Decline in and Value of Honeybees by linzhengnd


									                  Colony Collapse Disorder
      Why should we care about the loss of honey bees?

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                   By Adam Formica, Rowan Finnegan,Rachel Goodman

Lef t:
              Definition and
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         •    Varroa mite
         •    Pesticides
         •    Stress

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Table: vanEngelsdorp, Dennis, Hayes, Jerry Jr., Underwood, Robyn M., and Jerry Pettis. (2008, December 30). A Survey of Honey Bee Colony
Losses in the U.S., Fall 2007 to Spring 2008. PlosOne 3(12), Article e4071.
Decline in and Value of Honeybees
• Long-term decline since 1950s
      • Industry in decline
      • Natural pollinators in decline
• CCD exacerbates downward trend in 2006
• Honeybees contribute to 1/3 of the food we eat
      • McGregor, S.E. 1976. Insect Pollinations of Cultivated Crop
        Plants. US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook
• “The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services
  and Natural Capital”
      • Service of pollination valued at $117 billion
Decline of Colonies in the US

Source: Honey, February, 2007, Agricultural Statistics Board, NASS, USDA,
 Bees in the Context of Ecosystems
• European honeybee colonies brought to Americas
  in the 16th Century
• Few bee species used for pollination in intensive
  agriculture – Apis mellifera
• Bees one of over a 100,000 species that pollinate
  flowers – bats, birds, insects etc.
• Wild bee species absent in wall-to-wall agriculture
  because of habitat loss
• Restructuring Agriculture/Conservation Planning:
  mosaic farms, hedgerows, insectary strips, multi-

Commercial Beekeeping   Organic Farm Bat Pollination
              Economic Impact
• Estimates range from two to four hundred billion.
  The journal of Ecological Economics placed the
  value of pollination services at 153 billion1 (~$228
      • 200 countries, based on the FAO 100 primary food
        crops used for human consumption.
      • 87 crops are pollinator dependent with different
        dependence ratios
• The true impact is difficult to assess due to the
  scope of the impact and difficult correlations.
      • Feed crops -Alfalfa
      • Plants used for Ethanol

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