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The Earth Our Earth Topic Students will learn how the

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									                                         Our Earth

Topic: Students will learn how the Earth rotates around itself and revolves around the
Sun. They will see that rotation and revolution cause day and night, and the seasons.

Name: Alli Clare
Professor: Dr. Pan
Host Teacher: Donna Robinson
Grade: 3

Instructional Decisions/Rationale: Our Earth and how it works is a very complex
matter. As educators, we must make sure that students have a firm grasp on the basic
characteristics of how the Earth moves, and how its movement creates the life on Earth
that we know and live everyday. By having the students act like the earth and rotate
around themselves and revolve around their desks, they will be able to better understand
how the Earth moves and how these movements cause day and night, and the seasons.

Prior Knowledge & Misconceptions: Prior knowledge that students may have is that at
times the Earth is in darkness and other times the Earth has light. Some students may
know that the Earth gets its light from the Sun and that is not a self-illuminating object.
Many students, however, they may think that when day and night occur that it is the Sun
that is moving, when in actuality it is the Earth that is rotating. In addition, students will
know that we have different seasons that cause differences in temperatures. Some
students will likely think, however, that summer occurs when the Earth is closest to the
Sun during its orbit and furthest away when winter occurs. They do not know that it is
actually the tilt of the Earth’s axis that causes the change in seasons as the Earth revolves
around the sun. Lastly, many students mix up the terms rotation and revolution and it is a
major goal of this lesson to strike that misconception and create understanding.

New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards:
5.9.4.A1. Observe patterns that result from the Earth’s position relative to the sun and
rotation of the Earth on its axis.


Objectives and Assessments:
                 Objectives                                  Assessments
Students will know how the movement of Students will act as the earth and “rotate on
Earth in relation to the Sun determines the their axis” to represent day and night. I will
pattern of day and night.                    observe the class making sure all students
                                             are moving correctly. I will ask scaffolded
                                             questions following the activity to make
                                             sure the concept was grasped.
Students will know how the tilt of the earth Students will successfully complete their
during its revolution around the Sun causes Seasons worksheet.
seasons.
SWBAT identify one reason why the Students will write one complete sentence
Earth’s rotation or revolution affects life on about why the Earth’s rotation or
Earth.                                         revolution affects life on Earth in their
                                               Science Notebooks. I will go around and
                                               give stickers to all complete sentences.

Lesson Map:
         a. Time: There is 60 minutes allotted for this lesson
                i. Motivational Beginning – 5 minutes
               ii. Learning of Material and Small Activities - 40 minutes
              iii. Worksheets - 10 minutes
              iv. Closure – 5 minutes

           b. Motivational Beginning: To begin the lesson I will read the newest “Top
              Secret Letter” from the Capitan of our Mission Space team. He will advise
              the class that for today’s exercise they must sit perfectly still with their
              eyes shut. He reminds that following directions is important if they want
              to be space explorers. When the students sit perfectly still and shut their
              eyes, I will ask them if anyone feels like they are moving? (They should
              all say no). I will have them open their eyes and read to them the rest of
              the letter that explains to them that even though it doesn’t feel like we are
              moving, we constantly are; the Earth is constantly moving.

           c. Activities:
                  i. Students will begin the lesson with their Science notebooks out on
                     their desks. After we have done the motivational beginning, I will
                     hold up a new word for our Space Shuttle Vocabulary List and ask
                     if anyone know what the word “Axis” means.
                 ii. A few answers will be taken and then I will go over the vocabulary
                     word Axis: The imaginary line around which the earth spins. If we
                     were able to see it, the axis would stick out of Earth at the North
                     Pole and the South Pole.
                iii. I will use a globe to give an example of how the earth spins on its
                     axis. The globe provides a great visual of an axis, seeing that it is
                     held together at the North and South Poles.
                iv. Next, I will address that I have been talking about how the earth
                     “spins” and I will ask the class if they think that maybe there is
                     another vocabulary word that describes how the earth spins. I will
                     take a few guesses and reveal the next vocabulary word “Rotation”
                     which means to turn on an axis.
                 v. I will once again show how the earth rotates using the globe and
                     point out to the class that the Earth rotates counter-clockwise. I
                     will ask if anyone knows what counter-clockwise means.
                vi. My next question will be why the Earth rotating on its axis is such
                     a big deal, why do I think they should know about. This will allow
                     me to see if anyone knows that the Earth’s rotation is a 24- hour
                     cycle and causes day and night.
 vii. Once students have had the opportunity to respond I will explain
      how it takes the Earth 24 hours to make one full rotation on its axis
      and as the Earth is making that rotation we get day and night.
viii. I will ask why it is that we get day and night? I hope to receive
      responses such as “Because when the Earth rotates our side of the
      Earth moves away from the Sun.”
  ix. I will use a flashlight to act as the sun and mark on the globe where
      Trenton is with a sticker. I will have a volunteer come up to the
      front and hold the flashlight for me. I will ask three more
      volunteers to stand on the three remaining sides of the globe. It
      will be their job to pay close attention to the sticker when it comes
      to their side. I will turn off the lights and rotate the earth counter-
      clockwise. I will tell the class to pay close attention to the sticker
      as it moves with the globe.
   x. I will ask the class what happened to our sticker when I made the
      Earth rotate. (When it was facing the Sun it was had light, what it
      was not facing the Sun it was dark).
  xi. I will have the class stand up and explain to them that they will
      represent the Earth. The front of their bodies is the side of the
      Earth that we live on and their backs is opposite side of the Earth. I
      will stand in the front of the room with a flashlight to represent the
      Sun. I will have them turn away from me so that their backs are to
      the light. I will ask if anyone can guess what time of day they think
      they are representing. (Night) I will have them make a quarter turn
      to their left, turning counter-clockwise like the Earth does. I will
      ask if anyone can see the sun? (A little) I will ask them what time
      of day they think it is now. (Sunrise) They will make one more
      quarter turn to the left so they are facing the Sun. Once again I will
      ask them what time of day they think it is (Afternoon). They will
      again make another quarter turn and should notice that their view
      of the Sun has lessened, just like when they were in the sunrise
      position. I will ask them where they think they are now. (Sunset).
      Finally, they will make one last turn and return to night. We will
      go through the cycle one more time and with each turn they will
      say what time of day they are representing.
 xii. To review the information we just went over I will ask some
      scaffolding questions: How long the rotation they just made would
      take the Earth? (24 hours) Describe how the Earth moves in those
      24 hours (On its axis, counter-clockwise) How come we can’t see
      the Sun at night? Think about the position you were in when it was
      night. (Because the side of the Earth that we are on wasn’t facing
      the Sun)
xiii. A common misconception with children is that the Sun is what is
      moving and the Earth stands still. Hopefully through the activity
      they just did they understand that the Earth is the object moving,
      but I still want to make sure they have the concept. I will ask if the
         Sun was moving at all during the activity we just did (No). Then
         why when I watch the sunset does it look like the Sun is moving
         away? (Because the Earth is actually rotating away from the Sun).
         So you’re saying that the Earth is what moves and the Sun stays
         still? (Yes)
 xiv.    I will then ask if they think the Earth moves in any other way (It
         revolves around the Sun)
  xv.    I will hold up a new vocabulary word “Revolution.” If the students
         did not get the previous question right I will explain that a
         Revolution is when something makes a complete circle around
         something else. I will then ask them if they know what the Earth
         might make a complete circle around.
 xvi.    I will explain that the Sun “Revolves,” or moves around, the Sun.
         When it makes it around the Sun it makes one “Revolution.”
xvii.    Once they have done this I will ask them to stand up and once
         again they will represent the Earth, but this time their desks will
         represent the Sun. I will demonstrate for them how I rotate on my
         axis (spin in a circle) and revolve around the Sun (walk around my
         desk). I will then ask the students to rotate on their axis and then
         revolve around the Sun. We will do this one more time and then sit
         down.
xviii.   I will then ask if anyone knows how long it takes the Earth to make
         one Revolution. (365 days or 1 year) Pretty Interesting!
 xix.    I will ask them what happens when the Earth revolves around the
         Sun (Seasons)
  xx.    I will make sure to explain that it is not only the revolution of the
         Earth around the Sun that makes the seasons, but the tilt of the
         Earth on its axis.
 xxi.    I will place a picture of the Sun on the board and place a picture of
         the Earth titled at the angle you would find it during the winter to
         the right of the Sun. I will explain that the northern half of the
         Earth, where we live, is pointing away from the Sun so we get less
         direct sunlight. The Southern half of the earth, however, is pointing
         towards the Sun and that part of the Earth is having summer.
xxii.    I will then put a picture of the Earth titled for the spring season and
         place that above the Sun. I will explain how at this point the top
         and the bottom half of the Earth are about even so that is why we
         have milder temperatures.
xxiii.   Next, I will put a picture of the Earth positioned in the summer. I
         will ask what the class can tell me about this picture (The top half
         of the Earth is titled towards the Sun so it is summer. The bottom
         half is titled away so it is having winter.)
xxiv.    Lastly, I will put up a picture of the Earth titled when it is Fall. I
         will ask what the students notice about this one (It looks a lot like
         Spring). I will make sure that even though it looks like spring, they
         are two different seasons will different beginnings and ends.
            Spring starts out colder and gets warmer because it is approaching
            summer. Fall starts out warmer and approaches cold because it
            begins in the summer and ends in the winter.
     xxv.   An important aspect to note to the class is that it is not the distance
            from the Sun that determines the seasons, it is the tilt of the Earth.
            When I place the pictures of the Earth on the board, I am careful to
            make sure that the summer picture is farther away than the winter
            picture. Since the Earth doesn’t revolve in a perfect circle, but
            more of an oval, the position of the Earth during summer is
            actually further away than in the winter. In the summer the Earth is
            94.8 million miles away from the sun, while in the winter it is only
            91.65 millions miles away. That’s 3 millions miles of a difference!
    xxvi.   To review the information that was covered for the day, the class
            will complete two worksheets. One will be a flow chart to help
            them determine that the Earth rotates around its axis and revolves
            around the Sun. It will be partially filled in for them and they will
            have to use the vocabulary words they learned that day to fill in the
            remaining. This flow chart will also include the moon, which will
            be covered the following day, so it is a resource they must hold on
            to.
   xxvii.   The second worksheet will be a spitting image of the diagram I had
            put up on the board and they will have to label which picture of the
            Earth represents each season. I will not have the diagram I made
            visible on the board, to challenge them a little.
  xxviii.   The worksheet will have a multiple choices (Summer, Autumn,
            Winter, Spring) and depending on which letter they choose, there
            will be corresponding letters that they will fill in the on the bottom
            of the sheet. If they labeled their worksheet right they will solve
            the puzzle at the bottom. If they don’t get an answer on the bottom
            then they know they made a mistake somewhere and they must go
            back and think about their answers.
    xxix.   To close, all students will write one reason why the Earth’s
            rotation or revolution affects life on Earth in their Science
            Notebooks. This brings in the Top Secret Mission for the day. I
            will remind them that I expect complete sentences that start with
            capital letters and end with periods. Only those students who write
            a complete and coherent sentence will get a sticker and have jelly
            beans put in the jar.

d. Classroom Management: To keep order in the classroom, I will be using
   the peace sign method to quiet the class and get them focused when things
   get out of hand. In addition, for questions that are scaffolded or review, I
   will use the popsicle sticks with each students name on them to call on
   students randomly. This will keep students on track because they never
   know when I may ask a question. I would not use the popsicle sticks for
   questions that they don’t already know the answer to or haven’t been
   taught. Throughout the unit, a jar can be filled with jelly beans when the
   students are prepared, behave well, and/or do well with an activity. The
   goal is to fill the jar so they can have a Space Party at the end of the unit.

e. Materials:
       i. Globe
      ii. Flashlight
    iii. Pictures of the Earth positioned during the winter, spring, summer,
          and fall.
     iv. Vocabulary Space Shuttle
      v. Vocabulary Words: axis, rotation, revolution
     vi. Science Notebooks
    vii. Worksheets (Flow Chart and Seasons)

f. Grouping: Students will be in groups based on their table. No group work
   outside their tables will be done during this lesson.

g. Transitions: Students will be getting in and out of their seats to volunteer
   and take part in activities and the peace sign will be used to clam students
   down if the noise level gets to be too high.

h. Questions:
          Opening/Hook
        i. Does anyone feel like they are moving? (No)
          During the Lesson
       ii. Does anyone know what the word Axis means? (The imaginary
           line around which the earth spins)
     iii. Do you think that maybe there is another vocabulary word that
           may describe how the earth spins? (Rotate)
      iv. Can anyone help me with what counter-clockwise means? (To
           move in the opposite direction of the hands of a clock)
       v. Why is the Earth rotating on its axis is such a big deal? Why do I
           think you should know about? (Earth’s rotation is a 24- hour cycle
           and causes day and night.)
      vi. Why it is that we get day and night? (Because when the Earth
           rotates our side of the Earth moves away from the Sun)
     vii. What happened to our figurine when I made the Earth rotate?
           (When it was facing the Sun it was had light, what it was not
           facing the Sun it was dark).
    viii. Which time of the day they is each of these pictures? Are they in
           order? (Sunrise, Afternoon, Sunset, Night; No)
      ix. Can anyone guess what time of day they think they are
           representing. (Night)
       x. How much of the Sun can you see, without moving your head?
           (Just a little bit)
       xi. What time of day do you think it is now?
           (Sunrise/Afternoon/Sunset)
      xii. How long the rotation they just made would take the Earth? (24
           hours)
     xiii. Describe how the Earth moves in those 24 hours. (On its axis,
           counter-clockwise)
      xiv. How come we can’t see the Sun at night? Think about the position
           you were in when it was night. (Because the side of the Earth that
           we are on wasn’t facing the Sun)
       xv. Was the Sun was moving at all during the activity we just did (No).
      xvi. Then why when I watch the sunset does it look like the Sun is
           moving away? (Because the Earth is actually rotating away from
           the Sun).
     xvii. Do you think the Earth moves in any other way?(It revolves
           around the Sun)
    xviii. What do you think the Earth makes a complete circle around? (The
           Sun)
      xix. Does anyone know how long it takes the Earth to make one
           Revolution. (365 days or 1 year)
       xx. What happens when the Earth revolves around the Sun (Seasons)
      xxi. What can you tell me about this picture? (The top half of the Earth
           is titled towards the Sun so it is summer. The bottom half is titled
           away so it is having winter.)
     xxii. What do you notice about this picture? (It looks a lot like Spring)
          Closure
    xxiii. Would anyone like to share the answer they got to the seasons
           worksheet?
    xxiv. Would anyone like to share their sentence about one thing they
           learned today?

i. Closure: After students have completed their worksheets and sentences, I
   will ask for volunteers to share their sentences. If we have lots of
   volunteers I will pick a few and then ask the rest of the students to share
   with their neighbor.

j. Individualize and Differentiate Instruction: This lesson aims to involve
   students that are auditory, visual, and bodily kinesthetic learners. All three
   elements can be found in this lesson and it allows all types of learners to
   gain the content knowledge needed.

k. Planning of Future Lessons: I plan to continue with having students
   write vocabulary words in their Science Notebooks and one thing they
   learned during the lesson. I think it is a good routine they can get into. In
   addition all of these terms can be found in the upcoming lesson and their
   flow chart will come in handy when learning about the moon.

								
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