008
    Common findings at the level of the individual include:
     Increased tax revenues resulting from increased employment and earnings;
     Decreased welfare outlays, including Medicaid, Food Stamps, and Aid to Families
       with Dependent Children and general assistance (which is typically funded by
       counties);
     Reduced expenditures for education, health and other services, such as special
       education, emergency room visits, and stays in homeless shelters;
     Lower criminal-justice system costs, including arrest, adjudication and
       incarceration expenses.

     Community-level findings include:
      Enhanced employment opportunities in the child care industry leading to more
        job availability.
      Personal income generation, even in Wyoming where the child care workforce
        represents an important service industry in the statewide economy [2]. In 2006
        alone, the child care industry generated approximately $43.3 million in direct
        personal income to the child care industry personnel.
      Increased employee retention and recruitment as child care availability is a
        community asset to individuals that companies desire to hire. Availability of child
        care reduces the loss of employees that otherwise may be lost due to difficulty in
        securing child care.

Given the developmental, economic and community assets which are added to a region
through quality child care, it is extremely important to review this domain in Laramie
County. Therefore, in the following section, the status of child care in Laramie County is
reviewed with an emphasis on availability, quality, affordability and recommendations.


What are the Indicators?
Indicators from the National Association of Child Care Resource and Referrals
(NACCRRA) [4] and the US Department of Health and Human Services Child Care Bureau
[5] were incorporated into the analysis. Additionally, data specific to Laramie County
was requested from Child Care Finder, Wyoming’s child care resource and referral
network. Licensed child care capacity, authorized under the Wyoming Department of
Family Services, is presented for all type of child care facilities available in Laramie
County. Paralleling NACCRRA’s methodology, the number of children under 6 years of
age with parents in the labor force [6] was used to indicate the general need for child
care in Laramie County. This figure was stratified across family types including two-
parent families with both parents in the labor force, and single parent families with the
parent in the labor force. To address quality of child care, information from a
comprehensive assessment of child care in Wyoming based on the Assessment Profile
for Early Childhood Programs and the Assessment Profile for Family Child Care Centers
was presented [1].


Laramie County GAPS Analysis                  CC-2/Page                                September 2008
Child Care Options in Laramie County
There are various types of child care arrangements available to parents in Laramie
County. The Wyoming Department of Family services licenses the following types of
facilities that provide child care [7, 8]. First, a Child Care Center (CCC) is a facility which
cares for sixteen (16) or more children. Head Start, Early Head Start and Child
Development Centers are also licensed under this category. Head Start and Early Head
Start are government-funded comprehensive child development programs. Early Head
Start serves children from birth to age 3, pregnant women and their families, and is
typically a home-based program where staff visit children and their families within their
homes. Head Start is a child-focused program, with the overall goal of increasing social
competence of young children ages 3 to 5 in low-income families [9]. Child care services
is only one aspect of Head Start programs whose mission is quality early childhood
education which encompass whole family development. Within this report, data for
Early Head Start and Head Start programs are presented together as “Head Start”.

A Family Child Care Center (FCCC) is a child care facility in which care is provided for a
maximum of fifteen (15) children. This facility may be in the provider’s home or in a
commercial building. Child care services are also provided within Family Child Care
Homes (FCCH) in which care is provided for three to ten (3-10) children in the home of
the provider.

Other child care options include children being cared for in legally exempt care
arrangements which may include care provided by either a relative, or care provided by
a non-relative who is caring for no more than two children.


Licensed Child Care Capacity:
The Wyoming Department of Family Services developed the Administrative Rules for
Child Day Care Licensing [8] which are intended to provide consumer protection for
each child in care. Licensing of a child day care facility means that the facility and staff
have met the Department of Family Services minimum standards for operation. The
total licensed child care capacity in Laramie County is 3,752. This capacity is distributed
across the 4 major types of child care facilities. In terms of total number of facilities, the
majority of licensed child care facilities are family child care (59%) provided within a
home, followed by child care centers (28%), and family child care centers (11%). Two
percent (2%) of the licensed facilities in the county are Head Start facilities.




Laramie County GAPS Analysis                    CC-3/Page                                  September 2008
Child care centers possess
the greatest amount of                                        Child Care Facility Types
licensed capacity with a total
of 2,573 slots (69% of total
licensed capacity in Laramie
County). Family Child Care
                                                                                    Child Care Center
within homes is a distant                                                                  28%

second with a total licensed                                 Family Child Care
                                                                   Home
capacity of 718 (19% of total                                      59%
licensed capacity in Laramie                                                          Family Child Care
County). Family Child Care                                                                 Center
                                                                                            11%           Head Start
Centers and Head Start                                                                                       2%
programs provide
approximately the same
licensed capacity as each
other. Although, the 37 Child             Data Source: Child Care Finder, 2008
Care Centers make up only
                                                       Child Care Capacity by Facility Type
28% of the child care facilities
in the county, they provide
the majority of the licensed                                   Family Child Care
child care capacity in Laramie                                       Home
                                                                      718
County (2,573 slots, 69% of        Family Child Care                 19%
                                        Center
total child care capacity in the          209
                                          5%
county). This is a result of the                                                   Child Care Center
large capacity of child care                                                             2,573
                                                                                          69%
centers, on average Child               Head Start
Care Centers have a licensed              252
                                           7%
capacity of 70 children per
center.

In comparison, there are 77            Data Source: Child Care Finder, 2008
Family Child Care Homes in
Laramie County, making this category of child care facility the majority in the county.
The capacity of Family Child Care Homes is relatively low, however, with an average
licensed capacity of 9 children. Therefore, this type of program provides a total of 718
licensed capacity in Laramie County even with the large number of facilities existing in
the county.




Laramie County GAPS Analysis                           CC-4/Page                                                September 2008
                                            Average Licensed Capacity

              Family Child Care Home

              Family Child Care Center

                               Head Start

                      Child Care Center

                                            0        20               40    60      80       100

                                                  Licensed Capacity per Facility (Average)


          Data Source: Child Care Finder, 2008

A child care facility may be licensed to care for a specific number of children; however
the licensed capacity may be different than the facilities “desired capacity”. All facility
types except Head Start have desired capacities that are lower than their licensed capacity.
For example, Child Care Centers reported an average desired capacity of 62, while their
average licensed capacity was 70 children. Family Child Care Centers responded that
their average
                                 Licensed Capacity versus Desired Capacity of Child Care Facilities
desired capacity was
13 children while
                                                                                Licensed Capacity
their licensed                      90
                                                                                (Average)
                                    80
capacity was 15                                                                 Desired Capacity
                                    70                                          (Average)
children. Finally,
                                    60
Family Child Care
                                    50
Homes responded                     40
that their average                  30
desired capacity was                20
just slightly below                 10
their average                        0
licensed capacity                         Child Care   Head Start  Family Child     Family Child
                                           Center                  Care Center       Care Home
(8.73 desired versus
9.32 licensed).
                                     Data Source: Child Care Finder, 2008


Facility Operation
Eighty seven percent (87%) of the child care facilities in Laramie County remain open
during the full year and 12% close during the summer months. With 19% of the Child



Laramie County GAPS Analysis                              CC-5/Page                                September 2008
Care Centers closed
during the summer,
                                                          Months of Operation
these facilities
represent the majority                          Open School Year Only
                                                        12%
of summer closures
compared to other
types of child care                                                     Open Full Year
                                                                            87%
facilities. Additionally,
summer closure of 12%
of the child care
facilities in Laramie
County may strain
other child care facilities     Data Source: Child Care Finder, 2008
that remain open during
the summer.

Hours of operation is essential data to present given that a proportion of Cheyenne
families require weekend, evening or even 24-hour child care services in order to be
available for their jobs. Child Care Centers in Laramie County reported their earliest start
time as 5:00 am and their latest end time as 6:00 pm. Individual Child Care Centers may
remain open during different hours within that frame of time. The 3 Head Start
Programs responded with an earliest start time of 7:00 am and their latest end time of
6:00 pm. Family Child Care Centers had an earliest start time of 6:00 am and latest end
time of 12:00 am. Finally, some Family Child Care Homes in Laramie County provide 24
hour care (12:00 am til 12:00 am).

These hours of operation indicate that 69% of the child care options in Laramie County
are constrained to time periods from approximately 5:00 am until 6:00 pm. If a parent
requires “after hour” care during the week, they are limited to the use of Family Child
Care Centers or Family Child Care Homes which, together, represent 24% of the child
care capacity in Laramie County.




Laramie County GAPS Analysis                   CC-6/Page                                 September 2008
In regards to provision of overnight care,
weekend care and evening care, only 5% of                        Evening Care?
licensed child care facilities provide evening                                Provide
                                                                              Evening
care (after 6:00pm) whereas the other 95%                                     Care, 5%

of facilities do not provide care after
6:00pm. The limited availability of evening
care may be problematic for individuals in
Laramie County who work night shifts
anytime after 6:00 pm. Unfortunately, the
total number of Laramie County residents                         No Evening
                                                                  Care (after
that work night shifts was not available for                    6:00 pm), 95%
this report; therefore it is difficult to
definitively conclude whether the overnight
child care which is available sufficiently
covers the need. One survey of Laramie
County businesses conducted through the Wyoming Workforce Child Care Needs
Assessment, however, indicated a number of companies do employ individuals for non-
traditional shifts (see additional information below).
Similar to overnight care, weekend child care is minimal in Laramie County. Only six
percent (6%) of providers offer weekend care. Again, data was unavailable for the
number of individuals requiring weekend care due to working hours therefore defining
whether the weekend care available in Laramie County is sufficient is currently
impossible.

Finally, 5% of child care providers offer overnight care (24 hour care). These “non-
traditional” hours of operation are typically provided by Family Child Care Home
facilities, although evening hours are also provided by 2 Family Child Care Centers in the
county while weekend hours are provided by one Family Child Care Center.


             Weekend Care?                                                  Overnight Care?
                               Provide                                                       Provide
                               Weekend                                                      Overnight
                               Care, 6%                                                     Care, 5%




                 No Weekend
                                                                            No Overnight
                  Care, 94%
                                                                            Care (24 hour
                                                                             care), 95%



                                          Data Source: Child Care Finder, 2008

Laramie County GAPS Analysis                          CC-7/Page                                  September 2008
Overall, the bulk of non-traditional child care is offered by Family Child Care Homes in
Laramie County followed by Family Child Care Centers. The figures provided within the
following table indicate the specific types of non-traditional hours offered by child care
facility type.
                                                                                                         Family Child
                                          Child Care Center     Head Start   Family Child Care Center     Care Home
 Number child care programs providing:
          Evening Care (after 6:00 pm)           0                    0              2 (14%)                5 (6%)
                         Weekend Care            0                    0              1 (7%)                 7* (7%)
          Overnight Care (24 hour care)          0                    0              0 (0%)                 7 (9%)

        Data Source: Child Care Finder, 2008
        *Only one of the Family Child Care Homes operates on Sundays.

Compared to other counties in the state, Laramie County has made some effort to
address the needs of workers who work extended hour, nighttime and/or weekend
shifts as Laramie County, along with Natrona County, Campbell County and Carbon
County are the only counties in the state to offer any form of “non-traditional” child
care hours. This is encouraging for Laramie County, however the days and hours of
operation of child care providers in the county continues to be an important issue for
current and future child care delivery.

To quantify the number of companies requiring non-traditional work shifts, the
Wyoming Workforce Child Care Needs Assessment also administered an Employers
Survey. In Laramie County, 144 establishments were included in the survey sample
group which
incorporated all                         Laramie County Company Work Shifts
different sizes of                         8 hour
businesses including                         day       8 hour       8 hour           12 hour
                                            work        night    graveyard 12 hour    night
those with fewer than                       shift       shift        shift day shift  shift
10 employees to those
                            Company          39          17           13      9         8
with more than 150          Work Shifts
employees. Only 44
                            Source: Pedersen Planning Consultants, 2006
surveys were returned
in Laramie County (33% return rate), but the data gathered indicated that 17 companies
included 8-hour night shifts, 13 companies included 8-hour graveyard shifts, 9
companies included 12-hour day shifts and 8 companies included 12-hour night shifts.
From even this small sample size of 44 companies in Wyoming, it is clear that non-
traditional work hours are common. Child care options to accommodate non-traditional
work hours are necessary services to provide in the county.

Looking towards the future, much of the anticipated population growth in Wyoming will
be attributed to natural gas development, coal mine expansions and related
improvements, all of which may incorporate night and extended hour work shifts. While


Laramie County GAPS Analysis                              CC-8/Page                                     September 2008
these industries will affect Laramie County in a less-direct fashion compared to other
counties; large community employers including the regional hospital, county and
municipal law enforcement, and distribution centers (Walmart and Lowes, for example)
may continue to increase the number of employees asked to work non-traditional
hours.


Quality of Child Care
Limited data exists to quantitatively or qualitatively provide an assessment of the quality
of child care specific to Laramie County; however the State of Wyoming Department of
Workforce Services commissioned a comprehensive assessment conducted by Quality
Assist, Inc. aimed to measure child care quality across the state [1]. Two diagnostic tools
were utilized in this assessment including the Assessment Profile for Early Childhood
Programs and the Assessment Profile for Family Child Care Centers. These tools were
designed to comprehensively report on program quality and recommendations to
improve quality so that administrators can develop targeted action plans that lead to
the highest quality programs for young children. The study was completed during the
summer of 2006. This assessment divides the state into several regions, of which
Laramie County falls within the Southeast region. The assessment gathered original data
via three separate methods including observation of the child care environment and
interactions, review of documentation and report-based interviews with the providers.
A sample of 28 child care businesses were reviewed within Laramie County.

The conclusions of the comprehensive assessment at the state level and for the
Southeast Region are presented here (additional information may be found in Appendix
A). The conclusions were relatively uniform across the state; and they may be applied,
to some extent, to the quality of child care in Laramie County.

Overall, Wyoming’s child care centers and family home child care businesses provided
safe, clean and healthy care for children. Researchers noted that caregivers were warm
and nurturing towards the children in their care. Providers scored high in the health and
safety domains indicating that they are conscientious about keeping children safe and
healthy. Overall, providers were in good compliance with child care licensing standards.
Teachers and family child care providers were consistently attentive and responsive to
the children in their care. Researchers noted that these innate qualities provide a strong
foundation for quality child care practices.

The assessment found several areas in need of improvement including child care
programs’ learning environments, curriculum methods, individualizing and scheduling
dimensions. The low to moderate scores found in these dimensions indicated to
researchers that teachers/child care providers may not have sufficient knowledge
regarding child development and age-appropriate practices that foster learning in early
childhood. For example, development of an appropriate curriculum requires individuals



Laramie County GAPS Analysis                 CC-9/Page                                 September 2008
to be well versed in child development with an intimate understanding of each child’s
individual stage, style of learning and temperament. The researchers concluded that
teachers and family child care providers need “fundamental knowledge of child
development and a system for child assessment to effectively support children’s
development and learning….and teachers and family child care providers would benefit
from specialized training and on-site technical assistance that addresses developmental
stages and their implications for instructional strategies.”

The lowest scores were evident in the learning environment dimensions indicating that
emphasis should be placed on acquiring learning materials that match curriculum goals.
Additionally, researchers noted that “teachers and family child care providers would
benefit from concurrent and targeted training to increase their intentional use of
materials to match the ages and developmental stages of the children in their care.”

Overall, the comprehensive assessment concluded that as Wyoming, including Laramie
County, continues to develop its child care system, it will be necessary to “address
issues of quality and to develop effective strategies to raise the quality.” Researchers
highlighted that Wyoming has an excellent child care foundation given the inherent
nurturing of child care providers, the excellent group size and adult to child ratios and
the eye toward safety and health practices. Improvements in quality should incorporate
specialized and targeted training, mentoring and technical assistance in order to make a
sustainable impact on the quality of child care in Wyoming.


Child Care Clients
Child Care Finder, a program of Children and Nutrition Services, Inc. (CNS), is Wyoming's
Child Care Resource and Referral Service Network. Child Care Finder offers a free
referral service to parents living or moving to Wyoming and maintains program
information for licensed child care centers and licensed family child care homes.
Referrals are only provided to         Client Children and Referrals
licensed programs. Child Care                                              Totals Jan-June 2008
Finder is dedicated to increasing      Total Number of Clients                              409
the accessibility and affordability    Total Number of Children                             651
of child care programs; enhancing
                                           Data Source: Child Care Finder, 2008
the development of quality child
care services and advancing
appropriate child care policies. Child care providers look to Child Care Finder for
professional development opportunities and technical assistance.

From January through June, 2008, Child Care Finder served 409 clients in Laramie
County representing 651 children. Fifty-nine percent (59%) of these clients had one child
for which they were seeking child care services; 29% sought services for 2 children and
8% sought services for 3 children.



Laramie County GAPS Analysis                   CC-10/Page                                  September 2008
                                        Four Five
    Number of Children                   2% 1%
                                                  Six or more
                                                       1%
    per Client
                                     Three
                                      8%




                               Two
                               29%
                                                                 One
                                                                 59%




   Data Source: Child Care
   Finder, 2008


Overall, 73% (473) of children referred to child care by Child Finder were 4 years and
under. Most children (26%) were under one years of age, followed by 3 to 4 years (21%),
one year (13%), two years (12%), 6 to 8 years (12%), five years (9%), and nine years and
older (6%).




Laramie County GAPS Analysis                        CC-11/Page                      September 2008
                                                             No Age
   Age of Client Children                                      1%

                                                       Nine and
                                                         over
                                                          6%
                                        Six to Eight
                                            12%                              Under One
                                                                               26%


                               Five
                                9%




                                                                                     One
                                      Three to Four                                  13%
                                          21%


                                                                      Two
                                                                      12%
   Data Source: Child Care
   Finder, 2008




Who Needs Child Care?
The 2000 US Census collected data at the county level for the number of children under
6 years and between 6 and 17 years whose parents were in the labor force [10]. Based
on this data, there exists a potential need of 4,233 child care slots for children under 6
years of age in Laramie County. This includes 2,927 children under 6 where both parents
were in the labor force, 372 children under 6 who live with their working father, and 934
children under 6 years of age who live with their working mother.
                                         Age Category                                        Number of Children
Also included here is the                Under 6 years
number of individuals’                                        Both parents in labor force                2,927
ages 6 to 17 years with                                 Living with father, in labor force                 372
both parents in the
                                                   Living with mother, in labor force                      934
labor force, those who                   Under 6 years, potential need for child
live with their working                  care                                                            4,233
father and those who                     6 to 17 years:
live with their working                                       Both parents in labor force                7,061
mother. The age range                                   Living with father, in labor force                 745
included (6-17 years)                                  Living with mother, in labor force                2,358
overestimates the                        Total 6 to 17 with parents in labor force                      10,164
number of children
                                         Based on estimation, children ages 6 to
needing child care as                    10 years with parents in labor force
                                                                              1
                                                                                                         4,620


Laramie County GAPS Analysis                                 CC-12/Page                                    September 2008
typically children over 12 years old are not enrolled in child care. However, this data was
not available for finer age brackets. Based on an extrapolation of the figures however,
we may approximate as many as 4,620 children between ages 6 through 10 years of age
that may be in need of child care1. By expanding the age range and based on the same
estimation method, approximately 6,468 children between the ages 6 through 12 years
of age may be in need of child care1. This is a rough approximation, however the best
estimation possible given the data that was available at the time of this report
compilation.

Compared to the state and the nation, Laramie County has a slightly higher number of
two-parent families both of whom are in the work force (48% compared to 45% in
Wyoming and 40% in the US). Notable is that both parents in two-parent families in
Wyoming tend to be in the labor force more often (45%) compared to the US average
(40%). Indeed, the Wyoming economic climate often demands that all available parents
join the workforce, necessitating child care options [11].

Laramie County reported lower rates of single-parent families with the parent in the
labor force (21%) compared to the Wyoming and US average (26%). Overall, Wyoming
families, including those in Laramie County, report a higher percentage of children
under 6 needing child care as parents work compared to the national average (65%).

                         Percent of Children under 6 Years Needing Child Care
                                                          Laramie County      WY                    US
    Total Under 6 Years                                           --          --                     --
     In two-parent families, both parents in labor force         48%         45%                   40%
     In single-parent families, parent in the labor force        21%         26%                   26%
     Percent of children under 6 needing child care, as
    parents work                                                 70%         71%                   65%


The most relevant question, then, becomes “how many children need child care space
compared to the capacity that exists in the county?” As mentioned previously, a child care
facility’s licensed capacity may be different than its desired capacity. Therefore, both
figures are presented and compared to the estimated need for child care for ages 0 to
10 years. The total estimated need for child care in Cheyenne is 8,853 for ages 0 to 10
years1. This estimation does not include the fact that some children may receive care
from relatives or friends of their parents. Rather, it only estimates the number of
children in need of some sort of child care while their parents are working. Based on this
rough estimation, neither the licensed capacity (3,752) nor the desired capacity (3,395) of child
care programs in Laramie County would be sufficient to fulfill the estimated need of child care.

1
 Approximation calculated by dividing the total number of individuals ages 6-17 years living with working
parents (both parents who work, or live with father who is in the labor force, or live with mother who is in
the labor force) by 11 to estimate the number of children living with working parents for each age
between 6 and 17 years. This estimate (924) was then multiplied by 5 to estimate the number of children
ages 6 through 10 years living with working parents and who may be in need of child care (4,620).


Laramie County GAPS Analysis                          CC-13/Page                                        September 2008
                                 Estimated Need1 versus Capacity of Child Care
            10000
             9000
             8000
             7000
             6000
             5000
                                                                            8853
             4000
             3000
             2000                       3752
             1000
                 0
                               Total Licensed Capacity         Estimated Need Ages 0 - 10 years
                Data Source, Total Licensed Capacity: Child Care Finder, 2008
                Note: Estimated need does not account for family or relative care within
                Laramie County.
The Wyoming Department of Workforce Services and Pedersen Consultants provided a
separate analysis in 2006 which projected the anticipated “unmet demand for child
care” from 2006 through 2016. In their analysis, they determined that the midpoint of
Laramie County’s unmet need for child care services to be 2,007. This analysis follows
different methodology (see reference for methods)[2] than the previous analysis, but
still underscores the fact that there exists an unmet need for child care services in
Laramie County, and every other county in the state except Niobrara County.




Laramie County GAPS Analysis                             CC-14/Page                               September 2008
            Midpoint of Anticipated Unmet Demand Range, State of Wyoming, By Counties
County                                              Year
                     2006      2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015                   2016
Albany                182       220   260   299   336     374     412  442     471    500      528
Big Horn              272       276   285   293   302     310     316  324     331    340      349
Campbell             1144      1245 1358 1474 1596 1729 1824 1917 2015 2104                   2191
Carbon                134       151   196   210   226     241     262  273     283    296      310
Converse              271       294   316   340   361     385     406  424     441    459      475
Crook                 122       124   127   131   134     138     140  142     144    147      148
Fremont               353       373   395   418   439     461     483  506     528    552      575
Goshen                170       183   208   222   231     240     249  259     269    276      283
Hot Springs             44       45    46     48    49      52     54    57     59     62       66
Johnson                 86      104   126   145   163     185     202  216     249    269      249
Laramie              1751      1886 2007 2101 2195 2290 2385 2484 2574 2668                   2754
Lincoln               258       271   287   305   324     345     366  389     410    430      531
Natrona               969      1020 1072 1126 1179 1227 1282 1330 1382 1431                   1479
Niobrara               -43      -43   -43    -44   -44     -43    -43   -43    -43    -43      -42
Park                  135       153   173   189   204     223     243  269     304    339      367
Platte                  12       15    18     21    25      26     31    34     37     39       41
Sheridan                76      111   152   193   233     277     318  356     411    453      491
Sublette                41       55    71     84  100     114     129  142     155    168      182
Sweetwater           1047      1092 1135 1192 1269 1334 1400 1462 1519 1568                   1613
Teton                 877       936   992 1045 1110 1168 1224 1279 1335 1388                  1434
Uinta                 573       591   611   633   655     679     702  725     749    773      795
Washakie              119       120   128   137   145     153     156  158     163    164      166
Weston                  19       22    25     28    31      35     37    39     42     43       46
Source: Pedersen Planning Consultants, 2006.


Further data corroborates the claim that there is a need for additional child care
capacity in Wyoming. Calculations based on the US Census Bureau and the Department
of Family Services showed that in Wyoming (2005) there were 21 licensed childcare
slots for every 100 children age 0-12.

Qualitative data gathered by the State of Wyoming Department of Workforce Services
[2], as well as from staff of Child Care Finder serving Laramie County (personal
communication, Kim Lamb, Child Care Finder, Laramie County, June 2008) indicates that
for some age groups such as infant and toddler care, there is an even greater shortage of
available child care. Indeed, the most critical licensed care shortage is for children
ranging in age from 0 to 24 months [11]. Likewise, parents looking for child care slots for
several children of multiple ages (especially if any of the children are infants or toddlers) may
have difficulty finding a facility that has the capacity for all the children. These parents may
have to leave their children in the care of multiple child care programs rather than
having all children from one family cared for by one program provider (personal
communication, Teresa Williams, Director, Child Care Finder, July 2008). More stringent
rules apply to infant and toddler care, therefore child care providers may choose older
children (for example, preschool age) when opportunities to gain additional enrollment
may be achieved. Overall, the shortage of licensed child care also sets up a situation



Laramie County GAPS Analysis                     CC-15/Page                                   September 2008
where parents must compete for quality care slots [11](personal communication, Teresa
Williams, Director, Child Care Finder, July 2008).

Data from the 2006 Wyoming Department of Workforce Services survey of employers
indicated that 25% of respondents said that the availability of child care services in the
county hampered their company’s ability to recruit good employees. Additionally, 27%
of Laramie County respondents said the availability of child care services in the county
hampered their company’s ability to retain good employees. From these responses, it is
evident that the lack of child care services is felt even by businesses attempting to hire
and retain their employees.

Anticipated Demand. The Wyoming Department of Workforce Services, in conjunction
with Petersen Planning Consultants forecasted low and high end demand ranges for the
number of children needing infant, toddler, preschool and school age care in all counties
in the state including Laramie County for the 2006 to 2016 period. The specifics of the
methodology used to calculate the anticipated demand may be found in the Wyoming
Workforce Child Care Needs Assessment, 2006 [2]. In Laramie County, the net
anticipated child care demand ranged from 4,498 (low end) to 8,632 (high end) for
2016. Further analysis indicated the anticipated unmet child care needs between 2007
and 2016.

                             ANTICIPATED CHILD CARE DEMAND STATE OF WYOMING BY COUNTY 2016
                                     Infant Child       Toddler Child      Preschool Child      School Age
                                    Care (birth to      Care (12 to 36      Care (3 to 5     Child Care (6 to    Net Child Care
 County                              12 months)            months)             years)            12 years)          Demand
                                   Low       High      Low       High     Low       High     Low       High     Low       High
                                   End       End       End      End       End      End       End       End      End      End
 Albany                              144        142      326        271      698       724      427       907    1,595     2,044
 Big Horn                              37        56        55       111      192       322       47       459      331       948
 0 Campbell                          126        320      384        701    1,173     1,702      625     2,719    2,308     5,442
 Carbon                                25        80      121        168      632       425      225       646    1,003     1,319
 Converse                              28        84      122        147      353       463      236       714      739     1,408
 Crook                                  7        25        17        48      102       139       63       243      189       455
 Fremont                               55       166      207        338      920       900      788     1,341    1,970     2,745
 Goshen                                33        54        73       107      323       291       82       461      511       913
 Hot Springs                           16        19        19        39      128        76       35       161      198       295
 Johnson                               30        35        86        79      189       250      168       369      473       733
 Laramie                             196        546      734      1,101    2,428     2,736    1,140     4,249    4,498     8,632
 Lincoln                               27        82      103        314      551       463      100       706      781     1,565
 Natrona                             193        364      656        778    1,885     2,008    1,325     3,059    4,059     6,209
 Niobrara                               6          3       18        10      132        38       34        53      190       104
 Park                                  96       115      196        244      739       626      675     1,030    1,706     2,015
 Platte                                31        38        51        67      245       188      288       346      615       639
 Sheridan                              71       135      297        247      675       659      925     1,115    1,968     2,156
 Sublette                              18        32        72        62      311       196       86       306      487       596
 Sweetwater                            45       270      260        541    1,091     1,379      371     2,149    1,767     4,339
 Teton                               105        195      183        346      456       765      260     1,336    1,004     2,642
 Uinta                                 38       139      184        291      530       776      273     1,139    1,025     2,345
 Washakie                               8        41        65        90      276       210      121       388      470       729
 Weston                                16        17        36        42      139       121      112       166      303       346
 Source: Pedersen Planning
 Consultants, 2006




Laramie County GAPS Analysis                                    CC-16/Page                                                September 2008
According to the Department of Workforce Services, “For incoming workers with
families, child care is increasingly regarded as an essential service by parents who desire
to pursue and maintain full-time jobs.” In Wyoming, including Laramie County, the
current shortage as well as the anticipated child care demand, illustrates the need for
child care solutions not only for the wellbeing of the children, but also for incoming
workers and the economy of the county.


Costs of Child Care
Child care is mainly a private, fee-for-service system in which parents are the consumers
and purchase care for their children. In addition to fee-for-service child care programs,
Head Start provides services to children and families and is supported by state and
federal funds and provided at no cost to the families who meet program guidelines.
Program guidelines are income-based and include the following:
         Child care assistance provided by the Department of Family Services.
         Supplemental Security Income (SSI) provided for the child or family.
         Cash assistance provided by the Department of Family Services.
         Adult Basic Education services provided by Laramie County Community
            College.
         Infant Home Visits provided by the Wyoming Department of Health.
These guidelines are subject to change as federal agencies have reviewed and modified
current guidelines; however the altered guidelines have not yet been implemented at
the state level.

Fee-for-service child
care services are                Average Daily Child Care Cost by Age
priced in a variety of     $40
                                                                                         $36.00
ways including             $35
hourly, daily, weekly      $30
                                $23.39 $23.42 $22.85 $21.92
and monthly rates.         $25                                     $21.15 $20.91 $20.48
                           $20
Appendix B within
                           $15
the Child Care             $10
Domain indicates            $5
the minimum,                $0
maximum and                      0 - 36 37 - 52    1-2      2-3    3 Years  4-5   6 - 12 Special
average rates for               Weeks Weeks Years          Years           Years  Years   needs
                                                                                         child to
the child care                                                                            age 18
                                Data Source: Child Care Finder, 2008
services in Laramie
County, by age of
children served. Only the average daily child care cost is displayed here. The highest rate
per day is for the care of a special needs child up to age 18 years ($36.00 per day). The
second highest average daily child care cost is for the care of infants 0-36 weeks ($23.39


Laramie County GAPS Analysis                    CC-17/Page                                   September 2008
per day) and 37-52 weeks ($23.42 per day). The care of children 6-12 years old is least
costly at $20.48 per day.

The question, then, is how affordable is child care services to individuals living in Laramie
County? The affordability of child care services were examined in the context of overall
household costs for housing, child care, food, transportation, health care and other
miscellaneous expenses and are outlined in the Adjusted Wyoming Self-Sufficiency
standard. The following data is                   AFFORDABILITY OF CHILD CARE SERVICES
presented as the self-sufficiency
standard for a family of four, which                                           Percent of
                                                          Adjusted County      Households
included two parents, as well as one                     Self Sufficiency      Earning Less
preschool child and one school age           County      Standard (dollars)    Than Standard
child. This information was compared to      Albany                     37,092              42
Laramie County household income data         Big Horn                   34,140              43
to determine what proportion of              Campbell                   36,005              27
                                             Carbon                     33,776              38
households in the county could not
                                             Converse                   33,869              33
afford the cost of child care given the      Crook                      33,192              38
income that family generated. This           Fremont                    34,280              44
analysis indicated that 35% of households            Goshen                      36,239                 43
in Laramie County were earning less than             Hot Springs                 36,451                 45
the self-sufficiency standard and therefore          Johnson                     33,314                 36
could not afford the cost of child care at           Laramie                     35,956                 35
licensed child care facilities.                      Lincoln                     38,711                 40
                                                     Natrona                     35,180                 36
                                                     Niobrara                    34,667                 52
Subsidized child care may assist some                Park                        35,191                 40
individuals who cannot afford child                  Platte                      36,520                 43
care. The primary vehicle for subsidized             Sheridan                    37,266                 41
child care is offered to qualifying                  Sublette                    39,252                 42
                                                     Sweetwater                  37,424                 29
individuals through the Child Care and
                                                     Teton                       48,626                 18
Development Fund (CCDF). CCDF is a                   Uinta                       39,427                 36
federal block grant to states for                    Washakie                    34,315                 37
provision of funding to assist low                   Weston                      36,764                 45
income working families in paying for           Notes: Self-sufficiency standards are for a family of four
                                               including two adults, one preschooler, and one school age
the cost of child care. In Wyoming, the        child.
Department of Family Services (DFS) is          Source: Pedersen Planning Consultants, 2006.
the lead agency for the CCDF charged
with the responsibility to assure that child care subsidy rates are sufficient to “ensure
equal access” for eligible families to child care services comparable to services provided
to families that do not receive subsidies. The number of families or children receiving
subsidized child care rates in Laramie County was not available at the time of report
compilation.




Laramie County GAPS Analysis                         CC-18/Page                                       September 2008
Child Care Providers – Wage & Benefits
A large body of research provides a unified conclusion: that a significant correlation
exists between child care program quality and outcomes for children [12]. In turn, child
care program quality is directly related to the working environment of child care
providers. Aspects of working environments that may indirectly influence the children in
care include factors such as salary, benefits and working conditions. Research indicates
that providers who are committed to their jobs, satisfied and compensated adequately
are more sensitive to the children, more responsively involved, and more nurturant.
Additionally, staff turnover may directly impact the quality of the child care program as
children who lose their regular caregivers may experience negative outcomes such as
poor language and social development and, in at least one study, increased aggression 2.
Given this background, it was essential to incorporate information on the child care
providers in Laramie County including their wages, access to insurance and other job-
associated benefits.

Wage. On a per hour basis, all child care staff positions in Laramie County are
compensated with wages above the minimum wage standard for Wyoming ($5.15 per
hour)[13], although the minimum wages reported for all staff titles ($5.30 per hour) is
only 15 cents above the minimum wage standard in Wyoming. The average wage for all
staff titles was $11.18 per hour. As expected, directors, teacher/directors and associate
directors were paid the most per hour.


                                                 Staff Wages
         $18.00
         $16.00
         $14.00
         $12.00
         $10.00
          $8.00
          $6.00
          $4.00
          $2.00
          $0.00




          Data Source: Child Care Finder, 2008


     2
         This text refers to information provided in the 2004 Wyoming Child Care Market Survey.


Laramie County GAPS Analysis                           CC-19/Page                                 September 2008
                                                 Staff Wages Report
                              # of         Min           Max          Average     40-hr          Annual (40
          Title             Records        Wage          Wage          Wage       Week*          hr week)*
Director                       32               $6.25    $50.00          $17.75      $710.00        $36,920.00
Associate Director             19               $6.13    $18.87          $12.17      $486.80        $25,313.60
Teacher/Director               15               $6.13    $17.71          $12.85      $514.00        $26,728.00
Teacher                        31               $6.00    $15.87           $9.80      $392.00        $20,384.00
Assistant Teacher              20               $5.30    $10.58           $7.54      $301.60        $15,683.20
Classroom Aide                 15               $5.30      $9.00          $6.94      $277.60        $14,435.20
Substitute                      8               $6.00      $8.00          $7.51      $300.40        $15,620.80
ALL TITLES                     140              $5.30    $50.00          $11.18      $447.20        $23,254.40
* Extrapolation based on a 40-hour work week.
Data Source: Child Care Finder, 2008


Extrapolation of the per hour wages for child care staff to an annual salary based on a
40-hour work week indicates that child care staff, particularly assistant teachers,
classroom aides, and substitutes earn below a self-sufficiency wage for single individuals
(self sufficiency wage >$16,880) and single individuals with children (self sufficiency
wage; low end,$21,010; high end, $48,967). This comparison is only provided for single
individuals and singles with children as it is impossible to provide comparison to married
self-sufficiency wage without the data to indicate the spouse’s wage.


                                                  Self-Sufficiency             Approximate % with Income
                                                             1                                             2
                                                   Standard                below Self-Sufficiency Standard
Married Couple No Children                            $26,225                             13.0%
Married with Children                            $29,622 -- $55,545                   17.6% -- 49.0%
Single                                                $16,880                         12.9% -- 15.5%
Single with Children                             $21,010 -- $48,967                   27.8% -- 89.3%

     1)    Pearce, DM. The Impact of Work Supports - The Self-Sufficiency Standard for Wyoming 2007. Prepared for the
           State of Wyoming, Office of the Governor.
     2)    US Census Bureau, American FactFinder Census 2000 Summary File 3, PCT 38.
           These figures are approximations made by calculations which are based on the above sources.




Laramie County GAPS Analysis                                CC-20/Page                                           September 2008
Benefits. Overall, 31%
of Laramie County                                                                     Benefits Offered?
child care programs do
not offer any types of                                                                                         Offer No
benefits to their                                                                                            Benefits, 31%
employees.
                                                                                   Offer
                                                                                Benefits, 69%
When benefits are
offered, 44% of the
total staff records (140
child care staff in
licensed child care
facilities in Laramie
County) do receive             Data Source: Child Care Finder, 2008
health insurance, 25%
receive life insurance, 56% receive paid sick leave, 51% receive paid vacation leave while
29% receive a retirement plan.


                                                                            Staff Benefits
                                 100%
                                  90%
      Percent of Staff Records




                                  80%
                                  70%
                                                                                  56%
                                  60%                                                           51%
                                                          44%
                                  50%
                                  40%                                                                     29%         31%
                                                                      25%
                                  30%
                                  20%
                                              4%                                                                                   1%
                                  10%
                                   0%
                                          Disability     Health       Life     Paid Sick     Paid     Retirement   Offer No     Offer
                                         Insurance     Insurance   Insurance    Leave      Vacation      Plan      Benefits   Benefits to
                                                                                            Leave                                PT
                                 Data Source: Child Care Finder, 2008


Receipt of benefits is dependent upon the specific type of staff (teacher, director,
classroom aide, etc). Provided here is data on the percent of specific staff who receive
health insurance. Appendix C provides a graph of all staff benefits by job title. As
mentioned previously, 44% of the total child care staff in Laramie County receives health
insurance. Associate directors are most commonly provided health insurance (58% of
associate directors). Forty to 47% of individuals holding all other job titles (assistant
teachers, classroom aids, directors, teachers and teacher/directors) receive health
insurance. None of the substitute child care workers receive health insurance.




Laramie County GAPS Analysis                                                      CC-21/Page                                                September 2008
                               Health Insurance by Job Title
                  60
                  50
                  40
        Percent




                  30
                  20
                  10
                   0




        Data Source: Child Care Finder, 2008




Conclusions and Recommendations
Affordable and available quality child care is essential for the wellbeing of Laramie
County’s children, their future achievements and development and the economic
wellbeing of the county residents.

Based on the analysis conducted for the child care domain, several salient
recommendations are provided here:

The problem: Child care capacity shortage. Via several estimation methods, it is clear
that a child care shortage exists not only across the state, but in Laramie County. This
shortage is evident on several levels. In general, the overall capacity is not sufficient to
meet the need based on the number of children with working parents. Often, it is
extremely difficult to secure care especially for infants and toddlers in the county.
Likewise, for families with multiple children, siblings often have to be split up between
child care providers.

The recommendations: A number of options exist to increase the overall capacity of
child care in Laramie County. Several specific approaches include the following;
however, it is recommended that a task force including members of the school district,
current child care providers (including Child Care Finder staff), Head Start staff


Laramie County GAPS Analysis                   CC-22/Page                                 September 2008
members, parents of infants, toddlers, preschool and elementary children, and other
concerned community citizens be convened to further investigate the best approach to
use available resources, or to seek new resources for enhancement of child care
capacity.

      Several thoughtful recommendations were provided by the Wyoming
       Department of Workforce Services and Pedersen Consultants to enhance child
       care capacity. One suggestion was to establish a revolving loan fund for the
       development of child care facilities in Wyoming. This fund would be established
       in order to encourage the development of more child care facilities by private day
       care providers as the funds would be used to secure further financing for
       construction of the facilities. State funds appropriated from the Wyoming State
       Legislature would be one ideal way to allocate funds for establishment of
       revolving loan funds within each county.
      Integration of child care facilities with the development of new and expanded
       public facilities may be another option for expansion of child care facilities.
       Communication with the city and county planning offices to collaborate on new
       building developments would be a positive step in allowing the incorporation of
       child care facilities into future public facilities in Laramie County. If approved,
       public agencies could lease available floor space to private or non-profit child are
       providers. The child care services could then be provided to community residents
       as well as employees of the public facility.
      Likewise, large community employers could assist in the child care capacity issue
       while also enhancing employee benefits by initiating cooperative relationships
       with child care providers. The child care needs of the employees would be served
       and resources would flow to local child care providers in a mutually-beneficial
       relationship. Large community employers looking to expand their facilities or
       corporations planning to expand to Laramie County may benefit from including
       child care facilities in their planning process. Additionally, if the community
       employers utilize night shifts, swing shifts or weekend hours, child care may be
       provided 24 hours on site. The large community employers who may lease floor
       space to child care providers could gain preferential on-site child care slots for
       their employees. Such partnerships have been established in a number of
       Wyoming communities. To initiate this type of plan in Laramie County, a team of
       qualified professionals should be tasked with investigation of successful
       partnerships between community employers and child care providers in
       Wyoming and other states.
      Expansion of existing programs that provide extended learning opportunities
       during after school hours (for example, those that are run by Laramie County
       School District #1 and #2); the Boys and Girls Club, or YMCA is another possible
       avenue to increase child care capacity in Laramie County. These programs already
       have an existing framework, but additional resources may allow for growth in
       child care capacity and hours of operation.



Laramie County GAPS Analysis                  CC-23/Page                               September 2008
      A public/private partnership may be one way to motivate additional child care
       capacity and operating hours in Laramie County. An example of such a program is
       in Sheridan, Wyoming [14]. Sheridan’s economic development organization,
       called Forward Sheridan (FS) identified child care as one of the top economic
       issues in Sheridan County. This group motivated Sheridan Counties businesses via
       a fundraising effort in which $32,000 dollars was donated by local businesses in a
       period of only 48 hours. With the community support, Sheridan developed a
       public/private partnership with the goal of developing an early childhood
       education center able to serve 130 children, operating 24 hours a day, 365 days a
       year. This center would also serve as a training center for child care providers.
       With this partnership, the need for childcare, one of the top barriers for business
       development in Sheridan County will be met.
      One of the major findings in the Wyoming Department of Workforce Services and
       Quality Assist’s comprehensive assessment of child care quality in Wyoming was
       “that as Wyoming develops its child care system, it will be necessary to address
       issues of quality and to develop effective strategies to raise the quality [1, 2].”
       Specialized and targeted training, mentoring and technical assistance must be
       enhanced for child care providers.


     The problem: Uninsured child care providers. Thirty-one percent (31%) of Laramie
     County child care programs do not offer any types of benefits to their employees.

     The recommendations (note: these recommendations mirror those made in the
     Healthcare Domain).
      Incorporate tax benefits for child care facilities who offer appropriate health
        insurance benefits to their employees.
      Incorporate state funded subsidies for Wyoming-based employer contributions to
        healthcare premiums. The subsidies would be constructed based on a graduated
        scale, favoring Wyoming-based corporations with larger human resources.
      Expansion of the state employee health insurance pool to include employees of
        small childcare businesses; or implementation of a state-backed basic health
        plan. Such a plan would provide for the development of a personal health
        account designed to pay individual and family health expenses (including
        deductibles and co-payments). The health account would be funded by
        contributions from the insured with matching state contributions whose relative
        share would be determined by a sliding scale based on the insured’s income [15].

The problem: Need for enhanced child care learning environments, curriculum, and
child development training. A comprehensive assessment conducted by Quality Assist,
Inc. and commissioned by the Wyoming Department of Workforce Services concluded
that as Wyoming, including Laramie County, continues to develop its child care system,
it will be necessary to “address issues of quality and to develop effective strategies to
raise the quality.” Specific concerns were that teachers/child care providers may not


Laramie County GAPS Analysis                 CC-24/Page                               September 2008
have sufficient knowledge regarding child development and age-appropriate practices
that foster learning in early childhood; and that the curriculum and learning
environments within child care facilities were not always age appropriate nor targeted
to the developmental stages of the children in care.


The recommendations. Improvements in quality should incorporate specialized and
targeted training, mentoring and technical assistance in order to make a sustainable
impact on the quality of child care in Wyoming. Specifically, “teachers and family child
care providers would benefit from concurrent and targeted training to increase their
intentional use of materials to match the ages and developmental stages of the children
in their care”; and “fundamental knowledge of child development and a system for child
assessment to effectively support children’s development and learning….and teachers
and family child care providers would benefit from specialized training and on-site
technical assistance that addresses developmental stages and their implications for
instructional strategies. [1, 2]”




Laramie County GAPS Analysis                CC-25/Page                              September 2008
                                        References

1.        Quality Assist. 2008 [cited; Available from: http://www.qassist.com/.
2.        Wyoming Department of Workforce Services and Pederson Planning
          Consultants, Wyoming Workforce Child Care Needs Assessment. 2006.
3.        Newman, S., America's Child Care Crisis: A Crime Prevention Tragedy. 2000, Fight
          Crime: Invest in Kids.
4.        National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies. 2008 [cited;
          Available from: http://www.naccrra.org/.
5.        US Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and
          Families. 2008 [cited; Available from: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ccb/.
6.        US Census Bureau. American Community Survey. 2006 [cited; Available from:
          http://www.census.gov/acs/www/index.html.
7.        Wyoming Department of Family Services, Wyoming 2004 Child Care Market
          Survey. 2004. p. 42.
8.        Wyoming Department of Family Services. Licensing Rules. 2005 [cited; Available
          from: http://dfswapps.state.wy.us/DFSDivEC/General/LicensingRules.asp.
9.        US Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and
          Families. Office of Head Start. 2008 [cited; Available from:
          http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ohs/.
10.       US Census Bureau. Age of own children under 18 years in families and
          subfamilies by living arrangements by employment status of parents. 2000
          [cited; Available from: http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-
          context=dt&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-CONTEXT=dt&-
          mt_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U_P046&-tree_id=403&-redoLog=true&-
          all_geo_types=N&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=16000US5613900&-
          search_results=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en.
11.       Homer, M., Early Child Care and Education in Wyoming Building Capacity, Aiming
          for Quality. 2008.
12.       Frede, E., The role of program quality in producing early childhood program
          benefits. Future Child, 1995. 5(3): p. 115-32.
13.       Economic Analysis and Research Network, The State of Working Wyoming. 2008,
          Equality State Policy Center.
14.       Wyoming Children's Action Alliance. Wyoming Kids Count Data Book. 2007
          [cited; Available from: www.wykids.org.
15.       Heath care reform-pilot project, in 08LSO-0359.E1. 2008.
16.       Child Care Finder. 2008. http://www.childrens-nutrition.com/childcarefinder.htm




Laramie County GAPS Analysis                  CC-26/Page                              September 2008
     Appendix A. Quality assessment of child care services in Wyoming. Source: Wyoming Department of Workforce Services and Quality Assist, 2006.


                               Quality of center based child care classrooms in Wyoming by age group and letter grade




Laramie County GAPS Analysis                        CC-27/Page                                     September 2008
                                 Quality of family based child care businesses in Wyoming by letter grade




Source: Wyoming Department of Workforce Services and Quality Assist, 2006.




Laramie County GAPS Analysis                      CC-28/Page                          September 2008
Appendix B Provider cost Analysis by Age, Laramie County, Wyoming. Source: Child Care
Finder, 2008.
                               Provider Cost Analysis by Age Group - Laramie County

                                                    Day Shift
                                                Monthly, FT Rates
                         Age Group                           Min $    Max $     Avg $
                         0 - 36 Weeks                        336.00   625.00    490.86
                         37 - 52 Weeks                       336.00   625.00    489.49
                         1 - 2 Years                         336.00   625.00    478.16
                         2 - 3 Years                         336.00   625.00    449.00
                         3 Years                             300.00   625.00    427.40
                         4 - 5 Years                         300.00   600.00    422.63
                         6 - 12 Years                        300.00   500.00    399.24
                         Special needs child to age 18
                                                    Day Shift
                                                 Daily, FT Rates
                         Age Group                          Min $     Max $     Avg $
                         0 - 36 Weeks                        13.88     36.00    $23.39
                         37 - 52 Weeks                       13.88     36.00    $23.42
                         1 - 2 Years                         13.88     31.25    $22.85
                         2 - 3 Years                         13.88     31.25    $21.92
                         3 Years                             13.88     31.25    $21.15
                         4 - 5 Years                         13.88     31.00    $20.91
                         6 - 12 Years                        14.00     30.00    $20.48
                         Special needs child to age 18       36.00     36.00    $36.00
                                                    Day Shift
                                                 Hourly, FT Rates
                         Age Group                          Min $     Max $     Avg $
                         0 - 36 Weeks                         1.67      4.00      2.77
                         37 - 52 Weeks                        1.67      4.00      2.74
                         1 - 2 Years                          1.67      4.00      2.69
                         2 - 3 Years                          1.67      4.00      2.63
                         3 Years                              1.67      4.00      2.54
                         4 - 5 Years                          1.67      4.00      2.53
                         6 - 12 Years                         1.56      5.00      2.64
                         Special needs child to age 18        4.00      4.00      4.00
                                                    Day Shift
                                                Weekly, FT Rates
                         Age Group                         Min $     Max $      Avg $
                         0 - 36 Weeks                       80.00 180.00 114.20
                         37 - 52 Weeks                      80.00 180.00 115.10
                         1 - 2 Years                        75.00 155.00 111.30
                         2 - 3 Years                        75.00 155.00 109.13
                         3 Years                            75.00 160.00 108.98
                         4 - 5 Years                        75.00 160.00 108.20
                         6 - 12 Years                       70.00 130.00 103.84
                         Special needs child to age 18     180.00 180.00 180.00
                         Source: Child Care Finder, June 2008; FT refers to “Full Time”.



Laramie County GAPS Analysis                             CC-29/Page                        September 2008
     Appendix C. Benefits received by child care staff type, Laramie County, Wyoming. Source: Child Care Finder, 2008.




                                                                     Benefits by Staff Type
                   70



                   60



                   50


                                                                                                                                            Disability Insurance
                   40
         Percent




                                                                                                                                            Health Insurance
                                                                                                                                            Life Insurance
                   30
                                                                                                                                            Paid Sick Leave
                                                                                                                                            Paid Vacation Leave
                   20                                                                                                                       Retirement Plan



                   10



                   0
                        Assistant Teacher   Associate   Classroom Aide   Director       Substitute       Teacher         Teacher/Director
                                            Director




Laramie County GAPS Analysis                            CC-30/Page                                   September 2008

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:11/19/2011
language:English
pages:30