District Study Results.indd - Seattle Housing Authority

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                                        Yesler Terrace
                     District Infrastructure Charrette
                                   Post-Event Summary
                             Issued February 10th, 2010
                             Event originally held December 2-3, 2009
                            at the CollinsWoerman offices, Seattle, WA.




Photo: Jeff Kubina
                                                     Charrette Participants & Teams ...................................................................................................................... 1
                                                     Agenda & Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 2
                                                     Presentations ........................................................................................................................................................ 4
                                                     Team Presentations
                                                                A Vibrant Metabolic Landscape ............................................................................................................ 6
                                                                Circulation and Connectivity .................................................................................................................. 8
                                                                District Energy .........................................................................................................................................10
                                                                Policy and Regulatory ............................................................................................................................12
                                                     Feedback & Next Steps ...................................................................................................................................15




A Vibrant Metabolic Landscape                     Circulation and Connectivity                                                                  District Energy                                                                 Policy and Regulatory
   Ed Clerico, Alliance Environmental                Casey Hildreth, City of Seattle, SDOT                                                             Jayson Antonoff, City of Seattle, DPD                                       Peg Staehli, SvR Design
   Troy Vassos, NovaTec                              Andrew Lacko, CollinsWoerman                                                                      Steve Moddemyer, CollinsWoerman                                             Mark Jaeger, Seattle Public Utilities
   Jon Taylor, CollinsWoerman                        Harold Moniz, CollinsWoerman                                                                      Ted Klainer, Harborview                                                     Gary Johnson, City of Seattle, DPD
   Greg Giraldo, SvR Design                          Brett Houghton, Seattle Housing Authority                                                         Ryan Moore, Seattle Housing Authority                                       Tom Osdoba, University of Oregon
   Tom Marseilles, Stantec                           Eddie Hill, Seattle Housing Authority                                                             Eric Moe, FVB Energy                                                        Mike Podowski, City of Seattle, DPD
   John Gibson, Gibson Economics                     Jeremy Nelson, Nelson Nygaard                                                                     Jim Manson, FVB Energy                                                      Barbara Gray, City of Seattle, SDOT
   Brian Sullivan, Seattle Housing Authority         Laura Raymond, City of Seattle, Neighborhoods                                                     Jen Creighten, McKinstry                                                    Judith Kilgore, Seattle Housing Authority
   Tim Lowry, Seattle Public Utilities               Chris Fiori, Heartland                                                                            Mike Dean, McKinstry (on behalf of Haborview)
   Joel Banslaben, Seattle Public Utilities                                                                                                            Bob Balzar, Seattle City Light
   Pamela Bridgen, Environment Intl.
   Nate Cormier, SvR Design
   Paul Anseeuw, Arup
   Stephanie VanDyke, Seattle Housing Authority
   Julie West, King County Dept. of Health




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1
Agenda & Introduction
Day 1                                                                                              Day 2                                                                                                 Client
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Seattle Housing Authority (SHA), established in 1939, is a public
Time                   Activity                               Participants/Team Assignments        Day 2: Thurs. Dec. 3   rd                                                                             corporation governed by a seven-member Board of Commissioners.
Day 1: Wed. Dec. 2nd
                                                              All
                                                                                                   7:30 AM                               Coffee, breakfast                                               The agency owns and operates buildings on more than 400 sites
1:00 – 3:00            Kick off Session                                                            8:00 – 8:45AM                         Opening Session
                                                                                                                               Welcome, Introductions                 Green Home Team                    throughout the city, and provides long term rental housing and
                       Welcome, Introductions
                                                              Location: Convergence Zone                                       Review Purpose, Givens                 Blue Home Team
                                                                                                                                                                      Gold Team
                                                                                                                                                                                                         rental assistance to more than 26,000 people. Since 1995 SHA has
                       Integrated Water Resource                                                                               Questions
                       Infrastructure. Ed Clerico. Alliance                                                                    Logistics                                                                 completed major public housing redevelopments of the NewHolly,
                                                                                                                                                                      Location: Certainty
                       Environmental, Hillsborough, NJ                                                                                                                                                   Rainier Vista, and High Point developments into mixed-income, mixed-
                       Community Scale (District) Energy.
                       Eric Moe & Jim Manson. FVB                                                                                                                                                        tenure communities that have transformed these areas into new
                                                                                                                                         Break into Teams
                       Energy, Inc., Minneapolis,
                       Edmonton, Toronto, Sweden                                                   8:45 – 11:30                        Idea Storm Session                                                neighborhoods within the City of Seattle, encompassing nearly 300
                       District Scale Strategies for Waste                                                                     Directions to teams:                   Locations                          acres and creating approximately 4,300 new units of housing, as well
                                                                                                                               1. Cluster Ideas into Categories       Green Home Team: Innovation
                       Reduction. Pamela Bridgen.
                       Environment Intl. Inc., Seattle                                                                         2. Develop defining statements         Blue Home Team: Certainty          as new infrastructure, parks and community facilities. At High Point,
                       District Energy Study for City of                                                                           for each category                                                     SHA implemented an aggressive and highly successful green building
                       Seattle. Tom Osdoba. University of                                                                      3. Compile questions for Resource
                       Oregon Center for Sustainable                                                                               Teams by 11:00                                                        and low impact development program in partnership with the Built
                       Business Practices, Portland                                                                            11:00 Resource (Orange & Purple)
                                                                                                                               Teams Arrive, review and work on
                                                                                                                                                                      Orange Site Resource Team
                                                                                                                                                                      Location: Convergence              Green program and Seattle Public Utilities.
                       Discussion                                                                                              questions to answer                    Purple City Resource Team
                                                                                                                                                                      Location: Teamwork
                                                                                                   11:30 – 12:30                    Presentation Session                                                 Yesler Terrace Redevelopment Planning
                       Introduction of Yesler Terrace                                                                          1.   Resource Teams Answer             All
                       Project                                                                                                      Questions                         Location: Convergence
                                                                                                                                                                                                         SHA is now in Phase 2 Planning to redevelop Yesler Terrace.
                                                                                                                               2.   Green and Blue Teams Present
                       Site Tour                                                                                                    Initial Infrastructure Concepts                                      CollinsWoerman is the lead for developing the master plan. This
3:00 – 5:00                                                   Walk to and through Yesler Terrace   12:00 – 12:30                             Lunch Break
                                                                                                                                                                      All
                                                                                                                                                                                                         38 acre site is ideally suited to become a showcase sustainable
                                                              Site                                                                  Discussion Session
5:00 – 6:00            Charrette site available for team      Convergence Zone                     12:30 – 1:30                1.   Group Observations & Prioritize   Location: Convergence              community. It is centrally located, and lies within one mile of the city’s
                       posting of site observations                                                                            2.   Regroup to assign teams to
                                                                                                                                    clustered ideas
                                                                                                                                                                                                         largest employment area, containing 25% of the jobs in Seattle.
                                                                                                                                    Deep Dive: Prioritized Ideas                                         SHA, in coordination with residents, neighborhood stakeholders and
                                                                                                   1:30 – 6:00                 1.
                                                                                                                               2.
                                                                                                                                    Refine Concepts
                                                                                                                                    Fill in Impacts Matrix            Green Home Team: Innovation
                                                                                                                                                                                                         consultants, plans to build a dense, walkable, urban, mixed-income,
                                                                                                                               3.   Provide EIS input on              Blue Home Team: Certainty          and diverse community. SHA will increase the number of residential
                                                                                                                                    impacts/benefits/mitigation       (or other assignments as needed)
                                                                                                                               1.   Strategize how to overcome                                           units from the existing 561 to at least 3,000, but potentially up to
                                                                                                                                    site barriers to proposed         Orange Site Resource Team          approximately 5,000 units, as well as incorporate significant office and
                                                                                                                                    concepts                          Location: Convergence
                                                                                                                               2.   Provide EIS input on                                                 retail components. The project will seek entitlements in 2011 in order
                                                                                                                                    impacts/benefits/mitigation                                          to proceed with initial construction as soon as economically feasible
                                                                                                                               1.   Strategize how to overcome
                                                                                                                                    code/regulatory barriers to       Purple City Resource Team          thereafter.
                                                                                                                                    proposed concepts                 Location: Teamwork
                                                                                                                               2.   Provide EIS input on
                                                                                                                                    impacts/benefits/mitigation
                                                                                                   6:00 – 6:15                            Break, Dinner available
                                                                                                   6:15 – 8:30                      Final presentations               All
                                                                                                                                                                      Location: Convergence




2
                                                                                                                                                                  Agenda & Introduction
Purpose of the Charrette                                                  Initial Brainstorm                                                           What are the regulatory and/or institutional barriers to making
                                                                                                                                                       connections across and beyond the Yesler Terrace site?
  - Comprehensively review project goals and site constraints                - Build to 2015 standards plus a 75 year life
    across disciplines in order to frame the overall possibilities for       - Build in flexibility for future adaptation, design for continuous          - Consider a whole systems vs. a substation approach
    efficiency and cost savings associated with infrastructure and             renewal                                                                    - Governance issues exist in land ownership and access
    energy system redevelopment.
                                                                             - Set an example/set the bar/green trajectory, for other projects            - Hospital codes may present a barrier to integrating systems
  - Explore optimization among infrastructure systems through use              and jurisdictions to follow                                                - Utilities need an integrated master plan
    of a cross-disciplinary approach.
                                                                             - These systems should not be referred to as “bleeding edge,”                - Content of wastewater may present biohazard problems and
                                                                               which becomes off-the-shelf quickly. Instead we should be                    challenge to heat recovery
                                                                               framing this as learning to invest infrastructure dollars differently
Project Givens                                                                                                                                            - Gravity water recovery from parking and helipad has phasing and
                                                                             - Risk mitigation should be a criteria as well as payback periods              volume issues
  - Program                                                                  - Can we set goal for a climate neutral development with a phased            - Existing governance systems such as homeowners associations
      - Housing: 3,000 - 5,000 units                                           approach?                                                                    don’t work with this concept
          • 561 extremely low-income units                                   - Save the existing stack, reuse in its current location or reuse            - May need a new governance system for operation of the
          • 200 - 300 very low-income units                                    components if torn down                                                      community
          • 650 - 1,250 low-income units
          • 1200 - 3,200 market-rate units
      - Office: 800k - 1.2 million sq. ft.                                Answers to Preliminary Questions
      - Retail: 30k - 70k sq. ft.
                                                                          What are Harborview’s current infrastructure plans?
         - Public Open Space: 5 - 8 acres
                                                                             - Open to discussions, funding, and funding partnerships
  -   30 acres of property under direct ownership of Seattle Housing
      Authority                                                              - Waste streams: water/toxins-blood/medical heat/compost/trash
                                                                               – recycling
  -   10 acres of right-of-way (1/3 of site); similar proportion is
      expected after redevelopment                                           - McKinstry estimates 6 months to 1 year before there will be final
                                                                               plan, which is under development
  -   Redevelopment and relocation will be phased
                                                                             - Harborview is open to partnering and collaborating with SHA on a
  -   Well-served by public transit
                                                                               district scale plan
  -   EIS process beginning in 2010
                                                                             - Linking all First Hill hospitals is a possibility which should be
  -   A full entitlement process will occur to create entirely new land        examined and could raise the priority of a district approach
      use regulations
  -   Additional funding needed
  -   Likely that existing infrastructure needs to be replaced and/or
      improved; the scope of this work and exact conditions have yet
      to be determined.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3
District Infrastructure Presentations
Integrated Water Resource Infrastructure                                   Community Scale (District) Energy
Presented by Ed Clerico, Alliance Environmental                            Eric Moe & Jim Manson, FVB Energy, Inc.


Selected topics from the presentation included:                            Selected topics from the presentation included:
     • Perceptions and realities about current water use/availability in        •   Bio-energy
       the United States                                                        •   Combined heat and power (CHP)
     • Distributed water reuse systems                                          •   Industrial waste heat
       • Capital cost projections                                               •   Geothermal heating
       • Economics of traditonal vs. reuse systems                              •   Natural air conditioning
       • Case study information from the Solaire project in
         New York City
       • Future areas of increased benefit in reuse systems




4
                                                                                                     District Infrastructure Presentations
District Scale Strategies for Waste Reduction                                           District Energy Study for the City of Seattle
Pamela Bridgen, Environment International, Inc.                                         Tom Osdoba, Univ. of Oregon Center for Sustainable Business Practices



Selected topics from the presentation included:                                         Selected topics from the presentation included:
                                                                                             •   The economic, environmental and social benefits of district energy
                                                                                             •   Combining efficient buildings, efficient infrastructure, and clean and renewable energy.
                                                                                             •   Utility service model.
                                                      Typical Waste                          •   Technology options
                                                      Composition in Seattle                 •   Strategic issues and and potential conclusions from the City of Seattle study
                                                      (source: SPU)




       • Reuse rooms and “freecycling”
       • Strategies for reducing construction waste, increasing recyling and reducing
         organic waste
       • Organic waste processing:
            • How much is available and what type? 5-50 tons per day is needed.
            • Will permits or other approvals be required?
            • Will the product (i.e. fertilizer) be sold or used on site?




                                                                                        Chilled Water Loop System                                                             Source: Tom Osdoba


     The Organics Recycling Process (source: www.convertedorganics.com)




                                                                                                                                                                                                   5
Team Presentations                                         A Vibrant Metabolic Landscape
Achieving Success                                                                                                                             Suggested Feasibility Studies
    - Bring value to stakeholders                                                                                                               - Hydro-geology – infiltration, recharge, storage, feasibility of
                                                                        - Utilities
                                                                                                                                                  permeable paving
    - Establish goals and performance metric                                   • SPU; reduced demand, increased capacity, cost avoidance
                                                                                                                                                - Energy Aspects – treatment/storage options (i.e. micro hydro) or
    - Engage critical partners                                                   (O&M)
                                                                                                                                                  gravity flow energy recapture
          • Funding                                                            • King County CSO; cost avoidance (O&M & Capital)
                                                                                                                                                - Waste by-product utilization options
          • Finance                                                                                                                             - Integration of hospital site stormwater & condensate
          • Policy                                                      - Developers
                                                                                                                                                - Kitchen waste from hospital for compost
          • Political Forces                                                 • Green branding, reduced utility costs
                                                                                                                                                - Harborview laundry facility at Yesler Terrace
                                                                             • Market risk, site constraints, uncertainty (negative value)
                                                                                                                                                - Phasing of systems and development
Building Community Vision                                                                                                                       - Assessing value of rooftop spaces for various uses (views,
    - Create a replicable model of functionality                        - Seattle Housing Authority                                               gardens, photovoltaics, etc.)
    - Beauty and connectivity                                                • Environmental stewardship                                        - Habitat features relative to biodiversity and wildlife
    - Comfort and sense of place – special features                          • Flexibility for long term                                        - District composting system combined with urban agriculture
                                                                             • Opportunity for local partnerships                               - Conveyance of all SHA organic waste to Yesler Terrace or other
Creating Value for Stakeholders                                              • Better neighborhood                                                properties.
    - Residents                                                              • Risks/uncertainties (negative value)
         • Aesthetics: connections with nature, water features, lush                                                                          Comments from Audience
           vegetation, shade                                            - Elected Officials                                                     - Solid waste systems/recycling will be dependent on behavioral
         • Cultural: gardening, ethnic foods, pride and participation        • Support sustainability goals                                       change. There are 3 reasons something doesn’t get done:
         • Jobs: collecting and producing soil amendments;                   • Public leadership visibility                                           • Person doesn’t know that they’re supposed to do something
           maintaining systems, urban agriculture, recycling                 • Risk/uncertainties (negative value)                                    • Person doesn’t know how to do it
         • Air quality: mitigate temperatures                                                                                                         • Person doesn’t have time to do it
         • Free stuff via reuse                                         - Business Community
                                                                              • Opportunity to benefit from sustainability model – employee
    - Residents                                                                 amenities
         • Harborview: reduced impact, lower cost, public relations           • Short term economic uncertainty (negative value)
         • Little Saigon: cultural connection
                                                                        - Financial Institutions
    - Institutions                                                           • Green financing opportunity
          • Schools: educational opportunities                               • Risk of unknowns (negative value)




6
                                                              Team Presentations                           A Vibrant Metabolic Landscape
Metabolic Landscape System Flows
                                                               Watershed
                                                              (Cedar River)                                                                      Off-Site Landfill




                                                                                                                                       le
                                                                                                                                     ab
                                                                                                                                                   Construction




                                                                                                                                 use
                                                                                                                              ycable/Re
              Rain                                          Municipal                                                                     Demolition
                                                                                                                                                   n               Deconstruction
                                                           water supply




                                                                                                                                  -Rec
                                                                                                      uction &                                       es   sing & So
                                                          able Wat                                Prod         Dis                                roc              r tin




                                                                                                                              Non
                                                      Pototable Wer                            od                 tri                           P                          g
                                                        -P        a te                       Fo
                                                     on               r           drinking




                                                                                                                    bu
                                                 N
                                                                                  showers




                                                                                                                       tio
                                                                                                                          n
                                                               toilets
        Storm Water                                            HVAC
                                                                                                  Urban                                           On-Site
        Management                   Treatment       Domestic                                  Agriculture &                                    Solid Waste
        and Storage                                  Water Use                                 Landscaping                                    Reuse/Recycling




                                                                            ion
                                            No



                                                                          at
                                              n-P                        i   g                  Con
                                                 otab               r Irr                             sumption
                                                         le Water fo                                                                 g g
                                                                                                                          C
                             Bio-solids                                                                                 Org ompostin essin
                                                                                                                           anics Proc
                             Nutrients     Solids discharged
                             Bio-gas       to Public Sewer



            Ground
           recharge




                                                                                                                                                                                    7
Team Presentations                                            Circulation and Connectivity
Problems/Issues                                                              Solutions: Disconnection with downtown due to I-5;                     Solutions: Urban Sharing
    -   Bring value to stakeholders                                          noise and air quality impacts                                            - Subsidies for price sensitive households to not drive/park; fees
    -   Mobility, internal and external to the site                            - Improve Yesler Bridge – eliminate parking, prioritize pedestrian       for price insensitive households to drive/park
    -   Access to resources, education, jobs, health                             travel, add weather protection and art elements. Could be            - Segregated priority non-motorized facilities
                                                                                 approached at a district level by including Madison and Spring       - District parking solutions, management
    -   Unknown streetcar alignment
                                                                                 bridges and James and Cherry Street underpass improvements.
    -   Transit service hours deficit, route and frequency                                                                                            - Shared, slow streets
                                                                               - Develop district strategy for I-5 lid
    -   Reduction in the intensity of vehicle use while increasing density                                                                            - Bike share
                                                                                     • Noise and pollution mitigation
    -   Topography and weather challenges                                                                                                             - Car share
                                                                                     • Re-connection to downtown
    -   I-5 Corridor – connectivity, noise, air pollution, safety and                                                                                 - Ride share/Job match programs
                                                                                     • Utility corridor and district energy production
        aesthetics                                                                                                                                    - Circulation pathways integrated with stormwater functions
                                                                                     • Open space and urban agriculture
    -   Boren Ave – connectivity, noise, safety, speeding                                                                                             - Consolidated neighborhood shuttles
                                                                                     • Housing and other development sites
    -   Connection to Little Saigon                                                                                                                   - Improved transportation equity
                                                                               - Collaborate with WSDOT to mitigate I-5 impacts
    -   Parking – supply, access points, external users
                                                                               - Explore acoustic solutions to I-5 edge
    -   Lighting – pedestrian scale, dark sky, CPTED, active hours
    -   Prioritize pedestrian scale lighting utilizing dark sky principles
    -   Cut through traffic
    -   Transportation options doesn’t support housing affordability
    -   Lack of priority for non-motorized options
    -   Grade changes and terrain: creating a rewarding experience
        rather than only overcoming terrain challenges.




                                                                                                                                                             Bike sharing




                                                                                                                                                                                                Zip Car




8
                                                                                            Team Presentations                                  Circulation and Connectivity
Solutions: People Mobility
  - Yesler Way-Broadway corridor upgrades
         • Increase bus service to provide consistent 10 minute
           frequencies
         • Restructure bus network to respond to additional density
  - Mechanized hillclimb assist
         • Bike climbers
         • Escalators/elevators (integrate with auto/bike parking
           and streetcar station)
         • Ramps/switchbacks                                                                                                                                                        Parking stalls that are “unbundled”
                                                                                                                                                                                    from residential and commercial
         • Covered pathways as part of water/energy solutions
                                                                                                                                                                                    spaces can help limit unnecessary
  - At-grade overpass crossing Boren at Fir to connect to Seattle                                                                                                                   infrastructure costs.
    University                                                        Linking Yesler Terrace can be achieved in
  - Pedestrian access through block 3 towards 9th                     new infrastructure investments such as the
                                                                      streercar and changes to existing systems,
  - Expansion of Ride Free bus zone or issue subsidized bus           such as the overhead trolley bus wires.
    passes
  - Covered, secure bike parking with showers and other amenities
  - Integrated wayfinding system for both within and outside the
    site
  - Use of pedestrian comfort as a performance measure
                                                                      More Ideas                                                               Action Items
  - Maintenance of pedestrian corridors is critical, has cost
                                                                         - Transportation Demand Management (TDM): Subsidized transit            - Form a district wide Transportation Management Association
    implications
                                                                           passes, car sharing with subsidized memberships per MTC, bike           (TMA)
  - Neighborhood shuttle that is free, branded, and complements            sharing/folding bikes, priced/unbundled parking, etc.                 - Engage Metro in service planning and fare subsidy discussions
    traditional transit routes
                                                                         - Aerial/vertical structures: trams, elevators, etc.                    - Removing I-5 barriers
  - Covered, lighted walkways connected to solar/water
                                                                         - I-5 as a marker and community gateway (e.g. art on the sound               • Prioritize pedestrian improvements on existing crossings
    performance
                                                                           walls, pedestrian/bike bridges across, etc.)
  - Terraced resting spots/mini plazas on walkways with the                                                                                           • Identify potential capital partners (could include district
                                                                         - No net increase in per capita vehicle trips.                                  strategy for multiple crossings)
    steepest grades
                                                                         - Streetcar alignment and stops: should serve office uses primarily          • Identify long-term lid options and district strategy
                                                                           while providing maximum access to residential areas.
                                                                                                                                                 - Set target mode splits
                                                                                                                                                      • Identify gaps and challenges to meeting targets
                                                                                                                                                 - Conduct detailed parking demand analysis




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9
Team Presentations                                         District Energy
 Problem Statement                                                      Thermal Loop
     Creation of a district energy system that optimizes the balance
     between environmental impacts and economics to create value.
                                                                        Barriers                                                                       If cooling is required...
                                                                           - Who owns it?: Seattle City Light, other city department(s),                    - Maximize natural ventilation
 Solutions                                                                   3rd party owner.                                                               - Needs for supplemental mechanical
     - District energy at the lowest cost                                  - Who funds it?                                                                       • Additional thermal Loops
     - Net zero at the building scale                                      - Who maintains it?                                                                   • Other systems – ground source heating/cooling
     - Net zero at the district scale                                      - Who connects to the loop?
                                                                                                                                                       Risks
                                                                           - Connection fees                                                                - Up-front capital costs
 Action Steps                                                              - Does it count towards State targets?                                           - Does this really develop as planned for proper siting and
     - Baseline - Demand Analysis                                          - Must meet State Conservation Credit                                              timing?
     - Compare different options                                           - Peak demand for Seattle City Light is not an issue                        Issues
     - Scope of Work                                                                                                                                        - All buildings must be on the loop
          • Triple Bottom Line Analysis                                                                                                                     - Carbon
          • Address homework questions                                                                                                                      - Harborview would need to be self-sufficient
          • Ordering of implementation
          • Heat sources and sinks
                                                                                                                             Office
     - Compare BAU/Net Zero/Thermal Loop District Energy
     - Create and compare phasing options                                                                                                                                              Thermal Loop Sources
                                                                       Harborview                                                                                                         -   Seattle Steam
                                                                                                                                             Housing
                                                                                                                                                                                          -   Post St. CHP
                                                                                                                                                                   Laundry                -   Condensate
                                                                                                                                                                                          -   Wind balancing
                                                                                                                                                                                          -   Solar hot water
                                                                         waste heat                                                                                                       -   Sewer heat recovery
                                                                                                               1600 supply                 -Low energy buildings
                                                                                                                                           -Natural Ventilation                           -   Photovoltaics
                                                                                                                                           -Hydronic heating
                                                                                                  On-site power
                                                                                               source or hot water
                                                                                                 thermal storage
                                                                                                                                              1000 supply


                                                                                                                                                                            Thermal
                                                                                                                                                                         energy storage
                                                                       Standby Capacity



10
                                                                                                               Team Presentations                                  District Energy
Net Zero at the Building Scale                                     District Energy Menu of Options

Sources
   - Passive is the first option                                        Electricity Grid
   - Reduce all loads to maximum possible on an annual
     basis
        • On-site renewable
        • Photovoltaic (up to 1% per year)                              Wind Balancing                                         Fuel Cell
        • Storage
        • Fuel cells (in the future)
                                                                                                          Photovoltaic
        • Ground source heat pump
                                                                                                                               Methane         Electric Vehicles
        • Solar thermal                                                                            Passive,
                                                                                                 low-energy
                                                                                                   building
Issues
                                                                                                  Natural
    - No constraints on building codes                                                           Venitalion                                        Wastewater
                                                                                                                 Black water   Anaerobic
    - Reduced up front costs                                                                                                   Digester          Sewer Line Mining
    - Build-out cost is higher                                                     Green Site Design
    - Potential to use for low-rise buildings but not high-rises

                                                                                                                                    Food                             Sewer Lines
Benefits
                                                                                                                                    & Yard
                                                                                                                                    Waste
   - Reduced land costs for infrastructure - reduced
     development of below-grade utilities and thermal
     storage.                                                                                                                                           Heat
   - No pipes.                                                                                                                                          Extraction

                                                                                 Solar Thermal




                                                                            Seattle Steam                                       Laundry Facilities
                                                                                                 Low-temp Thermal Loop                                                Hot Water Storage




                                                                                                                                                                                          11
Team Presentations                                        Policy & Regulatory

                                                                       Creation of Utility Districts                                                       • Develop clear direction to developers regarding the design
 Key policy issues identifed by the team:                                                                                                                    guidance they need to adhere.
                                                                         - Problems/Issues
     • Creation of Utility Districts                                                                                                                            » Ban the use of electric resistance heating (on –site
                                                                              • Are there city policies in place to enable an integrated
     • Electric Resistance Heat                                                 exclusive franchise district?                                                      boiler could be a temporary solution)
     • Sewer Heat Recovery                                                    • Is there an existing publicly owned thermal district in                         » Develop low cost financing for non-profit developers
                                                                                Seattle? (maybe UW’s electric distribution system, not                             to offset the cost of units built prior to the
     • On-Site Waste Water Treatment
                                                                                owned by City Light)                                                               development of district energy
     • Water Conservation                                                                                                                                  • Address the issue of risk mitigation for stormwater overflow
                                                                              • Does building code addresses district energy systems?
     • Energy Efficiency                                                                                                                                     events.
                                                                              • Does zoning support utility districts?
     • Neighborhood Scale Composting                                                                                                                       • Develop a transition plan to bridge the current system that
                                                                              • Is there redundancy of systems?                                              requires developers to buy into the existing system, even if a
     • Urban Agriculture in the ROW                                           • Do old systems and their financing model inhibit investment                  robust system is created on-site, to mitigate the impacts of
     • District Parking, Electric Vehicles                                      in new systems?                                                              an overflow event
     • I-5 Lid                                                                • How can risk assessment and mitigation be addressed and                         » Approach King County and SPU with a “pay as you
                                                                                by whom?                                                                           go” model for Combined Sewer Overflow events
                                                                              • What is the value of wind balancing to Seattle City Light?                      » Include vulnerable populations in risk planning
 Preliminary List of Policy & Regulatory Partners:
     • City of Seattle: Dept. of Planning & Development, City Light,     - Solutions                                                               Electric Resistance Heat
       Seattle Public Utilities, Dept. of Transportation, Parks               • Educate people in simple terms about what they are getting           - Problems/Issues
     • King County: Public Health, Wastewater Treatment Division                 through fixed costs of an energy district.                               • Electric resistance heat is not a long-term viable solution, yet
     • State of Washington: Dept. of Health, Dept. of Ecology,                • Ensure that some of the benefits are passed on to                           it is the most commonly used form of heating for multifamily
                                                                                 occupants                                                                  due to low cost.
       Dept. of Transportation
                                                                              • The city needs to decide the operations and ownership
                                                                                 parameters of an energy district (e.g., publicly owned,             - Solutions
                                                                                 privately owned, hybrid). Look to Vancouver, Portland and
                                                                                 Minneapolis/St. Paul for models                                          • Can it be banned using code?
                                                                              • For any model, required participation will be needed in order             • Can we prohibit developers from using it by way of the
                                                                                 to make the energy district “pencil.”                                       RFP/land sale agreement?
                                                                                    » Developers pay higher initial costs—occupants get the               • Can there be rate pricing incentives or disincentives for
                                                                                        benefits of a more robust system                                     electric resistance heating?
                                                                                    » Create options for non-profit and public developers                 • The use of hydronic heating will impact the outcome of the
                                                                                        to pay for higher up front costs of participating in the             cost benefit analysis of using district thermal heat.
                                                                                        district
                                                                                    » Could transformer and capacity savings be
                                                                                        transferred to the project?
                                                                                    » Could there be tax benefits?
                                                                                    » Is an exclusive franchise possible? A lease/hold
                                                                                        scenario?



12
                                                                                                                 Team Presentations                                   Policy & Regulatory
Sewer Heat Recovery                                                     Water Conservation                                                       Neighborhood-Scale Composting
  - Problems/Issues                                                       - Problems/Issues                                                        - Problems/Issues
       • Have yet to discuss on-site sewer heat recovery as an                 • Are there barriers to a flexible performance-based approach            • Identify the barriers to neighborhood scale composting such
          option                                                                  to water use?                                                            as odor and leachate.
  - Solutions                                                                        » The use of 100% greywater may be in opposition to                • Commercial composting needs zoning support.
       • Look for ways to make sewer heat recovery more viable                          low flow fixtures.                                              • Need to examine State regulations.
       • Develop a funding mechanism to be applied to monitoring                     » Low flow fixtures are required by code.                          • Health Department regulates use of solid waste on food
         the capacity and flow in the combined system to evaluate         - Solutions                                                                      crops.
         opportunities to reduce the potential for CSO overflows to            • If higher flush fixtures that use greywater were needed, this     - Solutions
         create opportunities for future benefits                                 could potentially be addressed with a code variance                   • Explore in-vessel anaerobic composting in “mini-depots.”
       • Look at the models being developed in Victoria, BC
         regarding locally based waste-water to energy treatment                                                                                        • Determine if the codes are in place to allow this including
         facilities                                                     Energy Efficiency                                                                  the air quality, public health, building and land use codes.
                                                                          - Problems/Issues                                                             • Explore various scales and outcomes (e.g., site based,
       • Determine the location of combined sewer main lines and
         pump stations close to Yesler Terrace in order to replicate           • Are there code barriers to carbon neutral buildings?                      neighborhood based, opportunities for co-gen and bio-gas
         the Victoria model.                                                   • Could bio-gas be a useful by-product for cogeneration or                  harvesting).
                                                                                  vehicles?
On-Site Wastewater Treatment                                              - Solutions                                                            Urban Agriculture in the Right-of-Way
  - Problems/Issues                                                            • Code barriers are currently under study at DPD’s City Green       - Problems/Issues
                                                                                  team in connection with the Living Building Challenge.                • If ROW is used to produce cash crops, there are issues
       • Limited understanding of the viability and cost of on-site
          gray and blackwater treatment                                        • The Bullitt Foundation new headquarters project has special               related to who owns the crop and proceeds
                                                                                  legislation pending regarding its code requirements related           • Do air pollution and soil contaminants have an adverse
       • Need to examine Health Department regulations
                                                                                  to green innovations.                                                    impact on crops?
  - Solutions
                                                                               • Height limits may represent barriers to on-site wind power,       - Solutions
       • Explore a performance based rebate system to lower overall               but could be addressed in the rezone.
         costs                                                                                                                                          • Recent code changes allow for curb strip agricultural plots
                                                                               • There are no barriers to advanced building controls within                and free permits for this from SDOT
       • Talk to the Portland team (Gerding Edlin) that developed                 buildings, but a smart grid system is desirable.
         the Oregon State University Building for their economic data
                                                                               • Smart meters are accepted by the Utility.
       • Address public perception issues regarding reuse of gray
                                                                               • Explore thermal storage and electric load shedding to create
         and blackwater
                                                                                  flat overall loads
       • Explore potential use of non-potable water for fire
         suppression (including use of oversized cisterns to provide
         additional capacity)
       • The Health Department has been open to membrane bio-
         reactor technology
       • Can recaptured water be used for fire suppression? The
         State allows it.
       • Florida has a purple hydrant system for reused water.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13
Team Presentations                                          Policy & Regulatory
 District Parking and Electric Vehicles                                             • Explore an L.I.D. or park bond, or federal stimulus funding
     - Problems/Issues                                                              • Wait for the right time to move forward; engage WSDOT
          • SDOT parking approaches currently do not include district               • Take incremental steps through phases of development
             parking                                                                • Spark people’s imagination with a design competition
          • Code barriers don’t support shared or off-site parking                  • Could an I-5 farm be created on the lid? Valuable real
          • Electric vehicle infrastructure is currently insufficient for             estate?
             future demand                                                          • Electric cars on I-5 to reduce pollution
     - Solutions                                                                    • Tensile/fabric structure over freeway to capture pollutants
          • Parking minimum requirements may be negotiated as part                    and clean air
            of the rezone                                                           • Quieter pavement to reduce noise (WSDOT studying on SR
          • Parking maximums are in pilot but may be expanded                         520)
          • Could policy incentives encourage electric vehicle service?
          • Could we explore the shared use of charging stations            Other Infrastructure Issues
            (such as in partnership with Harborview for day/night             - Solutions
            charging)?
                                                                                   • Develop an infrastructure investment fund—look at
          • Zipcar model of on-site car sharing is a potential revenue                Vancouver, B.C.’s green infrastructure model, City of Aspen
            source for SHA                                                            taxation model, S. Africa water sales tax
          • Could code incentives be provided for on-site car sharing?             • Create the infrastructure necessary to support electric
          • Find a place to locate “quick charge” station                             vehicle use. Explore car sharing, policy incentives, shared
          • Car ownership and mode splits need additional study                       “time of day” charging facilities, quick charge station, etc.
                                                                                   • Develop a long-term governance system that supports
                                                                                      operations and maintenance of the community
 I-5 Lid
                                                                                   • Explore options for land ownership, including lease-holds
     - Problems/Issues
                                                                                   • Use smart infrastructure computer controls
          • I-5 corridor creates noise and pollution and limits access
             to Yesler Terrace.                                                    • Leverage/coordinate infrastructure improvements to reduce
                                                                                      cost of each
          • Barriers to action: security, State regulatory rights, air
             rights.                                                          - Timing
     - Solutions                                                                   • Need to develop governance now and design the specifics
                                                                                      later, vs. the other way around
          • Identify the partners who would stand to benefit from the
            lid                                                                    • Track carbon accounting methodology for SEPA review
          • First Hill Neighborhood had envisioned a lid                           • Track future carbon credits and carbon trading, such as Bill
                                                                                      F1621 that would authorize auctioning of carbon credits,
          • Define the critical path issues related to WSDOT and
                                                                                      which would provide financial value for carbon credits.
            other stakeholders
                                                                                      Ownership of credits would be TBA




14
                                                                                                                                          Feedback & Next Steps

Did this event increase your understanding of the project?                                                                        Next Steps
                                                                                                                                  Following the charrette, the consultant team will evaluate the
                                                                                                                                  options generated at the design charrette and combine them
                                                                                                                                  to create scenarios for further analysis. These scenarios will
                                                                                                                                  be evaluated using criteria developed by stakeholders in a
                                                                                                                                  process led by CollinsWoerman.
Did this event generate insights that are likely to have an impact of the project?
                                                                                                                                  The scenarios will be evaluated consistently with respect to
                                                                                                                                  the level of assessment and the level of externalities required
                                                                                                                                  to adequately capture relationships. The analysis will notate
                                                                                                                                  data quality and uncertainty. The scope of additional analysis
                                                                                                                                  may include evaluating the highest performing scenarios,
Please rate the overall quality of the event.                                                                                     identifying triggers and thresholds, conducting sensitivity
                                                                                                                                  analysis, and determining financial mechanisms necessary for
                                                                                                                                  implementation.




Describe your overall experience of the event.                   Please feel free to add any other feedback.
(selected responses)                                             (selected responses)
                                                                 •   This would have been good to do much earlier in the
  •   The charrette was well organized and highly productive.        process so that all the insights could fully make their
      This collaborative and intense format leads to creative/       way into shaping the concept plan.
      interdisciplinary approaches
                                                                 •   Other positives included quality of people, having the
  •   It was a wonderful forum for creative thinking and             right people there (stakeholders), keeping people on
      everyone worked together well as a team.                       track.
  •   Top notch people collaborating effectively on a            •   It was really inspiring to see all the excellent ideas and
      challenging and exciting project!!!                            technologies that were brought to the table
  •   Event was excellent. Really enjoyed the mix of             •   What a an enjoyable and productive gathering of great
      technical expertise, “big-picture” thinkers, and local         minds!
      knowledge. While it was an intense day-and-a-half,
      it was one of the more rewarding and stimulating           •   Yesler Terrace provides a wonderful opportunity to
      professional experiences I have had this year.                 produce a model community and I hope we can provide
  •   It was an extremely productive use of time with very           value to this process in the future.
      knowledgeable experts on the appropriate fields
      dedicated to providing valuable information. The
      charrette was well organized to maximize everyone’s
      participation and harness the abundant energy brought
      to the event.




                                                                                                                                                                                              15
Western Harbour, Malmö, Sweden
A formerly industrial area was transformed into one of the most
recognizable examples of sustainable development in the world,
based largely on the use of integrated water and energy systems.

				
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