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11-12Skripta za 4 razred

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11-12Skripta za 4 razred Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                  JUMS Hemijska Škola 2011/ 2012

4th year students
                   http://engeuroblok.webnode.com/




                                            CONTENTS
1. Vocabulary(Section)................................................................................. 2
2. Grammar (Section)................................................................................... 9
3. Grammar Practice..................................................................................... 31
4. Use of English....... .................................................................................. 36
5. Translate (Using Personal Mini Dictionary).............................................. 38
6. Language Problem Solving ...................................................................... 40
7. Writing – Practice.......................................................................................43
8. Class Techniques and Activities ............................................................... 45
9. Letters........................................................................................................ 48
10.Written Assignment................................................................................... 51
11.‘Class (Lesson)’......................................................................................... 55
12.‘Can You Pronounce?’.............................................................................. 56
13.Reading (Section)...................................................................................... 57
14.Listening (Section).................................................................................... 64
15.Culture Corner........................................................................................... 66
16.How To Use A Dictionary ............ ........................................................... 68
17.Vocabulary Builder........................................................................................ 69
18. Personal Mini Dictionary................................................................................71
19.“English For You”..........................................................................................73
20. Warm-Up Activities...................................................................................76




                                                           1
                                Vocabulary Section
                     1a– Gadgets (Modern technology)
Vocabulary : (personal) computers (PCs), washing machine, dish washing machine, radio,
cell phone, TV, iPod, USB device, memory stick, discman (portable CD player), PlayStation
(PS) - console, DVD player (home cinema), camera, camcorder, headphones, microwave
oven, car radio, food mixer, vacuum cleaner.

Help vocabulary: wash dishes, wash clothes, use (less) powder, save energy, play music,
clean the floor, record important events, send messages, call my contacts, set the alarm clock,
make my calendar and plan, listen to mp3 music, take photos, heat up something for luch or
breakfast, prepare something for breakfast or dinner, send important documents and other
files and take them easily to work, play mp3, play games....It has...., It 's not expensive, It's
very cheap, It's very convenient and easy to use....The advantage is that it is very practical
and reliable.....This is a very useful gadget....It's made from strong material.....

Help questions: What is it called?..........What can you use it for?..........Where can you use
it?........What is it made of?...........What are its advantages?...........How much does it
cost?..........Where can you get it?...............

Task: Sell your product!
e.g. A: Today I can offer you a very useful device for a very good price.
     B: What is it called?
     A: It is Fujiko home cinema.
     B: What can you use it for?
     A: Well you can use it for DVDs, movies, games, concerts etc. This one can also record the video
for you and you can also listen to radio and mp3s, but watch DivX movies as well.
     B: What are its advantages?
     A: Well as I said the advantage is that unlike some other home cinemas you can record videos and
you can watch DivX files as well. You can also watch you photo slide-shows.
     B: How much does it cost?
     A: It comes for a very special price of $140. You also get a bonus set of 10 DVD movies.
     B: Hmm, where can I get it?
     A: You can get in our stores in 10 Oxford Street and 6 Tower Street.



                                     1b – My House
                                         Vocabulary:
a) KIND OF HOUSE: cottage, flat, detached house, semi-detached house, mansion, wood,
cabin;
b) ROOMS: study, bathroom, toilet, games room, living room, kitchen, hall, attic, cellar,
library, dining room, music room, sitting room, sauna, gymnasium (gym);
c) FEATURES: French window, fireplace, central heating, air-conditioning;
d) FURNITURE: curtains, chair, washbasin, table, sofa, desk, bookshelves, bed, plants, lamp;
e) OUTSIDE: terrace, balcony, swimming pool, barbecue, lawn.



                                                  2
TASK: Describe your house!
e.g.
     1. Introduction – Describe the kind of house and its location
My house is quite a large detached house situated in the middle of a wood and it has a large
garden. The house is very modern and is specially designed to save energy and to be
ecological.
     2. Rooms – Describe what the rooms are like, where they are and what is in them
                                        (furniture etc.)
On the ground floor there is a big hall in the middle of the house. Around the hall there is the
kitchen, the sitting room and the dining room. The most important room in the house is the
sitting room where there are lots of bookshelves and some very large, comfortable sofas.

        3. Special features – Describe any special features that your house has got.

On the roof there are solar panels which produce electricity. The house also has got insulation
so that it is cool in the summer and warm in the winter.

                    4. Conclusion – Say why you would like to live there.

I would like to live in my forest house because it would be very peaceful. I would live there
with my family and have lots of room, so that friends could come to stay with me. It would
also be a very natural and ecological house that would fit in with the local environment.

                                 1c– Idiomatic language

                                         English Idioms
Idioms have been used in our everyday language for a very long time. We can say that idioms
are as old as human thought. They are included in almost every language. Idioms are used
every day in the media, in schools, in public life, through conversation etc.
„An idiom is a sequence of words which has a different meaning as a group from the
meaning it would have if you understood each word separately„ (Longman, 1999,vii).
Some idioms are more related to British English and some to American English.

e.g. to have ants in your pants ( I don't know what's wrong with him today, he has ants in his
pants.) – to feel excited or to have a lot of energy, so that is difficult to keep still or stay in one
place – especially used for children.
                                             Examples:

    1) be all ears (I am all ears.) – slušati paţljivo
    2) done like a dinner (Federer was done like a dinner after the 4th set.) – potpuno poraţen
    3) let sleeping dogs lie (Don't make things worse. Don't talk to him. Let sleeping dogs
       lie.) – pogoršavati stvari (ne diraj lava dok spava)
    4) cook the books (He is in prison, because he cooked the books.) – izmjeniti papire,
       dokumente ili račune da bi se napravila neka prevara
    5) wouldn't say boo to a goose (I don't believe he did that. I know him, he wouldn't say
       boo to a goose.) – veoma je plah, bojaţljiv ( ne bi ni mrava zgazio )
    6) a snake in the grass (I don't believe him. He is a snake in the grass.) - potajni
       neprijatelj, skrivena opasnost
    7) could eat a horse – izuetno gladan



                                                  3
 8) smell a rat (I smell a rat here. They didn't tell us everything.) – osjećati da nešto
     „smrdi“, osjećati prevaru
 9) break the ice (Don't be afraid. You must break the ice once.) – nešto uraditi prvi put
     da bi se razbila trema i pritisak (probiti led)
 10) to be in hot water ( Oooooh, you will be in hot water after what you have done.) –
     biti u teškoj i nezgodnoj situaciji
 11) to cost an arm and a leg (No way. Forget about it. That thing costs an arm and a leg)
     – izuzetno skupo
 12) an armchair critic (Don't worry about her. She is just an armchair critic.) – neko ko
     donosi sud samo iz iskustva putem knjiga, nikad nije radio ništa niti stekao iskustvo
 13) come full circle (C.Ronaldo came full circle. He is in Sporting again.) – vratiti se na
     prvobitno mjesto, tamo gdje je nešto krenulo
 14) see red (If somebody laughs in my face I usually see red.) – postati vrlo ljut iznenada
 15) have a chip on your shoulder (He doesn't talk to me. He still has a chip on his
     shoulder about that night.) – zapamtiti nešto (nekom) što se teško oprašta ili zaboravlja
 16) to be on the rebound ( I am still on the rebound but I'm trying to get over it.) – biti
     još uvijek pod emotivnim stresom nakon završetka romantične/ljubavne veze
 17) be bad news (Why do you hang out with him? He is bad news.) – biti problem
 18) break your neck to do something (She broke her neck to prepare the report on time.)
     – potruditi se maksimalnim naporima da se nešto uradi
 19) like a bull in a china shop (He always breaks something. He's like a bull in a china
     shop.) – biti izuzetno nespretan („smotan“)
 20) take the bull by the horns (Don't hesitate. You should take the bull by the horns and
     deal with that problem.) – uhvatiti se u koštac sa nekom teškoćom.
 21) pass the buck (Don't try to pass the buck! It's your fault, and everybody knows it.) – prebaciti
     krivicu na nekoga
 22) tighten one's (my, your...) belt – spend your money carefully, use less resources (In the new
     economy, we all have to learn to tighten our belts) - prištediti
 23) take someone under your (my, his...) wing – help and protect someone (One of the
     children in the class will usually take a new girl or boy under their wing for the first
     few weeks.) – brinuti se za nekoga
 24) shoot oneself (myself, himself...) in the foot - to cause oneself difficulty; to be the
     author of one's own misfortune (Again, he shot himself in the foot by saying too much
     to the press.) – iskopati sebi jamu
 25) to be on pins and needles - worried or excited about something (I was on pins and
     needles until she called to say she had arrived in Istanbul.) – biti na iglama
 26) to be in the pink – be very healthy (I wasn't well last week, but I'm back in the pink,
     I'm pleased to say.)
 27) to have finger in every pie - to have a role in everything; to be involved in
     everything. (Tess wants to have a finger in every pie.) – „biti svakoj čorbi mirođija“
 28) to be power behind the throne - the person who actually controls the person who is
     apparently in charge (She is the real power behind the throne. She makes all
     decisions.) – donositi odluke
 29) monkey business - silliness; dishonest tricks.
 30) (straight) from the horse's mouth - from an authoritative or dependable source. (I
     know it's true! I heard it straight from the horse's mouth!) – iz pouzdanih izvora
                  BOSNIAN vs ENGLISH (IDIOMATIC LANGUAGE)

  Go through all idioms and decide how similar to Bosnian idioms they are. Use the
following marks: S (similar) VS (very similary) TS (the same) N (not similar at all).


                                                4
                             1d- Where is (s)he from?
     His name is Rob. He is from Liverpool. He is Liverpudlian. He is English (British).

   Her name is Kelly. She is from Manchester. She is Mancunian. She is English (British).

       His name is Brian. He is from London. He is Londoner. He is English (British).

          His name is Gary. He is from Edinburgh (Scotland). He is Scot (British).

          Her name is Susan. She is from Cardiff (Wales). She is Welsh.(British).

  Her name is Sue. She is from Belfast (Northern Ireland). She is Northern Irish. (British).

        His name is Samuel. He is from Dublin (the Republic of Ireland). He is Irish.


 * UK = the United Kingdom = The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland ) ------ the Republic of Ireland is
                            independent from the U.K. *

                  Her name is Michelle. She is from Paris. She is French.

      His name is Michael. He is from New York. He is New Yorker. He is American.

                 Her name is Franceska. She is from Venice. She is Italian.

                  His name is Giovanni. He is from Florenz. He is Italian.
                  His name is Klaus. He is from Műnich. He is German.

                  Her name is Anna. She is from Cologne. She is German.

                  Her name is Klara. She is from Vienna. She is Austrian.

                    His name is Stefan. He is from Zűrich. He is Swiss.

                  Her name is Maria. She is from Bordeaux. She is French.

                  His name is Jack. He is from Chicago. He is American.

* The United States of America (also referred to as the United States, the U.S., the USA,
the States) has 50 states. Capital is Washington D.C. Largest City is New York.
California is the state with the largest population (37 milion people). The Capital of
California is Sacramento and the largest city is Los Angeles. The governor of California
is Arnold Schwarzenegger. *

                   His name is Leandro. He is from Rio. He is Brasilian.

  Her name is Martina. She is from Amsterdam in Holland (the Netherlands).She is Dutch.



                                              5
               His name is Jose. He is from Lisbon. He is Portuguese.

                  His name is Jan. He is from Prague. He is Czech.
            Her name is Martha. She is from Budapest. She is Hungarian.

     Her name is Gabriela. She is from Barcelona. She is Catalan. She is Spanish.

          His name is Juan. He is from Bilbao. He is Basque. He is Spanish.

             His name is Georgi. He is from Bucharest. He is Romanian.

               His name is Krasimir. He is from Sofia. He is Bulgarian.

  Her name is Nicole. She is from Stockholm. She is Swedish. She is Scandinavian.

His name is Soren. He is from Copenhagen. He is Dane (Danish). He is Scandinavian.

     Her name is Sofia. She is from Oslo. She is Norwegian. She is Scandinavian.
                His name is Martin. He is from Warsaw. He is Polish.

             His name is Todor. He is from Skopje. He is Macedonian.
         Her name is Mauela. She is from Buenos Aires. She is Argentinian.

 Bosnians, Croats, Serbians (Serbs), Macedonians, Montenegrins, Slovenians are still
                       sometimes referred to as ex-Yugoslavs.


                               1e– English units
a) Length:
   1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
   1 finger = 7⁄8 inch = 2.2225 cm
   1 foot (ft) = 30.48 centimeters
   1 yard = 0.9144 meters
   1 mile = 1.609344 kilometers

    e.g 6 ft 3 (6 feet 3 inches) = 1,90 cm = 1 meter 90 centimeters

b) Apothecary (pharmacy or drugstore):
   grain (gr) = 65 mg (milligrammes)
   scruple (s ap) = 20 gr (grains) = 1.295 grams
   dram (dr ap) = 3 s ap = 60 gr = 3.89 grams
   ounce (oz ap) = 8 dr ap = 480 gr = 31.103 grams
   punnd (lb ap) = 5760 gr = 0.373 kg

c) Weight:
   pound (lb) = 0.453 kilos (kg)

    e.g 200 pounds (200 lbs) = 90.718474 kilograms (kilos)



                                          6
d) Money:

         the United States
         $ - dollar
         ¢-   cent (100th part of a U.S. dollar) COIN
         a penny (COIN)= one cent = $ 0,01
         a nickel (COIN) = 5 cents = $ 0,05
         a dime (COIN) = 10 cents = $ 0,10
         a quarter (COIN) = 25 cents = $ 0,25
         the United Kingdom
         £ - pound
         p - penny (also called new penn) = the 100th part of a pound (COIN)
         pence (plural of penny) – used more for a sum of money rather than to the coins
¸        e.g. The ticket was 50 pence.

          $ 1 dollar = 1,38 marka (datum 6. august 2011.)

          £ 1 pound = 2,25 marke (datum 6. august 2011.)

                             CLASSROOM LANGUAGE
                                           Clock times

Vocabulary: to---- past----quarter---- half--- minutes--o'clock--- noon---midnight---a.m.--p.m.

                  Task – Use the given vocabulary to complete the time below:
    a)   3:10 – 10 minutes past 3 (a.m.)
    b)   18 - 6 o'clock (p.m.)
    c)   15:30 - ______ _______ 3 _____
    d)   7:15 - ______ _________ 7 ______
    e)   17 : 40 - _______ _____ 6 ______
    f)   12:00 - ______ ( 12 _____ _____)
    g)   00:00 - _________( 12 ____ _____)
    h)   18:02 - _______ _______ 6 _____
    i)   22 :50 - _______ ______ 11 ____
    j)   14 :31- _______ ______ 3 _____
    k)   14:29 - ________ ______ 2 ______
    l)   6:48 - ________ _______ 7 ______
    m)   23.30 - ______ ________ 11 ______
    n)   14 h – 2 ______ ______

                            1d - Days, Months, Dates, Seasons,
Vocabulary 1: January           Wednesday       summer     February      Thursday
March        Monday             winter          April      Tuesday       May spring
Sunday        June              Friday          July       autumn (fall)       August
Saturday     September          October         November   December.



                                                 7
Vocabulary 2 (ordinal numbers): 1st – first, 2nd – second, 3rd –third, 4th- fourth,
5th-fifth,      6th-sixth ,     7th - seventh, 8th -eighth, 9th -ninth,        10th - tenth,
11th - eleventh,        12th - twelfth,         13th-thirteenth, 14th-fourteenth,
15th - fifteenth…..20th (twentieth),             twenty-first (21st), twenty –second(22nd),
23rd, 24th…..           29th,           30th (thirtieth),              31st – thirty-first.


                          Task: Read and write the following dates:

21st July 1989 – the twenty first of July nineteen eighty-nine

2nd September 1987 – the second of September nineteen eighty-seven

31st January 1876 –
15th July 1978 –
25th March 1888 –
6th December 1999 –
11th August 2006 –
13th July 1993 –



                                      1e) Weather.......
What's the weather like (there)??

It's....... with...... (e.g. It's cloudy with light breeze = ______________________).

a) sunny                       b)rainy               c) cloudy       d) scorching hot

e) heavy rain                  f) shower             g) breeze       h) storm

i) thundering                  j) soft rain          h) storm/blizzard

i) freezing rain              j) pouring rain        k) hailstorm l) pleasant/fine

m) sultry (humid)weather / sultriness or humidity.




                                                8
                       2. Grammar Section
                    INTRO – WORD CLASSES
noun verb adjective adverb pronoun preposition conjunction determiner



                   The old man walked slowly up another hill.

                         The coffee was strong, but sweet.

                                       2a) VERBS
   * English INFINITIVE
The infinitive of a verb is its basic form with or without the particle to: therefore, do and to
do, be and to be, and so on are infinitives.

FULL INFINITIVE (TO INFINITIVE) = to do (raditi), to play (igati), to swim (plivati)...
BARE INFINITIVE (without TO) = do (raditi), play (igrati), swim (plivati).....

     * Classification 1
MAIN VERBS (a) vs AUXILIARY VERBS (b)
a) Main verbs
              - don't need to be accompanied by other verbs
              - convey the key meaning if they are alone or with any group of verbs
Rooney plays for Manchester. He is going to visit us next summer.
b) Auxiliary verbs
              - we use them in forming tenses.
              - two types of auxiliary verbs: primary auxiliary verbs (b1) and modal
                 verbs(b2).

       b 1) Primary auxiliary verbs
can have the function of both main verbs and auxiliary verbs. We have 3 primary auxiliary
verbs: TO BE, TO HAVE; TO DO.

Primary auxiliary verbs as MAIN VERBS:
e.g. TO BE: We are from Spain     TO HAVE: I have many friends TO DO: What are you
doing?

Primary auxiliary verbs as AUXILIARY VERBS:
e.g. TO BE: Where are you going? TO HAVE: We have done a lot of work since Monday.
TO DO: How do you know him?



                                                 9
      b 2) Modal verbs
              - we don't use them on their own
              - we use them in combination with other verbs (main verbs)
Modal verbs are: can, could, shall, should, will, would, need, may, might, ought to, must....

Modal verbs can be alone only in short answers. e.g. Can you come tomorrow? Yes, I can.

  * Classification 2

REGULAR (c) vs IRREGULAR (d)

c) Regular verbs are verbs which we put in the past simple form using ending –ed.
play (igrati) - played (igrao/la); live – lived; watch – watched; listen – listened
d) Irregular verbs are verbs which have irregular form of the past simple and past participle
(no endings, each verb has its own form) and therefore we learn them by heart:
take – took – taken;           be – was (were) – been;     drive – drove – driven.......

   * Classification 3

Transitive (Tr; Vt; Verb trans.) vs Intransitive (Intr, Vi; Verb intrans.)
Transitive verbs are verbs which take object.

e.g. buy        She bought ?????                     She bought a new dress.

Intransitive verbs are verbs which take no object.
e.g arrive    We arrived.                          work        I hope it will work.

Some verbs can be both transitive and intransitive.
e.g. hurt          TR. She hurt herself.                           INTR: Stop, that hurts.



                    2 b - Multi-part verbs (phrasal verbs)
A phrasal verb (multi-part verb) is a combination of a verb and a preposition (up, on,
off....); a verb and an adverb; or a verb with both an adverb and a preposition, any of which
are part of the syntax of the sentence, and so are a complete semantic unit. In many cases it
has a different meaning as a unit from the meaning of its parts (verb + particle).
e.g. give up = quit                   call off = cancel             put off = postpone
e.g look outside                      get together

Verb + preposition combination can be:
a) separable
Switch off the light, please.        or            Switch the light off, please. (both OK)
b) inseparable
She got on the bus. (OK)             but not       She got the bus on.
Past simple of multi part verbs – just put verbs in past simple and particles remain the same.
e.g. give up (Past Simple = gave up)               take after (Past Simple = took after)



                                                10
                            2 b - Gerund & Participles

Present Participle - - ing form of a verb. (e.g. play- playing) Present participle functions as a
verb (I am playing tennis.) or modifier ___________ (Let sleeping dogs lie. – modifies noun
dogs).

Past Participle - - ed form of a verb. (NOTE – different forms for IRREGULAR VERBS)
(e.g. play- played REGULAR; sell – sold IRREGULAR) Past participle functions as a verb (I
have played tennis since 5./ He has broken his arm.) or an adjective ( He had a broken arm).

Gerund – use of –ing form of a verb as a noun. (play – playing) e.g. Playing in Manchester
was always my wish. I like reading books. (GERUND often goes after verbs like, hate,
prefer, (don't) mind....e.g. I don't mind sleeping on the couch. I hate watching sports.)


                             2c - DETERMINERS
What are determiners in English?
Determiners are words that are used with nouns to clarify the noun. Determiners are noun-
modifiers and they are placed in front of nouns. They are used to clarify the following:

      to define something or someone
      to state the amount or quantity
      to state possessives
      to state something or someone is specific
      to state how things or people are distributed
      to state the difference between nouns
      to state someone or something is not specific

* QUANTIFIERS (type of determiners)
In grammar, a quantifier is a type of determiner, such as all or many, that indicates quantity.

SOME (Used in affirmative sentences. It can be used in a question, if we expect answer to be
positive.) e.g. Please buy some bananas.
ANY (Used in: negative sentences; questions.) e.g Do you have any ice cream left? We don't
have any food in the fridge.
MUCH (with uncountable nouns) e.g. There is much food on the table. Do you need much
space?
MANY ( with countable nouns) e.g. I have lived here for many years. I have many things to
do.
A LOT OF (USED FOR LARGE QUANTITY but neutral for both countable and
uncountable) There are a lot of people outside. I don't have a lot of time.
SEVERAL ( small quantity, used with countable nouns) There are several people waiting.
A LITTLE (small quantity, used with uncountable nouns) I gave him a little attention.
LITTLE (used for small quantity but meaning “NOT ENOUGH“) We had little success.
A FEW (small quantity, used with countable nouns) I received only a few offers.
FEW ( used for small quantity but meaning “ NOT ENOUGH“) Few people came.

QUITE A FEW = MANY! Quite a few guests have already arrived


                                               11
LOTS OF (similar to a lot of – USED FOR LARGE QUANTITY - used mainly before
singular uncountable and plural nouns, and before pronouns) Lots of people came to see the
show. Lots of time is needed to learn Spanish.
PLENTY OF (means ‘enough and more‘) We have plenty of space in our room.

LESS – used when referring to something that can’t be counted or doesn’t have a plural (e.g. money,
air, time, music, rain)
FEWER – used when referring to people or things in the plural (e.g. houses, newspapers, dogs,
students, children)
OTHER, ANOTHER, EVERY, EACH, ALL, THE OTHER

Every night was the same.             They checked each table before the guests arrived.
We are having another baby.           I don't need that book, give me the other one.
We have considered all options.        I don't care what other people think.



                                   2d - TENSES
                                      Present
                                    Present simple tense
* USE ----- We use it to talk about: a) activities that we repeat regularly – routines,
habits (She watches soap operas every evening); b) general facts & states (Ice melts at 0 º. –
I live in London) ........
* FORM----- We recognize it by: a) endings –s, -es (for 3rd person singular) – She
watches....He lives.... b) auxiliary verb do & does only in interrogative and negative form
(Do you live in Budapest? Does she watch cartoons?) .....(She doesn't live in.....You don't like
sports.).
      NOTE: She watches -------------but-----------Does she watch?
      NOTE: Questions starting with WHO don't have auxiliary verb (Jim works in school.
         – Who works in school? but not - Who does work in school?)

                                         Imperatives

e.g.      Don't do this.       Don't write on the walls.     Please come before the lunch.

Don't forget to do your homework. Remind your sister to send me an e-mail.
Tell him that I called.   Do not disturb me while I work.
Please don't call me again.   Please tell him I came by.

                                     Present continuous
* USE ----- We use it to talk about limited activities: a) activities that are going on at the
time of speaking (Brian is doing his homework at the moment.); b) activities that take
place for a limited period of time (He is working in a local restaurant this summer.)

* FORM ---- a) ending –ing on the main verb; b) present simple form of auxiliary verb TO
BE: am, are, is.....(auxiliary (TO BE) + mainING)!!!!!




                                                12
                                          Future
                 Future with will (prediction & sudden decision)
* USE ----- We use it to talk about: a) prediction based on our intuition, knowledge,
experience, evidence (I bet he will bring his brother with him.); b) unplanned future events
(I will do that for you..) c) sudden decisions (I will go now. We will not take part in that
game.)

* FORM ---- a) auxiliary verb WILL; b) main verb in BARE INFINITIVE (without to)!!!!


                          Future with may/might (not sure)
* USE ----- We use it to talk about: a) not sure something will happen or not ( He may
offer you a deal; They might sit their best player tonight because of the injury.)

      FORM ---- a) auxiliary verb MAY/MIGHT; b) main verb in BARE INFINITIVE (without
       to)!!!!


                           Future with going to (intentions)
* USE ----- We use it to talk about: a) planned future events - INTENTIONS ( We are
going to spend a few days with my mother.); b) predictions based on present or past
evidence (that we see now) (It is going to rain. Look at that car. It is going to crash into the
yellow one.)

* FORM ---- TO BE (am,are, is)        +   GOING TO + main verb in BARE INFINITIVE
(without to)


                Future with present continuous (arranged future)
* USE ----- We use it to talk about: a) fixed or arranged future activities ( I am working
on Saturday.; They are coming home next week.);

* FORM ---- a) ending –ing on the main verb; b) present simple form of auxiliary verb TO
BE: am, are, is.....(auxiliary (TO BE) + mainING)!!!!!


                                    Future continuous
* USE ----- We use it to talk about: a) to talk about activities that will be in progress at a
certain time in the future ( At 9 a.m. on Saturday, I'll be listening to Duke Willard. / I will
be working all evening so I won't be able to see you.);

      FORM ---- a) ending –ing on the main verb; b) WILL+BE




                                              13
           Future with present simple (timetables and programmes)
* USE ----- We use it to talk about: a) timetables, programmes, travel arrangements,
entertainments ( The next train leaves at 6:30; World Cup starts in June.);

* FORM----- We recognize it by: a) endings –s, -es (for 3rd person singular) – She
watches....He lives.... b) auxiliary verb do & does only in interrogative and negative form
(Do you live in Budapest? Does she watch cartoons?) .....(She doesn't live in.....You don't like
sports.).
              * NOTE: She watches -------------but-----------Does she watch?

                                      Future perfect
* USE ----- We use it to talk about: a) actions that will be completed before a certain
time in the future ( By the end of the century, we will have colonised our solar system. /
He will have written two books by next summer.);

* FORM ---- a) WILL           b) Present perfect simple (e.g. have colonised, have written =
Have+Past Participle)



                                           Past
                                        Past Simple
* USE ----- We use it to talk about: a) completed events, states, actions ( Shakespeare
wrote over 30 plays. (HE DIED); Did you go to the party on Saturday? (IT'S MONDAY
NOW);

* FORM----- a) ending –ed for regular verbs (e.g.. They lived in England 10 years ago); b)
auxiliary verb did in interrogative and negative forms (Did they live in England before they
moved to France? I didn't watch TV at all last night.)
* NOTE: He watched.--------but..........Did he watch? / He didn't watch?

      Past Simple of REGULAR VERBS (ending –ed) = play – played
      Past Simple of IRREGULAR VERBS (‘by heart‘) = sell - sold
      NOTE: Questions starting with WHO don't have auxiliary verb (Jack bought 20 roses.
       – Who bought 20 roses? but not - Who did buy 20 roses?)
   
                              I wish / If only + Past simple
We use I wish (If only) + past simple to express that we want a situation in the present (or
future) to be different.

I wish I spoke Italian. (I don't speak Italian.)
I wish I had a big car. (I don't have a big car.)
I wish I was on a beach. (I'm in the office.)
Future: I wish it was the weekend tomorrow. (It's only Thursday tomorrow.)




                                              14
                                        Past Continuous
* USE ----- We use it to talk about:

a) limited action in the past which started at some point and maybe was still in progress
at that point but it is expected to end at some point (I was still working at 6 o’clock.);

* FORM----- We recognize it by: a) ending –ing on the main verb; b) past simple form of
auxiliary verb TO BE: was, were.. ......(auxiliary (TO BE) + mainING)!!!!!


                                Interrupted action in the past

                         Past simple & Past Continuous in one sentence

* USE 1 = we use Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was
interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action - in Past Simple. Remember
this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.

e.g It was raining when we met.......When you called me I was sleeping

                                         Parallel actions

                       Past Continuous & Past Continuous in one sentence

* USE 1 = When you use Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it
expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are
parallel.

e.g.

          While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television.
          Were you listening while he was talking?
          I wasn't paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several mistakes.
          They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time. (we don't
           repeat auxiliary were)



                              I wish / If only + Past continuous
We use I wish (If only) + past continuous to express that we want to be doing a different
action in the present (or future).

I wish I was lying on a beach now. (I'm sitting in the office.)
I wish it wasn't raining. (It is raining.)
Future: I wish you weren't leaving tomorrow. (You are leaving tomorrow.)




                                                 15
                                 Present Perfect Simple
* USE ----- We use it to talk about:

a) action which started in the past and is still going on in the present (I have lived in
Tuzla since I was born......(I STILL LIVE IN TUZLA.);

b) action which started and finished in the past but has consequences for the present
(Jack has twisted his knee so he is not playing in today's game.....(HE TWISTED HIS KNEE
2 DAYS AGO ON THE PRACTICE, SO HE IS NOT PLAYING TODAY.);

c) past experience ( Have you ever been to Italy?...........I have seen this move 3 times so
far.);

* FORM----- We recognize it by: a) auxiliary verb have or has; b) past participle form of
the main verb - regular verbs (-ed); irregular verbs (by heart)!

                         Present perfect simple with FOR & SINCE
We often use present perfect simple with prepositions for & since. For is used when we want
to express duration (e.g I have lived in Tuzla for 10 years.) Since is used when we want to
express the start of the action expressed by present perfect simple. (e.g. I have lived in Tuzla
since 1996).
FOR: She has been on a business trip for 3 weeks now. (she is still on a business trip)
SINCE: Sam hasn't called me since last Monday. (and I am still waiting for his call)
FOR: He has played for the same team for 5 years. (he still plays for that team)
SINCE: Karen hasn't had a day off since 2008. (she is still waiting for a day off)

                             Present perfect with yet & already
* Already means that something happened earlier than we expected. With Present Perfect
already usually goes after have or has and before the main verb. AFFIRMATIVE FORM!!!!

 a) We've already had our breakfast.
 b) When are you going to do your homework? - But I've already done it!
 c) - Do you want a cup of coffee? - No, thanks. I've already had one."

* Yet means that something that we expected has happened or hasn't happened. We usually
put it at the end of a sentence. INTERROGATIVE (Question) & NEGATIVE FORM!!!

a) - Has the post arrived yet?         b) - Have you done your homework?        - Not yet.

c) - Haven't you got ready yet? Look at the time!

                               Present perfect continuous
* USE ----- We use it to talk about: an activity that started in the past and usually has
recently stopped or just stopped. (e.g. I have been doing my homework for the last two
hours. .......He has been working very hard.)

* FORM----- We recognize it by: ending – ing on the main verb; b) present perfect simple
form of auxiliary verb TO BE – have been , has been..........



                                              16
e.g. We have been working very hard for the last couple of days.
Jim has been trying to mend your bike since last Friday but unfortunately the damage is big.
What have you been doing for the last 2 hours? The house is a mess.

                                  So do I / Neither do I .....

1. After affirmative sentences we use So+auxiliary+I, when the statement (A) is also true
for the speaker (B).
A: I like coffee. B: So do I.            A: I have written a book. B: So have I.
A: I'm sixteen. B: So am I.

1a: We use I + auxiliary + not when the statement (A) is not true for speaker (B):
A: I like coffee.     B:I don't.            A: I have written a book. B: I haven't.
A: I'm sixteen.       B: I'm not.

21. After negative sentences we use Neither + auxiliary + I when the statement (A) is also
    true for the speaker (B).
A: I don't smoke.     B: Neither do I.      A: I can't swim.          B: Neither can I.
A: I'm not stayin here. B: Neither am I.

2a: We use I + auxiliary when the statement (A) is not true for the speaker (B).

A: I don't smoke.     B: I do.                 A: I can't swim.        B: I can.
A: I'm not staying here. B: I am.

                                     Past perfect simple.
* USE ----- We use it to talk about: something that happened in the past but before
another past action (past simple).....e.g. (When we got home last night, we found that
somebody had broken into the flat; When we came back home, they had already left.

* FORM ----- We recognize it by: a) auxiliary verb had (past simple of HAVE)......b) main
verb in past participle.

  NOTE: Verbs take the same form when there is no obvious time span between them.
e.g. I came into the room, took my wallet and realized that I was robbed. (one after another –
                               all in PAST SIMPLE TENSE)

                          I wish / If only + Past perfect simple
We use I wish (If only) + past perfect simple to express a regret, or that we want a
situation in the past to be different.

I wish I hadn't eaten so much. (I ate a lot.)
I wish they'd come (they had come) on holiday with us.(They didn't come on holiday with us.)
I wish I had studied harder at school. (I was lazy at school.)

If only I hadn't eaten so much. (I ate a lot)
If only I had studied harder for this test. (I failed).


                                                 17
                                   Past perfect continuous.
* USE ----- We use it to talk about: action which took place over a limited period of time
but before another past event.

Yesterday morning I got up and the sun was shining but the grass was very wet. It had been
raining all night.

* FORM ----- We recognize it by: a) ending – ing on the main verb;          b) past perfect simple
form of auxiliary verb TO BE – had been.


                                     Conditional sentences
Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to
express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition
(in the clause with if) is fulfilled. The order of clauses can be reversed. (If clause, Main clause
---- Main clause, If clause)

                      There are three types of Conditional Sentences.
    a) TYPE 1: It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled. If I
       find her address, I’ll send her an invitation….

*If clause (dependent) – PRESENT SIMPLE; *main clause (independent) – will+infinitive.)

IF=AKO!!!!        e.g. IF+MAIN If you don’t come, you will be in trouble.
                 e.g. MAIN+IF You will be in trouble, if you don’t come.
    b) TYPE 2: It is almost certain, that the condition will not be fulfilled. It is possible
       but very unlikely that the condition will be fulfilled.

If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
(Kad bi našao njenu adresu, ja bih joj poslao pozivnicu.)

*If clause (dependent) – PAST SIMPLE; *main clause (independent) – would+infinitive.
NOTE: USE OF WERE (If I were you, I would not do this.) If I was you IS WRONG!!!

    c) TYPE 3: It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the
       past.

If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation…
(Da sam našao njenu adresu, poslao bih joj pozivnicu.)
                     *If clause (dependent) – PAST PERFECT SIMPLE;
                  *main clause (independent) – would+have+past participle

                                        Relative Clauses

They are subordinate clauses (______________________________) which are introduced
by relative pronouns (who, which, where, when, that, whom...). We have two types of relative
clauses:




                                                  18
Type 1: Defining relative clauses (information important to understand what or who is the
sentence about.............no commas):
       e.g.   The man who had cheated me was arrested by the police.
              The man was arrested by the police.(WHO?????????)

Type 2: Non-defining relative clauses (additional information without which we still know
what or who is the sentence about.........................we use commas):

Christiano Ronaldo, who plays for Real Madrid, is one of the best soccer players.
Christiano Ronaldo is one of the best soccer players.

                        Relative Pronouns in Defining Relative Clauses

               Person                  Object

Subject        who, that               which, that

Object         Ø, that, who, whom      Ø, which, that

Possessive     whose                   whose, of which




*
    Relative Pronouns Used As The Subject of Defining Relative Clauses

Example: Children who (that) play with fire are in great danger of harm.
The man who bought all the books by Hemingway has died.

Generally, who and which are more usual in written English whereas that is more usual
in speech when referring to things.




* Relative Pronouns Used As The Object of Defining Relative Clauses

Example: That's the boy (Ø , that, who, whom) I invited to the party.
There's the house (Ø, that, which) I'd like to buy.




* Relative Pronouns Used As a Possessive in Defining Relative Clauses

Example: He's the man whose car was stolen last week.
They were sure to visit the town whose location (OR the location of which) was little
known.

                                           Passive
ACTIVE: Active sentence has standard structure – S (subject) P (predicator) +
other….(O,A….)

e.g. They (S) built (P)    a new bridge (O-object) last year (At-Adverbial of time).


                                                19
 PASSIVE: Passive is used when the focus is on object. It is not important or not known,
however, who or what is performing the action. So the focus is not on subject. Subject of the
active sentence becomes agent in passive and is often left out but it can sometimes be
mentioned using phrase (by.....).

e.g. A new bridge (O) was built (P) last year (Adv of time).

e.g Active to Passive (Present simple passive)
Coach often uses zone in important games.(A) – Zone is often used in important games. (P)

e.g. Active to Passive (Past simple passive)
He bought new shoes (A) – New shoes were bought (P) (New shoes were bought by him)

Verb form in Passive:
TO BE (takes form of the active sentence) + PAST PARTICIPLE (of a main verb in the
active sentence)

e.g. People buy newspapers every day.(ACTIVE) - Newspapaers are bought every day. (PASSIVE)
     She is playing the piano.(ACTIVE) - The piano is being played. (PASSIVE)
    They have built a new bridge here.(ACTIVE) – A new bridge has been built here. (PASSIVE)

                        Direct vs Indirect (Reported) Speech
If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words
(direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. Therefore, you need to learn how to transform
direct speech into reported speech. The structure is a little different depending on whether you
want to transform a statement, question or request. When transforming we use so called
BACKSHIFTING.When transforming statements you have to change:pronouns; place and
time expressions;tenses (backshift).

Direct Speech: ‘I am English.‘
Indirect (Reported) Speech: He said (that) he was English.
Direct Speech: ‘I bought a new shirt yesterday.‘
Reported: She told me (that) she had bought a new shirt the day before.

Direct Speech: ‘I am trying to sleep.‘
Reported: She said (that) she was trying to sleep.

Backshifting:
Present simple – Past simple                 Present continuous – Past continuous
Past simple – Past perfect                   Present perfect – Past simple
will – would           can – could           Past perfect – Past perfect
Adverbials of time:
today – that day                     yesterday – the day before
tomorrow – the next day              the day after tomorrow – in two days time
last year – a year ago               now – at that moment (then)

There are more than one reporting verb: said, told X, answered, claimed, stated,
mentioned, replied, insisted....



                                               20
                                   Reported questions
                                       Form

When we are reporting questions, the subject comes before the verb.
DIRECT SPEECH: "Where are you going?"
REPORTED SPEECH: He asked me where I was going.

DIRECT SPEECH: "Why is he shouting?"
REPORTED SPEECH: He asked me why he was shouting.
DIRECT SPEECH: "What do you want?"
REPORTED SPEECH: She asked me what he wanted.

                                  Negative questions

We do not use the auxiliary verb 'do', except in negative questions.
DIRECT SPEECH: "Who doesn't like cheese?"
REPORTED SPEECH: She asked me who didn't like cheese.

                                   Yes/no questions

We report yes / no questions with 'if' or 'whether'.
DIRECT SPEECH: "Do you want me to come?"
REPORTED SPEECH: I asked him if he wanted me to come.

DIRECT SPEECH: "Have you fed the dog?"
REPORTED SPEECH: She asked me whether I had fed the dog.

                                  Who, what, which

When we report questions with 'who, what or which' + to be + complement, the verb 'to
be' can come before or after the complement.
DIRECT SPEECH: "Who is the champion?"
REPORTED SPEECH: She asked me who the champion was OR She asked me who was the
champion.
DIRECT SPEECH: "What is your favourite colour?"

REPORTED SPEECH: She asked me what my favourite colour was OR She asked me what
was my favourite colour.


                 2e - Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions
                                        Adjectives
   * Adjectives are often called 'describing words' because they give us information about
   the qualities of something described in a noun, noun phrase, or clause.

   COMBINATIONS: a) Adjective+noun=an old film; b) Adjective+ noun phrase=an
   interesting experience for everyone; c) Adjective + clause=It's unbelievable that we
   haven't seen each other for so long.



                                            21
    * OPPOSITE MEANINGS – A lot of adjectives make opposite meanings (forms) by –
    prefixes such as: im, un,in.....

    Un+happy=unhappy; im+polite=impolite in+formal=informal; immature, uninteresting,

    * COMPARISON – There are three forms of comparison.
    Comparison of short (regular) adjectives: short – shorter – the shortest.
    Comparison of long (2 or more syllables) adjectives: beautiful – more beautiful – the
    most beautiful.
    Comparison of irregular ajdectives: good-better- the best; bad-worse-the worst!

                                              Adverbs
  An adverb is a part of speech. It is any word that modifies any other part of language:
  verbs, adjectives (including numbers), clauses, sentences and other adverbs. We can
  sometimes refer to it as an adverbial – in sentence analysis.

    1) Adverbs for MANNER: carefully, slowly.
    2) Adverbials for frequency: always, often.
    3) Adverbials for time and place: now, here......

    NOTE: Adjective+ly= ADVERB (slow+ly=slowly)

                                         Prepositions
Many of the most common words in English are prepositions, and many of them are very
short words (e.g. at, for, in, to). However, longer words and short phrases (e.g despite, except,
according to, out of, in terms of, in the event of) can function as prepositions too.

Prepositions of place and movement: in, at, on, by, next to, beside, under, below, over,
across, through, to, into, towards, onto, from...

Prepositions of time: on, in, at, since, for, ago, before, to, past, to, till, until, by...

Prepositions of manner: with, straight....

Prepositions of cause and effect: because of, due to, owing to, as a result of....

Prepositions of exception: except, apart from....

                       2f – WH questions + preposition
* In English language, in many cases it is common to put prepositions in the final position in
WH-questions.

e.g. Who is the cake for?
More examples.            What are you talking about?          Where are you from?
Who did you go with?         Which room are you in?
What for? (short question = Why?)                   Who did you buy it for?



                                                   22
                                       2g - Possessive

* Possessive adjectives (my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their) --- are always placed
in front of the noun they describe.

   e.g. I am looking for my jacket..............Where is your flat?

* Possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs) ---- are always
placed on their own

   e.g. Is this jacket yours?........... He is a friend of mine.

   WRONG: Where is yours jacket? RIGHT: Where is your jacket? (poss. adjective)
   WRONG: Is this table our?     RIGHT: Is this table ours? (poss. pronoun)


* Possessive case : is used to mark the relationship of possession.
We add 's (morpheme s with an apostrophe) to the singular nouns (a girl's book) and on
irregular plural nouns (women's clothes) to indicate possession .

We add ' (only apostrophe, without s) after the possessive s on regular plural words ( the
books' pages) and for worldwide known names for example in science etc. (Pythagoras'
theorem).
    e.g. John's car         -    (car that belongs to John)
    e.g. my friend's sister -    (sister of my friend)
    e.g. men's shoes        -    (shoes worn only by men)
    e.g. Chris's wife       -     (woman who married Chris)
    e.g. the books' covers -     (covers of the books (we use))
    e.g. Pythagoras' theorem -  (theorem made by Greek philosopher Pythagoras)

                                        2h - Pronouns
   In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a word (pro-form) that substitutes (is a
   replacement) for a noun (noun phrase).
                                      Types of pronouns
   1. Personal pronouns = (singular) I , you, he – she – it,          (plural) we, you , they

   2. Relative pronouns = who, whom, which, whose, and that.

   3. Demonstrative pronouns = this, that, these, those...

   4. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS are used when a person or thing acts on itself.
              SINGULAR: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
                  PLURAL: ourselves, yourselves, themselves

e.g. I don't want you to pay for me. (OK) I don't want you to pay for myself. (WRONG)
e.g. I want to pay for myself. (OK) I want to pay for me. (WRONG)



                                                 23
     5. OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS are used when the person or thing is the object of the
sentence or clause. SINGULAR (me, you, him-her-it) PLURAL (us, you, them)

       SUBJECT/target PRONOUN                          OBJECT/target PRONOUN
                       I                                            Me
                      You                                          You
                      He                                           Him
                      She                                          Her
                       It                                            It
                      We                                            Us
                      You                                          You
                     They                                         Them
                     Who                                          Whom
e.g. He is punished because he hit her. (OK) He is punished because he hit she. (WRONG)
e.g. She told us the big news. (OK) She told we the big news. (WRONG)
   6. Indefinite pronouns
anywhere              everywhere            nowhere               something
anything              nothing               someone               anyone
everyone              no one                no body               both
others                several               another               plenty    .....




                                      2i - Articles
Articles belong to the wider class of 'determiners', words or phrases that come at the
beginning of a noun phrase and signal whether the information is new or familiar, or which
tell us something about quantity.
* Indefinite article ( a, an) = information is new; it is not specified what/who we are
talking about; it is one of many (an is used only if the word starts with a vowel: a, o, e....)
e.g. a person, a boy, a dog, a cat....an apple, an orange, an interesting idea
* Definite article (the) = information is familiar; we know what/who we are talking about;
it is something unique (the sun).
e.g. the sun, the cinema, the best, the first, the man who came to see you yesterday....
DEFINITE ARTICLE (THE) is used with
         a)Hotels,Monuments, Buildings, Museums, Cinemas, Theatres - The Ritz – The Tower
of London – The Empire State Building - The Louvre – The Odeon Cinema – The Royal Theatre

         b) Mountain Ranges, Rivers, Seas, Oceans - The Alps – The Nile – The Black Sea –-
The Pacific Ocean
        c) Groups of States or Islands - The United States of America - The Bahamas

* Zero article (for words which take no article – plural nouns (books), uncountable nouns
(rice).
                                      2h – Nouns
Noun is a word that describes a person, place or thing. We use nouns to express a
range of meanings such as concepts, qualities, organisations, communities, sensations
and events.



                                              24
Proper nouns (John, London...) vs Common nouns (book, car....)

* Countable / Uncountable nouns
Countable nouns (C) have a singular and a plural form, e.g. book – books. Uncountable nouns
(U) have only one form, e.g. furniture (but not furnitures). We decide if the noun is countable
or uncountable based on whether or not we can count (1,2,3,4...) what the noun describes.
Nouns which describe separate and separable objects (e.g. book(s), computer(s)) are usually
countable while those which describe liquids, materials, substances and abstract qualities (e.g.
milk, food, air, success) are characteristically uncountable.

Some countable nouns: dog, cat, animal, person, man, coin, note, dollar, cup, plate, fork,
table, bag, suitcase, box, bottle..............NOTE: person-people, man-men........


Some uncountable nouns: coffee, water, milk, tea, wine, soup, soccer, baseball, tennis,
cotton, jeans, silk, furniture, experience, success, failure, air, food..........

* Plural of nouns

Regular plural: Most countable nouns have a plural form that ends in s.
e.g. book – books, cat-cats, dog-dogs, dollar- dollars............

Irregular plural:
Type 1. In English grammar we also have irregular plural form. Many irregular plural forms
involve a change of vowel.

e.g. man – men, tooth – teeth, foot – feet, mouse – mice, goose – geese....

Type 2. Some nouns have the same singular and plural forms (nouns that end in s often fall
into this category).
e.g. a sheep – two sheep, a fish – two fish, a series – two series, a crossroads – two
crossroads........
* Collective nouns

Collective nouns are words which represent groups of people, e.g. the team, the conservative
party. These nouns are singular, especially if you think about them as a “unifed“ body.
e.g. The army provides an excellent career. (SINGULAR)
e.g. My family is from Polan. (SINGULAR)

Some people use plural for collective nouns.e.g. The UN are sending in peace-keeping troops.


* Combining nouns
We frequently use two nouns together. We use one noun to modify the other.

e.g. a computer virus (a kind of virus)            family lunch (one family has a lunch together)


                                                  25
                                      2i - Spelling rules
Before you start!
CONSONANTS (________________):B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X,
Z, and usually W and Y:

VOWELS (________________ili _____________):

Translate:                        one-syllable word = rijeĉ koja se sastoji od jednog sloga

word of two or more syllables =                                                   drop =
silent – e =                                                stressed =
ending=                                                     change =
                             1. Spelling rules for Present Simple
a.) Add –s for most verbs: - work - works, buy - buys, ride - rides, return – return

b.) Add –es for words that end in –ch, -s , -sh, -x, or –z.
watch - watches, pass - passes, rush - rushes, relax - relaxes, buzz – buzzes

c.) Change –y to –i and add –es when the base form ends in a consonant +y.
study - studies, hurry - hurries, dry - dries

   Do not change –y when the base form ends in a vowel +y. Add –s
   play - plays, enjoy – enjoys

d.) A few verbs have irregular forms.
be - is,        do - does,                go- goes,                  have – has

                          2. Spelling rules for Present Continuous
a.) Add –ing to the base form of the verb: read - reading, stand - standing, jump - jumping

b.) If a verb ends in a silent –e, drop the final -e and add –ing.
leave - leaving, take - taking, receive - receiving

c.) In a one-syllable word,if the last three letters are consonant-vowel-consonant combination (CVC),
double the last consonant before adding –ing.
sit - sitting, run - running, hop – hopping

  However, do not double the last consonant in word that end in w, x, or y.
  sew - sewing, fix - fixing, enjoy - enjoying

d.) In words of two or more syllables that end in a consonant-vowel-consonant combination, double
the last consonant only if the last syllable is stressed.
admit - admitting, regret - regretting

e.) If a verb ends in –ie, change the –ie to y before adding -ing.
die – dying




                                                      26
                   3. Spelling rules for Past Simple of regular verbs
a.) If the verb ends in a consonant, add –ed: return - returned, help - helped, cook - cooked

b.) If the verb ends in –e, add –d: live - lived, create - created, die - died

c.) In one-syllable words , if the verb ends in a consonant-vowel-consonant combination (CVC),
double the last consonant and add –ed: hop - hopped, rub - rubbed

 However, do not double one-syllable words ending in –w, -x, or –y. bow - bowed, play - played,
mix – mixed

d.) In words of two or more syllables that end in consonant-vowel-consonant combination, double the
last consonant only if the last syllable is stressed.
prefer - preferred (The last syllable is stressed.) visit - visited (The last syllable isn’t stressed)

e.) If the verb ends in a consonant, + y, change the -y to -i and –ed.
worry - worried, copy - copied

f.) If the verb ends in a vowel +y, add -ed. (Do not change the –y to –i.)
play - played, annoy - annoyed                   Exception: pay - paid, lay - laid, say – said

  4. Spelling rules for the comparative (-er) and superlative (-est) forms of
                                  adjectives
a.) Add –er to one-syllable adjectives to form the comparative. Add -est to one-syllable adjectives to
form the superlative: cheap - cheaper - cheapest, bright - brighter - brightest

b.) If the adjective ends in –e, add –r or –st: nice - nicer - nicest

c.) If the adjective ends in a consonant +y, change to y to i before you add –er or –est.
pretty - prettier - prettiest.

Exception: shy - shyer – shyest

d.) If the adjective ends in a consonant-vowel-consonant combination (CVC), double the final
consonant before adding –er or –est.
big - bigger - biggest

However, do not double the consonant in words ending in –w or –y.

                 slow - slower - slowest, coy - coyer – coyest

                                  5. Spelling rules for adverbs
a.) Add –ly to the corresponding adjectives
nice - nicely, quiet - quietly, quick - quickly, beautiful - beautifully

    b. If the adjective ends in consonant +y, change the y to i before adding –ly
       easy - easily
    c. If the adjective ends in –le, drop the -e and add –y.
       possible - possibly


                                                     27
However, do not drop the –e for other adjectives ending in –e.
extreme - extremely,

Exception: true - truly

d.) If the adjective ends in –ic, add -ally.
basic - basically, fantastic - fantastically, terrific – terrifically

                  6. Spelling rules for plural of nouns (regular plural)
                                            The use of ending –s:

                             a) To make the plural form of a noun, we add –s:

                                 book books                          tree trees

                            b) If the word ends in a vowel + 'y', we just add -s.

                                       tray trays                 toy toys

However:

c) For nouns ending in 'sh', 'ch', 's', and 'x', we add –es.

brush brushes              church churches                     kiss kisses          box boxes

d) For some words ending in 'o' we add -s and for some we add -es.

e.g. – s          piano pianos                                 casino casinos

e.g. –es potato potatoes                        tomato tomatoes

e) For many words ending in 'f' and 'fe', we remove the 'f' or 'fe' and add -ves.

leaf leaves                        wife wives

f) If the word ends with a consonant + 'y', you remove the 'y' and add -ies.

baby babies                         fly flies


                                       2 L - Modal verbs
                                 a) have to vs must;
   We use them to say that it is necessary to do something. They both express obligation.
 MUST - obligation is imposed by the speaker. The speaker has authority over the one that is
     spoken to and he/she exercises his/her power. HAVE TO - obligation springs from
circumstances or external rules. Something has to be done, whether the speaker likes it or not.

   I must go to bed early. (I want to go)! - I have to be early in school tomorrow. (Teacher told me.)
           I must see them play. (My wish) – She has to clean her room. (Mother told her.)



                                                        28
                                       b) can vs may;
 We use can to express ability. (e.g. I can run 100 meteres under 12 seconds. Can you help
me??..............We use may to express permission. (May I ask you something? May I join the
                            lesson? You may leave the lesson now.)

 May can be used for permission(1) and possibility(2). (e.g.May I help you?.....It may rain.)

                                    c) could and might;
    We use could and might to express hypothetical meaning. Could refers to ability and
    might to possibility. (e.g. I could never run a marathon now.....Don't eat. You might feel sick
                                                  again.
                                    d) should and ought to
                            Should and ought to are used to express advice.

     You should eat that. (Advice- It is better for you) – You ought to try that food. (Advice - just
                                               my opinion).



                                           e) used to
  We describe activities, habits or things we did before but for some reason don't do anymore.
      I used to play basketball when I was younger. ( Now I can't play because of injuries.)
                  We used to be friends. (We don't speak to each other anymore.)


                                  NOTE (vaţno/zapamti)
NOTE: Must in past tense takes form HAD TO.
I must be there tomorrow. - I had to be there yesterday.

NOTE: Could is not a past form but sometimes can be used in past tenses instead of can.
I could run for hours when I was younger.

NOTE: Might expresses possibility (similar to may).
You might be right.




                                2 m - Word derivation
In grammar, word derivation is used to form new words, when you add prefixes or suffixes to
a word to create a new one with opposite or different meaning as with happi-ness and un-
happy from happy, or popularity form popular.There are many types of derivation.

e.g.1 –noun from adjective – happiness from happy; jealousy – jealous

e.g. 2 – verb from adjective – modernise from modern

e.g. 3 –verb from noun – glorify from glory

e.g. 4 – adjective from verb – drinkable from drink


                                                  29
e.g. 5 – noun from verb – writer from write

e.g. 6 – adverb from adjecitve – happily from happy

NOTE: Some words have the same forms but different function.

WATER (noun)--- I always drink water when I'm thirsty.
WATER (verb) --- You have to water the plants.



                    Short list of derivation (some examples)
NOUN                 VERB                ADJECTIVE        ADVERB
happiness                                happy, unhappy   (un)happily
creation,            create              creative         creatively
creativeness
shortness            shorten             short            shortly
length               lengthen            long             long
glory                glorify             glorious         gloriously
modernity            modernize           modern
unit, unity          unite               united           unitedly
difference           differ              different        differently
fame                                     famous           famously
religion                                 religious        religiously
understandability    understand          understandable   understandably
sadness                                  sad              sadly
shiness              shine               shiny            shinily
investigation,       investigate         investigative    investigatively
investigator
advice               advise              advisable        advisably
sale                 sell                selling
communication        communicate         communicative    communicatively
enlargement          enlarge             large            largely
reliability          rely                reliable         reliably
drink                drink               drinkable
                     cheer (up)          cheerful         cheerfully
anger                anger               angry            angrily
lie                  lie                 lying
strength             strengthen          strong           strongly
conclusion           conclude            conclusive       conclusively
birth                bear (give birth)   born
delivery             deliver
division             divide
challenge            challenge           challenging




                                              30
                                 Grammar Practice

                       ****Main (verb) vs Auxiliary (verb) ****
Underline all main verbs and circle all auxiliary verbs in the following sentences. In
some sentences there are 2 or more clauses. Find the verbs in each clause separately!

e.g. How far is the nearest train station?       We didn't see        your friend last night.

Where do you live ?            I live in London.

Can you please inform me when we arrive?

How can I find you?.................Mr. Smith is from Manchester.............Where is your brother
working this summer?...........Where were you last night?.................Susan was with us but she
didn't go anywhere else...........Do you like rock music?............Are they from Spain?.......They
are playing basketball outside at the moment..............Does he speak English? .......................
You should have been more careful.



         **** MIXED PRESENT FORMS (Simple and Continuous)****
    1)  This cereal ______________(contain) all the important vitamins.
    2)  Jane isn't here. She ____________(see) the dentist about her bad tooth.
    3)  His uncle ____________(own) a jewellery shop in Kenya.
    4)  Who ______________________ (that motorbike / belong) to?
    5)  What ______________________ (we / have) for lunch?
    6)  What exactly _____________________ ( telepathy / mean) ?
    7)  I understand she _________(work) for an international company.
        __________________ (she / have) to travel a lot?
    8) Jimmy _____________ (have) to hand in his monthly report before the end of each
        month.
    9) It ______________(not matter) if the weather ________(be) good or bad when we get
        together.
    10) Why __________________ (you / switch) the channels? I want to watch the news.
    11) Everyone __________ (say) that Double Trouble is a great show.
    12) __________________ (she / have) a meeting with her assistants? OK. I'll come later.
    13) Everybody _____________(hate) Jimmy but I ____________(not).
    14) Why ___________________(they / always / laugh) when I sing?



 **** Mixed future forms (future with will / present continuous / going to /
   present simple / future continuous / future with may or might / future
                                perfect)****

    1) By the time you come home , I ______________________(prepare) everything for
       dinner.


                                                   31
   2) I booked the tickets for next month's match. We ______________________(travel) by
      train.
   3) Tomorrow John and I ___________________(have) a lunch at 1, so call me later.
   4) She ____________________(be) very happy to see you.
   5) Look at that man, he is drunk. He _____________________(hit) his head on the lamp
      post.
   6) We ___________________(do) housework tomorrow from 2 to 4 so maybe we could
      meet at 5, if that's Ok with you.
   7) _______________________(there / be) enough food for everybody?
   8) English football season _____________(finish) in May.
   9) Mr. Smith ____________________(come) over for a cup of tea at 5.
   10) We ___________________(finish) our presentation before you start your lesson
      tomorrow, don't worry.
   11) ____________________________(you / work) all day tomorrow, while I'm in town?
   12) You __________________(perfect) your English by the time you come back from
      the U.S.

     **** Present Simple, Present Continuous or Present Perfect simple ****

Complete the text, putting the verbs into the present simple, present continuous or
present perfect simple.

My younger brother Jake ___________(have) a problem, and I _____________(think) it's a
problem which many young people _________________________(not understand). He's
dyslexic, which __________________(mean) that he ______________________(sometimes /
get) letters mixed up; he might write ‘poeple’ of ‘people’, for example. He
______________(be) dyslexic since he was a child, but until recently nobody
_______________ (ever / give) him any help. Fortunately, one of the teachers at his new
school ____________________(know) about dyslexia. This term and next term, the school
__________________ (send) him to sepcial classes. At the moment, he _________________
(learn) some techniques for remembering words. Since he started the special classes, all his
teachers _________________(notice) an improvement in his work and over the past month or
two he ___________________(become) more independent and confident, which is great.
People _______________(sometimes / forget) that we all __________________(need) a bit
of help at times.



**** Past Simple, Past Continuous or Present Perfect Simple ****

Complete the sentences, putting the verbs into the past simple, past continuous or
present perfect simple.

I _____________________ (always / be) a big fan of computers. Since I ____________(get)
my first computer they ________________(take) most of my free time. I like to read about
them and be informed about new updates. While I _______________ (have) a break at work
yesterday I ___________(open) my laptop and ___________(go) online. I ___________(find)
a great article about computers. Since computers _____________ (be) first introduced to the
public in the early 1980's, technology (change) _________________ a great deal. The first
computers (be) _______________simple machines designed for basic tasks. They (have, not)


                                            32
__________________much memory and they (be, not) _________________very powerful.
Early computers were often quite expensive and customers often (pay)
______________________thousands of dollars for machines which actually (do)
_____________________ very little. Most computers (be) ________________ separate,
individual machines used mostly as expensive typewriters or for playing games. Times
(change) ______________________. I ____________ (see) my friend the other day in the
restaurant. While he _____________(wait) for his wife he ________________ (send) a few e-
mails. He ___________(have) his laptop with him. Computers (become)
_______________________ powerful machines with very practical applications.. We are still
playing video games, but today's games (become) ___________________ faster, more
exciting interactive adventures. In short, the simple, individual machines of the past (evolve)
____________________ into an international World Wide Web of knowledge.


       **** Past Simple, Past Continuous or Past Perfect Simple ****
Complete the sentences, putting the verbs into the past simple, past continuous or past
perfect simple.

When Craig Myers ___________( buy) his restaurant he _________(get) it for a very good
price because it __________________( be) empty for two years. Nobody wanted to buy the
place because people said that it had a ghost. The ghost was a lady in a long green dress who
_______________ (be) a singer in the restaurant years before. People said that one night, on
her way home from the restaurant the singer ________________(drive) her carr off the road,
over some cliffs and into the sea below. Nobody had ever seen the singer alive again. People
said they had seen her ghost, but Craig ________________(not believe) in ghost so he wasn't
worried. Three months after he ______________(buy) the restaurant, Craig
____________(open) it again. He called it The Green Lady. The restaurant
_____________(be) open for six months when a strange thing happened. It was a Saturday
night. Everybody had left. While Craig _____________(tidy) up the restaurant he suddenly
______________(hear) a woman singing in the dining room. She _________________(sing)
a traditional song called ‘Greenslaves’. Craig went into the dining room. The voice was
louder there, but the room was empty. Craig ____________________(check) the restaurant
tape recorder and the radio in the kitchen, but they were both switched off. He couldn't stop
the strange singing but he ________________(not feel) very worried. He
_______________(lock) up the restaurant, got into his car and _____________(start) to drive
home. On the way home, he ________________ (fall) asleep and crashed his car into a tree.
He woke up in the hospital. Two police officers__________________(sit) in the room with
him. They __________________(wait) for him to wake up.

‘We need to ask you some questions’ they _________(say). ‘Who was the woman in the car
with you? We haven't been able to find her since the accident’

‘I _________________ (anyone) with me in the car,’ Craig answered.
‘Yes, you did,’ the younger police officer said. ‘We ______________ (drive) behind you and
we both saw her. She _______________(wear) a green dress.’




                                              33
                           **** So do I / Neither do I ..... ****
Complete with the appropriate answer. Use the help in brackets.

0.     A: I like soccer.        (me too) B: So do I.
00.    A: I don't drink coffee. (me too) B: Neither do I.
000. A: I don't drink.           ( / ) B: I do
0000. A: I haven't done the test.( / ) B: I have.
00000. A: I am not sleeping.     ( me too) B: Neither am I.
000000.A: I have been to Italy. (me too) B: So have I.

1.   A: I've done a lot of work this week.    ( me too)   B:
2.   A: I haven't seen this movie.           ( me too)     B:
3.   A: I don't like Christiano Ronaldo.     ( / )        B:
4.   A: I am doing my homework.              ( me too)    B:
5.   A: I don't go to the cinema.            ( me too)     B:
6.   A: I don't speak German.                ( / )         B:
7:   A: I hate pop music.                    ( me too)       B:
8.   A: I am not watching the game.          ( /     )     B:
9.   A: I haven't heard that joke.            ( /    )    B:


                              MIXED TENSES
     1. He has injured his right knee and he's out for tonight's game.
     a. injured b. injure      c. will injure   d. has injured e.had injured

     2. _________ doctor visit his patients nowdays?
     a. Don't   b. Did         c. Will          d. Doesn't           e. Has

     3. I __________ you here tomorrow from 10 to 10:15.
     a. am waiting b. was waiting    c. waited for       d. will be waiting for

     4. Mr. Aydin ___________ us music yesterday.
     a. is teaching b. has taught   c. taught     d. had taught

     5. We ____________ how to cook soup.
     a. are knowing b. have known   c. are known                  d. know

     6. When I left the office he ______________ working.
     a. has still worked b. was still working     c. still work d. still worked

     7. Before the police arrive the thief ___________ already disappeared.
     a. would       b. could             c. has           d. had      e. have

     8. By the time you come back home, I _____________ my homework.
     a. will have finished b. will finish  c. finished d. will be finishing


                                                  34
9. If I ___________ French, I would help you.
a. know        b. would know     c. knew      d. had known

10. I think I ____________ have chicken this time.
a. will b. would      c. want d. would like

11.____________ I leave the lesson now? I have to catch the bus.
a. Can       b. May              c. Will           d. Must

13.I ______________ my project for 2 hours. I'll go out now.
a. have been done  b. did       c. was doing        d. have been doing

14.She ___________ in our school for 10 years. She's a great teacher.
a. is working b. works         c. has worked        d. was working

15.First train for Zagreb __________ the station at 8 a.m.
a. was leaving        b. leaves   c. will leave     d. must leave

16.Jack ___________ on a project in London these days.
a. works      b. was working      c. is working    d. will work

17.He _________________ me about that day yet.
a. didn't tell    b. wasn't telling    c. hasn't told       d. doesn't tell

18.I arrived home, _________ my things and went out.
a. taken       b. had taken     c. took    d. was taking e. had taken

19.He ___________ his things, before I arrived home.
a. taken     b. had taken       c. took      d. was taking e. had taken

20.Dzeko, who ________ for Bosnian national team, scored 4 goals this week.
a. is playing       b. will play       c. plays     d. has been playing

21.Dzeko, who ________ for Man City this season, scored 4 goals this week.
a. is playing       b. will play      c. plays      d. has been playing




                                    35
USE OF ENGLISH 1 (word derivation – help on
                                        page 30)

Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the each
space in the same line. – check page 30 for help -

                                  Random Sentences 1
* The greatest (0) ___happiness____ for children are toys.                     HAPPY

* (1) __________ after we went home we realised how quickly the                SHORT
time has passed and decided that our next night out lasts (2) _________.        LONG

* We need to (3) ____________ our classrooms for better education.             MODERN

* The most (4) ___________ source of information is Jane                        RELY
because she is a very (5) ____________ and smart person.                      EDUCATION

* Arsenal needs to (6) ____________ their team because they lost               STRONG
3 games in a row which is very (7) _____________ for their fans.              DISAPPOINT

* This water is not (8) ___________ at all. Just look at the colour.             DRINK

* I can not blame them at all. Their (9) _____________ is very                 ANGRY
(10) _________________, given what happened.                                 UNDERSTAND

* We can (11) _____________ from everything what happened                    CONCLUSION
in the last couple of days that we need (12) ____________.                      UNITED

* His (13) ____________ views are well known to us,                           RELIGION
but when we (13) ______________ we never talk about it.                    COMMUNICATION


                          Text 2 – Supporting the museum's work
Beihind the scenes at the museum, over three hundred (1) ___________ are         SCIENCE
engaged in vital research into areas of (2) __________ significance, addressing    GLOBE
issues such as water pollution, tropical disease, and the management
of (3) ______________ systems. Research at the museum is partly funded           ECOLOGY
by your (4) ___________ fee, but if you would like to make an                       ADMIT
(5) ____________ donation,please do so. You can also support our                     ADD
work with a Museum Credit Card. Please complete an (6) _____________                APPLY
form at the Information Desk. A further way to support our work is to
become a member of the Museum by paying a small annual
(7) __________________ fee. The advantages of                                   SUBSCRIBE
(8) ______________ include free entry, a free magazine,                           MEMBER
considerable (9) ______________ on prices in Museum Shop and an                   REDUCE
exclusive programme of special events.



                                               36
                         USE OF ENGLISH 2
For questions 1-10, read the following job advertisement and use the information in this
text to complete the numbered gaps in the informal letter. Use no more than two words
for each gap.
                                JOB ADVERTISEMENT

MARKETING DIRECTOR

An exceptional individual is sought to succeed the present director, Ms Jane Fairbrother, who
will be vacating the post in the new year to take up a new appointment in Edinburgh.
The successful applicant will ideally be a university graduate in Business Administration and
have the ability to take charge of the department in a period of rapid change. Experience in a
company that manufactures similar products would be a distinct advantage. Applicants must
demonstrate a proven record of success. The Marketing Director is responsible for a
department of over 30 staff and the position entails a considerable amount of overseas travel.
Benefits include generous leave (42 days), a subsidised canteen, and a range of sporting and
social facilities. Salary is negotiable according to experience.

Please e-mail your application with full career details to:
Philipa.Robertson@intelect.com.uk
The closing date is 30 November.

INFORMAL LETTER
You know I promised to tell you if I heard of any interesting jobs going? Well our company is
(1) looking for a new Managing Director – the ad goes in next week.
The new director will (2) _______________ Jane Fairbrother, who's leaving because she has
been (3) ________________ a new job in Scotland. Since you have (4) ________________ in
Business Administration you'll stand a good chance. I can just see you as the (5)
________________ of the department. They are bound to be impressed when they see your
successful record in your present job. If you get the job, you'll have more than 30 (6)
_________________ and you would have to make a number of (7) ____________________.
As for the money they will pay, you will have to (8) ________________________ with them,
it (9) ______________________________ your experience.
Your application must (10) _____________________________ by 30 November, so get your
skates on.
         Love
                Margaret

UNKNOWN WORDS:




                                               37
   **** TRANSLATE (USING PERSONAL MINI
         DICTIONARY – page 71 & 72)****
REPLACE THE WORDS IN BOLD with the appropriate word / phrase from Personal
Mini Dictionary using the help in brackets.
          1. Jimmy je vrlo nezreo. (CONFUSING WORDS)
             Jimmy is very childish.
          2. On je totalno nezainteresovan za moj problem. (CONFUSING WORDS)

         3. Ja sam nemoćan. Potreban mi je tvoj savjet. (CONFUSING WORDS)

         4. Kupio sam nov i nekorišten sat. (COMPOUND ADJECTIVES)

         5. Jack je porodiĉan čovjek. (COMPOUND ADJECTIVES)

         6. Njegov 6-godišnji sin je vrlo pametan. (COMPOUND ADJECTIVES)

         7. Ovo je dugoroĉan proces. (COMPOUND ADJECTIVES)

         8. Njena kratkoroĉna dominacija u tenisu je gotova.(COMPOUND ADJECTIVES)

         9. Svi zaboravni učenici moraju uraditi zadaću ponovo.(COMPOUND ADJECTIVES)

         10. On ţivi u oronuloj zgradi. (COMPOUND ADJECTIVES)

         11. Mike je pošten i savjestan (koji poštuje zakon) građanin. (COMPOUND
             ADJECTIVES)

         12. Kobe Bryant je izuzetno kvalitetan (jedan od najboljih na svijetu) košarkaš.
             (COMPOUND ADJECTIVES)


         13. Za ovaj posao ti treba zdrav razum. (COMPOUND NOUNS)

         14. Ovaj dio je bio „niĉija zemlja“ nakon rata. (COMPOUND NOUNS)


         15. Potreban mi je poziv za buĊenje sutra u 7. (COMPOUND NOUNS)


         16. Trebaš dva puta provjeriti zadnji zadatak na testu. (COMPOUND VERBS)


         17. Pokušao je izbjeći nju na ulici. (COMPOUND VERBS)

         18. Stewart je vrlo opuštena (smirena) osoba.. (COMPOUNDS USING
             PREPOSITIONS OR ADVERBS)

         19. Razgovaraćemo u narednoj (koja slijedi) vjeţbi. (COMPOUNDS USING
             PREPOSITIONS OR ADVERBS)


                                          38
20. Nadolazeći (koji se bliţe) ispiti će biti vrlo teški. (COMPOUNDS USING
    PREPOSITIONS OR ADVERBS)

21. Kada prerasteš te pantole, kupit ćemo nove. (COMPOUNDS USING
    PREPOSITIONS OR ADVERBS)

22. Naĉuo sam njihov razgovor. (COMPOUNDS USING PREPOSITIONS OR
    ADVERBS)

23. Moraš mi donjeti detaljnu analizu.(COMPOUNDS USING PREPOSITIONS
    OR ADVERBS)

24. Ovo je prilika koja se dešava jednom u hiljadu godina.(MULTI-WORD
    COMPOUND NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES)

25. Imali smo srdaĉan razgovor.(MULTI-WORD COMPOUND NOUNS AND
    ADJECTIVES)

26. Joey je glumac bez posla trenutno. (MULTI-WORD COMPOUND NOUNS
    AND ADJECTIVES)

27. Oni me izluĊuju. (COLLOCATION BANK – WORDS THAT GO
    TOGETHER)

28. Odmori malo (Prestani s prevelikim poslom) ove                sedmice.
    (COLLOCATION BANK – WORDS THAT GO TOGETHER)

29. Velika većina je rekla „da“. (COLLOCATION BANK – WORDS THAT GO
    TOGETHER)

30. Uvijek se zacrveni kada ne zna odgovor. (COLLOCATION BANK –
    WORDS THAT GO TOGETHER)

31. Ona je izrazila svoje iznenaĊenje kada sam joj rekao. (COLLOCATION
    BANK – WORDS THAT GO TOGETHER)

32. Budi paţljiv. Moţeš se prehladiti. (COLLOCATION BANK – WORDS
    THAT GO TOGETHER)

33. On je dobio rigoroznu kaznu za taj teški zloĉin. (COLLOCATION BANK –
    WORDS THAT GO TOGETHER)

34. Ovaj zadatak mi oteţava ţivot (smeta mi u radu). (COLLOCATION BANK
    – WORDS THAT GO TOGETHER)

35. Dzeko igra vaţnu ulogu u Manchester City-u. (COLLOCATION BANK –
   WORDS THAT GO TOGETHER)

               UNKNOWN WORDS ON THE NEXT PAGE


                              39
 UNKNOWN WORDS:




       LANGUAGE PROBLEM SOLVING
            (check your progress)
 Task 1: Articles a, an and the or _____(zero article) – HELP
                        ON PAGE 24
Write a, an, the or nothing in the gaps.

   Choose the appropriate article. (a – indefinite,              an – indefinite,
                                    the – definite,             ____ zero (nothing))
         1. This is ___ easy question. (a, an, the, ____)
         2. Please speak ___ little louder. (the, _____, a)
         3. He is one of ___ smartest people I know. (the, a, ____)
         4. May I have your ___ phone number?. (the, a, ______)
         5. I have never seen ___ UFO. (the, an, a)
         6. ___ milk is good for you. (the, a, _____)
         7. May I ask you ___ question?. (a, the, _____)
         8. David is ___ best student in our class. (____, an, a, the)
         9. What is ___ name of the next station? ( a, the, _____)


                                           40
          10. He has ___ my car today. (a, the, ____ )
          11. Is there ___ public telephone near here? ( the, a, ______)
          12. Would you like to go to _________theatre? (a, the, an, __________)
          13. (At home) Mom, have you seen___dictionary? I can't find it.(a, the, an, _____)
          14. (In the library) A: Hello can I help you. B: I need ____ dictionary, please. (a,
              the, _____, an)
          15. When you visit _____ U.K. make sure not to forget to bring your ______
              umbrella. 1 (a, the, _________) 2 (a, an, ________)

          16. (1)________ States .....or......... (2)_____ U.S. is _______ federal constitution
              republic. 1 (a,the, ____) 2 (a,the, ____)        3 (a, the, _______)

          17. We went to ____________Bulgaria two months ago. (the, a, _____, an )

          18. Climbing in _______Alps is very dangerous. (a, _______, the)


          19. Don't look at ____ sun. (a, _____ , the)

          20. How was your trip? Did you visit ________Nile River. (_____, a, the)



          21. We visited _____Lake Martin, which is very famous in ____ U.S. 1 (a, the, an, _____)

                2 ( the, a, __________)

          22. (SITUATION in the movie) A: I saw (1)____ man in a black winter coat
              standing in front of your building. He asked me if I know you. I said no. B:
              Hmmmm, strange. I don't know who could that be. (Tomorrow) A: Hey, I saw
              that man again standing on (2) _____ same place. B: Hmmmm. (Next day) A:
              (3) ______ man again asked me about you...... 1(a. the, ________) 2(a, the,
              _____) 3 (a, the, ____)




      Task 2: Multi-part verbs (Phrasal verbs). – HELP
                 BELOW & ON PAGE 10
LIST OF PHRASAL VERBS TO BE USED IN THE FOLLOWING EXERCISE.
SOME VERBS CAN HAVE MORE THAN ONE USE BUT WE PROVIDED ONLY
ONE USE HERE:
   a) turn in (inform on or deliver) e.g. The criminal turned himself in.)
   b) get in (to arrive)
   c) get on (to be on good terms with somebody) e.g. He gets on well with his neighbors.
   d) get over (to recover)
   e) take after (to resemble in appearance or looks)e.g.She really takes after her mother.
   f) take in (to understand)
   g) take on (to oppose in competition) e.g. Arsenal takes on Manchester this week.


                                              41
h)   go into (to discuss or investigate) e.g. The book goes into classical mythology.
i)   go over (to examine or review) e.g. Let's go over present perfect simple again.
j)   do in (to exhaust completely) e.g. The race did me in.
k)   look after (take care of)
l)   look forward to (anticipate pleasantly)
m)   call off (cancel)
n)   put off (postpone)
o)   give up (quit)
p)   back off (to retreat or draw away) e.g. I'm a police officer, back off!!!
q)   pick out (to choose or select)

1. Let's ______________ your story again. Are you sure about it?
2. Joey and I __________ well. I don't understand why you don't like him.
3. Police came so we all _____________ from the crime scene.
4. He will _______________ it eventually. Give him some time.
5. Nadal ____________ Djokovic again this month.
6. I am _________________ your visit next week.
7. I can not __________ your explanation. It's really confusing.
8. Michael ___________ his father. They have the same walk.
9. Mrs. Dudley ___________ my children last night so I went to the party.
10. I will not ___________ any discussion unless your parents come.
11. We _____________ late last night. You were in bed.
12. I'm sure they'll __________ our match because of the bad weather.
13. The match was _____________, and it won't be played again.
14. I have 5 roses. ____________ one for yourself.
15. Jimmy ________ himself _______ after being on the run for 5 days.
16. This lesson really _______ me _____. I'm exhausted.
17. I'm trying to ____________ smoking.

                Task 3: Identify the Parts of Speech
1. They usually work from 5 to 6. (work = VERB)
2. John's at work. Can you call later? ( work = NOUN)
3. I need some plastic for this project. (plastic = NOUN)
4. Have you seen my plastic keyring? (plastic = ADJECTIVE)
5. Speedy likes to escape from his cage. (from =_____________)
6. He can hide for days and nights. (and = _________________)
7. She's a very good swimmer. (very =__________________)
8. He sometimes gets intro trouble. (He =_________________)
9. Have you seen the latest news? (the =_________________)
10. Would you water my flowers while I'm on holiday? (water =___________)
11. May I leave the lesson please? (May =________________________)
12. I bought a great leather jacket. (leather = _____________________)
13. That was a great pass by Kobe Bryant. (pass = _______________)
14. Could you pass me the salt please? (pass = ___________________)
15. Do you have a minute? I need to talk to you. (a = _______________)
16. He bought a new car for himself. (himself = _______________)
17. He told us an amazing story. (us = ______________________)
18. How much is the fish? (fish = ________________________)
19. Who are you going with? (with = _____________________)
20. Mr. Smith, who is our English teacher, is from Scotland. (who =____________)


                                           42
21. Can you see that man over there? (that = __________________________)
22. I will not be free on Monday. (will = _____________________________)
23. Drive carefully. (carefully = ______________________________)

                   Task 4: Active (A) or Passive (P)
      1.  You can make him walk. (A= walk / P = walked)
      2.  The goods __________________. (A=have been selling / P=have been sold)
      3.  He __________________ for 3 days. (A=has been sleeping / P=has been slept)
      4.  People will soon _____________ his statement. (A=understand / P= be
          understood)
      5. Both of us __________ by our parents. (A=saw / P=were seen)
      6. This food has _________ cold. (A=eat / P=to be eaten)
      7. Your car _____________ tomorrow. (A= will fix / P= will be fixed)
      8. The test ________________. (A=is doing / P= is being done)
      9. Joan_____________ a lunch. (A= is making / P= is being made)
      10. Your homework _________________________ on time. (A= should have
          done / P= should have been done)



                     WRITING - practice

                                    a) Dictation practice

   full stop (BrE) – period (AmE)                               .
                  colon                                         :
               semi colon                                       ;
                 comma                                          ,
              (blank) space
             question mark                                      ?
           exclamation mark                                     !
                 hyphen                                         -
     brackets * open / close *                          ( )   * ( / ) *
           bold (to make bold)                                shirt
           italics (to italicize)                             shirt
      Underlined or underscore                                  B
   (to underline or to underscore)
             apostrophe                                        ‟
                dash                                           ―



                                             43
   slashes = forward slash **** backslash                             /   ****   \
                   guillemet                                               ‹ ›
                   guillemets                                             « »
           bullet (for items in a list)                                     •
                square brackets                                            []

         times (multiplied by) MATH                                 ·     X
                 divided by                                         :       /
                 plus minus                                         +      -
                           1.2                                   one point two
                  1,500 000                                one thousand five hundred
                    1,500.56                         one thousand five hundred point five six

                                          b) Short forms
   a)   present simple = don't, doesn't
   b)   present continuous = I'm, you're, he's, she's, it's, we're, you're, they're + aren't, isn't
   c)   future = I'll, you'll, he'll, she'll, it'll, we'll, you'll, they'll + won't
   d)   present perfect = I've, you've, he's, she's, it's, we've, you've,they've + haven't, hasn't
   e)   past perfect.= I'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, we'd, you'd, they'd + hadn't
   f)   would = I'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, we'd, you'd, they'd + wouldn't

Note:    he'd been = he had been               vs             he'd make = he would make

         she's trying = she is trying         vs             she's done = she has done

                                will not = won't ( want,   willn't)


                                    c) Spelling practice
e1) Put the following verbs in the third person singular formfor the Present Simple:
work – works                  buy – buys                    watch –
play -                        cry -                         has –
pass -                        rush -                        study –
do -                          be                            relax –
drive -                       fly -                         enjoy -


e2) Put the following verbs in the Present Continuous form:
work – I am working           do – She is doing           read – He
sit – She                     fix - He                    run – I
die - He                      leave - We                  cry – She
take - I                      watch -We                   receive – I


e3) Put the following regular verbs in the Past Simple form:
return – returned             die – died                   stop –
play –                        live -                       mix –


                                                44
create -                     worry -                      rub –
help -                       destroy -                    cry –


e4) Put the following NOUNS in plural:
book – books              toy – toys                      tomato –
church                    piano -                         baby –
wife -                    husband -                       boy –
kiss -                    potato -                        brush –
orange -                  leaf -                          tree –
fly -                     day -                           week –


e5) Make comparison forms for the following ADJECTIVES:
cheap– cheaper , the cheapest                  nice – nicer, the nicest
big–                                           pretty –
hot -                                          slow –
dry -                                          small -
wet -                                          fast –
shy -                                          dirty –

e6) Add –ly to create adverbs from adjectives and make necessary changes:
nice – nicely                easy – easily               quick –
possible -                   beautiful -                 slow –
true -                       basic -                     careful –
sad -                        happy -                     logic –


               Class Techniques and Activities:
    1) Reading for gist / skim reading : Skimming (Skim reading) is a process of speed
       reading that involves visually searching the sentences of a page for clues to meaning
       (only the most important information in order to get the general idea about the text).
       Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. When you read the
       newspaper, you're probably not reading it word-by-word, instead you're scanning the
       text. Skimming is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading.

                                 e.g. STUDENTS BOOK page 88


    2) Reading in detail / scan reading : Scanning is a technique you often use when
       looking up a word in the telephone book or dictionary. You search for key words or
       ideas. In most cases, you know what you're looking for, so you're concentrating on
       finding a particular answer. Scan reading involves moving your eyes quickly down
       the page seeking specific words and phrases. Scanning is also used when you first find
       a resource to determine whether it will answer your questions. Once you've scanned
       the document, you might go back and skim it.


                                 e.g. STUDENTS BOOK page 88


                                             45
   3) Dictagloss : Dictagloss is a very useful activity that helps students to use language in
      order to learn. Dictagloss is an alternative way of getting students to learn note-taking
      skills, as they need to listen to a text being read and reconstruct it. It doubles as a
      listening and writing task and reinforces ideas such as key words, topic sentences and
      report writing.


   Text 1




   4) Missing words:

                                           TEXT 1

     Jerome turned off the TV. He ____________ just watched a couple of "South Park"
cartoons. "South Park" is ____________ amusing series ____________ elementary school
kids living in a small town in Colorado.

     ___________ first cartoon was about Herman, who __________ to become strong and
muscular. He asked his mother to buy a supplement that was advertised on TV. The
supplement was actually nothing but sugar, but the TV ad promised that it ____________
make you strong and muscular, if you took it.

     ______________, it _________ Herman very fat. Worse, Herman refused to believe that
he had become fat. Even though all his friends were ____________ him Super Fat Boy, he
told them that he was Super Muscle Boy. Finally, when Herman walked onto the stage to
receive an award in the school auditorium, the stage collapsed. Then he realized that he
_________ wrong.




                                                46
                                            TEXT 2



     Scott ___________ sound asleep when the phone rang.

     "Are you __________?" Jolene shouted. Scott mumbled something. How __________
he still be in bed, she asked. It was almost noon. He told her that he hadn't _________ to sleep
until 6 a.m. Jolene __________ him to get up, and come pick her up. They _________ to go
to the store to return the birthday gift he had given her.

     It was a tangerine plant. The leaves ____________ curling up. It was ___________ to
die, she said. "Curling leaves means the plant is going to die?" Scott asked. Of course, she
told him.

     "Look, honey," he asked, "let me go back to sleep for one hour, okay? Then I'll come
and pick you ___________." Jolene wondered why he needed one hour. Was he __________
a phone call from his ex-girlfriend? No, he patiently tried to ___________, he just
__________ to get another hour of sleep.

     But he could not sleep anymore. Once Jolene mentioned anything about Amy, he'd better
get over there ___________. Scott ___________ up with Amy five years ago. Now they were
just friends. But, Amy still loved him. That wasn't a problem for Scott, until Jolene found out
about it. If Amy still loved Scott, Jolene figured that they just might get __________ together.

     She can recognize a dying plant but not a dead love affair, Scott grumbled as he rolled
out of bed.




                                                47
                                           Letters
                                         1. Types of letters:
           informal,           semi-formal,             formal letter (letter of application).


                                          2. Letter layout:


                                                                        Your address
                                                                         Date______
                  Start__,

                  Opening line (first sentence)



                                           The body of the letter
                                         (usually 3-4 paragraphs)




                  Closing line (final sentence)

                         End_____

                             signature



                                             3. Contents:

INFORMAL (follow the instructions _________________):
a) ask what's going on            / why he or she hasn't called or written / how are things ?.....
b) say what is going on in your life......
c) ask about something or someone close to both of you...............
d) finish your letter (1 sentence = e.g. I must rush now. Sorry, my lesson starts in 10 minutes.
I will be late for bus if I dont' go now.. + 1 closing line)



SEMI-FORMAL (follow the instructions):
a) using proper vocabulary (not informal) inform a person (or XXXX) about the purpose of
your letter / ONLY IF YOU ARE FAMILIR WITH that person (e.g. you teacher) you may
use certain informal vocabulary to see how that person is doing?

b) suggest options or ask about help but be concise and mention only the most important facts




                                                  48
c) finish your letter (1 sentence using proper vocabulary (DON'T USE EXAMPLES FROM
INFORMAL LETTER = e.g. I hope I did not take too much of your time. I will be happy if
we manage to find a solution for our problem.+ 1 closing line)

FORMAL – LETTER OF APPLICATION (follow the instructions):
a) using proper vocabulary (not informal) inform a person (or XXXX) about the source of
information (how you found out about the job)

b) in a concise and formal way present your experience and qualities

c) finish your letter (1 sentence using proper vocabulary (DON'T USE EXAMPLES FROM
INFORMAL LETTER = e.g..I think I would be a good fit for your team (company)..+ 1
closing line)

                                        4. Vocabulary:

Type of letter         Informal                    Semi-formal            Formal
Audience (readers)     friends, family, e-         teacher, newspapers,   -business letter
                       mails, postcards, text-     ‘thank-you letter‘     - letter of application (for
                       messages                                           a job)

Start                  Dear...,                    Dear...,               Dear Mr(s)...,
Opening line           I juts got your letter      I am writing this      I saw your ad
                                                   letter to inform       (advertisement) in local
                                                   you....                newspapers for a vacant
                       I'm sorry I haven't been                           position of.....
                       in touch for ages

                                                   Following our
                       I was very happy when       conversation last      I was free to contact you
                       I found your address...     week I want to let     for a vacant position in
                                                   you know that...       your company.

                       Where have you been
                       recently?


                       Why don't you return                               I am writing to let you
                       my calls?                                          know...




Closing line           See you soon.               I (We) are looking     I hope that you will take
                                                   forward to hearing     my     application   into
                                                   from you soon.         consideration.
                       Write soon.


                       Write back.



                                                  49
                        (I) Hope to see you     (I) We hope that you     I am looking forward to
                        soon.                   will be able to help     your reply.
                                                us (organize ...)

                        We'll be in touch.


                        Keep in touch.                                   I am very grateful for this
                                                                         opportunity and I am
                                                I believe this will be   looking forward to new
                        Call me when you        of interest to you.      challenges.
                        come to Tuzla.

End                     Take care,              Respectfully             Respectfully

                        Best regards,           Yours sincerely
                                                                         Cordially
                        Yours sincerely,        Yours faithfully

                        Best wishes,            Best regards

                        Love from...

More vocabulary for semi-formal and formal letters:

* Opening line (SEMI FORMAL):
I am writing to you with the reference to... (Pišem vam u vezi s........) ;
I am writing to invite you to a reception at... (Ovim pismom pozivam vas na prijem u....);
Further to our telephone conversation we had in May....(Slijedom našeg telefonskog
razgovora u maju...);         It has come to our attention that....(Upozoreni smo da....);
* Opening line (FORMAL):
Please accept my apologies for this delayed reply to your letter... (Molim Vas da prihvatite
izvinjenje što tako kasno odgovaram na vaš dopis..........) ;
We have been advised of the fact that... (Obavješteni smo da .....);
We deeply regret to inform you that we are not in position to....(S dubokim ţaljenjem
obavještavamo Vas da nismo u mogućnosti da...);               On the basis of the talks we had
last week I would like to....(Na temelju našeg razgovora od prošle sedmice htio bih....)

* Closing line (SEMI FORMAL):
I (We) would appreciate if you could... (Bio bih (Bili bi) zahvalan (zahvalni) kad biste
mogli........) ;     Please find enclosed / attached... (U prilogu vam šaljemo........);
Thank you for your consideration....(Zahvaljujemo vam na pozornosti....);

* Closing line (FORMAL):
I would like to draw your attention to the fact that...... (Ţelim Vas upozoriti na činjenicu
da ...(obično neka negativna konotacija).........) ; Allow me to express my most heartfelt
regards... (Dozvolite mi da Vas srdačno pozdravim .....);
Your reply will be highly appreciated....(Sa zahvalnošću očekujemo Vaš odgovor...);
I trust this information will be of assistance to your company....(Vjerujem da će ova
informacija pomoći Vašem preduzeću......)


                                              50
                                        5. Writing style

   a) SHORT FORMS: in semi-formal and especially in formal letter avoid short forms
      such as: don't, doesn't, aren't, isn't..... Use: do not, is not, have not, are not ......
   b) LAYOUT: strictly follow the above listed layout.
   c) Ĉ,Š,Ţ,Ć,DŢ.... : do not use Bosnian affricates, even in names.
   d) Date: British (DAY / MONTH / YEAR) American (MONTH / DAY / YEAR)



                           Written Assignment
                                   1. Composition – 3 parts

   -     Introduction (try to introduce the topic, trying to hide important info and keep them
         for the main part, leave your reader with something to think about);

   -     Main part (Describe the story, plot and action giving all the detail you want and
         finish the story);

   -     Conclusion (give your personal opinion about the chosen topic);


                          2. Linkers (Connectors) and Modifiers.
   are used to start your sentences or to start your clauses within one complex sentence (in
   the middle of your sentence). Their main use is to connect your ideas or to connect your
   sentence with the previous one in order to have better meaning or to make a better
   influence on readers. At first sight they may seem unnecessary, but in fact they are very
   important for writing.

Type 1- Sequence(Redoslijed) (* In the first place – Prvo...., * To begin with –Na početku,
* First of all – Kao prvo; Prije svega..., * Secondly – Kao drugo..., * Lastly - Na kraju...
* Finally-Konačno...)

e.g. First of all, I would like to say that this is the story about my life.

    Finally, after a long discussion we decided not to travel by plane.


Type 2- Addition (Dodatak prethodnom tekstu) ( * In addition / In addition to that – Kao
dodatak tome.....,        *Apart from that – Bez obzira na to......, * Moreover-Povrh toga,
Osim toga...., *What is more important (strange) - Ono što je važnije (čudnije).....,
*as well as - kao i......,     *Above all – Iznad svega.....)

e.g. What is more important, I always write down my friend's birthdays.

    I have to clean the floor as well as cook the food.

       I have problems with Math. Apart from that, everything is fine.


                                                 51
Type 3- Conclusion(Zaključak) (* In conclusion – Na kraju...... ,
* To sum up – Da rezmiramo...,                         *All in all – Sve u svemu.... ,
* Taking everything into account - Kad se sve uzme u obzir....

e.g. Taking everything into account, it was a great experience.
     In conclusion, I would like to say that this person means the world to me.

Type 4- Example (Primjer) (* for example – na primjer..... ,
*for instance - na primjer...., *like – kao...., *such as – poput, kao što je.....)

e.g. I can play quite a few musical instruments, for example, the flute, the guitar, and the piano.

       Instrumental music, such as classical and jazz, helps me study better.


Type 5- Contrast (Kontrast/Suprotno) (*but – ali.... , * Even if – Čak i ako(da)......)
*Although/Though - Iako...         *Even though - Pa i ako, Sve i da.....,
*In spite of - Usprkos...,   * Despite – Unatoč....
*However – MeĎutim, Bilo kako bilo....,      * Nevertheless – Unatoč tome, Ipak....,
* On the other hand – S druge strane.....)

e.g. I am a big fan of soccer. On the other hand, I hate basketball.

       Despite all my qualifications, I didn't get the job.

       Even if I knew, I wouldn't tell them what happened.



Type 6 - Cause and effect (Uzrok i uticaj) (*because of – zbog....,
* due to – zbog....,         *As a result of - Kao posljedica toga....,
* For this reason – Iz ovog razloga....,
* for one reason or another – iz ovog ili onog razloga....,     *Since – Pošto...,

e.g. Due to rain, our concert was cancelled. Or Our concert was cancelled due to rain.

       Since he knew Spanish, he was the leader of our group.




Type 7 - Result, effect (Posljedica) ( * Therefore – Stoga....,
*consequently – kao posljedica toga..,      * as a result - kao posljedica....,
*so – pa...........,

e.g.    We found nobody home, so we went to the nearest police station.

        Journey back home took 10 hours. Therefore I needed some rest.




                                                     52
Type 8 - Opinion (Mišljenje) (*In my opinion – Po mom mišljenju.........,
*As I see it – Kako ja smatram, Po mom mišljenju .....,
*As far as I am concerned – Što se mene tiče......)

e.g.      As far as I am concerned, he can look for a new friend, I will not forgive him.


Type 9 - Modifying what is written (Modificiranje onog što je već navedeno dodavanjem
fraza u sljedećoj rečenici) (*In general – Općenito govoreći
* As far as I know – Koliko ja znam..., For all I know – Koliko ja znam....,)
e.g. For all I know, she may have gone home.


Type 10- Intensifying (Pojačavanje značaja rečenice)
* Needless to say – Nije potrebno naglasiti (reći).. ......
*of course – naravno...        *especially - naročito....,
* above all – iznad svega     *not to mention – da ne govorim(o).....,)
e.g.   Needless to say, I was happy to be back home.
       He loves music, poetry, and above all, he loves sports.


Type 11 - Rephrasing a statement (Parafraziranje onog što je već rečeno u prethodnoj
rečenici ili prethodnim rečenicama)

(*In other words – Drugim riječima.....,
 *that is– to jest... ,           * that is to say – što govori (to će reći)....)

e.g.      In other words, , we are desperate.

          He lives on the first floor, that is, the floor at street level.


                                         3. Common mistakes
       You will have an opportunity here to go through several mistakes which students,
       depending on the level of their knowledge, make in their written assignments. Go through
       them, remember them, and try to learn the correct way and avoid the incorrect way.

          Mistake             What's the problem? - (explanation                    Correct (in this
                              why it should not be used again)                      case)
 * a people                   people (plural) – can not use indefinite article (a   people (the people
                              or an) for plural                                     OK in a different
                                                                                    context)
 * much friends               much – used only with singular and                    many friends
                              uncountable (never with plural)
 * Was be / was go/           was – past simple form (I,he,she,it) only for         - was or were(for be),
 was take / was make          verb to be, don't combine it with other verbs         - went (for go),
                                                                                    - took (for take),
                                                                                    - made (for make)
 * a told him.....            a – a complete mistery; it is still not clear why     I told him
                              students make this mistake


                                                     53
* I and my friends        I – when you use personal pronoun in this            My friends and I;
                          phrase you don't put it in the first place           John and I;
* My friends and me       Me – opposite of the situation above                 Me and my friends;
* ţ,č,š,dţ,đ,ć            ţ,ĉ,š,dţ,Ċ,ć – these do not exist in English         z, c, s, dz, d, c
                          alphabet
* I hope so that my       hope so – when you start the sentence with this      I hope that my team
team will win.            phrase you don't use so                              will win.
* Liverpool will win. I   hope ___ - if you make a short reaction to           A:Liverpool will win!
hope.                     somebody's statement you always use so               B: I hope so.
* Your party was          funny – in this context funny is wrong because       Your party was fun.
funny.                    it has a different meaning
* He has great jokes      fun – opposite of the situation above                He has great jokes
which are always fun.                                                          which are always
                                                                               funny.
* We are been in          are been, were been – incorrect use of past          We were in Spain.
Spain. We were been       simple form of to be (was – I,he,she.it;
in Spain.                 were – you,were,you,they)
* This year he            studying – if you want to use the Continuous         This year he is
studying in Austria.      form you need auxiliary verb TO BE (am,are,is        studying in Austria.
                          – Present Continuous,
                          was,were – Past Continuous)
* When I came out I       see – try to think about your sentence, in this      When I came out I
see what happened.        case you need to stay in past simple with all        saw what happened.
                          verbs (came, saw, happened)
* the Tuzla, the Paris,   the, a – we don't use articles in front of the       Tuzla, Paris, London,
a London, a Turkey,       names of cities / countries                          Turkey, Holland
the Holland,
* USA, UK, UAE,           USA, UK, UAE, Netherlands – definite article         the USA, the UK, the
Netherlands               the is always for these                              UAE, the Netherlands
* Pacific Ocean, Nile,         (article the) – we must always use article      The Paficic (Ocean),
Adriatic Sea              the before the names of oceans, rivers, seas         the Nile, the Adriatic
                                                                               Sea
* They saw me while i     i – personal pronoun for the first person singular   They saw me while I
was playing tennis        is always written with a capital letter, no matter   was playing tennis
outside.                  of its position                                      outside.
* I usually spend my      internet – is treated as a proper noun and it is     I usually spend my
free time on internet.    always written with an initial capital letter and    free time on the
                          is always preceded by definite article the           Internet.
* He have two             have – the form of primary auxiliary verb have       He has two brothers.
brothers.                 for the 3rd person singular is - has
* I was in Italy before   before – we use adverb of time “ago“ in this         I was in Italy five
five years.               case and we put it after “years“                     years ago.
* In Tuzla have many      In Tuzla have – for this phrase we don't strictly    There are many
places to visit.          follow the Bosnian way; we use a completely          places to visit in
                          different English construction but which has the     Tuzla.
                          same meaning as the Bosnian: “U Tuzli (ili
                          XY) ima.....“
* Cold is outside.        Cold – for this type of sentence where the           It is cold outside.
Cold was outside.         subject is hidden or there is no subject we use      It was cold outside.
                          the English construction starting with personal
                          pronoun “It“.                                        (It is nice. It was
                                                                               great. It was scary.)




                                                 54
* He told she my            she / they – in this case we don't use personal     He told her my secret.
secret. / I gave they       pronouns but objective pronouns (me, you,           / I gave them my
my homework.                him,her, us, you, them)                             homework.
* I said him something      said / tell to – verbs say and tell have the same   * I said something
important.. / I will tell   meaning but when we use them as transitive          important to him. / I
to them what you            verbs with an object we use say with to,            will tell them what
need.                       while tell is used without to:                      you need.

                            say to, said to   ---     tell, told                (I will say something
                                                                                to you. /
                                                                                I told her that I liked
                                                                                her style.)
* Mr John Smith...          John – English people rarely use both first and     Mr Smith (gdin)
                            last name combined with Mr, Miss or Mrs             Miss Smith
                                                                                (gospođica)
                                                                                Mrs Smith (gospođa)
* This summer my            come to me – this is not incorrect form but the     This summer my best
best friend will come       meaning is somewhat odd (strange) because           friends will visit me.
to me.                      English language rarely allows this construction    This summer my best
                            in this context                                     friend will come over
                                                                                for a visit.
* persons                   persons – persons is not incorrect but is very      people
                            rarely used. That's why people is more used as
                            plural for – person -



                                  „Class (lesson)‟
     Sorry for being late. May I join the lesson?
     May I go to the restroom? May I go out?

     May I leave the lesson 5 minutes before the end (before the bell)? I have to
      .............(e.g. catch the bus).
     Who is absent ? Edin is absent (if one person is absent). Amela, Edina and
      Sanela are absent. (if more (than 1) students are absent)

     Is anyone else absent ? or Anyone else?                 Nobody else is absent (Nobody else.)
      or Everybody else is here.

     Excuse me, can you spell that word please?
     Can you repeat that word please? (Can you say that again?)
     What is the meaning of XXXXXXXXXX ? How do you translate XXXXXXXXXX ?
     How do I say XXXXXXXXXX in English? What is the English equivalent for
      XXXXXXXXXX ?
     Which page should we open?
     Sorry, I don't understand the second task. Can you explain it please?
     Can you please help me? I can not read the third word from the left.
     How do we pronounce that word?
     Which date is today? (Today) It is Monday, 6th September 2010.
     What time is it? It is twenty past 8 a.m.
     What's the weather like outside? It is rainy and cold (sunny and hot).
     May I get the sponge (chalk)?


                                                    55
                   „Can you pronounce?‟
an apple                     an orange
13 (thirteen)                18 (eighteen)
30 (thirty)                  80 (eighty)
behind                       important
interesting                  hotel
person                       Paris
London                       museum
thing                        there
shops           hopes        becomes       goes
watches         misses
played          believed     started       wanted
stopped         hoped        He says
bird                         knee
often                        usually
lemon                        elephant
Yes.                         No.
Madrid                       Chicago
seaside                      birthday
Liverpool                    Műnich
bad                          bed
good                         cool
nationality                  mirror
above                        rhino(ceros)
weather                      birth place
conscious                    unconscious
first                        second
third                        25-th
turn                         turning
leather                      purse
cotton                       in particular
extraordinary                necklace
engineer                     plumber
nurse                        glove
computer                     Internet
reassure                     immigrant
east                west     north              south
suggestion                   sightseeing
journalist                   electrician
sales assistant              consultant
knew                         understand


                            56
successful                                                      success
driver                                                          actor
Cornwall                                                        Newquay
fashionable                                                     quite good (bad)
(un)popular                                                     through
dessert                                                         desert
necessary                                                       frightening
development                                                     TV programme
delicious                                                       sausages
do the ironing                                                  aren't you
miserable                                                       (un)comfortable

                          http://dictionary.reference.com/

                                                     Reading

                                     1) DEFORESTATION
Answer the following questions with reference to the article which follows.

Choose from A to G the answers to the numbered questions.


According to the passage, where is vegetation

01. ... burnt because there is no market for it? ..................

02. ... extremely difficult to regenerate? ..................

03. ... stolen for profit? ..................

04. ... burnt for pastoral purposes? ..................

05. ... almost 50 per cent destroyed? ..................

06. ... in need of police protection? ..................

07. ... in economic competition with grassland? ..................

08/09. ... being destroyed in national parks? .................. ..................

10. ... threatened by a policing action? ..................




                                                              57
11. ... mostly used for firewood? ..................

12. ... the subject of competition between peasants and the timber industry? ..................



A. Asia

B. Amazonia

C. Brazil

D. Vietnam

E. Peru

F. Arizona

G. Bolivia



DEFORESTATION

A recent report from the United Nations indicates that the world's tropical forests are vanishing faster
than previously thought. Up to 50 million acres a year are disappearing, almost the area of West
Germany, 50 per cent more than expected. The World Resources Institute, which compiled the report,
says that the rising rate of deforestation was "a tragedy for the biological richness of the earth and an
ominous signal for the climatic conditions of the future." About 100 forest species become extinct
every day, with irreparable loss of part of the world's genetic resources. The report says that
deforestation accounts for a third of the world's emissions of carbon dioxide, the biggest cause of
global warming.

The loss of the forests is largely the result of overpopulation. Hungry landless masses in Asia compete
with commercial logging for the available resources. At the moment, the landless masses are winning.
The overwhelming bulk of the wood and timber of tropical forests is burnt where it stands. Of that
which is extracted, only 17 per cent goes for industrial use. The rest is used for firewood. The concept
of natural forest as spare land ready for agriculture is predominant. It is the central reality of the
deforestation crisis. In 1988, 60 million acres of Rondonia in the Brazilian Amazon was burnt for
grazing and cropland. Billions of dollars worth of timber went up in smoke, wasted because there was
no ready economic market for it. The forest was seen to have more value as agricultural land than as
standing forests to be harvested.

Just how bad the situation is can be revealed by satellite photograph. Such a photograph of the
Amazon basin will reveal hundreds of points of light stretching from Bolivia to the Atlantic. Each
point of light indicates a man-made forest fire at least half a mile wide. In 1988 and 1989, there were
at least 15,000 such fires which meant that Brazil sent half as much carbon into the atmosphere as
Japan.

The head of Brazil's environment institute points out: "It's a problem of awareness. Farmers just don't
think of anything but making money, and some regional administrations support them because they
think this is development. In one state, farmers are killing the rubber tappers. In another, they think
only of profits from cattle ranching. They set fire to nature reserves. They could all think about the



                                                       58
environment a little more." The head of the satellite agency which analyzes the problem on a daily
basis is more blunt. He says: "We know that burning in the Amazon is gigantic. It's time they showed
us a wealthy farmer in handcuffs."

If you want to know what happens when the rain forests are destroyed, the place to go is Vietnam.
During the Vietnam war, the American air force sprayed more than 72 million litres of herbicides and
defoliants over the country, dropping bombs and napalm over much of the rest. Almost half of
Vietnam's landscape is derelict. Since the end of the war things have got worse: the country's 60
million people, like most inhabitants of the tropics, are dependent upon wood for fuel and
construction. Demand for fuel and the clearance of land for agriculture has also destroyed thousands of
acres. What the Vietnamese have discovered is that when the tropical forests go, they go for ever. The
soil is poor. Once the cover is gone, tropical rainstorms wash out the nutrients. In the dry season, the
grass catches fire and saplings are killed. Then more top soil is washed away. Tropical trees flower
unpredictably, and their seeds are difficult to collect and germinate.

The Americans, given a choice between being green and fighting the Peruvian drug barons, have
chosen, as one would expect, to fight. The weapon to hand is Spike, a close relative of Agent Orange,
the herbicide used in Vietnam. Spike would have carried deforestation into the densely forested
eastern slopes of the Andes. However, the President of Peru, having made a helicopter flight over the
area, called for a scientific study. He said: "An international scientific team should determine if the
proposal is positive or negative for the environment." He might have added that the Peruvian peasants
and the coca barons can manage their own deforestation quite well without any help from American
herbicides, thank you very much.

It is not only the tropical trees that should fear man's depredations. Even the cactus in the desert is
being uprooted. It seems that the inhabitants of the palatial desert homes of Las Vegas and Palm
Springs require a large cactus as a status symbol, just like a stretch limousine. The finest of the cacti of
Arizona, despite being in protected tourist amenity areas, are being ripped out of the ground by
organised gangs of cactus rustlers. These Saguaro cacti grow as high as five or six metres and weigh
up to four tonnes. Larry Richards works full time as a cactus cop. He says:"I grew up on this land. I
can tell you, in the last 10 years the Saguaros here have been thinned out by, oh, maybe half. In the
next 10 years another half or more of the rest will go. These are prime, saleable specimens. It's just a
matter of time. There are 120 crooked dealers active in Arizona. They use lifting equipment and large
trucks to transport the giants instantly to California, about 400 miles away, where black market prices
are highest, about $40 for every foot of stem, and up to $100 for every arm which survives the move.
A fairly ordinary sample can fetch $800. A big one, $15,000. A whole generation, covering 60 years
of growing, is being wiped out." In one case, the cactus fought back. It fell on top of a young man who
was taking pot shots at it with his rifle, and killed him.




                                      2) HACKING
Complete the passage with the correct paragraphs. There is one more paragraph than
you need.

COMPUTERS: FROM HACKING TO CRIME

Known by the name of Bug Hunter, the hacker said he broke into the files for the pleasure of seeing
the welcome, "Good afternoon, HRH Duke of Edinburgh."




                                                    59
01. ..............................

He typed 1234, which turned out to be a testing file with access to all the Prestel code numbers.


02. ..............................

Hacking started as an intellectual game among fanatical American computer enthusiasts. They enjoyed
cracking the private codes of large business computers and creating more or less harmless chaos in
their files. But now the practice has spread to computer fraud, and to the reading of confidential
information.


03. ..............................

Once a hacker has a genuine user's network identity, he can run up bills for electronic mail and telexes,
and read all the user s private mail. It is almost impossible to detect the unauthorised use of the
service.

04. ..............................

Much more serious than amateur hacking is the professional computer fraud. Millions of pounds have
been stolen from financial institutions through computer fraud, usually by the illegal transfer of funds
to foreign bank accounts.

05. ..............................

Only a fraction of such crimes are reported because companies fear the publicity would damage
customer confidence. And the publicity would be harmful.

06. ..............................

Each computer terminal is the equivalent of a cheque book. Instead of signing the cheque, with a
terminal you authorise it, and the money goes.

A.

Cases of large-scale mischief caused by hackers are rare. In one case, a hacker succeeded in entering a
word processor used by the Israeli Foreign Minister, and added humorous sentences to a speech
prepared for him. The changes were spotted as he was about to deliver the speech. In another case, a
credit agency with confidential details on 90 million people discovered that hackers had broken its
security codes, and had been exchanging the passwords on electronic bulletin boards.


B.

Computers have become commonplace. Soon, every home will have one. They will be easy to use and
allow people to shop and study and work at home. We live in revolutionary times but this is a
bloodless revolution.




                                                   60
C.

An accountant explains: "Computer technology makes large scale financial dealing possible. It is all
tied in with buying, selling, making deals and transferring the money. But security systems have not
kept up with the computing systems. Everywhere, there is the opportunity, if somebody has the urge,
to misuse the system. The crimes are discovered, but the problem is that they are not discovered
quickly enough. Even if it is detected within a few hours, it is too late. The person who has committed
the crime has already left the building and caught a plane."

D.

The hacker made his way into British Telecom's huge Prestel system by using a home computer. He
typed out an experimental line of numbers, all twos, when the computer asked for a 10-digit identity
code. It worked, and the computer asked for a four-digit password.

E.

Bug Hunter was eventually tracked down and arrested. He was very bitter about being treated as a
criminal. He said: "They should be employing people like me to plug gaps in the system. I'm
disgusted." He was fined £600. A spokesman said: "Security has been tightened considerably."


F.

There are a number of cases where more than a million has been stolen. These crimes are easy to carry
out because large companies and financial institutions are connected to the network used by the
clearing banks for transfer funds around the world.

G.

All a hacker needs is a cheap home computer, a modem to link it to the telephone network, and a basic
knowledge of how computers talk to each other. The hacker then telephones mainframe computer
services, such as electronic mail networks, and attempts to break the security code. Callers have three
chances to type in the correct code before the call is cut off. By typing in a series of educated guesses
time after time, hackers can find their way into a system. They may be helped by people choosing
obvious code-words, such as first names or addresses.




                                3) Private Schools
                  Read the passage and answer the questions which follow.

Most countries have had, and some still have, educational systems that are, in one way or another,
social disasters. The English educational system is unique, however, in the degree to which it has
created educational institutions which perpetuate privilege and social division. Most countries have
some private schools for the children of the wealthy; the English have dozens of them. In fact, about
3,000. Some nine million children are educated at state schools; just under half a million are educated
at private schools.




                                                   61
What is the result of such a system? The facts seem to speak for themselves. In the state system, about
eight per cent make it to university; in the private system, almost half the students go on to university.
But those statistics are deceptive: middle class children do better at examinations than working class,
and most of them stay on at school after 16. Private schools are entirely middle class, and so this
positive attitude creates an environment of success.


Private schools are enormously expensive, as much as £18,000 a year for a boarder at somewhere like
Eton or Harrow to at least £8,000 a year almost everywhere. Why are parents, many of whom are not
wealthy or even comfortably off, willing to sacrifice so much in the cause of their children's
schooling? One father replied to this question by saying: "Everything is on the margin. If my son gets
a five per cent better chance of going to university, that may be the difference between success and
failure." You can believe him if you like, but £50,000 minimum is a lot to pay for a five per cent better
chance. Most children, given the choice, would take the money. The real reason parents fork out the
cash is prejudice: they don't want little Henry mixing with the workers, or getting his accent wrong.
And anyway, at your next dinner party it won't sound too good if all the guests are sending their kids
to St Swotting-by-the-Sea, and you say your kid is going to the state school down the road even if, as a
result, you are able to serve Chateau Margaux with the filet steak.


Of course, at many of the best private schools, your money buys you something. One school, with 500
pupils, has 11 science laboratories; another, with 800, has 30 music practice rooms; another has 16
squash courts, and yet another has its own beach. On investment in buildings and facilities, the private
schools spend £300 per pupil; the state system spends less than £50. On books, the ratio is £150 to
£50. One of the things that your money buys which is difficult to quantify is the appearance of the
school, the way it looks. Most private schools are established in beautiful, well-kept country houses,
with extensive grounds and gardens. They look good in contrast with the state schools, the worst of
which, like public lavatories, are tiled or covered in graffiti, and the best of which have architectural
design on the level of an industrial shed.


Leaving aside the question of money, the attitudes generally to be found in the private schools are
repellent. In a book published in 1988, some former Etonians were invited to talk about themselves
and their old school. One of them said: "At school you could point out the freaks very easily. Freaks
were spotty or ugly, freaks were scholars, basically people who had too many brains, and were looked
down upon because they didn't pay." Yet another talked of the hunger marchers of the thirties who
came through Windsor like "some sort of cloth-capped cavalcade", and went on "one was more aware
of George V dying, because you were part of the same village." Another said that saving up to send a
son to Eton was "the wrong thing... you're bred in terms of privilege and education to be a racehorse,
and you end up having to toil in some office block somewhere in the City..., it's a waste of an
expensive training. You don't go and run a donkey in the Derby, do you?"


One old Etonian tells how he was received by the printers when he went to work on a provincial
newspaper. Printers were well-known as belonging to the most left-wing of all unions, and yet: "They
loved me, they adored me... because I was nice and jolly with them, I was little Lord Fauntleroy, and
they used to say, `Isn't it marvellous, he was at Eton and he still talks to us, and he jokes and laughs
and he's really quite a nice guy.'"


Some, perhaps many, private school pupils find life there unpleasant in the extreme. Such a one was
Graham Greene. Yet he still sent his own son to the same school. In another case, an Old Etonian
admitted the school was "a ghastly hideous place, it was a nightmare" and yet he too wishes the school
upon his son: "I found it was a reflex that, as soon as Alexander was born, within three weeks I went



                                                    62
and registered him." Rather, when one thinks about it, as one might register a pedigree dog with the
Kennel Club.


One has to ask the question if such privileges and attitudes are relevant to a country in which there is
almost as great a chance of an individual attending psychiatric hospital as of going to university.



01. The English educational system is different from any other because

A. has a balance between state and private education

B. has more private schools than anywhere else

C. contributes to creating a class system

D. has so many things wrong with it

02. More private school children go to university because

A. they are better taught                           B. their parents are middle class

C. the schools create success               D. they stay at school longer

03. Parents most often send their children to private school

A. for social reasons                               B. for a margin of success

C. to show how much money they have D. to pass university entrance examinations

04. Children at private schools

A. work very hard all the time              B. are conformist and prejudiced

C. are very clever and highly educated D. are well-bred and cultivated

05. Former students of private schools

A. automatically send their children there

B. are inclined to think it is not worth the money

C. are worried that they might end up in psychiatric hospital

D. think carefully and then enrol their child in the best school




                                                      63
                              Listening
Listening 1
You will hear 5 short extracts in which different people are reading from their
autobiographies
You will hear the recording twice. While you listen you must complete both tasks.

BEFORE YOU START / Help & Vocabulary:




Task 1
For questions 1-5, match the extracts as you hear them with what each speaker   is saying,
listed A-H.
A I made up my mind about something.
B I had a piece of luck.                               Speaker 1    _______     1
C My popularity started to decline.
D I received some bad publicity.                       Speaker 2    _______     2
E I achieved an ambition.                              Speaker 3    _______     3
F My attitude to fame changed.
G I made a mistake.                                    Speaker 4    _______     4
H I turned down an opportunity.                        Speaker 5    _______     5

For questions 6-10, match the extracts with the feeling each speaker expresses, listed A-
H.

A    regret
B    relief                                            Speaker 1     _______ 6
C    annoyance
D    optimism                                          Speaker 2     _______ 7
E    anxiety                                           Speaker 3     _______ 8
F   embarassment                                .
G   indifference                                       Speaker 4     _______ 9
H   disappointment                                     Speaker 5     _______ 10




                                           64
                                  Listening 2
You will hear a radio interview with the writer, Tom Davies. For questions 1-6, choose the
correct answer A, B, C or D. You will hear the recording twice:

Before you start – Vocabulary / help:




1 How does Tom feel now about being a writer?
A It is no longer as exciting as it was.
B He used to get more pleasure from it.
C He is still surprised when it goes well.
D It is less difficult to do these days.

2 How does Tom feel about the idea for a novel before he begins writing it?
A He lacks confidence in himself.
B He is very secretive about it.
C He likes to get reactions to it.
D He is uncertain how it will develop.

3 Tom's behavious when beginning a new novel can best be described as
A determined.
B enthusiastic.
C impulsive.
D unpredictable.

4 What does Tom say happens to writers as they get older and better known?
A Their friends are more honest with them.
B Publishers are less likely to ctiticise them.
C They get less objective about their own work.
D They find it harder to accept criticism.

5 What does Tom admit about his novels?
A They are not completely imaginary.
B They are open to various interpretations.
C They do not reflect his personal views.
D They do not make very good films.

6 What did Tom feel about the first film he was involved in making?
A He enjoyed being part of a team.
B He found it much too stressful.
C He earned too little money from it.
D He was reassured by how easy it was.


                                              65
                     Culture Corner

                              Part 1
the Louvre                      airport                      India
Manhattan                       museum                       Australia
Stonehenge                      sandstone rock                Italy
Yellowstone                     avenue                       Peru
The Great Wall                  amphitheatre            South Africa
The Statue of Liberty          mountain range                New York
Big Ben                         clock tower (bell)      Cornwall (Eng)
The Nile                        city                         Egypt
Champs-Élysées                  park                          Paris
The White House                 official residence   Canada & the U.S.
Hollywood                       greenhouse complex Arizona (the U.S.)
Brooklyn                        city                         Rome
Cardiff                         river                        Austria
Old Trafford                    mausoleum                 Liverpool
The Colosseum                   stone fortification Anaheim (the U.S.)
Taj Mahal                       stadium                      Paris
Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya)         borough                      Italy
Heathrow                        museum                 Hillingon (Eng)
Vienna                          city                         Wales
Florence                        borough                      Istanbul
The Grand Canyon                structures                Los Angeles
Cape Town                       city                         China
 the Rockies                    sculpture                  London
Uluru                          monument                   New York
Machu Picchu                sacred place           Wyoming (the U.S.)
Nigara Falls                  waterfalls                   Washington
the Pyramids                   canyon                       Egypt
Venice                          city                 Wiltshire (Eng)
The Victoria Falls              waterfall                    Africa
Disneyland                rock and roll club             New York
the Thames                      river              Canada & the U.S.
Buckingham Palace              district                     London
Tower Bridge                    bridge                      London
The Eden Project               official residence           London
the Mersey                      river                  Manchester
the Cavern Club               theme park                  Liverpool




                                66
                                             &
                                          Part 2

                             The USA (history)
1773, December 16 – Boston Tea Party was a direct action by colonists in Boston
against the British government and the monopolistic East India Company that controlled all
the tea imported into the colonies. The incident is very important for American history.
1776, July 4 – Declaration of Independence was a statement adopted by the
Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies
then at war with Great Britain are independent states, and no longer a part of the British
Empire.
1775 - 1783 – The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or the American War of
Independence, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British
colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great
powers. British (the Kingdom of Great Britain) lost the war.
1848 - 1855 – The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848,
when gold was found by James W. Marshall in California. Many gold-seekers, called "forty-
niners" (as a reference to 1849) came looking for gold. The California Gold Rush had many
negative consequences (disease, conflicts, death).
1861 – 1865 The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a civil war that took place in
United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the
United States, eleven southern slave states declared their secession from the United States. It
was the war between the South and the North. The Norht (Union) won.
1963, November 22 - John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the thirty-fifth (35th) President of the
United States, was assassinated at 12:30 p.m. on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas,
Texas, by Lee Harvey Oswald.
1968, April 4 - Martin Luther King, Jr., American leader of the African-American
civil rights movement and Nobel Peace Prize winner, was assassinated in Memphis,
Tennessee, on April 4, 1968, at the age of 39, by James Earl Ray.
1969, July 20 – Apolo 11 was the spaceflight which landed the first humans, Neil
Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, Jr, on the Moon.
1973 – Last US troops leave Vietnam. Vietnam War (1955 – 1975) was won by
Vietnam.


 Help vocabulary:
 - imported = uvezen (to import – uvesti)              - statement = izjava
 - adopted = usvojena (to adopt – usvojiti)
 - announced = proglasilo (to announce – proglasiti)
 - gold-seeker = lovci na zlato                      - reference = oznaka za
 - In response = Kao reakcija na                      - election = izbor
 - declared = proglasile (to declare- proglasiti)     - secession = otcjepljenje




                                              67
                              How To Use A Dictionary!?




           a) monolingual dictionary
           b) compound words
               (downstairs, mailbox, toothbrush, classroom, bedroom....)
           c) phrasal verbs
               (call off, give up, get along, turn down, get away....)

           d) homographs

              (face /n/ front of your head ...........face /v/ to confront directly (a difficult
               situation))

           e) phrases
               ( face /n/ front of your head........ put a brave face – to make an effort to behave in a
               happy cheerful way when you are upset or disappointed)

           f) idioms
               (face /n/ front part of your head; 1) the same old faces – people you see often; see
               also - have egg on your face (egg 1(4))- used for someone, especially someone in
               authority if he or she looks silly)

           g) collocations
               (clear /adj/........4) make yourself clear (=expressing something well) XXXXX, get
               sth clear XXXXXX)

           h) entry (entries)
                                            Short forms
adj    adjective                 adv      adverb                 conj conjunction
E      East                      etc      etcetera               n    noun
N      North                     phr v    phrasal verb           prep preposition
pron   pronoun                   S        South                  sb   someone
sth    something                 US       United States of America        informal
v      verb                      W        West                            formal
                                                Labels
AmE             American English¸                  Aust E            Australian English
BrE             British English                    CanE              Canadian English
IrE             Irish English                      ScotE             Scottish English ....(& more)
                                              Practice:
e.g. back out phr v (I) to decide not to do something that you had promised to do: (+of) They
backed out of the contract at the last minute.

e.g. clear adj 1-EASY TO UNDERSTAND – expressed in a simple and direct way.... XXXX.....
make it clear (that) Mr Tate made it clear there was no compromise; make yourself clear – XXXX-
........8 see your way clear /to doing sth/ informal to have the necessary time to be able to do
something: I was hoping you could see your way clear to lending me $150.


                                                     68
                       Vocabulary builder




                            PICTURE 1 = SOUNDS)
Help:
1) buzz                       clink            crack             crackle
2) crash                      crunch           fizz              hiss
3) honk                       jingle           pop               ring
4) rustle                     sizzle           snap              splash
5) squelch BrE/squish AmE     tick             tinkle            whirr
NOTE: THESE WORDS CAN FUNCTION BOTH AS NOUNS AND VERBS!
e.g SIZZLE    Sausages sizzle great on the barbecue. (sizzle – VERB)
    SIZZLE    Can you hear the sizzle? (sizzle – NOUN)



                                       69
                                 PICTURE 2 = OFFICE)

Help (some words from the picture): pie chart = ________________; briefcase =_____________;
transparency = ________________; attache case =__________________;
noticeboard BrE / bulletin board AmE =__________________;
lead =____________________; whiteboard =___________________;




                                            70
                                 Personal Mini Dictionary
1 CONFUSING WORDS
a) childish = immature                            vs             childlike = like a child
b) different = not the same               vs              indifferent = not caring about something
c) dissatisfied = not happy with          vs              unsatisfied = not happy with the
            the quality of something                                   quantity of something
d) helpful = willing to help              vs              helpless = unable to do things for yourself
e) hopeful = feeling optimistic           vs              hopeless = having no signs of hope
f) senseless = illogical or               vs              sensible = reasonable and practical
           with no purpose

2 COMPOUNDS (2 or more word together that act as a single (one) unit)

a) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES (describe nouns and are often placed in front of nouns)
absent – minded = forgetful                 antisocial = showing no concern for other people
brand-new = new and unused               family-oriented = believing that family is important
full-time = working the usual hours for a job              part-time = (opposite of full-time)
good-looking = handsome or pretty           high-powered = very powerful
grown-up = like an adult behaves            law-abiding = who never does anything illegal
life-size = of the same size as a real person or thing    long-term = for a long period into the future
old-fashioned = no longer fashionable or popular one-year-old =being one year old
open-air = outdoor                                   run-down = in bad condition
second-hand = not new and already used               short-lived =lasting only a short time
time-consuming – using up a lot of time              ultra-smart = very clever
user-friendly = easy to use                          well-behaved =beahving in polite way
well-known = famous                                  well-off = rich
world-class = among the best in the world world-famous = famous all over the world
worn-out = very tired or in a poor condition .....(and more (examples)......)
e.g. – He lives in a run-down building in the suburb;       He gave me a great user-friendly
calculator for my birthday. Mr. Jones has always been a law-abiding citizen.

    b) COMPOUND NOUNS (the first part usually describes the type of the second part)
blood pressure                             body-piercing
civil war = a war between two groups in the same country   fossil fuel = coal or oil
common sense = good sense or judgement            human being = a man
ice skating = skating on ice for fun            job security – the condition of feeling safe in job
jigsaw puzzle = a picture cut into pieces that you need to put together         nightlife
no man's land = the area between two opposing armies that neither side controls
room service                                    science-fiction
self-defence = the skill of defending yourself when attacked              solar system (solar power)
wake-up call = a phone call in a hotel to wake you up
working week                             zero-gravity – the state or situation of having no gravity

    c) COMPOUND VERBS (made by: a) preposition+adverb or verb (overtake);
          b) noun+verb (mass-produce); c) adjective + verb ( double check))

bypass = to avoid something               double-check = to examine something again
mass-produce = to make large quantities of products in a factory family-oriented =




                                                    71
    d) COMPOUNDS USING PREPOSITIONS OR ADVERBS:
                                     *(function as) ADJECTIVES
follow up – something that follows something else
in-depth – very detailed                                   laid-back = very relaxed
oncoming = coming towards you                              outgoing = friendy and easy to get on with
out-of-date = not popular or valid any more                 rundown = tired or ill
underpaid = not paid enough                                up-to-date = modern or popular
                                        * (function as) NOUNS
after-shave                                       breakthrough = an important discovery
bypass = a round round a town         downfall = smoething that you do that makes you lose success
getaway = an escape                               outcome = the result
setback = something that prevents or slows down progress
                                        * (function as) VERBS
outgrow = to grow bigger than the size or space provided
overhear = to hear what other people are saying to each other
underestimate = to think that a quantity, skill etc. is less than it really is
update = to provide the latest information
upgrade = to make something more popular, to give somebody a more important job
e.g. Manchester lost because they underestimated Bolton.;Prepare an in-depth report for me.

    e) MULTI-WORD COMPOUND NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES (always use hyphens)
an eighteen-year-old boy (eighteen year old) a one-in-a-thousand chance
a heart-to-heart talk                        an out-of-work actor
my mother-in-law                             an up-to-date dictionary

    f) COLLOCATION BANK (collocations = two or more words that often go together.)
                                     VERB + NOUN or ADJECTIVE
break the record                                        catch a cold = to get a cold
contract an illness/disease = to get an illness/disease go mad = to get very angry
drive someone mad = to make people feel upset or angry
express your concern / worry/ horror / shock / surprise / an opinion about something
give someone a hard time = to make it difficult for someone miss home
play a role = to take part in a play, project ....      spend money / time
take it easy = to stop doing so much work               turn cold (for weather)
turn red = to show you feel embarassed
                                         ADJECTIVE + NOUNS
anti-social behaviour – bad behaviour                   developed country
dry climate (clothes / land) – without rain / water     fatal disease – (that is often deadly)
fresh air                         heavy rain            heavy fighting
petty argument – a minor argument                        severe punishment – (very hard and strict)
social benefit – something that will help society
vast majority = nearly all of a large group             violent crime – (hurts/kills someone)
working conditions – the conditions for workers in a factory etc.
    g) FREQUENTLY USED ABBREVIATIONS IN ENGLISH:
ab. – about          abbr. – abbreviated, abbreviation         ab init. (Lat ab initio) – from the beginning
adj. – adjective a.m.(Lat ante meridiem)– before noon B.B.C.– British Broadcasting Corporation
A.D. (Lat anno Domini) – in the year of our Lord CIA (US) – Central Intelligence Agency
B.A – Bachelor of Arts B.C.- Bachelor of Chemistry p.m. – (Lat post meridiem) – after noon
D.A. (US) – District Attorney e. – error enc. – enclosed             M.C. – Master of Ceremony
et al. (Lat et alii) – and others      etc. (Lat et cetera) – and so on       exc. – except
e.g. (Lat exempli gratia) – for example F.A. – Football Association ft. – foot, feet
F.B.I.(US)- Federal Bureau of Investigation esq. – esquire              M.A. – Master of Arts
M.D. – Doctor of Medicine, PH.D. – Doctor of Philosophy p. – page P.O.B. – post office box


                                                    72
                             “English For You”
                                    1.       Tongue Twisters
One-one was a race horse.
Two-two was one too.
One-one won one race.
Two-two won one too.
Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.
Did Peter Piper pick a peck of pickled peppers?
If Peter Piper Picked a peck of pickled peppers,
Where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?

She sells seashells by the seashore.
The shells she sells are surely seashells.
So if she sells shells on the seashore,
I'm sure she sells seashore shells.

How much wood would a woodchuck chuck
If a woodchuck could chuck wood?
He would chuck, he would, as much as he could,
And chuck as much as a woodchuck would
If a woodchuck could chuck wood.

Betty Botter had some butter,
"But," she said, "this butter's bitter.
If I bake this bitter butter,
It would make my batter bitter.
But a bit of better butter,
That would make my batter better."
So she bought a bit of butter –
Better than her bitter butter –
And she baked it in her batter;
And the batter was not bitter.
So it was better Betty Botter
Bought a bit of better butter.

A big black bear bit a big black bug
and the big black bug bled black blood.

I never smelled a smelt that smelled like that smelt smelled




                                                73
                    2. Understanding English proverbs and sayings
A proverb (from Latin: proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying popularly known and
repeated, which expresses a truth, based on common sense or the practical experience of
humanity. They are often metaphorical. There are many proverbs and sayings in English. We
chose only some of them in order to help you understand how they function.
An apple a day keeps the doctor away. (Eating an apple every day can help to keep you healthy.
Other interpretation : A small preventive treatment wards off serious problems.)
A smooth sea never made a skilled mariner. (Overcoming adversity leads to competence.)
A tree is known by its fruit. ( A man is judged by his actions.)
A leopard cannot change its spots. (It is not possible for a bad or unpleasant person to become good
or pleasant.)
Better late than never. ( It's better to do something, even if it's late, than not do it at all.)

Better safe than sorry (It's better to be too careful than to be careless and regret it later.)

Blood is thicker than water      ( Family relationships are stronger than relationships with other
people.)

Distance makes the heart grow fonder. )When you are separated from the person you love, your
feelings are even stronger.)

Don't judge a book by its cover. (Don't judge by appearances.)

Easy come, easy go. (Money obtained without difficulty is easily spent or lost.)

Facts speak louder than words. (People show what they are really like by what they do, rather than
by what they say)

First come, first served. (The first person in the line will be attended to first.)

It never rains but it pours. (Misfortunes usually come in large numbers.)

Knowledge in youth is wisdom in age. ( What you learn when you are young will be invaluable
when you grow old.)

Learn to walk before you run. (Don't rush into doing something until you know how to do it.)

Love is blind. (A person in love does not see the faults of the person he/she loves.)

Never say die. (Never give up.)

One man's trash is another man's treasure. (What is useless to one person could be valuable to
another.)
Opportunity seldom knocks twice. (Don't miss opportunities that come along.)
Out of sight, out of mind. ( We tend to forget people or things that we do not see.)
Still waters run deep. (A quiet person can have much knowledge or wisdom.)
The road to hell is paved with good intentions. (It's not enough to intend to do something, you must
actually do it.)
Time is money. (Time is valuable and should not be wasted.)

When in Rome, do as the Romans do. (You should adopt the customs of the people or country you
are visiting, and behave in the same way.)

You can't teach an old dog new tricks. (A person who is used to doing things a certain way cannot change.)



                                                     74
3. Understanding English Idioms

Idiom is an expression, word, or phrase that has a figurative meaning that is different from the literal
meaning or definition of the words of which it is made. There are estimated to be at least 25,000
idiomatic expressions in the English language. We chose only 16 idioms for your practice to help you
understand their use and meaning.

                                English idioms relating to CLOTHES

tighten your belt If you need to tighten your belt, you must spend your money carefully.
/ "Another bill? I'll have to tighten my belt this month!"/
ants in one's pants People who have ants in their pants are very restless or excited about
  something / "I wish he'd relax. He's got ants in his pants about something today!" /
Keep your shirt on! If you tell somebody to keep their shirt on, you are asking them to
  calm down. / "Look, we've got plenty of time, so keep your shirt on!" /

                  English idioms relating to ANIMALS - BIRDS - FISH - INSECTS
take the bull by the horns To take the bull by the horns means that a person decides to act
decisively in order to deal with a difficult situation or problem. /"After a number of children were hurt
in the school playground, Sally took the bull by the horns and called the headmaster." /
let the cat out of the bag If you let the cat out of the bag, you reveal a secret, often not
intentionally. /When the child told her grandmother about the plans for her birthday, she let the cat out
of the bag. It was supposed to be a secret!" /
every dog has its day This expression means that everyone can be successful at something at some
time in their life. /"I didn't win this time, but I'll be lucky one day. Every dog has its day!" /
for the birds If you think something is for the birds, you consider it to be uninteresting, useless, or
not to be taken seriously. / "As far as I'm concerned, his theory is for the birds!"/


                                 English idioms relating to COLOURS
see red If someone sees red, they suddenly become very angry or annoyed about something.
 /"Discrimination of any kind makes me see red!"/
show your (his…) true colours When people shows their true colours, their behaviour reveals
 their real nature and shows their qualities and/or weaknesses./"In times of crisis people show their
true colours."/
Blue-eyed boy A blue-eyed boy is somebody's favourite. /He's the director's blue-eyed boy!/

                          English idioms relating to NUMBERS – AMOUNTS
At the eleventh hour If something happens at the eleventh hour, it happens when it is almost too
late, or at the last possible moment. /"Our team won after they scored a goal at the eleventh hour."/
first water Something that is of the first water is of the finest or most exceptional quality (like
being compared to a diamond). /"The violinist gave a performance that was of the first water."/
one step ahead When you are one step ahead of someone else, you manage to achieve something
faster than they do, or you have a slight advantage over them.
 /"The company is successful because they're always one step ahead of their competitors."/

                       English idioms relating to MONEY – FINANCE
 Cost an arm and a leg. If something costs an arm and a leg, it is very expensive!
 / "The house cost us an arm and a leg, but we have no regrets."/
Money talks Money talks means that people with a lot of money have power and influence.
Put money where your mouth is To put money where your mouth is means to give financial
support to activities or causes that you believe are right.




                                                   75
                            Part 1 WORD ORDER
           Put the words in the correct order to create a sentence.

1. when ended              storm               Gordon               the                 came .     he



2. her     of        to    some her            seashells            her       Cindy . sister showed



3. a       sportscar        is    in    who has . a                 club      girl      our



4. eaten I         such    never        meal     .      tasty        a        have



5. water     the     warm for          bath    enough           ?        is      you



6. chicken           nor   eats        neither fish        .        Greta



7. great he          progress          then made a in               grammar          . since   ,   has




                                                76
                        Part 2 Vocabulary Chart
Try to remember as many words as you can in 2-3 minutes which are related to KEY
WORD in the middle & provide QUICK REPORT about your ideas.


     double-decker                                                    soccer
                                     Thames




                                                                             pub
     clock (Big
     Ben)
                                           London
                                      (KEY WORD)




                                     2012                               theatre
       rain


Quick report: Double-decker bus is a common thing in London. Thames is a river in London.
London has many soccer teams. If you like nightlife you can visit many pubs and theatres in
London. London hosts the Olympic Games in 2012. There are many rainy days in London.
Big Ben is the nickname for the famous clock of the clock tower in London.



    buy and sell                                                     save
                                    coin




                                                                            note
    shopping                         BARGAINING
                                     (KEY WORD)




                                    tourists                          market
      vendors vs
      customers

Quick report: Vendors who sell and customers who want to buy start bargaining about the
price. If you want your customer to buy what you sell sometimes you need to reduce the price.
It mostly happens in markets where tourists often go shopping. They can pay by notes and
coins. In many cases they want to reduce the price in order to save some money.


                                               77
                    Part 3 ABC brainstorming

Try to remember a word or a phrase associated with the topic, matched to each
letter (or as many as you can in short period of time) of the alphabet.




                          TOPIC =         HOLIDAY



                  A___accomodation______________
                 B ___bags_____________         __
                  C ___customs__________________
                 D___driver______________________
                 E _____________________________
                 F ___flight______________________
                 G___guest______________________
                 H__host________________________
                 I______________________________
                 J___journey_____________________
                 K _____________________________
                  L ______luggage________________
                 M_____________________________
                  N ____________________________
                  O ____________________________
                  P___plane_____________________
                  Q ____________________________
                  R___room service_______________
                 S____seaside___________________
                 T___travel______________________
                  U ____________________________
                 V ___voyage____________________
                  W____________________________
                  X_____________________________
                  Y_____________________________
                  Z_____________________________




                                     78

				
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