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					Going, Going Green:
A Student-Centered Eco-Literacy Curriculum



KQED Education Network
Curriculum website: http://www.kqed.org/eco-literacy




INSPIRATIONS

“The sad fact is that what we see in the store, what we put in our homes, what we use every
day, all those objects, all those friendly products that we’re so used to, have a hidden legacy
— which has to do with their impacts on the environment, on our health, on ecosystems,
on the people that made them — that starts from the moment that they start to extract
the ingredients.”
– Daniel Goleman on Bill Moyers Journal
  http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/05152009/profile2.html

“All things are bound together. All things are connected. Whatever befalls the earth, befalls the
children of the earth.”
– Chief Seattle

“We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors, but we borrow it from our children.”
– Native American saying

“In our every deliberation, we must consider the impact of our decisions on the next
seven generations.”
– Great Law of the Iroquois

“Climb the mountains and get their good tidings. Nature’s peace will flow into you as sunshine
flows into trees. The winds will blow their own freshness into you, and the storms their energy,
while cares will drop off like autumn leaves.”
– John Muir

“When we try to pick out anything by itself we find that it is bound fast by a thousand invisible
cords that cannot be broken, to everything in the universe.”
– John Muir 1869
    INTROduCTION

    This curriculum focuses on eco-literacy, offering lesson plans linked to KQED/PBS
    programming and online interactive resources. Based on a curriculum model that moves
    from local to global concerns, the lessons draw on students’ background knowledge
    – including green practices in their native countries. As a strongly student-centered
    curriculum, the intention is to addresses green issues through students’ eyes and
    experiences and to inspire them to be informed about green issues and proactive in
    choices that impact their everyday lives.

    By locating important current issues in a broader, global context we also hope to raise
    students’ awareness of the ways in which these issues impact the future of the planet and
    the lives of all who inhabit it.

    The curriculum modules and online interactive resources are available at www.kqed.org/
    eco-literacy. To enrich and illustrate content, video and audio clips are integrated into
    curriculum modules and available for streaming, although the lessons are designed to
    be freestanding as well. PBS programming such as QUEST, NOW and FRONTLINE are
    examples of media referenced in the lesson plans, and transcripts will be available on
    request for many of the programs.

    The lessons are appropriate for different levels of student proficiency in English, and can be
    adapted for different student groups.

    Acknowledgments
    Lesson plans and activities in this booklet have been developed by the following
    ESL practitioners:

    Ann Fontanella, ESL instructor at City College of San Francisco
    Catherine Hartman, ESL instructor at City College of San Francisco
    Jeannie Parent, ESL instructor at Bakersfield College
    Jeff McClelland, CBET/ESL teacher with Oakland Adult School and San Francisco
    Unified School District
    Kim Lee, ESL instructor at City College of San Francisco
    Matt Holsten, ESL instructor at City College of San Francisco
    Tina Martin, ESL instructor at City College of San Francisco

    Feedback
    We are interested in your comments, questions and/or further suggestions regarding these
    materials. Thank you.
    Maxine Einhorn, Project Supervisor
    meinhorn@kqed.org

    Curriculum website at www.kqed.org/eco-literacy




2
MEdIA-RICH RESOuRCES

“Ghana: digital dumping Ground,” a video clip from a Frontline World (PBS) segment;
available at http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/ghana804/

“Environmentalists Teach dos and don’ts of E-Waste,” an interview from NPR; available at
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=17988109

“Growing Local, Eating Local,” a video clip from NOW (PBS), week of 11/2/07, available at
http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/344/index.html

“Local Food,” a segment from Forum (KQED), 7/19/05, available at
http://www.kqed.org/epArchive/R507191000

“The Veggie Van,” from NOW (PBS); video clip available at
http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/522/veggie-van.html

For more about living an eco-friendly life, visit the links listed at
http://www.kqed.org/tv/programs/faq/going-green.jsp

Find a recycling center near you and learn more about local environmental programs
and topics at http://earth911.org/california

Zero Waste California
http://www.zerowaste.ca.gov/
California Integrated Waste Management Board resource site.

Eco-Cycle
http://www.ecocycle.org/hazwaste/recipes.cfm – section on tips and recipes
for non-toxic household cleaners

“How Green Is Your Campus?” from NOW (PBS); available at
http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/515/green-colleges.html

“World’s Oceans Face Plastic Pollution Problem,” video excerpt from the PBS
program The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer; available at
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/video/blog/2008/11/worlds_oceans_face_plastic_
pol.html

“Trash on the Spin Cycle,” a video from the Ocean Adventures website; available at
http://www.pbs.org/kqed/oceanadventures/video/gyre




                                                                                            3
    “Where We’ve Been, Where We’re Headed,” a video clip about the San Francisco Bay
    Area’s environmental movement, from the QUEST website, a KQED multimedia series
    exploring Northern California science, environment and nature; available at
    http://www.kqed.org/quest/television/earth-day-tv-special-where-weve-been-where-
    were-headed

    Various websites and Web pages on the subject of global warming:
    • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/warming/etc/graphs.html
    • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/heat
    • http://www.pewclimate.org/global-warming-basics/facts_and_figures/impacts
    • http://www.earthweek.com

    This KQEd QuEST blog page at http://www.kqed.org/quest/blog/tag/carbon-footprint/
    links to http://www.climatecrisis.net/takeaction/carboncalculator/, an interactive
    website from the film An Inconvenient Truth that allows users to calculate their carbon
    footprint. Ideal for beginning-level ESL students and/or those with limited computer skills
    because of its reduced content and user-friendly interface

    http://www.coolcalifornia.org/article/carbon-calculator
    This is an extensive interactive website that calculates a more precise carbon footprint,
    but requires more user input and a higher level of language skills and computer skills.
    This website may be appropriate for intermediate and advanced ESL students.

    The Center for Ecoliteracy is dedicated to education for sustainable living. We provide
    information, inspiration, and support to the vital movement of K-12 educators, parents, and
    other members of the school community who are helping young people gain the knowledge,
    skills, and values essential to sustainable living.
    http://www.ecoliteracy.org/about/index.html




4
Journey of a Plastic Bottle

aim                                          O ve r vi e w
the primary aim of this lesson is to         In this lesson, students examine the use of bottled water and its connection
have students engage in activities
                                             to the problem of plastic pollution in our oceans. As a culminating
that demonstrate the connection
between plastic water bottle use and         experience, students develop a project to raise awareness in the community
the global problem of plastic pollution in   about the problem of plastic waste.
our oceans.
                                             Day ON e
OBJeCtiveS
At the end of this session,
students will be able to:                    ActIvItIes
•     Develop, conduct and summarize
      the results of a survey.               1. Discussion
•     Write a reaction essay about the          Write tap water and bottled water on the board.
      topic of bottled water with a focus
                                                Have the students break into small groups and invite them to share their
      on taste, safety and price.
•     Conduct informal research on              ideas, thoughts and opinions about tap water and bottled water and to
      the topic of the Great Pacific            create a list of what they talked about. When they are ready, ask them to
      Garbage Patch.                            share their lists with the class and write them on the board.
•     Summarize major ideas from
      a NewsHour with Jim Lehrer
                                               Note: this activity is meant to be an introduction to the topic of bottled
      video excerpt about plastic in
      our oceans.                              water and not an exhaustive discussion of the topic.
•     Develop a project related to
      reducing plastic waste to present      2. Developing a Survey
      to the community.                         Ask the student groups to develop survey questions about bottled water
                                                with the purpose of conducting the survey in their community.
target grOuP
Intermediate- to high-level students            Representative questions include:
(levels 6–8)                                    • Do you buy bottled water?
(For the purpose of this lesson,                • How frequently?
the target group levels range from              • How much do you pay?
1 through 8, with the following
                                                • How do you compare the taste of bottled water with the taste of
 guidelines: 1 = beginning,
5 = intermediate, 8 = advanced.)                  tap water?
                                                Invite the groups to share their questions, then have them all work
LeNgtH                                          together to finalize the list of questions to be used in the survey.
Five 60-minute lessons

                                             Homework/Contact assignment
                                             Ask students to conduct their survey at school or in the larger community,
                                             compile the results, and report back the following class period.
                                                                                                    Journey of a Plastic Bottle   2




materiaLS                                Day tw O
“world’s Oceans Face Plastic
Pollution Problem,” a video excerpt
                                         1.   reporting Survey results
from the PBs program The NewsHour
with Jim Lehrer; available at                 Invite students to compare their individual survey results in their groups,
      http://www.pbs.org/newshour/            then report their findings back to the class. Pose the following question
      extra/video/blog/2008/11/worlds_        to the students: “What conclusions can we draw about bottled water
      oceans_face_plastic_pol.html            use in our community?”
“trash on the Spin Cycle,” a video
from the Ocean Adventures website        2.   taste test
video; available at                           Bring unmarked samples of various bottled waters and tap water and
      http://www.pbs.org/kqed/                invite student volunteers to a taste test. Ask the volunteer tasters and
      oceanadventures/video/gyre,             the class: “Does the bottled water taste better than, worse than or the
with educator resources from
                                              same as tap water?”
Debris Dilemmas at
      http://www.pbs.org/kqed/
      oceanadventures/educators/kure/    3.   writing Practice
      debris.html                             As a short in-class writing exercise, ask students to write a reaction
                                              paper that compares tap water with bottled water in terms of taste,
“Some Bottled water toxicity Shown
                                              safety and price.
to exceed Law,” from sFGate.com,
(October 15, 2008); available at
     http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/           Homework
     article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/10/15/           Assign the sFGate.com article “Some Bottled water toxicity Shown
     MNGV13H0L4.DTL                           to exceed Law” at http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/
                                              c/a/2008/10/15/MNGV13H0L4.DTL for students to read.

                                         Day tH r e e

                                         1.   Sharing reaction Papers
                                              Hold a read-around of the reaction papers the students wrote in the
                                              previous class period, in which they compared tap water with bottled
                                              water in terms of taste, safety and price.

                                         2.   Discussion
                                              Ask students, “Did your opinion about bottled water change after
                                              reading the article ‘Some Bottled water toxicity Shown to exceed
                                              Law’? If yes, what do you now think about bottled water?

                                         3.   Brainstorming
                                              Ask student groups to compile lists of problems related to the use of
                                              bottled water. When students report back, consolidate a class list on
                                              the board. some possible responses include safety, price and pollution.

                                         Homework
                                         Invite the students to conduct informal research online on the topic of the
                                         Great Pacific Garbage Patch, also known as the Pacific Gyre. Assemble
                                         students in groups of three or four and have them take turns
                                         interviewing each other. (the questions in the chart are adapted from
                                         An Inconvenient Truth’s carbon footprint calculator.)
                                                                Journey of a Plastic Bottle   3




      Day F Ou r

      1.   Sharing research
           encourage students to share what they found out about the Great
           Pacific Garbage Patch and ask them to take notes as findings are
           reported back.

      2.   view video Clip
           show the video clip “world’s Oceans Face Plastic Pollution
           Problem,” from the PBs program The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer.
           A summary of the clip, significant quotes and discussion questions are
           available at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/video/blog/2008/11/
           worlds_oceans_face_plastic_pol.html.

           Alternatively, use the video “trash on the Spin Cycle” from the Ocean
           Adventures website (http://www.pbs.org/kqed/oceanadventures/video/
           gyre). Discussion questions are available from Debris Dilemmas at
           http://www.pbs.org/kqed/oceanadventures/educators/kure/debris.html

           Make copies of this chart and distribute one to each student.
           Ask students to fill out the chart while they watch the video:

Facts from the clip                         Your reaction




      Homework
      Invite the students to summarize their findings from the video they viewed.
                                                           Journey of a Plastic Bottle   4




Day F i ve

1.   Discussion
     show the pictures of the plastic water bottle and the Great Pacific
     Garbage Patch and pose the following question: “What, if any, are the
     connections between our use of bottled water and the Great Pacific
     Garbage Patch?”

2.   Presentation
     Have student groups make visual representations of the path that
     plastic bottles take on their way to the ocean and then share their work
     with the class.




3.   Brainstorm
     In their small groups encourage students to brainstorm ideas about
     what their community can do to prevent plastic from entering the ocean.

     Allow time for each group to report their ideas to the class for
     discussion.

Civic engagement/Contact assignment
Invite the student groups to develop projects related to reducing
plastic waste.
     Possible projects include:
     • Designing a presentation about plastic waste to be shown to the
        school community.
     • Initiating a local campaign to reduce or ban bottled water.




DeVeLoPeD by matt HOLSteN,
eSL INSTruCTor AT CITy CoLLeGe of SAN frANCISCo
How Green Is Your Campus?

aIm                                         O ve r vI e w
To raise students’ consciousness of         In this unit, students read the article “How Green Is Your Campus”
their individual and collective role
                                            and consider the nine categories presented in the article, with a special
in creating a green campus by
heightening their awareness of what is      emphasis on student involvement. They will then conduct a survey to find
already happening on their own campus       out what other students know about green policies and practices on their
and other campuses to encourage and         campus and the role of students themselves as catalysts for greening the
create sustainability.                      campus.
ObjeCtIves
At the end of this session,                 DaY ON e
students will be able to:
•	    Explain	“green”	in	terms	of	          activity: warm-up
      sustainability and global warming.
•	    Use	the	word	“green”	as	both	
                                            1. Explain to students that they are going to read the article “How Green
      an adjective and a verb and
      “greening” as a noun.                    Is Your College?” (http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/515/green-colleges.
•	    Apply	the	term	“green”	to	their	         html). Show them the accompanying picture (students working in a
      everyday lives.                          campus garden) and briefly discuss the picture: What are the students
•	    Read	and	understand	the	article	         doing? Where? Why?
      “How Green Is Your Campus?”
•	    Complete	a	chart	illustrating	
      policies for greening the campus in   2. Ask students to fill in a chart with green terms and state how green
      each of five categories pertaining       connects to global warming and sustainability. (Each group can be given
      to campus sustainability.                a blank chart on an overhead transparency so that it can be shared, then
•	    Identify	steps	students	are	taking	      kept or reused.)
      to create a green campus.
•	    Access	Internet	tools	that	link	
      them with other college activists.
•	    Conduct	a	survey	to	find	out	what	
      others on their campus know
      about the college’s green policies
      and to find out about individual
      environment-friendly behavior.
•	    Analyze	and	share	information	
      about the results of their survey.

tarGet GrOup
Advanced ESL students
(For the purpose of this lesson,
the target group levels range from
1 through 8, with the following
guidelines: 1 = beginning,
5 = intermediate, 8 = advanced.)
The lesson can also be adapted
for lower levels and for credit
students.

LeNGtH
Five 50-minute sessions
                                                                                                    How Green Is Your Campus?   2




materIaLs
•	 Multiple	copies	of	a	chart,	
   preferably on reusable overhead
                                                what I KNOw               What I WANT to Know        what I FIND Out
   transparencies, to determine what
   students KNOW, WANT to know
   and	FIND	OUT	about	green	terms.
                                                green (adjective)
•	   The	article	“How Green Is Your             to green (verb)
     Campus?” from NOW (PBS);                   greening (noun)
     available at http://www.pbs.org/
     now/shows/515/green-colleges.
     html                                       green jobs

•	   Multiple	copies	of	a	student	
     survey, edited before the survey is
     conducted on campus.
                                                green buildings
•	   A	tabulation	form	for	the	students	
     to calculate the answers they get.

•	   A	sample	scavenger	hunt	form	
     that can be used instead of, or in
                                                Green	Corps
     addition to, the survey.




                                                green courses




                                                Other terms with
                                                the word “green”



                                                Sustainability and
                                                how sustainability
                                                is related to green


                                                Global warming
                                                and how global
                                                warming is
                                                related to green



                                           3.     Invite students to share their group responses with the whole class. Ask
                                                  them to take notes so that they can continue to work at home on their
                                                  individual	charts,	adding	what	they	FIND	OUT.

                                           4.     Prepare them for their homework, which is to find additional information
                                                  on	the	terms	to	create	their	own	chart	section	on	what	they	FIND	OUT.
                                                           How Green Is Your Campus?   3




activity: working with the vocabulary in Context

5.   endowment: Ask students to look up the word “endowment” online or
     in	their	dictionary.	Can	they	find	a	definition	that	fits	the	way	the	word	is	
     used in the article? Ask a volunteer to contact a college administrator
     and ask for a definition of college endowment as it is used in the article
     and to report back to the class what he or she finds out.

6.   sustainability:	The	World	Commission	on	Environment	and	
     Development has defined sustainability as “forms of progress that meet
     the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
     generations to meet their needs.” In order to reach an appropriate level
     of sustainability, we need to reduce the amount of resources we buy
     and use, the waste we create, and the emissions we produce.

     In discussing sustainability, elicit such words and terms as the following:
     waste, energy, water, building design, transportation, landscaping, paper



DaY tw O

activity: review

1.   Invite students to share in groups and / or with the whole class what
     they found out.

2.   Ask students to read the article “How Green Is Your Campus?” online.
     Alternatively, give this as a lecture, citing the source. Have the students
     take notes and write a summary of what you told them or have them
     summarize	it	orally.

3.   Guide students as they consider the meaning of terms used to
     categorize	ways	in	which	a	campus	can	be	green.	Give	them	the	
     partially filled-out chart with the nine categories presented in “How
     Green Is Your Campus?” Ask them to give examples of policies and
     actions for the remaining five categories. Alternatively, give each of five
     groups an overhead transparency with just one category and have them
     share their responses with other groups.

     Note: The terms are difficult, and the chart listing them may be
     considered an additional reading exercise!
                                                                                              How Green Is Your Campus?   4




                                          C ate GOr I e s aN D p OL I C I e s

                                     	    According	to	the	article	“How	Green	Is	Your	Campus?”	a	campus	is	
                                          judged by its policies in nine categories. Give examples of policies in
                                          each of the five categories that have not been filled in.


Category                                    Policies

Administration (President and Trustees)     The administration and trustees have made commitments and created
                                            policies for sustainability. They have a mission statement.


Climate	Change	and	Energy


Endowment Transparency                      The college makes it easy to get information on how money is invested,
                                            which enables people to see whether investments support sustainability.
Food	and	Recycling


Green Building


Investment Priorities                       The school invests in clean energy and renewable energy funds and
                                            in the community.
Shareholder Engagement                      The school has an advisory committee on green ways to invest
                                            money, which enables investors to be involved in a green way.
Student Involvement


Transportation




                                     activity: sharing results

                                     4.   Give each of five groups an overhead transparency on which they
                                          can write their answer, then ask each group to review their answer
                                          with the whole class to see what other groups can add. Alternatively,
                                          use the blackboard or butcher paper. (The advantage of an overhead
                                          transparency is that it can be kept and / or used again.)
                                                                                             How Green Is Your Campus?   5




                                     Possible responses to C ATEGO RIEs 	A N D	P O lIC Es chart:


Category                                    Policies

Administration (President and Trustees)     The administration and trustees have made commitments and created
                                            policies for sustainability. They have a mission statement.


Climate	Change	and	Energy                   The campus uses renewable energy, is energy efficient, conserves
                                            energy and is committed to reducing emissions.
Endowment Transparency                      The college makes it easy to get information on how money is invested,
                                            which enables people to see whether investments support sustainability.
Food	and	Recycling                          The campus has recycling and composting programs and serves
                                            food in ways that create little waste.
Green Building                              There is at least one green roof on campus. The school has a LEED*-
                                            certified green building or is building one. There are campus wide
                                            green building policies.
Investment Priorities                       The school invests in clean energy and renewable energy funds and
                                            in the community.
Shareholder Engagement                      The school has an advisory committee on green ways to invest
                                            money, which enables investors to be involved in a green way.
Student Involvement                         There	are	active	green	student	organizations	and	competitions	that	
                                            the college encourages and oversees. There are paid green positions
                                            for students.
Transportation                              The school has a bike-sharing and / or car-sharing program.
                                            Students receive reduced-fare passes for public transit. School fleets
                                            use hybrid or other alternative-energy vehicles.

                                            *Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design



                                     5.   Discuss what students can do in these five categories to create a
                                          greener campus.

                                     6.   To prepare students for their homework assignment, have them suggest
                                          search terms to use to find out online what students are doing at
                                          other schools to create a green campus. (Examples: “green campus
                                          students,” “green campus activists,” “sustainability on campus”)
                                                         How Green Is Your Campus?   6




Homework
Ask students to search online for websites that have information on what
students are doing at other schools to make their campuses green. Have
them	bring	in	the	URls	for	the	websites	they	found	and	a	one-	to	three-
sentence summary of what each website offers.

ExA MP lEs :
•	 http://www.greencorps.org/about-us/history-and-mission. This website
   explains	why	Green	Corps	was	founded	in	1992	and	how	it	hopes	to	
   green the world by teaching college graduates to run environmental
   campaigns.
•	 http://www.globecampus.ca/in-the-news/globecampusreport/
   examples-of-student-driven-projects/. This Web page provides a list
   of	six	Canadian	universities	and	how	they	are	working	to	green	their	
   campuses and communities.

DaY tH r e e

activity: survey

1.   Have students break into groups of five and ask them to share the
     information they found online about student activism on campus.
     Each group can then report to the whole class on these findings.

2.   Ask students to work in pairs to test a survey form, which they can
     edit according to their own interests (see Appendix 1 at the end of this
     lesson). Encourage them to add one or two open-ended questions. If
     they are going to report the results of their survey in groups, they will
     need to get a group consensus on all changes to the survey.
                                                                                        How Green Is Your Campus?   7




                                Homework
                                Students will need time to conduct the survey and tabulate the results
                                before this unit continues. Explain to students that after they have practiced
                                giving this survey by asking the questions of a classmate, they will need to
                                have five clean copies to survey students, faculty or staff in other places on
                                campus. They will also need to remember to get the signature of each
                                person they survey.

                                After conducting five surveys, they should tabulate the results.

                                part 1

           Number of “yes”                                       Number of “no”            Number of “I don’t
Question                     Examples
           replies                                               replies                   know” replies
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.
                                                                    How Green Is Your Campus?   8




           part 2

                     Number of                Number of
Question                                                               Choices/Examples
                     “yes” replies            “no” replies
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.



           DaY F Ou r
           activity: survey tabulation and presentation preparation
           Ask students to work within their groups to tabulate group results and to
           start planning the presentation of their findings. They will need to share
           results within their group and tabulate group member totals for each
           question, including listing the examples given with the “yes” answers. Each
           group should decide who will report on which section of the survey for
           the group presentation. Advise them that the time should be divided equally.

           DaY F I ve
           activity: Oral reports or shared written reports
           Invite students to give oral group reports or exchange written reports on
           what they found out from conducting their surveys.

           They should follow these guidelines:
           	   •	Give	a	written	or	oral	report	on	what	you	found	out	by	conducting	
                 the survey.
           	   •	Explain	in	what	ways	your	campus	is	green	and	in	what	ways	it	needs	
                 to become greener.
           	   •	What	did	you	find	out	that	you	can	use	to	help	green	your	campus?

           alternative activity: scavenger Hunt
           If time is too limited for the students to conduct and report on a survey, they
           can do a scavenger hunt, which is less complex. Appendix 2 provides
           instructions and the list for the hunt.

           Ensure that students report back to the class on their findings from their
           hunt. It may also be useful for students to determine who else should be
           informed of their findings and to draw up a list of recommendations for
           greening the campus to accompany their report.

           DEvELOPED By tINa martIN,
           Esl	INsTRUCTOR	AT	CITY	COllEGE	OF	sAN	FRANCIsCO
                                                                                             How Green Is Your Campus?   9




ap p e N D I X 1

s u r ve Y Que st I ONs
Read	the	questions	and	the	choices	and	circle	the	answers	your	classmate	gives	you.

part I: Your Campus
1.	 Does	your	campus	have	a	student	club	or	organization	that	focuses	on	the	environment?
     yES     NO    I DON’T KNOW
     If yes, what is it?

2.   Have you discussed the green movement in any of your classes?
     yES     NO
     If yes, in which class(es)?

3.   Do class handouts show wise use of paper? For example, are they usually double-sided?
     yES     NO

4.   Does your campus have green courses (courses on the environment)?
     yES     NO
     If yes, can you give an example?

5.	 Can	students	get	green	jobs	on	your	campus?	(For	example,	is	there	a	part-time	position	as	eco-rep?)
     yES     NO


6.   Does your campus have a bin for garbage and a separate bin for paper that can be recycled?
     yES     NO    I DON’T KNOW


7.   Does your campus have a bin for garbage and a separate bin for compost?
     yES     NO    I DON’T KNOW


8.   Does your campus have a place to take e-waste, (electronic waste, such as cell phones and tape cassettes)
     and u-waste (universal waste, such as light bulbs).
     yES     NO    I DON’T KNOW


9.	 Does	your	campus	have	a	safe	place	to	keep	your	bike?
     yES     NO    I DON’T KNOW


10. Does your campus celebrate Earth Day?
     yES     NO    I DON’T KNOW


11. Does your campus have green buildings?
     yES     NO    I DON’T KNOW


12. Does your campus have a recycling department?
     yES     NO    I DON’T KNOW


13. Does your campus offer internship in green programs for college credit?
     yES     NO    I DON’T KNOW


14. Does your campus have someone, such as a dean of Sustainability, in charge of sustainability projects and
    practices?
     yES     NO    I DON’T KNOW
                                                                                               How Green Is Your Campus?   10




15. Does your college have a website for green jobs on campus?
     yES    NO    I DON’T KNOW


16. Does your college have a website for sustainability?
     yES    NO    I DON’T KNOW


17. Does your college have a sustainability management plan?
     yES    NO    I DON’T KNOW


18. Does your college have a mission statement about sustainability on campus?
     yES    NO    I DON’T KNOW



part II: Your activities

1.   How do you usually come to school?
     I walk.     I ride my bike.             I take public transportation.               I drive.
     Someone drives me.                      Other__________________

2.   Do you buy bottled water on campus?                                     yes         No

3.   Do you bring bottled water to campus?                                   yes         No

4.   Do you use the recycling bin on campus?                                 yes         No

5.   Do you use the compost bin on campus?                                   yes         No

6.	 Do	you	belong	to	any	green	clubs	or	organization	on	campus?	         	   Yes	        No

7.   Have you taken any green courses (i.e., courses on the environment)?    yes         No

8.	 Create	your	own	open-ended	question.	Examples:	
	   •	What	is	the	most	important	thing	your	campus	is	doing	to	create	a	green	campus?	
	   •	What	is	the	most	important	thing	you	are	doing	to	go	green?
                                                                                                    How Green Is Your Campus?   11




  ap p e N D I X 2

  s C av eN Ge r HuNt: Find signs of a Green Campus
  Look for the items listed. Fill in the form indicating where you found each item or check the box indicating that you
  couldn’t find it. The first one has been done for you. you don’t have to list more than one place for each item, but if
  you do, it will make your chart more interesting.



Item                                                        Where I found one            I couldn’t find one

a bin for garbage                                           by the Lunch Box / at
                                                            the	steps	of	Cloud	Hall	/	
                                                            in the student union
a bin for compost

a bin for recycling paper

a bin for recycling cans and bottles

a bin for e-waste (waste from electronics)

a sign encouraging students to recycle

a sign saying to keep fluorescent lamps /
bulbs out of the trash
a sign asking people to keep the door closed
to conserve energy
a place to bring additional recycling

a picture showing what should go into the garbage bin

a picture showing what should go into the recycling bin

a picture showing what should go into the compost bin

a garbage bin labeled “Landfill”

a sign relating to Earth Day

a student putting waste in the right place

an Office of Sustainability

a classroom with a green course in session

a place to dispose of your dead batteries

a place on campus to access the Internet

someone with a stainless steel water bottle

a handout that makes good use of paper
Option:	Create	a	separate	Web	Quest	scavenger	
hunt assignment to find out about the green-ness of
other campuses. Instead of a physical location, give
the	URls	plus	a	one-sentence	summary	of	the	website.
It’s Not Easy Being Green or
Reconsidering the Three Rs
aIm                                         O vE R vI E w
To raise students’ awareness of the         In this lesson, students will learn about recycling and how to talk about it,
“reduce, reuse, recycle” campaign
                                            take an inventory of their own recycling practices, and start a class recycling
and to encourage them to take an
active role in environmental stewardship    project. They will also engage the community by speaking to people
while teaching vocabulary and               regarding ways to reduce waste.
grammatical forms.
                                            Day ON E
OBjEcTIvES
At the end of this session,
students will be able to:                   1. Schema Building
•	    Understand	how	to	reduce	waste,	         Begin by playing the audio clip of “what does ‘green’ mean to you?”
      reuse items and recycle.                 at http://jparent.weebly.com. Click on “It’s Not Easy Being Green”.
•	    Identify	items	that	can	and	cannot	      Invite students to respond by asking them the same question.
      be recycled.
•	    Comprehend	and	produce	correct	
      word forms for “reduce, reuse,          Then show them a newspaper, a brown paper bag, a plastic bottle and a
      recycle.”                               glass bottle (use the real objects or photos or a combination) and ask,
•	    Demonstrate	correct	usage	of	           “What do these items have in common?”
      regular past tense verb endings.

                                              Write on the board:      We can recycle them.
TaRGET GROup
High beginning– to low intermediate–                                   They’re recyclable.
level students (levels 3–5)
(For the purpose of this lesson, the        2. vocabulary Building
target levels range from 1 through 8,          To assist students in their understanding of the vocabulary of the lesson,
with the following guidelines:
                                               write reduce, reuse and recycle on the board.
1 = beginning, 5 = intermediate,
8 = advanced.)                                 Tell students that they’re going to talk about the meaning of the prefix
                                               “re-.” Give as examples the words “reuse,” “remodel” and “retake.”
LENGTh                                         Explain the definition of the prefix, then ask students about the meaning
Three 60-minute lessons                        of the word “cycle.” Draw a picture showing the recycle icon:




                                              Encourage students to deduce the definition of the word “recycle,” then
                                              offer the definition from the dictionary or suggest that a student look up
                                              the definition for the class.

                                                     Recycle (verb) – to put used objects or materials through a special
                                                     process so that they can be used again.
                                                                                 It’s Not Easy Being Green or Reconsidering the Three Rs   2




maTERIaLS                                         Give students examples of how the word, in various forms,
•	 “The veggie van,” a segment                    is used in sentences:
   from NOW (PBS); video clip
   available at http://www.pbs.org/
   now/shows/522/veggie-van.html.                       “She recycles her newspapers every week.”
•	 “It’s no garbage strike—man                          “There is a lot of recycling to take out today.”
   keeps a year’s worth of trash,”                      “Is your container recyclable?”
   an article from the San Francisco
   Chronicle, 12/30/ 2007; available
                                              				Display	a	word	form	chart	with	the	overhead	projector.	Using	vocabulary	
   at http://links.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/
   article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/12/30/                 words, fill in parts of speech, with students offering the correct usage.
   BAFFU493E.DTL.
•	 Audio	clip	“what does ‘green’                   wO R D F O R m c h aRT
   mean to you?” is available at
   http://jparent.weebly.com.
   Click on “It’s Not Easy                         Noun                  Verb                     adjective
   Being Green.”
•	 For	more	about	living	an	eco-                   reuse                 reuse                    reusable
   friendly life, visit the links listed at
   http://www.kqed.org/tv/programs/
   faq/going-green.jsp.                            reduction             reduce                   reduced
•	 Calculate	your	carbon	footprint	
   and identify ways to save energy in
   your home at http://coolcalifornia.             recycling             recycle                  recyclable
   org/.
•	 Find	a	recycling	center	near	
   you and learn more about local
   environmental programs and
   topics at http://earth911.org/             3. applying vocabulary
   california.                                   Apply the vocabulary to real life. Initiate a discussion using these general
•	 Zero waste california                         questions, encouraging students to use the vocabulary words they
   http://www.zerowaste.ca.gov/ –                have learned:
   the California Integrated Waste
   Management Board information
   and resource site.                         	         •	Do	you	recycle?	How?	Where?	
•	 Eco-cycle                                  	         •	Does	the	garbage/waste	management	division	in	your	city	have	a		
   http://www.ecocycle.org/                               recycling program? How does it work? How much does it cost?
   hazwaste/recipes.cfm – has a               	         •	Show	pictures	of	curbside	recycling	bins.	Ask	students	if	they		
   section on tips and recipes for
                                                          know about the application process.
   nontoxic household cleaners.
•	 U.S.	Environmental	Protection	             	         •	What	else	can	we	recycle?	(clothes, oil, cell phones, car parts,
   Agency                                                 furniture, etc.)
   http://www.epa.gov/compost/ –
   visit this page to learn more about        4. pre-Listening Exercise
   composting.
                                                 If necessary, go over the following vocabulary words and phrases in
•	 Get	free,	daily,	easy-to-follow	tips	
   for living a greener life at http://          preparation for viewing the video clip “The veggie van,” from NOW
   www.idealbite.com/.                           (http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/522/veggie-van.html).
•	 Do	you	know	how	to	safely	
   dispose of fluorescent lamps                   climbing the professional ladder             entrepreneurial attitude
   and	tubes?	Learn	more	at	http://
                                                  biodiesel                                    curly bulbs
   www.ciwmb.ca.gov/WPIE/
   FluoresLamps/.                                 environmentalist                             plastic bag initiative
•	 www.erecycle.org has information               cutting down on carbon emissions
   about where to recycle electronic
   waste in California.
•	 Search	for	used-oil	recycling	
   centers in California at http://www.
   ciwmb.ca.gov/UsedOil/Centers/.
                                                           It’s Not Easy Being Green or Reconsidering the Three Rs   3




                             Explain the concept of a collocation, and ask students to listen for
                             collocations with the word “green” while they’re viewing the clip and to jot
                             them down. They should find the following:

                             going green                                 green lingo
                             green organization                          green collar job
                             greener American infrastructure



                           5. Listening Exercise
                              Stream the clip “The veggie van” and invite students to discuss the
                              following questions in groups and then as a class:
                           	         •	What	are	they	recycling?	Why?	
                           	         •	In	what	ways	is	the	recycling	helping?
                           	         •	What	else	can	we	recycle?	(Add to the list started earlier.)

                           homework
                           Ask students to complete an inventory of recyclable items at home: plastic
                           bottles, paper and plastic bags, newspapers, cans, glass, and so on. Did
                           they reuse, recycle or discard the item? Make copies of this chart and
                           distribute one to each student. Ask students to fill in the chart with the
                           quantity of each item.


Recyclable   Plastic
                       paper Bags     plastic Bags       Glass              cardboard            Newspapers
Items:       Bottles

Reused


Discarded

Recycled


                           In addition, set up three or four boxes in the classroom and ask students to
                           bring in items to recycle. This can be an ongoing project.

                           Day Tw O

                           1. Discussion
                              Have students break into groups and share their inventory of recycled,
                              reused and discarded items with group members. Suggest they answer
                              these questions about their inventories.
                           	        •	What	did	you	reuse	the	most?	
                           	        •	What	did	you	discard	the	most?	
                           	        •	What	did	you	recycle	the	most?	
                           	        •	Is	there	anything	that	you	discarded	that	you	could	have	
                                      recycled instead?

                           Then encourage each group to share its findings with the class.
                                 It’s Not Easy Being Green or Reconsidering the Three Rs   4




2. Grammar Exercise
					Use	this	as	an	opportunity	to	review	the	past	tense	of	the	words	“recycle”	
     (recycled), “reuse” (reused) and “discard” (discarded). As examples, write
     answers from the group discussions on the board:
           Trinh reused his paper bags from Trader Joe’s.
           Maria recycled her soda bottles.
           Yolanda discarded her plastic bags.

    Reinforce the use of “did” in questions that are in past tense (remind
    students that when “did” is used, “ ed” is not added to the main verb):
          What did Jose recycle?
          What did Manny reuse?

    Encourage students to direct similar questions to other classmates.

3. Survey: which Recyclables concern you the most?
   Each group should take an informal survey of their classmates on issues
   of most concern. Students can write the questions themselves or use the
   following as a starting point:

         If the issue is bags, the questions might be:
➢        When did you last go grocery shopping?
➢        What kind of bag did you use?
➢        How many bags did you use?
➢        What did you do with the bags after you got home?
➢        Can you use the bags again?
➢        In your native country, what do people use to carry groceries?

         If the issue is bottles, the questions might be:
➢        Do you drink bottled water? If so, how often?
➢        How much bottled water do you buy every week?
➢        Do you throw the bottles away? If so, what else might you do
         with the bottles?
➢        How do people get their drinking water in your native country?
➢        How do most people in this city get their drinking water?

    Summarize the survey results. Keep the information for use when the
    class is deciding on a classroom project.

4. comparison activity
   To clarify what we can and cannot recycle have students come up with
   items and make two lists on the board. (Refer to “The Veggie Van” clip to
   remind students that we can recycle oil.)

    we can recycle …                 we can’t recycle …
    newspapers                       pizza containers
    cardboard                        Styrofoam
    bottles                          plastic wrap
    magazines                        hazardous materials
    cans
                                 It’s Not Easy Being Green or Reconsidering the Three Rs   5




5. community action
   Ask students how they might get involved. If we can recycle so many
   items, what can we do to encourage people to recycle?

  Have groups brainstorm ideas. (for example: letter writing, volunteering
  with a waste management company to do recycling, setting up recycling
  centers on campus, talking to other students, writing an advice list for
  ESL students)

  What can we do as a class project?

homework
Have students do one of the following, depending on what the
class decides:
	        •	Find	out	how	to	sign	up	for	recycling	with	the	waste	management		
           company and encourage others to sign up.
	        •	Make	“Reduce,	Reuse,	Recycle”	signs	to	display	around	
           the campus.
	        •	Write	a	letter	to	the	school	principal,	the	local	college	president,		
           editor of the local newspaper and/or the city council.
	        •	Make	a	list	of	recycling	tips	for	parents.	
	        •	Create	a	recycling	program	for	the	ESL	program.	Begin	with	the		
           items that students brought in for homework.

Day Th R E E

1. Review
    Ask students:
				•	What	can/can’t	you	recycle?
				•	What	can/can’t	you	reuse?	
				•	How	can/can’t	you	reduce	waste?	

2. Background Information
   Introduce the concept of “waste free” or “zero waste” lunches by having
   groups brainstorm what they bring for lunch to work and / or school. What
   do they put it in? What do they buy? Put the list from each group on
   the board.

  Have each group come up with dos and don’ts for reducing waste just
  from lunch. Give each group an overhead transparency and pen so they
  can share their list on the overhead projector. Put a master list together
  from the different groups. It might look like the following:
                                   It’s Not Easy Being Green or Reconsidering the Three Rs   6




   Reducing waste: Dos and Don’ts

   DO:
   Pack your own lunch.
   Use	reusable	containers.	
   Use	reusable	utensils	when	you	need	utensils.
   Use	cloth	napkins	instead	of	paper	napkins	or	paper	towels.
   Use	lunch	boxes	instead	of	paper	or	plastic	bags.
   Use	thermoses	or	stainless	steel	bottles.	

   DON ’T:
   Buy	Lunchables	or	similar	products.
   Use	paper	towels	or	napkins.
   Buy juice boxes, Capri Sun or other drinks in disposable containers.
   Use	plastic	bags.
   Use	plastic	utensils.
   Use	plastic	water	bottles.
   Buy prepackaged salads or lunches in plastic containers.



   3. community Engagement
      Ask students to take their knowledge about reducing waste outside the
      classroom. Ask them, “Who could you advise about this ‘waste-free
      lunch’ idea?”

      Make copies of the chart below and distribute one to each student.
      Have students write down the name of the person, their relationship to
      the person and how they will advise him / her about waste-free lunches.

Name of person


Relationship


Advice you
will give
                                                                          It’s Not Easy Being Green or Reconsidering the Three Rs   7




                                        4. Grammar exercise
                                            Suggest ways of giving advice. Explain that people are more likely to
                                            respond to requests that include “might,” “could” and “would” than they
                                            are to demands like “you need to …,” “do this …” and “don’t do that
                                            ….” For example, “Aunt Jane, I noticed that you don’t recycle plastic
                                            bottles. You could start recycling; it’s really easy. I’ll show you how.” “You
                                        				might	think	about	recycling	your	newspapers,	Uncle	Joe.	It’ll	help	the	
                                            environment, and it’s so easy. I’ll help you.” Have students practice giving
                                            this advice with a partner.

                                        homework
                                        Make copies of the chart below and distribute one to each student.
                                        Have students take an inventory of their lunch for the week.



                                        waSTE -F R E E L u N c h I N vE N TORy

            Example            Monday        Tuesday              Wednesday            Thursday               Friday

Packaging   plastic bag,
            lunch box,
            water bottle
Food        sandwich,
            water, cherries,
            bag of chips


                                        6. writing Development
                                           Have students evaluate their waste-free lunch inventory. Have them write
                                           down their answers to these questions: “How did you do at having a
                                           waste-free lunch? Could you reuse some of the containers? Could you
                                           recycle some of them?” Ask them to include ways they could improve
                                           their packaging habits.

                                          Encourage students to share their ideas.

                                        7. Reading/writing Expansion
                                            Have students read the article “It’s no garbage strike—man keeps a
                                            year’s worth of trash” (http://links.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/
                                        				c/a/2007/12/30/BAFFU493E.DTL), about Ari Derfel, an individual who
                                            saved all his garbage for a year. (You may need to prepare a shortened
                                            version rewritten to a level appropriate for your students.)

                                          As a class, read Ari Derfel’s blog at http://saveyourtrash.typepad.com/.
                                          Then ask students to follow his procedure themselves for three days to
                                          see how much garbage they accumulate. They should then write a
                                          reflection piece titled “Three Days’ Worth of Trash.”
                                It’s Not Easy Being Green or Reconsidering the Three Rs   8




8. Other writing Topics
   Select from these topics/activities, depending on the level of
   your students:
	    •	Write	about	what	you	can	do	in	your	life	to	reduce	waste.
	    •	Write	a	letter	to	the	city	council	persuading	them	to	mandate	recycling	
       in this city.
	    •	Compare	recycling	habits	in	this	country	with	the	recycling	habits	in	
       your native country.
	    •	Compare	a	waste-free	lunch	with	a	disposable	lunch.




DEvELOPED	By	jEaNNIE paRENT,
ESL	InSTRUCTOR	AT	BAkERSFIELD	COLLEGE
       Shopping Smart / Shopping Green

       aim                                       O ve r vi e w
       To help students gain the understanding   This lesson will raise students’ awareness of how to shop thoughtfully and
       that supporting locally grown food
                                                 conscientiously, how to save money by doing so, and how they can help the
       directly affects the local and global
       environment and also to help them         environment by shopping for locally grown and seasonal food. Students will
       develop language skills by learning       learn how to read grocery store newspaper inserts and negotiate real-life
       vocabulary and practicing listening,      situations in terms of how and where to shop and how they can best spend
       reading, speaking and writing skills.     their money.

                                                 Day 1

                                                 1.   warm-up activity
                                                      Begin by asking the class the following questions about their
                                                      shopping habits:
                                                 	    •	How	often	do	you	shop	for	food?
                                                 	    •	Where	do	you	shop	for	food?
                                                 	    •	Do	you	shop	when	you	are	hungry?	Is	this	a	bad	idea?	Why?
                                                 	    •	Do	you	buy	impulse	items?
                                                 	    •	Do	you	shop	with	a	budget?

                                                 2.   Survey
                                                      Moving around the classroom, suggest students ask each other “w-h”
                                                      questions (where, why, when, how) about their food shopping habits,
                                                      using the graphic organizer below.



                                                                                                         How can you save
                             Where do you shop        Why do you shop at        When do you shop
Name                                                                                                     money at the food
                             for food?                these stores?             for food?
                                                                                                         store?




                                                      Then have students break into small groups and ask them to discuss
                                                      within their group the responses from their classmates and what they
                                                      learned from the survey. Follow up with a class discussion about the
                                                      students’ shopping practices.

                                                 Optional assignment
                                                 Have	students	conduct	this	same	survey	in	the	community	or	in	their	school	
                                                 and report back with their findings.
                                                                                               Shopping Smart / Shopping Green   2




ObjectiveS                                 3.   Discussion Questions
At the end of this session,                	    Have	students	break	into	small	groups	or	pairs	and	ask	them	to	discuss	
students will be able to:
                                                the following questions:
•	    Reflect	on	their	shopping	habits.
•	    Conduct	a	survey	inside	the	         	    •	Would	you	drive	a	long	distance	to	a	store	to	buy	something	
      classroom.                                			inexpensive?	
•	    Discuss	and	reflect	on	answers	to	   	    •	Do	you	try	to	eat	food	that	is	in	season,	such	as	strawberries	in	the	
      survey and in-class questions.            			spring	and	apples	in	the	fall?	Is	this	a	good	thing?	Why	or	why	not?
•	    Listen	for	the	main	idea	and	
                                           	    •	Would	you	save	money	if	you	ate	more	vegetables	and	less	meat?	
      answers to questions in a PBS or
      NPR	segment.                         	    •	Is	saving	money	always	the	most	important	thing	to	consider	when	
•	    Analyze	and	summarize	data	from	          			buying	food?
      newspaper inserts.
•	    Prepare	questions	for	a	             Day 2
      questionnaire to be used in a
      contact assignment.
•	    Present	findings	from	a	contact	     1.   analyze video clip / radio Segment
      assignment.                               Stream “Growing Local, eating Local”
•	    Develop	language	skills.	                 (http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/344/index.html),
                                                starting the video clip 10 minutes into the segment.
tarGet GrOup
                                                Alternatively, listen to “Local Food” (http://www.kqed.org/epArchive/
Intermediate-	to	high-level	ESL	
communication class                             R507191000), which is also a useful resource for this activity.
(For the purpose of this lesson,
the target group levels range from              Ask students to answer the following questions about what they
1 through 8, with the following                 viewed / heard:
guidelines: 1 = beginning,
                                           	    •	What	is	the	main	idea	in	the	segment?
5 = intermediate, 8 = advanced.)
                                           	    •	What	does	local	mean?	
LeNGth                                     	    •	Who	is	helped	when	people	buy	locally	grown	food?	
Three 50- to 60-minute communication       	    •	Name	two	advantages	to	eating	locally	grown	food.
class periods                              	    •	What	does	locavore	mean?	
                                           	    •	Explain	the	meaning	of	the	phrase	“Think	global,	buy	local.”
materiaLS
•	 Graphic	organizers	
                                                After students view / listen to the segment, suggest they work in pairs to
•	   “Growing Local, eating Local,”             compare each other’s answers to the above questions. Then encourage
     a	video	clip	from	NOW	(PBS),	              them	to	share	their	answers	with	the	whole	class.	Write	responses	on	
     week of 11/2/07, available
                                                the board.
     at http://www.pbs.org/now/
     shows/344/index.html.

•	   “Local Food,” a segment from
     Forum	(NPR),	7/19/05,	available	at	
     http://www.kqed.org/epArchive/
     R507191000.

•	   Green	Efforts,	a	page	on	the	
     website of Mollie Stone’s Market
     that lists the organic food they
     carry and provides information on
     their recycling efforts; available
     at http://www.molliestones.com/
     green/.

•	   Grocery	store	inserts,	to	be	found	
     at the entrance to large grocery
     stores and online.
                                                                                      Shopping Smart / Shopping Green   3




                                 2.   analyze Newspaper inserts
                                 	    Distribute	grocery	store	inserts	from	Safeway,	Lucky’s,	Whole	Foods	
                                      and Piazza’s that have pictures of food items available at these stores.
                                      Review	the	context	of	the	inserts	and	their	function.	Then	ask	students	
                                      to pair up and look through the inserts for:
                                 	    •	Two	food	items	that	are	locally	grown
                                 	    •	Two	of	the	same	food	items	that	are	not	locally	grown
                                 	    •	Two	food	items	that	are	organic	

                                 	    Distribute	copies	of	the	chart	below	for	students	to	use	to	organize	
                                      their findings.


                                      what food item did                                     How much does
                                                                 Where is it from?
                                         you find?                                           it cost?




                                      Ask students to summarize their findings and report back to the class.
                                      As a whole class, interpret the findings, comparing prices and
                                      useful information.

                                 3.   contact assignment
                                 	    Have	students	prepare	questions	for	a	questionnaire	that	they	will	take	
                                      to their local farmer’s market. They should go to the market in pairs or
                                      in groups and interview five local farmers, filling in their questionnaire.
                                      These are possible questions, but encourage students to devise their
                                      own as well.


                                      Where is your              How many miles              Do you use
Name of farmer   What do you grow?
                                      farm located?              away is your farm?          pesticides?




                                      Allow students time to prepare an oral report for the next class,
                                      summarizing the information they gathered.
                                                                          Shopping Smart / Shopping Green   4




                      O p ti ON aL
                      homework / pair work / Grocery Store treasure hunt
                      Give	the	students	an	imaginary	budget	to	buy	food	for	a	party.	Tell	them	to	
                      read the grocery store inserts ahead of time so they know which stores to
                      go to. Ask them to try to buy as many food items as possible from local
                      producers. Also instruct them to read labels and ask the vendors where the
                      food came from. They should report back to the class:
                      	   •	Where	they	bought	the	food
                      	   •	What	deals	they	found
                      	   •	A	description	of	the	dinner	they	will	prepare	

                      Invite	the	class	to	evaluate	whose	dinner	sounds	the	most	appetizing.

                      Day 3

                      1.   presentation
                           Students give oral presentations explaining the findings from their
                           farmer’s market expedition to a partner, a small group or the class.

                      2.   Food Origin chart
                      	    Explain	to	students	that	they	will	explore	the	origins	of	the	food	they	
                           buy to gain an understanding of what it takes to get food to the market
                           and ultimately to them as consumers.

                           Provide a list of different foods, such as rice, soybeans and wheat, and
                           ask students where these items are grown. Suggest that students work
                           in small groups to find out the answers and ask them to fill in the chart.



Food                   Where it comes from


Rice

Tofu / milk / dairy

Pineapples

Coconuts

Tomatoes
                                                   Shopping Smart / Shopping Green   5




3.   computer Lab activity
	    Give	students	a	map	of	California	and	explain	to	them	that	all	of	the		
     foods in the chart can be grown or, in the case of the dairy products and
	    tofu,	obtained	from	sources	in	California.	Ask	them	to	take	their	maps
	    to	the	computer	lab	and	research	where	in	California	these	foods	
     originate. They should be prepared to report back the following day the
	    location	of	various	farms	throughout	California.

extension activities
These suggestions can be incorporated into a lesson or be used as an out-
of-class assignment:
	    •	Make	a	weekly	shopping	plan.
	    •	Educate	family	members	about	eating	locally	grown	food.
	    •	Generate	a	map	that	shows	stores	in	their	neighborhood	that	sell	
	    			locally	grown	food.	Students	could	use	Google	maps	for	this	exercise		
        and tag the stores on the map by dragging and dropping a
        place mark.
	    •	Locate,	then	volunteer	to	work	in	community	gardens.	(A	good		 	
	    			example	is	Hayward	High	School’s	organic	working	garden.	
	    			Contact	Theo	Hartman	at	theo.hartman@gmail.com.)
	    •	Check	Mollie	Stone’s	Green	Efforts	page	on	their	website	
        (http://www.molliestones.com/green/) to see lists of the organic food
        they carry as well as information on their recycling efforts.




DEvELOPED	By	catheriNe hartmaN,
ESL	INSTRuCTOR	AT	CITy	COLLEGE	OF	SAN	FRANCISCO
E-Waste: The Digital Dark Side

aim                                         O vE r vi E W
To increase awareness of the existence      This lesson focuses on the contemporary issue of electronic waste.
of e-waste and its effect on global
                                            Students will examine the increasing volume of e-waste in consumer
communities as well as the
socioeconomic factors and consumer          societies and the extensive exportation of obsolete electronic equipment
choices contributing to this                to developing countries. They will consider the socioeconomic forces and
phenomenon.                                 consumer behaviors contributing to this phenomenon. Through the analysis
                                            of authentic materials, students will gain a broader perspective on the
ObjEcTivES
                                            social, health and environmental impact of e-waste on different communities
At the end of this session,
students will be able to:                   around the globe.
•     Examine a contemporary issue
      and its implications.                 Day ON E
•     Utilize print and electronic media    1. Warm-up activity
      for information.
                                            Display a flyer or catalog from an electronics chain and ask the class to
•     Locate additional resources
      through Web research.                 name electronic devices that are currently on the market. Elicit a range of
•     Conduct surveys / interviews in       devices from students and list them on the board.
      and outside of class.
•     Present / discuss findings in pairs   Ask students to work individually to develop a concept map, or mind map.
      and small groups.
                                            In the middle of the map, they should write the phrase Electronic Devices,
•     Write a summary / reaction based
      on different media.                   then complete the map with ideas about electronic devices. Invite them to
•     Develop a reflection / research       share their responses with a partner or in small groups.
      paper on a current issue.
•     Explore local, national and
      international organizations.

TargET grOup
High-intermediate to advanced ESL
students (levels 6 through 8)
(For the purpose of this lesson, the
target levels range from 1 through 8,                          E L E c Tr ON i c D E vi c E S
with the following guidelines:
                                                               E.g., instant communication
1 = beginning, 5 = intermediate,
8 = advanced)

LENgTh
Four 90-minute lessons




                                            2. Discussion
                                               Working in pairs or small groups, ask students to answer the following
                                               questions:
                                               • What kind of electronic devices do you own?
                                               • What electronic devices do you find essential in your life?
                                               • How long do you usually keep electronic devices?
                                               • How do people dispose of obsolete electronic devices?
                                               • What happens to the discarded electronic devices?
                                               • What are some government policies regarding disposal of
                                                 electronic devices?
                                                                                                    E-Waste: The Digital Dark Side   2




maTEriaLS                                   3. conducting a Survey
“ghana: Digital Dumping ground,”               Distribute copies of the chart below to students. Ask students to interview
a video clip from a Frontline World
                                               classmates about their behaviors with regard to purchasing and
(PBS) segment; available at
http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/             discarding electronic gadgets. While conducting the survey, students
      stories/ghana804/                        should complete the chart. When they have completed the activity, ask
                                               them to report their findings in small groups.
“Environmentalists Teach Dos and
Don’ts of E-Waste,” an interview from
                                              Electronic gadgets
NPR; available at
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/
      story.php?storyId=17988109                                 What new
                                                                                                              What do you do
                                                                 gadgets do           Why do you buy
                                             Name                                                             with obsolete
Electronics Takeback coalition                                   you want to          new gadgets?
                                                                                                              gadgets?
– promotes green design and                                      own?
responsible recycling in the
electronics industry;
http://www.electronicstakeback.com/

Various articles on the topic of e-waste,
including:
➢
“E-Waste Not”
www.time.com/time/magazine/
      article/0,9171,1870485,00.html

“is america Exporting an
                                            4. contact assignment
Environmental problem?”
www.abcnews.go.com/2020/                       Suggest that students conduct the same survey in the community and
     Technology/story?id=1479506               prepare a short written or oral report on their findings in and outside class.

“u.S. Toxic E-Waste gets Sent               Day TW O
to africa”
www.abcnews.go.com/GMA/Weekend/
     story?id=8215714&page=1                1. Warm-up activity
                                               Introduce the term “electronic waste” to the class. Ask them to write in a
                                               two-column chart what they know about this issue and what they would
                                               like to know.

                                            2. Listening activity
                                               Explain to the class that they will listen to an interview on National
                                               National Public Radio (NPR) entitled “Environmentalists Teach Dos
                                               and Don’ts of E-Waste”
                                               (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=17988109)
                                               and while listening to the interview, they will read
                                               and answer the comprehension questions.

                                              • What happens to the electronic waste produced by the United States?
                                              • What happens to e-waste after it arrives in developing countries?
                                              • Why does so much e-waste get shipped to Asia?
                                              • What are the negative effects of dumping e-waste?
                                              • How do the toxins in e-waste return to the United States?
                                              • What can concerned citizens do about e-waste?

                                              Discuss the questions and share students’ reactions together as a class.
                                                       E-Waste: The Digital Dark Side   3




3. analysis
For a deeper analysis of the interview content, ask students to discuss
specific quotations on the issue of e-waste. Consider the following
statements from the interview, made by Barbara Kyle of the Electronics
TakeBack Coalition (http://www.electronicstakeback.com/).

         “Nationally, there’s a figure that the recyclers put out of about 400
         million units of e-waste scrap each year. So 400 million things—
         TVs, DVD players, all those—each year get scrapped.”

         “Sadly, an awful lot of it isn’t really recycled. And what happens
         with an awful lot of it is it gets very minimally processed here
         where the recycler might take out some of the most profitable parts
         to the computers in particular. And then the rest of it gets shipped
         overseas, usually to developing countries, a lot of it going to Asia,
         China in particular. And there, it’s really almost virtually dumped.”

         “The people that are handling it basically have no kind of protective
         equipment [like] you’d think. They have literally no gloves, no
         respirators. They’re breathing in these chemicals. Then when
         they burn it, whole communities are breathing in these toxic
         chemicals. It’s getting into their water systems in an area of China
         call Guayu [ph]. Contaminant levels are so high, they have to truck
         in all of their water.”

         “And so people can go on our website and find recyclers in their
         area. They can click on the map on their state. But the other thing
         that consumers can do is start to really ask the companies that
         they’re buying their products from to offer take-back programs,
         because consumers have some power in their purchasing dollars to
         say, ‘I want to buy products from companies who will take
         them back from me when I’m done with them and recycle
         them responsibly.’”

         (Interview transcript is available at
         http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=17988109)

Day Th r E E

1. video activity
   Screen the Frontline World segment “ghana: Digital Dumping ground”
   (http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/ghana804). Prior to their
   viewing, ask students to skim through a transcript of the introduction in
   order to gain a general idea of the issue and to predict the content in
   the episode.
                                                                      E-Waste: The Digital Dark Side   4




                 2. vocabulary Development
                 Distribute copies of the vocabulary chart below to students and ask them to
                 work in pairs to complete it.

Word                         Meaning                            usage

dumping ground


outskirts


smoldering


wasteland


slum


shadowy


shanty


dwelling


notorious




                 3. comprehension
                 Ask students to scan the program introduction (below) and answer the
                 comprehension questions that follow. Next, divide them into six groups,
                 with each group responsible for discussing an assigned question. Invite
                 each group to present their response to the class.
                                                      E-Waste: The Digital Dark Side   5




IN T Ro D U C T I o N T RAN SC RI PT
“ghana: Digital Dumping ground”
(http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/ghana804/video/video_index.html)
     on the outskirts of Ghana’s biggest city sits a smoldering wasteland,
     a slum carved into the banks of the Korle Lagoon, one of the most
     polluted bodies of water on Earth. The locals call it Sodom and
     Gomorrah.
     Correspondent Peter Klein and a group of graduate journalism students
     from the University of British Columbia have come here as part of a
     global investigation to track a shadowy industry that’s causing big
     problems here and around the world.
     Their guide is a 13-year-old boy named Alex. He shows them his home,
     a small room in a mass of shanty dwellings, and offers to take them
     across a dead river to a notorious area called Agbogbloshie.
     Agbogbloshie has become one of the world’s digital dumping grounds,
     where the West’s electronic waste, or e-waste, piles up—hundreds of
     millions of tons of it each year.

• How is the slum outside Ghana’s biggest city described?
• Why did the news correspondent and graduate students go to Ghana?
• What is the “shadowy industry” that is causing global problems?
• What does the introduction reveal about Alex and his life in the slum?
• What happens to the tons of e-waste produced by the West?
• What is the human and environmental impact of e-waste?



4. video viewing
   Project the main image from the program onto a screen in the classroom
   (image available at http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/ghana804/).
   Alternatively, click on http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/ghana804/
   interview/puckett.html and launch one of the video segments.

  a. Ask the students to free-write about the main image from the program
     or about one of the video segments. Suggest they pair up and read
     each other’s paper.
  b. Ask students to write down while viewing the episode any facts,
     comments, or scenes that they find particularly interesting or that make
     an impression on them.
  c. After viewing the episode, have them share their reactions in small
     groups. A reporter from each group should then present the group’s
     ideas to the whole class.
                                                      E-Waste: The Digital Dark Side   6




5. Web research
   Encourage students to go to the “Ghana: Digital Dumping Ground” link
   at http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/ghana804/ and explore
   additional resources, including The Good Recycling Guide, an FAQ sheet
   on e-recycling, and “The Dark Side of the Information Age,” an interview
   with Jim Puckett of the Basel Action Network. Both links are located on
   this main page.

  Ask students to summarize the key points in the guide or the interview.

  AS S I G N M E N T
  Have the students share their discoveries about the issue of e-waste with
  the class in written or oral form.

Day F Ou r

1. reading activity
   Ask students to find an article on e-waste, read the headlines and
   skim the article, underlining the main idea, key points and new
   vocabulary words.

2. Discussion Questions
   Have students break into small groups or pairs and encourage them to
   respond to questions on the reading activity.
   • Why did you select this particular article to read?
   • What is the main idea presented in the article?
   • What are five facts you have learned about e-waste?
   • What questions / concerns does the article raise for you?
   • How has your understanding of the issue changed?
   • What actions are you inspired to take regarding e-waste?

   ASSI G N ME N T
  Ask the students to write a summary and reaction based on the article
  they have read.

3. Web research
   Distribute copies of the chart below. Invite students to explore different
   websites in the following list to obtain information on e-waste, including
   its characteristics, causes and consequences. They can visit government,
   waste control / management and environmental sites to locate information
   and complete the chart. Ask students to report their findings and
   reactions in class the next day.
                                                                       E-Waste: The Digital Dark Side   7




                    • Environmental protection agency: www.epa.gov
                    • greenpeace: www.greenpeace.org
                    • basil alliance: www.baselactionanetwork.org
                    • Earth911: www.Earth911.org
                    • greener computing: www.greenercomputing.org
                    • erecycle: www.erecycle.org
                    • green citizen: www.greencitizen.com

                     ELEc T r O N i c WaS T E


characteristics                   causes                           consequences




                  Optional assignments
                  Invite students to:
                  a. Write a reflection paper on the issue of e-waste, based on the different
                       listening, viewing and reading activities in the lesson.
                  b. Select an aspect of e-waste to investigate, then write a research paper
                       on their findings.
                  c. Conduct an interview with a local or campus official on the issue of
                       e-waste and write a summary / reaction.

                  civic Engagement
                  In order to promote global awareness along with civic engagement,
                  encourage students to do the following:
                  •    Research the college policy on e-waste and interview campus officials
                       responsible for this area.
                  •    Join campus organizations / clubs promoting environmental awareness.
                  •    Visit e-waste control / management organizations and conduct
                       informational interviews.
                  •    Perform community service with environmental organizations and
                       participate in different events.
                  •    Design a class or personal action plan to address the issue of e-waste
                       in today’s world.




                  DEVELoPED By aNN FONTaNELLa,
                  ESL INSTRUCToR AT CITy CoLLEGE oF SAN FRANCISCo
Your Carbon Footprint and Global Warming:
Are You Warming the World?
Aim                                         O ve r vi e W
To increase students’ understanding         According to The Teacher’s Guide website, created by Susan Joy Hassol
of global warming and to support them
                                            (cited in the Materials list), global warming is caused primarily by carbon
in reflecting and taking action to reduce
their own carbon footprint.                 dioxide that is released from power plants, cars and factories and, to a
                                            lesser extent, when forests are cleared. In this lesson, students will explore
ObjeCtives                                  the ways carbon dioxide escapes into the environment and leads to global
At the end of this session,                 warming. Students will then determine their own carbon footprint through an
students will be able to:
                                            interactive website from the film An Inconvenient Truth. And finally, they will
•	Identify	four	major	ways	that	
  carbon dioxide escapes into               reflect on ways to reduce their carbon footprint.
  the environment.
•	Measure	their	carbon	footprint.           DAY ON e
•	Take	action	to	decrease	their	
  carbon footprint.
                                            Activity 1
tArGet GrOup                                Conceptualizing Carbon Dioxide and its effect on Global Warming
High beginning - to intermediate-level      1. Begin by eliciting a definition/explanation of global warming, its danger
ESl in a family literacy context               and its primary causes. Write questions on the board and list ideas under
(levels 3-6).                                  each question. Students may work in pairs first to discuss the questions.
(For the purpose of this lesson, the
                                            	         •	What	is	global	warming?
target group levels range from 1
through 8, with the following guidelines:   	         •	Why	is	it	dangerous?
1 = beginning, 5 = intermediate,            	         •	What	causes	global	warming?
8 = advanced.)
                                            2. Have students break into small groups and ask them to analyze the
LeNGth
                                               following images and answer the questions. Beforehand, review the
Two 2- to 3-hour lessons
                                               questions and write the following language structures on the board to
                                               support students in answering the questions.

                                              E x AMpl E S:
                                              _____________ cause(s) global warming.
                                              _____________ doesn’t/don’t cause global warming.

                                            			•	What	is	in	the	picture?
                                            			•	Does	it	produce	carbon	dioxide?
                                            			•	Does	it	cause	global	warming?

                                             The images can be found at the websites in the Materials list under
                                             “Selection of images.” They can be projected onto a screen in the
                                             classroom or downloaded and printed out as handouts.
                                                              Your Carbon Footprint and Global Warming: Are You Warming the World?   2




mAteriALs                                  3. Alternatively or in addition, ask students to analyze the following image
•	 http://www.kqed.org/quest/blog/            of a family at home. As in step 2 above, review the questions and write
   tag/carbon-footprint/
                                              language structures on the board to help them frame their answers.
	  This	KQED	QUEST blog page
   links to http://www.climatecrisis.
   net/calculate-your-impact.php/, an      				•	What	is	in	the	picture?
   interactive website from the film       				•	What	objects	or	activities	in	the	picture	use	energy?
   An Inconvenient Truth that allows       				•	What	objects	or	activities	in	the	picture	cause	global	warming?
   users to calculate their carbon
   footprint. It’s ideal for beginning-
   level ESl students and/or those
   with limited computer skills
   because of its reduced content
   and user-friendly interface. This
   lesson plan is primarily designed
   around this carbon footprint
   calculator.

•	   http://www.coolcalifornia.org/
     article/carbon-calculator
     This is an extensive interactive
     website that calculates a more
     precise carbon footprint, but
     requires more user input and a        4. Explain the term “carbon footprint” by reproducing the image below of
     higher level of language skills and      three carbon footprints. Ask students to suggest reasons for the different
     computer skills. This website may        averages between U.S. residents, U.S. homeless and world residents.
     be appropriate for intermediate
                                              Ask students to predict what their carbon footprint will be.
     and advanced ESl students.

•	   http://hdgc.epp.cmu.edu/
     teachersguide/teachersguide.
     htm#topten
     This site offers a teachers’ guide
     to high-quality educational
     materials on climate change and
     global warming, created by Susan
     Joy Hassol.

•	   Selection	of	images	at
     http://news.bbc.co.uk/
     olmedia/295000/images/_295067_
     car_exhaust300.jpg

     http://www.touramazon.com/
     images/amazon-rainforest6.jpg

     http://imgs.sfgate.com/c/
     pictures/2008/11/17/mn-
     warmingchina__0496914382.jpg

     http://www.freefoto.com/
     preview/2050-27-14?ffid=2050-
     27-14&k=Flybe+Airplane

     http://www.sevenarrowsfarm.com/
                                           http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/04/080428120658.htm
     images/Sust_Garden_1.jpg

     http://cache.eb.com/eb/
     image?id=99543&rendTypeId=4
                                       Your Carbon Footprint and Global Warming: Are You Warming the World?   3




                    Activity 2
                    interviewing Classmates on their Carbon impact
                    1. Make copies of and distribute the chart below. Ask students to
                        write their own name in the first row and to answer the questions.
                        Assemble students in groups of three or four and have them take turns
                        interviewing each other. (The questions in the chart are adapted from
                        An Inconvenient Truth’s carbon footprint calculator.)


                                                                                  how many flights
                          How many people            Does your family
Name of student                                                                   does your family take
                          live in your house?        drive a car?
                                                                                  every year?




For each question,
which student has the
smallest carbon
footprint?
Which student has the
smallest carbon
footprint	overall?	Why?



                    2.    Ask students to compare their answers and make predictions as a
                          group. Then invite them to share their results with the class.

                    homework (Optional)
                    preparing for the Carbon Footprint Calculator
                    	   •	Provide	the	students	with	the	precise	questions	from	the	Inconvenient
                          Truth website for calculating your carbon footprint
                          (http://www.climatecrisis.net/calculate-your-impact.php).
                          They can ask their family for help in answering these questions.
                    		 •	If	they	have	computers,	they	can	visit	the	Inconvenient Truth carbon
                          footprint calculator with other family members to preview and/or
                          answer the questions.
                     Your Carbon Footprint and Global Warming: Are You Warming the World?   4




DAY tW O

Activity 1
review terms and ideas from the first day and review homework.

Activity 2
Calculating Your Carbon Footprint
1. Review the questions and model how to interact with the
    Inconvenient Truth carbon footprint calculator website through
    any of the following ways:
	   •	Project	the	website	onto	a	screen.
	   •	Make	a	copy	or	an	overhead	projector	transparency	of	a	screen	shot	
       of the calculator.
	   •	Write	the	questions	from	the	website	on	the	board.

2.   Organize students in pairs and have them visit the website to calculate
     their own carbon footprint. Tell them to write down their footprint in
     terms of metric tons.

Activity 3
reflection and suggestions for Action
1. Have students gather in their groups and ask them to identify three to
    five ways in which they can reduce their carbon footprint. Write relevant
    language structures and vocabulary on the board to support them in
    generating ideas.

     E x AMpl E S:


     I can _____________ less/more.

2.   As a class activity, work with students to generate a list on the board of
     the ways in which they can take action to reduce their carbon footprint.

	    •	Have	there	been	any	new	jobs	in	the green economy	recently?
	    •	Is	the	American	government	going	to	pay	for	people	to	learn	new	
     			skills	for	these	new	jobs?
	    •	Give	two	examples	of	green	collar	jobs	that	might	exist	in	the	future.




DEvEloPED	by	jeFF mCCLeLLAND,
CbET/ESl	TEACHEr	WITH	oAKlAnD	ADulT	SCHool	
AnD	SAn	FrAnCISCo	unIFIED	SCHool	DISTrICT
A Warm-up to Global Climate Change

Aim                                         O ve r vi e W
To give students background and             In this lesson, students develop a perspective on global climate change
context in which to discuss the
                                            by viewing charts, graphs, pictures and video clips to understand some
relationship of greenhouse gas levels
and negative global climate changes         basic causes and effects of global warming. They discuss what can be
and to recognize how lifestyles—            done to slow global climate change and reflect on whether lifestyles in their
including their own personal choices—       native countries and in the United States have increased or decreased the
can impact greenhouse gas creation.         likelihood of global climate change. Finally, students sign personal action
Students will learn pertinent vocabulary
                                            plans for curbing their own carbon footprint.
while practicing listening, reading,
speaking and writing skills as well
as developing their fluency and             NOTE: If students are working in a computer lab, they can visit the websites
grammatical accuracy in English.            listed in the activities below. If multiple computers are not available, project
                                            the website onto a screen in the classroom. If there is no Internet access in
ObjeCtives
                                            the classroom, conduct the activities which don’t contain streaming video
At the end of this session,
students will be able to:                   and make transparencies of the pertinent images for projection.
• Describe the relationship between
  global warming and greenhouse             DAy ON e
  gases.
• Identify some sources of greenhouse
                                            exploring the effect of Carbon on Global Climate Change
  gases.
• Describe some negative effects of
  global warming.                           1. Warm-Up Activity
• Explore ways to reduce greenhouse         Show students some nature pictures from magazines, Google images or
  gases.                                    http://www.flickr.com/groups/earthnature/pool. Ask students to describe
• Identify how student habits, both past
                                            some of their favorite spots in the natural world and how they would feel if
  and present, decrease or increase
  effects on global climate.                some of those places were lost. To contrast these scenes of natural
• Identify current efforts around the       beauty, view the opening images at http://www.kqed.org/quest/television/
  world to protect against global climate   earth-day-tv-special-where-weve-been-where-were-headed which depict
  change.                                   scenes of pollution and degradation of the natural environment.
• Create a plan to personally affect
  reduction in greenhouse gases.
• Use conditional “if” sentences            2. reading Graphs and Charts
  denoting past, present and future,           Ask students to visit http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/warming/etc/graphs.html
  with content related to global climate       and respond to the following questions.
  change.

                                              Graph 1:
tArGet GrOUp
Intermediate- to high-level ESL students      • What is represented by the horizontal axis? by the vertical axis?
(For the purpose of this lesson, the          • When did the temperature start to rise consistently?
target group levels range from                • How much did the temperature change from 1860 to 2000?
1 through 8, with the following
guidelines: 1 = beginning,
5 = intermediate, 8 = advanced.)

LeNGth
Three 90-minute class periods
                                                                                          A Warm-up to Global Climate Change   2




mAteriALs                                   Graph 2:
•  Nature pictures from magazines,          • What is the range of time on this graph?
   Google or http://www.flickr.com/
                                            • This graph does not represent the whole planet. What area does
   groups/earthnature/pool.
•  “Where We’ve been, Where                   it represent?
   We’re headed,” a video clip              • How much did the temperature change from the year 1000 to the
   about the San Francisco Bay                year 1850?
   Area’s environmental movement,           • What do you notice about 1920? What could be a reason for this?
   from the website of QUEST, a
                                            • What are some possible reasons for the increase in temperature of the
   KQED multimedia series exploring
   Northern California science,               Northern Hemisphere being greater than the increase in temperature of
   environment and nature; available          the rest of the planet?
   at http://www.kqed.org/quest/
   television/earth-day-tv-special-         Graph 3:
   where-weve-been-where-were-
                                            • What does the vertical axis represent?
   headed.
•  Various websites and Web pages           • What is the direction of the graph line over time? Does the direction
   on the subject of global warming:          change significantly?
  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/
   warming/etc/graphs.html                  Graph 4:
  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/
                                            • What time period is represented in this graph?
   frontline/heat
  http://www.pewclimate.org/               • What does the zero on the horizontal axis represent?
   global-warming-basics/facts_and_         • What happened to the graph line near this zero point?
   figures/climate_science basics           • How large is this change in relation to other changes?
  http://www.pewclimate.org/
   global-warming-basics/facts_and_
                                          Ask students to describe and discuss their reactions to the information on
   figures/impacts
  http://www.climatecrisis.net/trailer   these graphs.
  http://www.earthweek.com
•  Green for All – a national             Ask the class to visit the Web site http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/
   nonprofit organization working to      heat and click on “Sources of CO2 emissions?” in the How Well Do You
   build an inclusive green economy
                                          Know section.
   that is strong enough to lift poor
   Americans out of poverty; their
   website provides information on        They should look at the pie chart and identify the top four sources of carbon
   what a green economy is, what          dioxide. Brainstorm what contributes to these carbon dioxide producers
   the organization is doing and          and then discuss how the emissions could be reduced. Practice future real
   how to help; available at
                                          conditional.
   http://www.greenforall.org.
•  Various websites and Web
   pages that provide additional          • If I______________, carbon emissions from my transportation will be lower.
   background:                            • If I _____________, carbon emissions from factories will be lower.
  http://www.goldmanprize.org            • If I _____________, carbon emissions from power plants will be lower.
  http://www/kqed.org/news/
                                          • If I _____________, carbon emissions from forestry will be lower.
   climatewatch
  http://www.KQED.org/w/
   youdecide                              Also practice using “unless” by changing “if” to “unless” and making the
  http://www.video.                      independent clause negative.
   nationalgeographic.com/video/
   player/environmental/global-
                                          Discussion Option: Ask students if their personal action plan could include
   warming
  http://www.KQED.org/quest/             working in the new “green economy.” Brainstorm possible employment
   television/topics/9                    opportunities created by lowering greenhouse gas emissions, such as
                                          assembling electric cars, weatherizing homes, manufacturing solar panels
                                          and providing local food sources. For information on green jobs,
                                          visit the website of the PBS program NOW,
                                          http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/522/index.html
                                                                      A Warm-up to Global Climate Change   3




                    3. Direct the students’ attention to “1A. the Greenhouse effect,”
                       then to the text beneath the picture at http://www.pewclimate.org/global-
                       warming-basics/facts_and_figures/climate_science_basics and working
                       in small groups, respond to the following questions. To help them develop
                       fluency in English, they should then practice asking and answering the
                       questions in pairs.
                              • What are two paths visible sunlight can take as it gets close to
                                Earth? (It can either be absorbed or not be absorbed by Earth.)
                              • If the light is absorbed, what happens to it? (It is converted to
                                heat, which warms Earth.)
                              • What are two paths of the heat that doesn’t get absorbed and
                                bounces away from Earth (infrared radiation)? (Either it is either
                                absorbed by the atmosphere or it escapes into space.)
                              • What determines how much heat from Earth, or infrared radiation,
                                is absorbed by the atmosphere? (the amount of greenhouse gases)
                              • What activities add to greenhouse gases? (human activities)
                              • What effect does an increase in the amount of heat absorbed
                                by the atmosphere have on the warming of Earth? (It increases
                                Earth’s temperature.)

                      Next, direct the students’ attention to the illustration above the paragraph
                      and initiate a discussion. Some possible questions could include:
                             • What are the two kinds of greenhouse effects?
                               (natural and enhanced)
                             • What does the natural greenhouse effect cause?
                               (natural warming of Earth)
                             • What does the enhanced greenhouse effect cause?
                               (overheating of Earth)
                             • Which side of the illustration shows our current situation?
                               (the right side, the enhanced greenhouse effect)

                    homework
                    Ask students to contact family and friends in their native country to find out
                    what they are doing there that decreases / increases global climate change.
                    Encourage them to make a chart like the one below. On Day Three, they will
                    share with the class what they found out.

                    EXA MP LE

Country   Action          Individual?         Local?             National?             Other?

Mexico    Recycle         Yes                 Yes                No                    High schools
                                                            A Warm-up to Global Climate Change   4




            DAy tW O

            the effects of Global Climate Change

            1.   Direct students to http://www.pewclimate.org/global-warming-basics/
                 facts_and_figures/impacts drawing their attention to the graphs that
                 depict three major impacts of global warming: the rise in sea levels,
                 the decline in the amount of Arctic ice and the increase in the number
                 of tropical storms in the North Atlantic.
                 Then go to http://www.climatecrisis.net/trailer and have students view
                 the trailer for the film An Inconvenient Truth.

            2.   From the Cycle 1 and Cycle 2 charts below ask students to match each
                 cause in the left column with its effect in the right column.

                 Cycle 1: sea Levels rise / ice melts

Cause                                           Effect

Ocean temperatures rise                         Coastal water levels rise


Coastal cities and towns flood                  Ocean temperatures rise


Ice melts                                       Coastal cities and towns flood


Coastal water levels rise                       Lives of people, animals and plants
                                                could end
Earth’s temperatures rise                       Ice melts




                 Cycle 2: storms increase


Cause                                           Effect

Ocean temperatures rise                         Number of storms increases


Earth’s temperatures rise                       Severity of storms increases


                                                Ocean temperatures rise
                                                   A Warm-up to Global Climate Change   5




3.     Ask students to make a diagram of the causes and effects. For each
       cycle, ask them to write a sentence that begins with “If.” Example: If
       ocean temperatures rise, the number and severity of storms increases.

4.     Ask students to think about the effects of changes in weather and
       to discuss how weather affects people, plants, animals, insects and
       marine life. They can then interview each other and fill in a self-made
       chart like the example below.

       NOTE: Encourage students to relate examples of weather changes and
       affected species in their native countries.


     Change                     Increases                   Decreases

     More flooding              Insects (mosquitoes)        Human health




5.     Give each student a strip of paper. Half the students will have strips of
       paper with a phrase that begins with a capital letter and has no ending
       punctuation. The other half will have strips of paper with a phrase that
       begins with a lowercase letter and ends with a period. (Examples are
       provided at the end of the lesson plan.) Not only must the students with
       the capital letter find the students with the period, but also—and more
       important—they must find the phrase with the meaning that completes
       their half of the sentence.

       After students have found their matches, ask each pair to write their
       complete sentence on the board. Discuss some of the surprising facts
       and their implications.
                                                    A Warm-up to Global Climate Change   6




DAy th r e e

the human Connection to Global Climate Change

1.   Ask students to think about “mistakes” made in the past that had they
     not been made, we might have avoided, or at least minimized, global
     warming. Encourage them to share what they came up with and to write
     down their ideas.

     To build grammar development into the activity, encourage students to
     practice using the past unreal modals, both with and without “if.”

     EXA MP LES:
     Question: “What could people have done years ago so that global
                 warming might not be such a problem today?”
     Answer: “People could have …”
     Question: “Global warming might not be such a problem today if what
                 had happened?”
     Answer: “Global warming might not be such a problem today if people
                had demanded fuel-efficient cars years ago.”

     After students have had time to write down their ideas, list the ideas on
     the board for the whole class to see.



2.   Discuss the environmental benefits of the activities listed in the left
     column of the chart below.

     For grammar practice, ask students to:
     • Begin with gerund forms. (Example: Riding a bicycle reduces the use
       of fossil fuels.)
     • Interview each other by asking yes / no past-tense questions about
       the activities in the chart as the activities relate to their native country.
       (Example: Did you use a bicycle often?) They can write the responses
       in the Native Country column.
     • Ask the same yes / no questions in present tense.
       (Example: Do you use a bicycle often?) They can write the responses
       in the U.S.A. column.

     Encourage students to add activities they think of and to share them
     with the class.
                                                   A Warm-up to Global Climate Change   7




       Finally, ask students to share their answers. Then as a class, determine
       which lifestyle was / is “greener.”

     Activity                 Native Country            U.S.A.

     Use a bicycle weekly     Yes, every day            Maybe on weekends

     Reuse containers

     Use less water

     Use less electricity




3.     Share information from Day One’s homework. Discuss past and present
       customs and measures taken in their native country that decrease /
       increase global climate change.

       To help illustrate the importance of this issue and to give students the
       opportunity to see the global problems created by climate change, go
       to http://www.earthweek.com and click on the various icons scattered
       over the map on the home page. Invite student responses. Ask students
       to create their own map based on the Earthweek.com example.
       They can illustrate their map with icons of their own design and write
       summaries describing the beneficial actions being taken globally.

4.     Conclude by asking students to discuss what they can do personally to
       reduce the carbon emissions produced by the following contributors to
       environmental degradation.

       • Transportation: What forms of travel are least harmful?
       • Use of electricity: How can electricity use be reduced?
       • Deforestation: How can we reduce the production of goods that cause
         overharvesting of our forests?
       • Purchasing new products: How can we live with less so we can
         produce fewer greenhouse gases?

       Suggest one or two answers to guide students and then invite them to
       share their action plans and explain why they made their decisions.

       Optional
       Link to http://www.goldmanprize.org. Go to Press Room,
       Photos / Videos for streams about individual recipients of this
       prestigious environmental prize for sustained, local efforts to
       protect the planet’s natural resources.
                                                A Warm-up to Global Climate Change   8




possible extension Activities

1.   Suggest that students read weekly updates of fascinating
     numbers about climate change by visiting http://www.kqed.org/news/
     climatewatch, then discuss the latest “factoid” to keep students
     engaged in ongoing, if brief, discussions of current environmental
     issues.

2.   Ask students what they know about Earth Day.
     Use http://www.kqed.org/quest/television/earth-day-tv-special-where-
     weve-been-where-were-headed for background on a local perspective
     on the origins of Earth Day.

3.   Invite students to visit http://www.KQED.org/w/youdecide, then discuss
     the following global warming dilemma:
     Should the United States build more nuclear power plants in order to
     decrease use of fossil fuels?

     Try to decide whether minimizing negative environmental impact is more
     significant than any perceived benefits.

4.   For higher level students: Suggest they research, then write about
     the following people / organizations and their significance to the
     environmental movement: Rachel Carsen, John Muir, Sierra Club,
     Greenpeace, Jacques Cousteau, World Wildlife Fund, Al Gore,
     Wangari Maathai, the Goldman Environmental Award. Feel free to
     expand the list!




DEVElOPED BY Kim Lee,
ESl INSTRUCTOR AT CITY COllEGE OF SAN FRANCISCO
                                                     A Warm-up to Global Climate Change   9




phrases for Day two, Activity 5

•   Eighty percent of the world’s energy
•   comes from fossil fuels.

•   The current burning of fossil fuels—oil, coal and natural gas—
•   releases 7 billion tons of carbon per year.

•   There is at least 10 times too much
•   carbon if we’re going to slow climate change.

•   Climate change is more than
•   3.6 degrees Fahrenheit, or 2 degrees Celsius, of the planet heating up.

•   The number one source of carbon dioxide emissions is
•   the huge power stations generating electricity to keep lights on and
    industry operating.

•   Number two in CO2 emissions—generally 20 to 25 percent in most
    nations—is
•   transportation, which includes cars, buses, planes, trains and trucks.

•   Number three in CO2 emissions is
•   home heating.

•   Number four in CO2 emissions is
•   agriculture.

•   Making cement comprises
•   5 to 10 percent of global CO2 emissions.

•   China will put the same amount of carbon into the air in 30 years
•   as the United States put into the atmosphere in 100 years.

•   Carbon that the United States and Europe put in the air in the last
    century
•   is causing the climate change we are experiencing now.

•   By 2100, we will have used
•   sixteen times the resources that we have used up until now.

•   In order to cut world hunger in half
•   we need a doubling of world water use to grow food.

(Source for facts: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/heat)

				
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