VIEWS: 18 PAGES: 7 POSTED ON: 11/19/2011
Our Earth Topic: Students will learn how the Earth rotates around itself and revolves around the Sun. They will see that rotation and revolution cause day and night, and the seasons. Name: Alli Clare Professor: Dr. Pan Host Teacher: Donna Robinson Grade: 3 Instructional Decisions/Rationale: Our Earth and how it works is a very complex matter. As educators, we must make sure that students have a firm grasp on the basic characteristics of how the Earth moves, and how its movement creates the life on Earth that we know and live everyday. By having the students act like the earth and rotate around themselves and revolve around their desks, they will be able to better understand how the Earth moves and how these movements cause day and night, and the seasons. Prior Knowledge & Misconceptions: Prior knowledge that students may have is that at times the Earth is in darkness and other times the Earth has light. Some students may know that the Earth gets its light from the Sun and that is not a self-illuminating object. Many students, however, they may think that when day and night occur that it is the Sun that is moving, when in actuality it is the Earth that is rotating. In addition, students will know that we have different seasons that cause differences in temperatures. Some students will likely think, however, that summer occurs when the Earth is closest to the Sun during its orbit and furthest away when winter occurs. They do not know that it is actually the tilt of the Earth’s axis that causes the change in seasons as the Earth revolves around the sun. Lastly, many students mix up the terms rotation and revolution and it is a major goal of this lesson to strike that misconception and create understanding. New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards: 5.9.4.A1. Observe patterns that result from the Earth’s position relative to the sun and rotation of the Earth on its axis. Objectives and Assessments: Objectives Assessments Students will know how the movement of Students will act as the earth and “rotate on Earth in relation to the Sun determines the their axis” to represent day and night. I will pattern of day and night. observe the class making sure all students are moving correctly. I will ask scaffolded questions following the activity to make sure the concept was grasped. Students will know how the tilt of the earth Students will successfully complete their during its revolution around the Sun causes Seasons worksheet. seasons. SWBAT identify one reason why the Students will write one complete sentence Earth’s rotation or revolution affects life on about why the Earth’s rotation or Earth. revolution affects life on Earth in their Science Notebooks. I will go around and give stickers to all complete sentences. Lesson Map: a. Time: There is 60 minutes allotted for this lesson i. Motivational Beginning – 5 minutes ii. Learning of Material and Small Activities - 40 minutes iii. Worksheets - 10 minutes iv. Closure – 5 minutes b. Motivational Beginning: To begin the lesson I will read the newest “Top Secret Letter” from the Capitan of our Mission Space team. He will advise the class that for today’s exercise they must sit perfectly still with their eyes shut. He reminds that following directions is important if they want to be space explorers. When the students sit perfectly still and shut their eyes, I will ask them if anyone feels like they are moving? (They should all say no). I will have them open their eyes and read to them the rest of the letter that explains to them that even though it doesn’t feel like we are moving, we constantly are; the Earth is constantly moving. c. Activities: i. Students will begin the lesson with their Science notebooks out on their desks. After we have done the motivational beginning, I will hold up a new word for our Space Shuttle Vocabulary List and ask if anyone know what the word “Axis” means. ii. A few answers will be taken and then I will go over the vocabulary word Axis: The imaginary line around which the earth spins. If we were able to see it, the axis would stick out of Earth at the North Pole and the South Pole. iii. I will use a globe to give an example of how the earth spins on its axis. The globe provides a great visual of an axis, seeing that it is held together at the North and South Poles. iv. Next, I will address that I have been talking about how the earth “spins” and I will ask the class if they think that maybe there is another vocabulary word that describes how the earth spins. I will take a few guesses and reveal the next vocabulary word “Rotation” which means to turn on an axis. v. I will once again show how the earth rotates using the globe and point out to the class that the Earth rotates counter-clockwise. I will ask if anyone knows what counter-clockwise means. vi. My next question will be why the Earth rotating on its axis is such a big deal, why do I think they should know about. This will allow me to see if anyone knows that the Earth’s rotation is a 24- hour cycle and causes day and night. vii. Once students have had the opportunity to respond I will explain how it takes the Earth 24 hours to make one full rotation on its axis and as the Earth is making that rotation we get day and night. viii. I will ask why it is that we get day and night? I hope to receive responses such as “Because when the Earth rotates our side of the Earth moves away from the Sun.” ix. I will use a flashlight to act as the sun and mark on the globe where Trenton is with a sticker. I will have a volunteer come up to the front and hold the flashlight for me. I will ask three more volunteers to stand on the three remaining sides of the globe. It will be their job to pay close attention to the sticker when it comes to their side. I will turn off the lights and rotate the earth counter- clockwise. I will tell the class to pay close attention to the sticker as it moves with the globe. x. I will ask the class what happened to our sticker when I made the Earth rotate. (When it was facing the Sun it was had light, what it was not facing the Sun it was dark). xi. I will have the class stand up and explain to them that they will represent the Earth. The front of their bodies is the side of the Earth that we live on and their backs is opposite side of the Earth. I will stand in the front of the room with a flashlight to represent the Sun. I will have them turn away from me so that their backs are to the light. I will ask if anyone can guess what time of day they think they are representing. (Night) I will have them make a quarter turn to their left, turning counter-clockwise like the Earth does. I will ask if anyone can see the sun? (A little) I will ask them what time of day they think it is now. (Sunrise) They will make one more quarter turn to the left so they are facing the Sun. Once again I will ask them what time of day they think it is (Afternoon). They will again make another quarter turn and should notice that their view of the Sun has lessened, just like when they were in the sunrise position. I will ask them where they think they are now. (Sunset). Finally, they will make one last turn and return to night. We will go through the cycle one more time and with each turn they will say what time of day they are representing. xii. To review the information we just went over I will ask some scaffolding questions: How long the rotation they just made would take the Earth? (24 hours) Describe how the Earth moves in those 24 hours (On its axis, counter-clockwise) How come we can’t see the Sun at night? Think about the position you were in when it was night. (Because the side of the Earth that we are on wasn’t facing the Sun) xiii. A common misconception with children is that the Sun is what is moving and the Earth stands still. Hopefully through the activity they just did they understand that the Earth is the object moving, but I still want to make sure they have the concept. I will ask if the Sun was moving at all during the activity we just did (No). Then why when I watch the sunset does it look like the Sun is moving away? (Because the Earth is actually rotating away from the Sun). So you’re saying that the Earth is what moves and the Sun stays still? (Yes) xiv. I will then ask if they think the Earth moves in any other way (It revolves around the Sun) xv. I will hold up a new vocabulary word “Revolution.” If the students did not get the previous question right I will explain that a Revolution is when something makes a complete circle around something else. I will then ask them if they know what the Earth might make a complete circle around. xvi. I will explain that the Sun “Revolves,” or moves around, the Sun. When it makes it around the Sun it makes one “Revolution.” xvii. Once they have done this I will ask them to stand up and once again they will represent the Earth, but this time their desks will represent the Sun. I will demonstrate for them how I rotate on my axis (spin in a circle) and revolve around the Sun (walk around my desk). I will then ask the students to rotate on their axis and then revolve around the Sun. We will do this one more time and then sit down. xviii. I will then ask if anyone knows how long it takes the Earth to make one Revolution. (365 days or 1 year) Pretty Interesting! xix. I will ask them what happens when the Earth revolves around the Sun (Seasons) xx. I will make sure to explain that it is not only the revolution of the Earth around the Sun that makes the seasons, but the tilt of the Earth on its axis. xxi. I will place a picture of the Sun on the board and place a picture of the Earth titled at the angle you would find it during the winter to the right of the Sun. I will explain that the northern half of the Earth, where we live, is pointing away from the Sun so we get less direct sunlight. The Southern half of the earth, however, is pointing towards the Sun and that part of the Earth is having summer. xxii. I will then put a picture of the Earth titled for the spring season and place that above the Sun. I will explain how at this point the top and the bottom half of the Earth are about even so that is why we have milder temperatures. xxiii. Next, I will put a picture of the Earth positioned in the summer. I will ask what the class can tell me about this picture (The top half of the Earth is titled towards the Sun so it is summer. The bottom half is titled away so it is having winter.) xxiv. Lastly, I will put up a picture of the Earth titled when it is Fall. I will ask what the students notice about this one (It looks a lot like Spring). I will make sure that even though it looks like spring, they are two different seasons will different beginnings and ends. Spring starts out colder and gets warmer because it is approaching summer. Fall starts out warmer and approaches cold because it begins in the summer and ends in the winter. xxv. An important aspect to note to the class is that it is not the distance from the Sun that determines the seasons, it is the tilt of the Earth. When I place the pictures of the Earth on the board, I am careful to make sure that the summer picture is farther away than the winter picture. Since the Earth doesn’t revolve in a perfect circle, but more of an oval, the position of the Earth during summer is actually further away than in the winter. In the summer the Earth is 94.8 million miles away from the sun, while in the winter it is only 91.65 millions miles away. That’s 3 millions miles of a difference! xxvi. To review the information that was covered for the day, the class will complete two worksheets. One will be a flow chart to help them determine that the Earth rotates around its axis and revolves around the Sun. It will be partially filled in for them and they will have to use the vocabulary words they learned that day to fill in the remaining. This flow chart will also include the moon, which will be covered the following day, so it is a resource they must hold on to. xxvii. The second worksheet will be a spitting image of the diagram I had put up on the board and they will have to label which picture of the Earth represents each season. I will not have the diagram I made visible on the board, to challenge them a little. xxviii. The worksheet will have a multiple choices (Summer, Autumn, Winter, Spring) and depending on which letter they choose, there will be corresponding letters that they will fill in the on the bottom of the sheet. If they labeled their worksheet right they will solve the puzzle at the bottom. If they don’t get an answer on the bottom then they know they made a mistake somewhere and they must go back and think about their answers. xxix. To close, all students will write one reason why the Earth’s rotation or revolution affects life on Earth in their Science Notebooks. This brings in the Top Secret Mission for the day. I will remind them that I expect complete sentences that start with capital letters and end with periods. Only those students who write a complete and coherent sentence will get a sticker and have jelly beans put in the jar. d. Classroom Management: To keep order in the classroom, I will be using the peace sign method to quiet the class and get them focused when things get out of hand. In addition, for questions that are scaffolded or review, I will use the popsicle sticks with each students name on them to call on students randomly. This will keep students on track because they never know when I may ask a question. I would not use the popsicle sticks for questions that they don’t already know the answer to or haven’t been taught. Throughout the unit, a jar can be filled with jelly beans when the students are prepared, behave well, and/or do well with an activity. The goal is to fill the jar so they can have a Space Party at the end of the unit. e. Materials: i. Globe ii. Flashlight iii. Pictures of the Earth positioned during the winter, spring, summer, and fall. iv. Vocabulary Space Shuttle v. Vocabulary Words: axis, rotation, revolution vi. Science Notebooks vii. Worksheets (Flow Chart and Seasons) f. Grouping: Students will be in groups based on their table. No group work outside their tables will be done during this lesson. g. Transitions: Students will be getting in and out of their seats to volunteer and take part in activities and the peace sign will be used to clam students down if the noise level gets to be too high. h. Questions: Opening/Hook i. Does anyone feel like they are moving? (No) During the Lesson ii. Does anyone know what the word Axis means? (The imaginary line around which the earth spins) iii. Do you think that maybe there is another vocabulary word that may describe how the earth spins? (Rotate) iv. Can anyone help me with what counter-clockwise means? (To move in the opposite direction of the hands of a clock) v. Why is the Earth rotating on its axis is such a big deal? Why do I think you should know about? (Earth’s rotation is a 24- hour cycle and causes day and night.) vi. Why it is that we get day and night? (Because when the Earth rotates our side of the Earth moves away from the Sun) vii. What happened to our figurine when I made the Earth rotate? (When it was facing the Sun it was had light, what it was not facing the Sun it was dark). viii. Which time of the day they is each of these pictures? Are they in order? (Sunrise, Afternoon, Sunset, Night; No) ix. Can anyone guess what time of day they think they are representing. (Night) x. How much of the Sun can you see, without moving your head? (Just a little bit) xi. What time of day do you think it is now? (Sunrise/Afternoon/Sunset) xii. How long the rotation they just made would take the Earth? (24 hours) xiii. Describe how the Earth moves in those 24 hours. (On its axis, counter-clockwise) xiv. How come we can’t see the Sun at night? Think about the position you were in when it was night. (Because the side of the Earth that we are on wasn’t facing the Sun) xv. Was the Sun was moving at all during the activity we just did (No). xvi. Then why when I watch the sunset does it look like the Sun is moving away? (Because the Earth is actually rotating away from the Sun). xvii. Do you think the Earth moves in any other way?(It revolves around the Sun) xviii. What do you think the Earth makes a complete circle around? (The Sun) xix. Does anyone know how long it takes the Earth to make one Revolution. (365 days or 1 year) xx. What happens when the Earth revolves around the Sun (Seasons) xxi. What can you tell me about this picture? (The top half of the Earth is titled towards the Sun so it is summer. The bottom half is titled away so it is having winter.) xxii. What do you notice about this picture? (It looks a lot like Spring) Closure xxiii. Would anyone like to share the answer they got to the seasons worksheet? xxiv. Would anyone like to share their sentence about one thing they learned today? i. Closure: After students have completed their worksheets and sentences, I will ask for volunteers to share their sentences. If we have lots of volunteers I will pick a few and then ask the rest of the students to share with their neighbor. j. Individualize and Differentiate Instruction: This lesson aims to involve students that are auditory, visual, and bodily kinesthetic learners. All three elements can be found in this lesson and it allows all types of learners to gain the content knowledge needed. k. Planning of Future Lessons: I plan to continue with having students write vocabulary words in their Science Notebooks and one thing they learned during the lesson. I think it is a good routine they can get into. In addition all of these terms can be found in the upcoming lesson and their flow chart will come in handy when learning about the moon.
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