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AFramework for Agile Enterprise Architecutre

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					                  International Journal of Intelligent Information Technology Application, 2009, 2(4):182-186




                                             A Framework for
                             Agile Enterprise Architecture
                                                            H. M. Shirazi
                            Malek-Ashtar University of Technology/Faculty of ICT, Tehran, Iran
                                                          shirazi@mut.ac.ir


                                                 B. D. Rouhani and M. M. Shirazi
                                   Tehran University/Department of Computer, Tehran, Iran
                                                           shirazi@tu.ac.ir



Abstract— All enterprises require enterprise architecture in
                                                                     one another. These views include both business-oriented
order to use its benefits but it is crucial for this project to be   perspectives as well as technical perspectives. In many
applied by formal stakeholders' satisfaction. A suitable             ways enterprise architecture models are a communication
framework for the enterprise requirements can be planned by          bridge between senior business stakeholders and senior IT
use of agile methods and its practices, in which we cannot only      professionals.
increase the percentage of prosperity but also we can return
the asset to stakeholders as soon as possible. We put our whole      Unfortunately, within the IT industry the terminology isn’t
creativity in which makes it to be better. As applying the           used in quite this way. Sometimes we use the term
framework, some continual reviews will correct activities.By         “Enterprise Architecture (EA)” to refer to the group of
the use of this framework the risk of the project can be             people responsible for modeling and then documenting the
reduced and also the simultaneous cooperation of enterprise          architecture. Other times we use the term to denote the
architecture and project team is a reliable guarantee for            process of doing this work. More commonly we are
prosperity. Then holding variety meetings among stakeholders         referring to the models, documents, and reusable items
and presenting the rudimentary models and at last accepting of       (components, frameworks, object, and so on) that reflect the
them by the stakeholder cause our framework to proceed in a
reliable way. Besides all of the stakeholders' viewpoints are put
                                                                     actual architecture [1],[4].
in the architecture, so in this way all of their needs are               EA framework is like a pattern which is useful for
provided. Another point is that several educational classes will     thinking and explaining variety aspects of an enterprise
be held during its implementation for people involved in, so
                                                                     which usually consists of models, diagrams and defined
that the essential statement is taught to them and they can use
it wherever is necessary. One of the other benefits of this
                                                                     products for this project.
framework is to use a repository in order to keep information,           The benefits of enterprise architecture can be summed up
survey, adjust models and use of agile method in all steps of the    using three words: better, faster, cheaper. It is important to
framework. Finally it is vital to say that this framework is
                                                                     realize that the better, faster, cheaper (BFC) benefits come
better, faster and cheaper than the classical one.
                                                                     at a price. You must be willing to invest in the underlying
Index Terms— Agile, Enterprise Architecture, Framework               organizational and cultural structures to support them. You
                       I. INTRODUCTION                               need to recognize that these costs exist and ensure that the
                                                                     BFC benefits you achieve outweigh them. Better yet, adopt
                                                                     Agile Modeling’s principle Maximize Stakeholder ROI and
   Enterprise architecture(EA) consists of the various
                                                                     strive for maximal benefit [11].
structures and processes of an organization. To complete
this definition, an enterprise architecture model is a                          II. AGILE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
representation of those structures and processes. A good
enterprise architecture model will depict the organization              When project teams work under the assumption that they
both as it is today and as it is envisioned in the future, and       can do anything that they want, that they can use any
will map the various views representing the architecture to



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                                  1999-2459 /09/$25.00 ©2009 Engineering Technology Press
technology      that   they     want,      chaos    typically    This framework can solve the deficiency and problems of
results. Functionality and information will be duplicated        classical practice and its framework also help enterprise
and reuse will occur sporadically if at all. Systems will not    achieve its goals fast because it has combined technical
integrate well. Systems will conflict with one another and       standards together so that it is basically agile.
cause each other to fail. Costs will skyrocket because
                                                                    The framework consists of 7 models and 11 interactions
similar products from different vendors, or even simply
                                                                 among them. Those models and interactions are made of
different versions of the same product, will be purchased
                                                                 agile principles and values also they cover different
and then operated within production. Although each
                                                                 viewpoints and aspects of project and enterprise. It surveys
individual project may be very successful, as a portfolio
                                                                 5 viewpoint and 6 enterprise aspects.
they may have serious challenges. It doesn’t have to be this
way [5].                                                         The viewpoints are: planer, owner, designer, builder and
                                                                 programmer.
    The cold reality is that very few software-based systems
exist in a vacuum; instead they must co-exist with several       Project aspects are: data, function, network, people, time
and sometimes hundreds of other systems. Applications            and motivation.
must co-exist effectively with the other systems within your
                                                                 A. Four classes of requirements
organization. Therefore an application must minimally be
developed so that it doesn’t cause adverse affects on your          The deliverable that represents the requirements must
other systems and ideally it should be built to take             take into account 4 classes of requirements that apply
advantage of and to enhance a shared infrastructure. Every       themselves to the following 4 levels of concern: strategy
system must be built so it can fit into your existing            and implementation constraints, functional, technological
environment, better yet so that it reflects the future vision    and organizational [6][10].
for your organization. This sort of information should be
captured in your enterprise architecture, in current state and
future state models respectively. The goal for agile                Level of      Determines      Correspondence in terms of
enterprise architects is to ensure that this happens in an          concern                       formalization
effective manner, to ensure that the needs of the business
stakeholders are understood and anticipated, and to support       Strategy and       Why          Vision of the objectives and
project teams in their development efforts [5],[6].                                               their priorities. Budget, delay,
                                                                   Constraints       when         quality and visibility risks and
                                                                                   how many       constraints.
A. Challenges with Current Approaches

These common problems are:                                         Functional        How          Practical description of the
-There isn’t an enterprise architecture effort.                                                   need in the form of
                                                                                                  requirements (functionalities,
-Skewed focus.                                                                                    obligations               and
-Project teams don’t know the enterprise architecture exists.                                     dependencies).
-Project teams don’t follow the enterprise architecture.
-Project teams don’t work with the enterprise architects.        Technological     With what      Application      of      new
-Outdated architecture.                                                                           technologies to the solution
                                                                                                  (hardware and software).
-Narrowly focused architecture models.
-Dysfunctional “charge back” schemes.
                                                                 Organizational   Who does it     Impact on the organization
-A “do all this extra work because it’s good for the
                                                                                                  and change accompaniment.
company” attitude.
   A common thread behind these problems is a focus on
processes and tools over individuals and interactions, the                           Table 1- level of concern
exact opposite of the Agile Alliance’s first value. If
organization experiences one or more of these problems
then they may want to consider taking an agile approach to          During working sessions targeting “immediate
enterprise architecture [5][7][8].                               formalization and validation” of these requirements classes2,
                                                                 these are explored chronologically in the fundamental order
                III. THE AGILE FRAMEWORK                         described in table 1.
                                                                 On the other hand, all complexity relates to the operation as
   This framework is dynamic so that it can easily improve       well as its pertinence rests in this principle, they must be
project processes, IS and collaborate state.                     understood globally with concern for the immediate taking



                                                                                                                          183
into account of the interactions and dependencies they lead     technologies for information processing and communication
to.                                                             (NTIC), industrial data processing and the use of other
                                                                forms of process automation) [5][6].
B. Framework Models                                             – Processes Operation Model: this domain covers primarily
                                                                the rules applicable to operations composing current
_ Business projection, resources and supporting                 processes and to the structure responsible for their execution.
technologies model: this model plays the role of building       These processes can be supported by automated systems
the future system of operation. It integrates trend             ("Information Systems and Technological Systems Model"
information and the divergences arising from the "Technical     domain) or they can be manually operated.[6][25][29]
and Functional Anticipation" and the "Process Monitoring
and Continuous Optimization" models, in order to structure      - Design Rudimentary model: designing a rudimentary by
the future evolution of the company in terms of convergence     using of prognosis's and viewpoints, presenting plans in the
trajectories applying to: operational processes, human          meeting in order to make them formal, sending plans to
resources competencies, technological architecture and          process operation models, and decreasing the project's risks.
information system architecture.                                This plan is implemented by stakeholder's agreement. This
                                                                model is used in order to make related future activities
It is within this domain that company projects are situated.    formal. Resource project prognosis's and protector
This level is requested for utilizing systems again and again   technological models are its input [8][9][10].
The main benefit of this proposal framework is that it can
support development system by available resources [5][10].      C. Interaction between Models

                                                                – Feedback on all of the functional or technical incidents
– Technical and Functional Anticipation Model: the main         noted at the time of Process operation. This flow is directed
roles of this domain are: to anticipate which emergent          towards the resources responsible for the corrective
customer requirements or technologies are likely, in an         maintenance of data processing and information systems for
immediate future, to have an impact on the company; to          immediate attention. The instrumentation is done through a
feed this information to the "Business Projection, Resources    light "anomaly correction" type of work-flow.
and Supporting Technologies Model" domain. This domain
                                                                – Feedback on functional divergences emerging between
identifies stakeholders' concerns. This domain either can
                                                                envisaged conditions and the real operating conditions of
explain future enterprise view [10][1].
                                                                the process, including volumetric evolution. This flow is
– Process Monitoring and Continuous Optimization Model:         directed towards the resources responsible for anticipating
this domain is composed of the organizational structures and    the evolution of the data processing and information
it provides following facilities: to measure performance        systems. Instrumentation recommended in the collaborative
components, to detect possible divergences between              space dedicated to rational Anticipation piloting.
processes and the reality of operations. These organizational
                                                                – Transfer via the rational Anticipation module of the
structures have two principal missions: to improve or adjust
                                                                information that is validated as representing a technical and
the processes and to feed this information to the "Business
                                                                functional tendency to be taken into account during the
Projection, Resources and Supporting Technologies Model"
                                                                development of future ISS. Support for this flow can be
domain.
                                                                implemented as a simple email warning refers to
This model has agile adjustable structure so proposal           information made available on the collaborative space
framework can be adopted [5][1].                                dedicated to rational Anticipation piloting.
– Adaptation of Competencies and Collaboration Types:           – Change conduct and transfer upon materialization of the
this domain covers the implementation of an agile               information concerning operational competencies related to
framework in terms of training and communication, offering      the installation of the new production system. This flow is
the following to Human Resources: improvement of their          materialized as « job descriptions ».
competencies, the conditions for their motivation, the
                                                                – Upon Framing the architecture and operational constraints,
appropriation of a collective intelligence. This framework
                                                                transferring this Information happens in order to initiate the
leads to the conditions required the "Process Monitoring and
                                                                information processing systems update. Transfer of the
Continuous Optimization Model" domain objective [9][1].
                                                                applicative solution elements for integration tests at each
– Information Systems and Technological Systems Model.          release (Focus). This flow is materialized by the technical
this domain covers the operation and control (standardized      aspect in the Framing stage.
ITIL, Cobit, and other models) of information and
                                                                – Technical transition and installation of the new process
technological systems (including, as usual, new
                                                                version.



    184
– Transition of organizational directives is related to the                                 they are effectible to project due to make them more
new process operation. This flow, emerging from a training                                  enthusiastic to finish that project; so they support
program, is materialized by instruction change.                                             project teams entirely.
– Real time fee back of incidents and operational                                       •   In this framework the architecture team and project
divergences towards the Continuous process optimization                                     teams have contemporary interactions and assistance,
module in order to formalize an immediate corrective                                        so this would ensure you about finishing the project,
measure, then to initialize a procedure of corrective or                                    and it is one of its benefits. To reach this goal, it is
evolutionary maintenance. This flow is materialized by a
documentary "Test" work-flow and/or a system of                                             essential for all teams to continue their activities in a
automated monitoring.                                                                       same place and associate in order to have a single
                                                                                            idea in the term of the activities they are doing.
– Directives for the immediate correction of the manual part
of the process if it is the case, or for temporary alternatives                         •   Application of all of the ideas and viewpoints in the
around the automated process. This flow is materialized by                                  project and benefiting from creativity of those ideas.
a corrective measure on operation instructions and possibly                             •   Retrieving the processes and repeating the activities,
leads to the allocation of new resources.                                                   correcting them due to finish that and finally
- Sending prognoses                     and      received        resources      and         recognize the best and the final solution.
technologies.                                                                           •   Exerting the agile methodology in producing in order
                                                                                            to lessen the risk of the plan.
- Transitioning of models, implementing that, monitoring its
process and formalization.                                                              •   Users of the plan should be taught in order to
                                                                                            preventing all kind of invert of activities.
                                    2                                                   •   Use of a repository in order to keep the information,
                                                                                            survive and adjust the models.
                                                                                        •   Formalizing the results is another advantage of this
                                                                                            plan. We can review the activities by presenting their
     Process         1          Business            3       Technical and
  Monitoring and               Projection,                   Functional                     rudimentary models, so purvey the needs and apply
   Continuous                 Resource and                   Anticipation
   Optimization                Supporting                                                   them; also we can assess the driven processes. It is
                              Technologies
                                                                                            essential to say that all of these activities are done
                                                                                            with attendance of stakeholders and it causes their
                                        10
                              4                                                             adhesion.
                                                                                        •   Finally, the agile enterprise architecture of this
                    Adaptation Of               Design a                                    framework cause that the enterprise to finish the
                    competencies              Rudimentary
 9           8           and                     model
                                                                                            architecture better, faster, cheaper and with the
                                                                            5
                    Collaboration
                       Types
                                                                                            complete adhesion of stakeholders. The better result
                                                                                            is that you can promote more in comparison with
                                                                                            your rivals.
                                        11
      Processes                                                 Information
      Operation                                                 System and                                    REFERENCES
                         7                                     Technological
                                                        6         System
                                                                                      [1] ANSI/IEEE Std 1471-2000 Recommended Practice for
                                                                                          Architectural Description,IEEE ,2000.
           Fig1- Agile Enterprise Architecture Framework (AEAF)                       [2] Scott W. Ambler "EUP , Enterprise Unified Process,
                                                                                          Extending      the    Rational    Unified     Process",
                             IV. CONCLUSION                                               http://www.enterpriseunifiedprocess.com , 2006.
                                                                                      [3] Schekkerman, Jaap, Enterprise Architecture Validation,
The results of principles, models, interactions and                                       August 2004.
experiences achieved by this research are as follows:                                 [4] Ambler, Scott W, “A Framework for Assessing and
  •       This framework is performed in a way that can                                   Improving Enterprise Architecture Management”, Agile
                                                                                          Enterprise Architecture: Beyond , Enterprise Data
          change the stakeholder's supervision into sympathy
                                                                                          Modeling, 2002.
          and cooperation so that it would make them feel that



                                                                                                                                            185
[5] AMBLER, SCOTT W, “AGILE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE”,          [11] Roel Wagter, Martin van den Berg, Joost Luijpers,
    AGILE       ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE: BEYOND ,              Marlies van Steenbergen "Dynamic Enterprise Architecture,
    ENTERPRISE DATAMODELING, 2006.                             how to mark it work ", John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2005.

[6] Jean-Pierre Vickoff, " Architecture of a generation of
    high-performance enterprises"www.enterprise-agile.com      Hossein M. Shirazi received his BSc degree in computer
    2007.                                                      science from Mashhad University, Mashhad, Iran, in 1986,
[7] Charles Edwards , Agile Enterprise Architecture -          and the MSc and PhD degrees in computer engineering
    Integration to Projects 16th January 2007.                 from the University of New South Wales, Australia, in 1994
[8] Charles Edwards, Agile Enterprise Architecture – Phases,   and 1998, respectively. He is currently an associate
    Iterations & Disciplines , 20th Jan 2007.                  professor with the Faculty of Information and
[9] Ambler, Scott W. Active Stakeholder Participation: An      Communication Technology, University of Malek-Ashtar,
    Agile Best Practice, March 3, 2007.
                                                               Iran. Dr Shirazi's research interests include Artificial
[10] Martin Fowler, David Rice, Matthew Foemmel,
Edward Hieatt, Robert Mee, Randy Stafford, "Patterns of        Intelligence, Expert Systems, Computer Security, Industrial
Enterprise Application Architecture", Addison Wesley,          Automation and the application of Fuzzy Logic, Neural
2002.                                                          Networks and Genetic Algorithms for modeling and control
                                                               of dynamic systems.




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