Conrad N. Hilton_ Innkeeper Extraordinaire_ Statesman and by yurtgc548

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									     Conrad N. Hilton, Innkeeper Extraordinaire,
     Statesman and Philanthropist
     by Cathleen Baird, M. A.

                                                                                                and Towers) and         in the small town of San Antonio,
                                                                                                the Palmer House in     New Mexico on Christmas Day, 1887.
                                                                                                Chicago; the Roos-      Hilton was educated at St. Michael’s
                                                                                                evelt, New Yorker,      College, Santa Fe, New Mexico; the
                                                                                                Plaza and Waldorf-      New Mexico Military Institute; and
                                                                                                Astoria Hotels in       the New Mexico School of Mines. He
                                                                                                New York City; the      learned about active responsibility
                                                                                                Townhouse in Beverly    for local and state communities from
                                                                                                Hills; the Mayflower    his father, August Holver Hilton when
                                                                                                in Washington, DC,      August served as a delegate to the
                                                                                                and the entire chain    first New Mexico territorial legisla-
                                                                                                of Statler Hotels.      ture. Conrad, in turn, served in the
                                                                                                (When Conrad            first New Mexico state legislature in
                                                                                                Hilton bought the       1912. Afterwards, he founded a suc-
                                                                                                Statler Hotel chain     cessful bank in his hometown before
                                                                                                for $111 million, it    enlisting as a second lieutenant in
                                                                                                was recognized as       World War I.
Hilton’s Private “Statesmanship” of “World Peace through International Trade and Travel”        the largest transfer        Following the end of World War
facilitated negotiations for hotels in key cities around the world (Hughes, 1956). Photo from
the Conrad N. Hilton Collection, Hospitality Industry Archives, University of Houston.          of real estate in       I, many businessmen were seeking
                                                                                                America since the       new opportunities brought forth
Introduction                                                                                    Louisiana Purchase in   by Texas oil drilling. Conrad Hilton
     Conrad Nicholson Hilton built                 1803.) He established standards of quality in the fields of          wanted to purchase a bank in one of
the largest hotel real estate empire               hotel management and operations for the entire hospital-             the communities near the Eastland
of his time—Hilton Hotels Corpora-                 ity industry. As a result of his achievements, he became             and Ranger oil fields of West Texas.
tion and Hilton International—and                  an extremely well known businessman.                                 When he visited the small Texas
served as chairman until his death on                    Hilton earned success by purchasing these hotels               town of Cisco in June 1919, he was
January 3, 1979. His commitment to                 when they were unprofitable, and then turned each one
world peace and economic stability                 into an exceptionally profitable operation. According to
was combined with a vigorous pro-                  archival documents and various 1950s hotel trade publi-
gram to develop a global-system of                 cations, Hilton set financial management standards for
world-class hotels.                                controlling the cost of hotel operations with a “magic
     Conrad Hilton acquired his fame               formula.” He required his department heads to calculate
as the hotelman who owned presti-                  departmental costs and to evaluate the actual cost at the
gious landmark hotels — the Steven’s               month’s end. For the first time, hotel management could
(at one time the largest hotel in the              predict the amount of staff and provisions required to
world, now called the Chicago Hilton               meet corporate operational standards and guest expecta-
                                                   tions and still maintain maximum gross operating profits.
Cathleen Baird, M. A. is the                       Individual hotel departments became responsible for
director of Hospitality Industry                   drastically reducing costs and increasing profits in an un-
Archives at the Conrad N. Hilton
College of Hotel and Restaurant                    precedented proportion—without reducing guest services.
Management at the University of                          Mr. Hilton was one of seven children born to a Nor-
Houston in Houston, Texas USA.                     wegian immigrant father and a German-American mother

Journal of Hospitality &Tourism Education                                                                                                                       5
                                                                          before their divorce. On Christmas        from the Official Hotel Red Book and
                                                                          Day, 1977, also his 89th birthday, Mr.    Directory for the years 1931 through
                                                                          Hilton married Mary Frances Kelly,        1934. The Moodys controlled the
                                                                          whom he had known since the El            American Life Insurance Company of
                                                                          Paso Hilton opening in 1930.              Galveston as well as ownership of the
                                                                              When the stock market crash           Galveston baseball team, banks, ho-
                                                                          occurred in 1929, eighty-one per-         tels and newspapers. Conrad Hilton
                                                                          cent of America’s hotels fell into        received a $300,000 loan from the
                                                                          bankruptcy. Like other hotels across      Moodys by putting up Hilton Hotels,
                                                                          America, the Hilton Hotels continued      Inc. stock as security. In December
                                                                          to perform poorly and a $300,000          1931, the Moodys foreclosed on the
                                                                          loan did not last. By 1931, Conrad        loan and took over the Hilton hotels.
                                                                          Hilton was forced to move his family      In return, the Moodys offered Hilton
Conrad Hilton is shown here at his desk in his Los Angeles office some-   into the El Paso Hilton Hotel because     the management of his own hotels
time in the early 1940s. Photo from the Conrad N. Hilton Collection,                                                along with management of their
Hospitality Industry Archives, University of Houston.
                                                                          he could not provide any other roof
                                                                          over their heads. Rather than de-         hotels. The Hilton and Moody hotels
quick to see the business potential in both the oil fields                clare bankruptcy, Hilton was able to      were merged into the National Hotel
and railroad travelers. But rather than buy a local Cisco                 make a financial agreement with the       Company with Conrad Hilton holding
bank, he bought the Mobley Hotel instead. He believed                     National Hotels Corporation, owned        one-third ownership with a salary of
he could utilize some of the inn-keeping experience he                    by the Moody family of Galveston,         $18,000 per year. The relationship—a
learned with his family’s hotel operation in New Mexico.                  Texas, just before defaulting on the      very stormy one according to Be My
In spite of the 1920 depression that saw the failure of 11                $300,000 loan that was outstanding        Guest—ended in 1934. The Moodys
of that region’s 13 banks, Hilton operated the Mobley at                  to one of Moody’s
a profit with rooms frequently rented in eight-hour shifts                banks. According
in order to provide workers with much needed places to                    to the agree-             Sidebar 1
sleep. Conrad called the Mobley something between a                       ment, Hilton                      Conrad Nicholson Hilton
flophouse and a gold mine because the small 40-room ho-                   directed the two                       (1887-1979)
tel averaged 300% occupancy and its profitability enabled                 combined hotel                      Biographical Facts
Conrad to purchase a second hotel in Fort Worth (the                      companies as
Melba, in October 1919), and in 1920, two more small                      both president
Texas hotels. By the end of 1923, Conrad Hilton had 530                                             • Born December 25, 1887 in San Antonio,
                                                                          of Hilton Hotels,
hotel rooms in Texas and he began to dream about build-                                                  New Mexico, one of seven children. Died
                                                                          Inc. and general
ing a new hotel that would be the first hotel to carry the                                               January 3, 1979.
                                                                          manager of the
Hilton name. The equity and the profits from those first                  Moody’s National          • Four children: Conrad N., Jr., William Bar-
four ‘flop houses’ enabled Hilton to construct the Dallas                 Hotels Corpora-                ron, Eric Michael, and Francesca.
Hilton (Dallas Morning News, 1925). This hotel opened                     tion. Between             • Spoke Spanish fluently
August 2, 1925 and was so successful that he received                     the two compa-            • Hobbies: Golf, dancing, playing the piano
many invitations to build or manage hotels all over North                 nies, there were          • Educated at St. Michael’s College, Santa Fe,
Texas. It was not long before he was opening at least one                 19 hotels.                     NM; the New Mexico Institute; and the New
new hotel a year.
                                                                              We know                    Mexico School of Mines.
     On the more personal side, Conrad Hilton did not                     a few details             • Served in the first New Mexico state legisla-
consider marriage until 1925, when at the age of 38 he                    about Hilton’s                 ture in 1912 as a Republican representative
married Mary Barron — just one month following the                        ownership/                     for one term.
grand opening celebration for the Dallas Hilton hotel.                    management
                                                                                                    • Purchased his first hotel, the Mobley, in Cis-
They had three children, Conrad N., Jr., William Barron                   partnership with
                                                                                                         co, Texas (1919), then 3 more small hotels.
and Eric Michael. However, the couple divorced in 1934,                   W. L. Moody and
a casualty of the Depression, according to Conrad Hilton                                            • Constructed his first hotel, the Dallas Hil-
                                                                          his son Shearn
in his biography, Be My Guest. A fourth child, Francesca,                                                ton, which opened in August 1925.
                                                                          Moody from Be
was born during his second marriage to Zsa Zsa Gabor,                     My Guest and

6                                                                                                                                  Volume 16, Number 3
returned the ownership of the Hilton     from seven percent to nineteen per-
Hotels in Lubbock, Dallas and Plain-     cent. Between 1948 and 1950, Hilton          Sidebar 2
view to Conrad Hilton along with a       Hotel profits increased from eighteen
                                                                                       A few of the largest American
loan of $95,000. With that money,        percent to twenty-six percent while
                                                                                      hotels bought by Conrad N. Hilton
Hilton was able to pay off other         at the same time, payroll decreased
loans and the five hotels began          four and one-half percent and other
                                                                                      • Dayton Biltmore, September 1946
showing a healthy profit. Shortly        expenses decreased three percent.
thereafter, Hilton re-acquired           The efficient Hilton “magic formula”         • Palmer House (2,300-rooms) in Chicago
the El Paso Hilton and a hotel in        management system kept the hotels                (1945) for $19.3 mil.
Longview (Texas) that he renamed         profitable even with low occupancy           • Roosevelt in New York (1079 rooms), Spring
the Longview Hilton.                     (Strand, 1951).                                  1943
    By 1937, Hilton’s Texas hotel            Not only was the Waldorf-Astoria         • Sir Francis Drake (450 rooms) in San Fran-
debts were paid in full and he began     a successful hotel operation, it also            cisco, 1937
expanding his company outside the        provided offices and accommoda-              • Stevens (2,673-rooms) in Chicago (1945) for
state with the purchase of hotel         tions for the American delegation                $7 mil.
properties in San Francisco and Long     to the United Nations. Many foreign          • The Breakers in Long Beach, California,
Beach, California.                       ambassadors, American political                  1937
    During and immediately follow-       leaders and international entertain-
                                                                                      •   The Plaza in New York, October 1943
ing WWII, Hilton began to purchase       ers maintained apartments at this
                                                                                      • Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York for $7.4
landmark hotels across the country.      hotel — and Hilton was considered a
                                                                                          million (60% equity), 1949 (Conrad Hilton
He purchased the luxurious Plaza         friend by many of these important
                                                                                          carried in his wallet for many years a pho-
Hotel in 1943 and in spite of wartime    people. Hilton took an active role
                                                                                          tograph of the W-A on which he had written
restrictions, his staff completed        in international affairs behind-the-
                                                                                          ”The greatest of them all.” This was always
important decorative and mechani-        scenes by hosting social events. He
                                                                                          a reminder of his long-time goal to own that
cal renovations that increased the       attended the Republican National
hotel’s operational and revenue          Convention in support of his friend
producing efficiency. The company        Dwight D. Eisenhower’s nomination
called this management tactic “min-      for President and later acted as a       Hilton even appeared as a featured guest on a number of
ing for gold.” (See the Sperl “Red       temporary ambassador for President       television programs, including Edward R. Murrow’s Person
Ellison Oral History” Interview for      Eisenhower.                              to Person, the Ed Sullivan Show, and Ralph Edward’s This
more “Digging for Gold” details). The        Hilton played a leadership role      is Your Life.
Plaza increased its overall profits by   in support of an economic means               Hilton, accompanied by his son, Conrad Hilton,
eight percent, which enabled the         and a philosophical approach to                       .
                                                                                  Jr., Joseph P Binns, Vice President of Hilton Hotels,
hotel to spend $500,000 each year        achieving world peace, along with his    and brother Captain Carl Hilton, traveled to Europe
for improving facilities. According      friends Evangelist Billy Graham and      shortly after the end of World War II to seek possibili-
to Frank Wangeman, one-time Plaza        the Reverend Norman Vincent Peale.       ties for cooperative business between European hotels
general manager, a new salad bar         Consequently, he became not only a       and important American hotels in the eastern American
lunch attracted the young profes-        business leader but also a statesman     gateway cities of New York, Boston, and Washington, D.C.
sionals working in the neighborhood      with access to world leaders. The        Initially, Hilton expected to implement a program only
as well as the elderly ladies residing   Mayflower Hotel frequently hosted        for the coordination of sales promotion and reservation
in the hotel. This augmented din-        high-level government meetings and       services between European and American hotels (Baird,
ing room revenue later attracted         social affairs, as did the other land-   1948). Meanwhile, the need for good hotels continued
more transient guests to stay at the     mark Hilton properties in Washington     to increase and Conrad Hilton established a new hotel
hotel (Wangeman, 1993). The first        D.C.—the Washington and the Capital      company in May 1948—against the advice of his conserva-
year Hilton managed the Waldorf-         Hilton Hotels. One measure of Con-       tive-minded Hilton Hotels Corporation Board of Directors.
Astoria, the hotel did $1.5 million      rad Hilton’s fame could be the fact      The Board of Directors doubted that Hilton hotels out-
more business with ninety-five fewer     that his picture frequently appeared     side the continental borders of the United States could
employees. The Mayflower Hotel           on the covers of national news maga-     be successful. Conrad Hilton was firmly convinced,
improved its profit on food service      zines—Time, Newsweek, and Life.          however, that the new hotel company would expand

Journal of Hospitality &Tourism Education                                                                                                    7
internationally and thereby en-          traveler, and the newest ideas in modern, efficient oper-    utes to the beauty of any city …their
courage both industrial growth           ation for the hotel man” (Baird, 1950). The hotel opened     interiors are authentic reproduc-
and tourism. The new company             with a great deal of international publicity on December     tions of period or contemporary art,
expected to “particularly focus          9, 1949. In fact, the hotel’s unique new design led to       decor and furnishings. Efficient
first on commercial and travel cen-      the publication of a twelve-page article in the February     equipment and facilities dramati-
ters of the Western Hemisphere;”         1950 Hotel Monthly magazine, complete with floor plans.      cally exemplify modern life and its
and second, to meet the need for         The hotel became a financial success within the first six    achievements” (Hilton, 1969).
first-class hotel facilities in Europe   months and recovered the Puerto Rican government’s               Once the new international
(Baird, 1948).                           investment of nearly $9 million in less than three years     Hilton hotels began operations out-
     Hilton Hotel’s corporate motto      (Lucas, CNH Collection Hospitality Industry Archives,        side the United States, they were
of “World Peace through Interna-         1964). Subsequent profits provided financing to further      perceived as providers of safe hotels
tional Trade and Travel” was also        develop tourism and commerce in Puerto Rico. By 1954,        for Americans traveling internation-
Conrad Hilton’s personal philosophy.     Hilton profits exceeded $1 million and the Puerto Rican      ally with uniform standards of clean
He believed that his hotels could        government earned a profit of $2.8 million. The indirect     water, safe food and good beds,
make a contribution to the economy       contribution made by the hotel to the island in the form     working plumbing, air conditioning,
of friendly nations                                                                                                    good housekeeping
and stimulate tour-                                                                                                    standards, a safe
ist spending. At                                                                                                       environment, and
the same time,                                                                                                         the communications
the hotel structure                                                                                                    equipment neces-
would provide a                                                                                                        sary to business
permanent reminder                                                                                                     travelers. Repeat
of all that America                                                                                                    business by impor-
had done to help                                                                                                       tant members of
that country after                                                                                                     the local community
the end of World                                                                                                       enhanced the in-
War II. His advo-                                                                                                      ternational image
cacy of world peace                                                                                                    of the hotels. In
through interna-                                                                                                       addition, America’s
tional trade and                                                                                                       self-made mil-
travel became the                                                                                                      lionaires felt more
philosophical com-                                                                                                     comfortable at
mitment he publicly                                                                                                    Hilton International
supported in a tri-                                                                                                    hotels than at the
                                         of tourist spending was estimated at $20 million annually
level fight against Communism (other                                                                  traditional, class-conscious, luxury
                                         by T. A. Wise, a journalist with the Wall Street Journal.
commitments were military alliances                                                                   European hotels (Schlentrich, 1993).
                                         Hilton International correspondence also documents ad-
and political agreements).                                                                            The Americans explore the customs,
                                         ditional economic contributions to the economy of Puerto
     The new company, named Hil-                                                                      habits and traditions of a foreign
                                         Rico in excess of $6 million (Wise, 1954). Consequently,
ton Hotels International (HI), built                                                                  country, but when evening arrives,
                                         Hilton International attracted the interest of hotel de-
its first hotel outside of the conti-                                                                 they often desire American-style ac-
                                         velopers around the world who sought Hilton’s expertise
nental United States in San Juan,                                                                     commodations” (Lattin, 1985). An
                                         with similar projects in Europe, Mexico, Asia, and Egypt.
Puerto Rico. The new Caribe Hilton                                                                    article appearing in the December
                                         HI entered into successful negotiations for permits to op-
was meant to improve the island’s                                                                     1963 issue of Town & Country maga-
                                         erate in Madrid, Istanbul, London, Rome, and Cairo.
economy through the encouragement                                                                     zine applauded the high, consistent
                                             Architects designed Hilton hotels to meet high stan-     standards of operations found in the
of new enterprise. Constructed at
                                         dards for operational efficiency and guest comfort. Each     Hilton International hotels around
the cost of $5,500,000, the luxurious
                                         hotel was expected to meet symbolic cultural objectives      the world: People . . . know that
300-room Caribe Hilton hotel and
                                         as pronounced by Conrad Hilton:                              upstairs there’ll be a clean and com-
resort operation had “the latest in
comforts and convenience for the             “Culturally, the very architecture of hotels contrib-    fortable bed and that when you press
                                                                                                                        Continued on page 12

8                                                                                                                    Volume 16, Number 3
    Sidebar 3
                                              Hilton Timeline and Milestones

    1912 Elected to the first New Mexico State Legislature.       1934 Purchased the Cloudcroft Resort in New Mexico for a
         Served on 8 committees, authored 19 bills, 8 of               family retreat.
         which were passed one still in effect concerned the      1935 Re-acquired the Paso del Norte in El Paso and a ho-
         way highway signage.                                          tel in Longview (Texas) that Conrad Hilton renamed
    1913 Founded the New Mexico State Bank of San Antonio              the Longview Hilton.
         by selling 300 shares at $100 per share.                 1935 Conrad Hilton vacationed in California and spent a
    1917 Enlisted as a Lieutenant in the army and sent to the          weekend at the Santa Monica Canyon ranch of Hol-
         Presidio for training where he met Bill Irwin. Follow-        lywood film star Leo Carrillo.
         ing graduation, they had 1 month at Camp Lewis in        1936 The Hilton family entourage spent the first of two sum-
         Washington State, and then they were sent to Jack-            mer vacations in a rented house on Malibu Beach.
         sonville, Florida.
                                                                  1938 Hilton Hotels in a Texas Hotel Review print ad listed
    1918 They deployed from New York Feb. 14, 1918 and ar-             the following Hilton Hotels, Abilene Hilton, Dal-
         rived at Blois. Bill and Connie were ordered to the           las Hilton, El Paso Hilton, El Paso’s Paso Del Norte,
         304th Labor Battalion headquarter one mile out-               Longview Hilton, Lubbock Hilton, and the Sir Francis
         side of the town of Toul. Their job was to see that           Drake Hotel in San Francisco (January 1938 purchase
         freight was transferred from wide gauge trains to             of the 500-room hotel funded by Hilton-formed
         the narrow gauge trains that carried supplies to the          “buying group”).
         front. In July, Connie was transferred to Battalion
                                                                  1939 After successfully launching hotels in Long Beach,
         Headquarters and in October to Paris.
                                                                       California and Albuquerque, New Mexico (January
    1919 January 4, Received cable from his mother that his            1, 1939), Hilton began to think about buying the
         father Gus was killed in an auto accident New Year’s          Steven’s Hotel in Chicago.
         Eve at the age of 64.
                                                                  1939 Conrad Hilton sold the El Paso Hilton to W. L. Tooley.
    1919 February 11, Discharged from the Army and return              An article in the Texas Hotel Review has a photo-
         home to New Mexico.                                           graph of C. N. Hilton turning over the key to hotel’s
    1919 While visiting the west Texas oilfield town of Cisco,         entrance to Mr. Tooley on January 3, 1939.
         Conrad Hilton purchased his first hotel, the Mobley      1940 The Long Beach Hilton brought new, much needed
         (40 guest rooms) for $40,000.00 in May, rather than           convention business to the city by booking 17 major
         invest in a bank.                                             conventions with 26,000 delegates.
    1923 By the end of 1923, Conrad Hilton had 530 hotel          1941 Hilton established its first company headquarters
         rooms in Texas. He began to dream about building              outside of Texas when he opened offices at 9730
         the first hotel to carry the Hilton name.                     Wilshire Blvd. in Beverly Hills, CA.
    1924 Conrad Hilton and his friend William R. Irwin formed          Hilton sold the Sir Francis Drake in San Francisco.
         “Hilton Hotel, Inc.” and began construction of the            November. C. N. Hilton signed the agreement with
         Dallas Hilton.                                                Palacio Del Rio Hilton of Chihuahua, Mexico.
    1925-1935 Hilton built and opened hotels in Abilene, Dal-     1942 Hilton bought his first prestigious luxury hotel prop-
         las, El Paso, Long View, Lubbock, Plainview                   erty, the Town House in Beverly Hills.
    1926 Birth of Conrad Hilton, Jr., on July 6th                 1943 Purchased Plaza and Roosevelt Hotels in New York
    1927 Conrad Hilton president of Texas Hotel Association            City.
    1927 Birth of Barron Hilton on October 23rd.                  1945 Hilton became a major national force in the hospi-
                                                                       tality industry with purchase of The Palmer House
    1929 Created Hilton Hotels, Inc by consolidating all of his
                                                                       and The Stevens (now the Chicago Hilton and Tow-
         Texas hotels.
                                                                       ers). The latter was then the largest hotel in the
    1932 Conrad Hilton directed 19 hotels as president of              world. The Stevens was advertised at that time to
         Hilton Hotels, Inc. and general manager of Southern           have 3,000 rooms, but in fact, there were 2,673
         National Hotels Corporation. Actually, this Depres-           rooms when Conrad Hilton purchased the hotel. It
         sion-era partnership with the Moody family of                 took Hilton 6 years to close the deal that enabled
         Galveston, TX resulted as a means of trying to save           him to purchase that hotel. The Palmer House Hotel
         Hilton’s company during the worst years of the de-            was bought for $19,385,000.00 shortly thereafter.
                                                                  1945 Hilton became the “largest buyer” of nightclub talent
    1933 Eric Hilton born July 1, 1933, when his father was            with 14 nightclubs and hotel theaters across America—
         negotiating a loan to buy back the El Paso Hilton.            from the Coconut Grove to the Persian Room.

Journal of Hospitality &Tourism Education                                                                                        9
     Sidebar 3 continued
                                               Hilton Timeline and Milestones

     1946 July 1. Hilton became the first new public issue of any        and earned the net profit of $4,035,646 on gross
          real estate stock since the stock market crash of Octo-        revenues of $45,656,736. Hilton stock was listed on
          ber 1929 when it joined the New York Stock Exchange            stock exchanges in New York, San Francisco, and Los
          June 23, 1947. At the time of incorporation on May             Angeles.
          23, 1946, HHC had 9 hotels with assets of more than            Hilton set financial management standards for con-
          $51 million Palmer House, Steven’s Plaza, Long Beach           trolling the cost of hotel operations with a “magic
          Hilton, Town House, Dayton Biltmore, Albuquerque               formula.” He required his department heads to
          Hilton, El Paso Hilton and Lubbock. (References                calculate departmental costs, and to evaluate the
          Hilton Hotels Corporation Annual Report 1946 and Ap-           actual cost at the month’s end. For the first time,
          praisal, Reorganization & Refinancing of Hilton Hotels         management could predict the amount of staff and
          Corporation, July 16, 1946.                                    provisions required to meet corporate operational
     1946 Acquired controlling stock interest in Mayflower Ho-           standards and guest expectations, and still maintain
          tel, Washington, DC., 50% interest in both the Neil            maximum gross operating profits. Individual hotel
          House hotel (Columbus, Ohio) and the Palm Beach                departments became responsible for drastically
          Biltmore Hotel (Palm Beach, Florida).                          reducing costs and increasing profits in an unprece-
                                                                         dented proportion—without reducing guest services.
     1946 Entered into agreement on April 23, 1948 with the
                                                                         In August, the contract was signed to lease and op-
          Puerto Rico Industrial development Company to
                                                                         erate a 400-room hotel in Mexico City at a cost of $6
          build 300-room hotel in San Juan, the first Hilton
                                                                         million. The hotel was owned by Manuel Suarez of
          International property. The hotel was leased to HHC
                                                                         Mexico City, and designed by the Mexican Architect
          for a term of 20 years, thereby obligating the corpo-
                                                                         Fernando Parra Hernandez. Construcciones Interna-
          ration to provide operating equipment, inventories
                                                                         cionales, S.A. financed the hotel according to the
          and working capital for the efficient and uninter-
                                                                         HHC annual report for 1950.
          rupted operation of the hotel.
                                                                    1951 Hilton executive Curt R. Strand published a series of
     1947 Hilton employed 10,000 people in the hospitality
                                                                         6 articles in Hotel Management magazine that dem-
                                                                         onstrated Hilton-management techniques to other
     1947 Hilton converted a bookstore in the Steven’s Hotel             American hotel companies.
          Arcade that paid $250 per month to the Town and
                                                                    1953 Castellana Hilton opened in Madrid on July 14th.
          Country Room lounge that earned $25,000 per
                                                                         This was the first Hilton International hotel in Eu-
     1948 April 23. Official date of organization of Hilton
                                                                    1954 Hilton International 1017 hotel rooms.
          Hotels International, Inc. The contract for the Ca-
          ribe was transferred to the International Company         1954 Hilton purchased the Statler Hotel chain with its 11
          shortly after its organization, furnished the impetus          hotels. This was the largest land transfer since the
          as well as the pattern for the corporation’s future            Louisiana Purchase. The Hartford Statler opened
          development.                                                   September 7, 1954.
     1948 August 15th — Hilton inaugurated Inter-Hilton Hotel            Hilton purchased the Shamrock Hotel in Houston,
          Reservation System.                                            Texas and renamed it the Shamrock Hilton.
     1948 Hilton introduced a photographic department for           1955 Hilton opened its first hotel in Istanbul on June 10th.
          the Palmer House’s nightclubs. It earned $20,000 in            The Conrad Hotel (a HHC property) opened there in
          revenues during its first year.                                1992. The Continental Hilton opened in Mexico City
                                                                         in December 1955. And, the cornerstone was set
     1949 The Caribe Hilton opened in San Juan, Puerto Rico,
                                                                         for the Nile Hilton in Cairo, Egypt and the contract
          December 7 with construction costs of $7.3 million.
                                                                         signed for the Berlin Hilton.
          Frank Wangeman was transferred from his duties as
                                                                         Edward R. Murrow’s interview program Person to
          General Manager of the Plaza Hotel in New York City to
                                                                         Person featured Conrad Hilton.
          serve as project and opening manager. Under Wange-
                                                                         Beverly Hilton opened August 10th; the Terrace Hil-
          man’s exceptionally fine management, the hotel began
                                                                         ton in October, the San Antonio Hilton in May;
          to earn a profit within 6 months of its opening.
                                                                         Hilton sold the Jefferson Hotel in St. Louis in De-
     1950 Conrad Hilton honored received three awards                    cember 1955
          “Hotelman of the Year,” the Horatio Alger Award,
                                                                    1956 Hotels sold by Hilton during 1956 the Roosevelt
          and the National Conference of Christians and Jews’
                                                                         February 1956 and the Mayflower in March 1956.
          Annual Brotherhood Award.
          Hilton Hotels represented assets of $666,174,653.48

10                                                                                                          Volume 16, Number 3
    Sidebar 3 continued
                                               Hilton Timeline and Milestones

         The Dallas Statler Hilton opened January 15, 1956        1973 HI added six hotels and expected to open seven
         with 1,001 rooms and contracts were signed for the            more in 1974 with the goal to have 82 hotels by
         operation of hotels in Tokyo, Japan and Honolulu,             1976 with a total of 28,000 rooms.
         Wawaii.                                                  1977 Hilton Nevada division started (BH President,
    1957 The Continental Hilton opened in Mexico City on               Henri Lewin EVP) and then renamed in 1980 as
         January 11th and the Panama City Hilton opened                Hilton Gaming Division started (BH President,
         this same year.                                               Henri Lewin EVP.
    1958 Berlin Hilton opened in October                          1987 Hilton International Sold to Aegis, holding company
    1959 Nile Hilton opened February 22nd.                             for United Airlines
    1960 Conrad Hilton honored by the Nicaraguan govern-          1987 Hilton International sold to Ladbroke, a British
         ment with the Great Silver Cross of the Order of              gaming and betting company, with headquarters in
         Ruben Dario. Virgin Isle Hotel re-flagged as a Hilton.        London.
    1961 Hilton Hawaiian Village re-flagged as a Hilton. Hilton   1996 Lawsuit by Hilton International against Hilton USA
         Hotel Carrera opened in Santiago, Chili.                      settled
    1962 April: Acapulco Hilton, Trinidad Hilton; October: Am-    1996 May 10th. Ladbroke is in discussions with Hilton
         sterdam Hilton                                                Hotels of the US to jointly develop the Hilton brand
                                                                       around the world.
    1963 Hilton opened 7 international hotels during the
         spring of 1963, and the Athens Hilton by the year’s      1996 August 30th. Hilton USA formed an alliance with
         end.                                                          Ladbroke/Hilton International to jointly develop the
         January: Royal Tehran Hilton                                  Hilton hotel brand around the world, in a move that
         April-July: London, Rotterdam, Cavalieri-Rome,                also allows the two companies to buy stakes in each
         Hong Kong, Tokyo, and the Kahala in Hawaii                    other.
         August: Re-flagged the Dorado Hilton and the Ja-         1997 January 14 Ladbroke and Hilton Hotels agreed to a
         maica Hilton and opened the Guadalajara Hilton.               plan to reunite the Hilton hotel brand worldwide in
         September: Montreal Aeroport Hilton                           a deal which will see Hilton Hotels acquire an initial
         December: Athens                                              5% of Ladbroke. Hilton International (part of Hilton
         Hilton re-flagged the Hotel Vancouver as a Hilton             Group plc) holds the rights to the Hilton name out-
         Hilton had 32 hotels in the United States and 29              side the USA. It currently operates over 380 hotels
         international hotels for a combined total of 61               in almost 70 countries worldwide. At the time it was
         hotels in 26 countries with 40,298 guest rooms. As-           acquired by the group in October 1987 for $1,070
         sets totaled $296 million. The company had 50,000             million, Hilton International owned or managed 92
         employees of 50 different nationalities and net               hotels.
         earnings that exceeded $2.5 million                      1997 On January 13, Hilton Group plc announced the
         The Caribe Hilton’s influence on tourism after 15             signing of a worldwide alliance with Hilton Hotels
         years increased Puerto Rico’s income from tourism             Corporation, the owner of the Hilton name within
         from $5 mil. in 1949 to $90 mil. in 1964.                     the USA that reunited the Hilton hotel brand for
    1963 Porter Parrish left the Shamrock Hilton in Houston to         the first time since 1964. Under the terms of the
         manage the Palmer House Hotel in Chicago                      alliance, Hilton Hotels Corporation and Hilton Inter-
    1964 December, Hilton Hotels Corporation spun off its              national are co-operating on sales and marketing,
         international subsidiary, Hilton International. Those         loyalty programs, central reservation systems and
         24 hotels became an independent, publicly owned               other operational matters. In November 2000 Hilton
         company. HHC retained the exclusive rights to oper-           Group and Hilton Hotels Corporation announced a
         ate Hilton hotels in the states of the US, and Hilton         further initiative between the two companies - the
         International the exclusive rights to operate Hilton          formation of a joint venture company to expand the
         hotels anywhere else in the world. The one excep-             Conrad brand of luxury hotels on a worldwide basis.
         tion was the Kahala Hilton in Honolulu, Hawaii,          2000 In November, Hilton Group and Hilton Hotels Corpo-
         which is operated by HI.                                      ration announced a further initiative between the
    1967 May, Hilton International became a wholly owned               two companies—the formation of a joint venture
         subsidiary of Trans World Airlines (TWA) and in-              company to expand the Conrad brand of luxury ho-
         creased its growth by about four new hotels a year.           tels on a worldwide basis.
    1972 HI’s net profits rose from $47,698 in 1950, its first
         year, to $9.4 million in 1972.

Journal of Hospitality &Tourism Education                                                                                       11
     Sidebar 4                                              travelers as well as local citizens what hotels can be, and what Ameri-
                                                            can hospitality and service are” (Hamilton, 1954).
             Conrad Hilton’s Hotel
            Management Philosophy                               Most know Hilton as a name synonymous with hotels — hotels that com-
                                                            bined American standards of efficiency and modern comfort with the best
                 (circa 1947)
                                                            traditions of hotel keeping. Presidents and Kings around the world knew him
                                                            as Friend and Economic Partner while students and educators from primary
     1.   Each hotel should fit personality of its city
                                                            schools to universities in many different countries knew him as a benefactor.
          and country.
                                                            The company did so well that that Hilton Hotels International was listed in
     2.   Select good managers and give them the            the New York Stock Exchange in 1964.
          authority they need.
     3.   Forecasting day-to-day business in every
          department for the on-coming month to                 Conrad Hilton’s altruistic concerns for the welfare of mankind guided his
          determine the number of staff and the             philanthropic activities. Despite the fact that he established a foundation, he
          amount of purchasing critical to meet op-         continued to make personal gifts to people around the world. Moreover, as an
          erational needs and also make a profit.           extension of his personal and corporate philosophy, he believed it necessary
                                                            to expand American participation in world trade. Hilton publicly supported
     4.   Mass purchasing for matches, china, bar
                                                            the United Nations’ goals for world peace and economic prosperity at a time
          soap, carpets and all other items utilized
                                                            when many influential Americans were reluctant to enter into such long-term
          in the operation of the hotels
                                                            international economic programs (“The ABCs of Bretton Woods”, n.d.).
     5.   Dig for Gold: utilize all spaces of hotel to
                                                                Hilton believed the institutions of peace should rest firmly on solid
          generate maximum revenue.
                                                            foundations of international political and economic cooperation. Archival
     6.   Training good management staff in order
                                                            documents detail the way this prescient entrepreneur gained status as
          to maintain company standards and com-
                                                            an international statesman shortly after the United Nations Monetary and
          pany progress.
                                                            Financial Conference met at the Mount Washington Hotel, Bretton Woods,
     7.   Strong sales efforts: good advertising,
                                                            NH, in June 1944.
          promotion, publicity and intelligent book-
                                                                Conference participants from forty-four countries including British
          ings of parties and conventions.
                                                            economist John Maynard Keynes and U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgen-
     8.   Inter-hotel reservation system
                                                            thau, sought to stabilize currency and exchange relations by establishing the
                                                            International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction.
                                                            These new banks would promote a steady flow of international investment,
a button something will happen…one can eat the food         which economists believed would both increase the productive efficiency of
without dreading tomorrow, and there are no Old World       developing countries and reduce trade barriers.
bugs crawling around the minute the lights go off. Hilton
                                                                When the United Nations representatives proposed this international
could almost be called the patron saint of the tourist
                                                            treaty, it was necessary for the American Senate to approve American
(Suzy, 1963).
                                                            participation, according to U.S. constitutional law. Various banking associ-
     Strong testimonials appeared in newspapers and         ations lobbied U.S. Senators to vote against the Bretton Woods Agreement.
magazines around the world in praise of the architectural   Consequently, Hilton joined with five other American business and indus-
designs and the interior decor of Hilton’s new hotels. As   trial leaders in May of 1945. They organized a national committee “to give
Conrad Hilton forecasted, each hotel enhanced the pres-     expression to the view of American Businessmen, Bankers and Industrial-
tige of the cities in which these hotels were located and   ists who favor the Bretton Woods” (Telegram, CNH Collection Hospitality
contributed to the host country’s economic development,     Industry Archives, 1945).
to the political socialization of hotel guests, employ-
                                                                The much-publicized activities of this committee served to arouse Ameri-
ees, and the local population. The financial success of
                                                            can public opinion to support Senate legislation in ratification of the Bretton
the hotels enhanced perceptions of America’s prestige.
                                                            Woods Agreement. Significantly, the Senate ratified the Bretton Woods Treaty
Journalist Seena Hamilton wrote in March, 1954, that
                                                            and then continued to support the World Bank and the International Monetary
“Nowhere in the world has one done so much to enhance
                                                            Fund for more than thirty years (Correspondence: Bretton Woods, CNH Collec-
the prestige of an entire industry as that of Hilton for
                                                            tion Hospitality Industry Archives). Conrad Hilton was to serve American and
the hotel industry…On the international scene from
                                                            world interest with appointments to the European Economic Re-development
Istanbul to Mexico City, it has shown world-wide

12                                                                                                                   Volume 16, Number 3
Commission and President John F Kennedy’s Citizens Committee for Interna-
tional Development, a committee that reflected strong support for the 1961            Sidebar 5
bill before Congress.
                                                                                           Conrad Hilton’s Hotel Building
An American International Entrepreneur                                                       Philosophy (circa 1957):
    In her biography entitled Conrad N Hilton Hotelier, Mildred Houghton
Comfort wrote “two great loves always stood out in Conrad Hilton’s life, quite        “Any new hotel must be needed; the location,
apart from the deep affection he felt for family and friends — the love of God        good; the financing, conservative; design, prop-
and love of Country.” Hilton stated that “We have got to recapture that im-           er; and management, good.”
age of America as the hope of all the little people in the world...they must
see a kind face, a generous face; they must see the prayerful, determined
                                                                                      1.    Hilton Hotels are designed to bridge the
face of a loyal brother; they must see a face of great resolution and cour-
                                                                                            gap between luxurious personal service and
age, but above all, they must see the face of a friend — a friend who, like
                                                                                            the necessity of keeping the price reason-
the Statue of Liberty, holds high the torch of freedom to light the way for the
world’s hopeful and oppressed” (Comfort, 1964 and CNH Collection Hospital-
ity Industry Archives).                                                               2.    Building and decorating materials will re-
                                                                                            quire minimum repair and maintenance.
    Hilton believed that a major hotel anywhere in the world should become
the center of its community and express its spirit and personality. From a            3.    Carpets and upholstery fabrics must clean

broader aspect the hotels should become a focal point from which the ex-                    easily, wear forever, and be fireproof.

change of ideas, trade, and cultural expression may develop. People of many           4.    Guest rooms designed to conserve space
nations brought into direct social or business contacts in a hotel where all                without sacrificing guest’s perception of
are welcome and at home can be expected to gain a more sympathetic un-                      comfort and warmth. Each room includes
derstanding of the problems and ways of life of fellow men. When the Berlin                 televisions, telephones, improved air con-
Hilton opened near the line that divided East from West Germany, Mr. Hilton                 ditioning and ventilation.
told the audience that “Berlin was the pulse of the west,” typifying the              5.    Because of increased construction costs
worldwide struggle for peace. And some years later, at the October 1963                     and people’s changing needs, new hotels
opening of the Tokyo Hilton, he said, “Our purpose is to start a current of                 will have 1000 rooms or less.
good men around the world...sharing the wealth of knowledge and wisdom
and culture with those nations who do not yet possess it” (Comfort, 1964
and CNH Collection Hospitality Industry Archives).
    Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., former Secretary of State and delegate to              Foreign contracts often involved diplomatic negotia-
the UN, was elected to the Board of Directors of Hilton Hotels Corporation        tions at the highest levels of foreign governments, as
only a few months before the Board of Directors finally approved for-             was the case in Cairo. On November 20, 1953, Egyptian
eign development (Hilton Hotels Corporation press release, 1947). Other           President Nasser and Finance Minister Amery signed the
members of the Hilton Board with international stature included Herbert           contract to build and operate a Cairo Hilton hotel within
Hoover, former President, and J. Clifford Folger, financier and also Ambas-       a fourteen-month negotiating period, despite on-going
sador to Belgium.                                                                 government changes resulting from the Egyptian revolu-
    Hilton Hotels International operated under management contracts,              tion. Nasser was strongly committed to the successful
supplying only operating capital. Hilton’s use of local capital funds — a         completion of the hotel. The fact that construction site
labor union’s investment funds, a city’s employees pension fund, or a com-        was protected by a cordon of military tanks whenever
bination of private and government investments guaranteed by American             unrest broke out in Cairo is an example of Nasser’s com-
dollars—contributed to a country’s sense of pride in the construction of          mitment to the completion of the Nile Hilton Hotel.
modern hotels for business travelers and wealthy tourists.
                                                                                  World Peace and Prayer
    Hilton always insisted that local building materials and furnishings be
                                                                                      To Conrad Hilton, world peace and prayer were in-
used and that local people were trained to staff the hotels—policies that
                                                                                  extricably linked. His prayer, “America on Its Knees,” was
enhanced the American image abroad. Moreover, the construction of new
                                                                                  recited first as part of a speech, “The Battle for Peace,”
world-class hotels in war-torn European capital cities encouraged tourism
                                                                                  which was broadcast nationally from Chicago on May 7,
and economic growth throughout the European continent.
                                                                                  1952. Many consider this to be Conrad Hilton’s biggest

Journal of Hospitality &Tourism Education                                                                                                  13
                                                               The first Prayer Breakfast, and perhaps the most controversial, was held
     Sidebar 6                                             on the morning of Eisenhower’s Inauguration, January 20, 1953. As President
                                                           Eisenhower said upon the occasion of the subsequent National Prayer Break-
         Conrad N. Hilton’s speech
                                                           fast in 1956, “It seemed to me that it was a perfectly natural thing to
       entitled “Hotels International”
                                                           sit and write a prayer to read at the inauguration, for an office created by
              on April 21, 1954
                                                           a constitution, dedicated to God. By gathering here today...we are telling
                                                           people that this is still a nation under God. While there is still a world that
          Each one of us, ladies and gentlemen,            believes that the U.S. is a boastful nation, and arrogant of its achieve-
     personally and corporately, carries with us           ments, it is such meetings like this that help to dispel this myth” (Film of
     wherever we go a little of America. Whether we        National Prayer Breakfast as reported by Scherer from CNH Collection
     like it or not, we represent America, its culture,    Hospitality Industry Archives).
     its faith and its history. We are aware of that,
                                                               In his remarks at that same 1956 breakfast, Conrad Hilton told the audi-
     and when we go into a foreign country and put
                                                           ence of congressmen, senators, judges, and business leaders:
     up a hotel, we bring not only our know-how, but
                                                               We as Americans have the obligation to share our success with some
     part of America with us. We are ambassadors in
                                                           countries that have fallen along the [economic and political] wayside. If we
     a true sense of the word and we have got to act
                                                           show the willingness to stop along the broad hiway [sic] of economic prosper-
     like ambassadors. We must learn to work with
                                                           ity [to help others]...we can have the right to expect that if we fall, we will
     people of all races, all religions, different prej-
                                                           be helped.
     udices and different mores. We all know that a
     hotel should be the center of the community. It           What this world needs more than anything else today is an awareness
     now becomes even more than that. It becomes           of its own unity, an admission of the fact that not only men but also na-
     a focal point for the exchange of knowledge           tions are brothers. Prayer is not enough. We must pray as if it all depends
     between millions of people, foreigner and na-         upon God and act like it all depends upon ourselves. I think a thousand
     tives, who have come there because they want          years from now men will speak of our goodness as a nation today.
     to know each other better, trade with each                A letter Hilton wrote to Vice-President Richard M. Nixon on January 17,
     other and live with each other in peace. They         1957 demonstrates a typical Hilton response by a man who was both an “inn-
     become exposed to the best their history has          keeper” and a “good Samaritan.”
     produced—their art, their architecture, their             It was with interest that I heard you speak on the Hungarian Relief Televi-
     religion, their philosophy, their natural beauty,     sion Program the other night, and the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation is eager to
     and their national personality—their very way         be of assistance in this wonderful and inspiring work you are spearheading.
     of life.                                                  Our thought is that we could perhaps sponsor a Hungarian family, assist
                                                           them in coming to the U.S., and standby with financial assistance until such
                                                           time as they are successfully able to find employment and stand on their own
success outside the hotel business. The prayer was pub-    feet (CNH Collection Hospitality Industry Archives).
lished several times in several American magazines with
the picture of Uncle Sam in prayer. It received an over-   Conrad Hilton’s Legacy: His Philanthropic Activities
whelming response from Christians all over the world.          On December 22, 1944, a Trust, with Conrad Hilton as founder and
This led to requests for Hilton to appear on some of the   grantor, was registered in California. Five years later all of the Trust’s assets
leading television shows of those times where he would     were transferred over to a California nonprofit corporation, the Conrad N.
recite the prayer.                                         Hilton Foundation. There are many records in the Conrad Hilton Collection
     President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Conrad Hilton      at the Hospitality Industry Archives, which document Conrad Hilton’s active
were longtime friends who shared not only a love for       involvement in a wide range of philanthropic activities between 1940 and his
golf, but also a commitment to the ideals of freedom,      death in 1979. The materials include tax records, lists of small donations, cor-
peace, and human progress (as documented in photos         respondence, general information files, status reports of pledges, and some
from CNH Collection Hospitality Industry Archives).        proposals for large long-term commitments.
These two men joined with other American leaders at            The Foundation’s asset base remained relatively small until 1979,
annual Prayer Breakfasts with the goal to foster faith,    when Mr. Hilton passed away and, in his Will, he left the bulk of his $300
freedom, and worldwide Christian leadership through        million estate to the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation. As a consequence,
religious regeneration.                                    several major, long-term commitments were made which focused pri-

                                                                                                                        Continued on page 16

14                                                                                                                    Volume 16, Number 3
    Sidebar 7
                                            Honorary Awards and Degrees:

    1950 Annual Brotherhood Award, National Conference        Chairman:
         of Christians and Jews                               Hilton Hotels Corporation (and Director)
    1950 “Hotelman of the Year” - Michigan State Univer-      Hilton International Company (and Director)
         Horatio Alger Award                                  Director:
    1952 Freedoms Foundation Award                            American Committee on United Europe
    1953 Doctor of Laws - University of Detroit               El Paso National Bank (Advisory Director)
         Annual City of Hope Award (Los Angeles)              Freedoms Documents Foundation (Honorary Director)
         Freedoms Foundation Award                            Freedoms Foundation
    1954 Doctor of Letters - DePaul University                National Conference of Christians and Jews
         Cornell University Society of Hotelmen               People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. (Project
    1955 Doctor of Human Letters - Barat College, Lake For-   Hope)
         est, IL
    1956 Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur - France            Trustee:
    1957 Doctor of Laws - Adelphi College, Long Island,       Barat College of the Sacred Heart (Lake Forest, Illinois)
         New York                                             Center for International Economic Growth
    1959 International Achievement Award, Chicago Cham-       DePaul University (Chicago, Illinois) Emeritus
         ber of Commerce
                                                              Loretto Heights College, Denver (National Board of
         Doctor of Laws - New Mexico College of Architec-     Trustees)
         tural and Mechanical Arts
                                                              United States Council of the International Chamber of
    1960 Great Silver Cross of the Order of Ruben Dario,      Commerce, Inc.
         Government of Nicaragua
                                                              Committee of American Industry (National Hotel Spon-
         Michelangelo Award - Knight Commander in the         soring Committee)
         order of Merit - Italy
                                                              Committee for Economic Development (Finance Com-
         Magisterial Knight of the Sovereign Military Order   mittee)
         of Malta
                                                              Horatio Alger Awards Committee of the American
         Medalla Merito Turistico awarded by Francisco        Schools and Colleges Association
         Franco of Spain
                                                              International Council for Christian Leadership (Execu-
    1962 Honorary Secretary of State - Montana                tive Committee)
    1963 Doctor of Letters - Sophia University in Tokyo       International Geneval Association (National Honorary
    1965 Rihan Award for International Marketing Achieve-     Member)
         ment and better understanding among people           Jules Stein Eye Institute UCLA - National Advisory Coun-
         Foundation for Christian Living (Building Commit-    cil
         tee) awarded by Dr. Norman Vincent Peale             Marymount College, Los Angeles (Board of Regents)
    1966 California - Israel Chamber of Commerce              Mayo Foundation Development Program (sponsor)
    1967 Order of Rio Branco, Brazil                          Mt. Sinai Hospital and Clinic (Advisory Council)
    1973 Grand Knight of the Order of St. Birgitta            National Business Committee for N.A.T.0.
    1973 Primum Vivere Award by World Mercy Fund, Inc.        Navy League of the United States (life member - na-
    1975 Doctor of Laws, Honoris Cause, University of Al-     tional)
         buquerque                                            Parkinson’s Disease Foundation (National Sponsoring
    Author:                                                   President’s Committee on Employment of the Physically
    Be My Guest, published by Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1957       Handicapped
    Inspirations of an Innkeeper (privately printed), 1963    St. John’s Hospital, Los Angeles (Board of Regents)
     “The Battle for Freedom,” Vital Speeches of the Day,     United Nations Association of the United States of
         January 15, 1951                                     America
     “The Uncommitted Third,” Vital Speeches of the Day,      U.S. Committee for United Nations (Executive Commit-
         May 15, 1957                                         tee)
     “The Face of America,” Vital Speeches of the Day,
         January 15, 1962

Journal of Hospitality &Tourism Education                                                                                 15
marily on two areas mentioned              Hotels also provided centers where       statesman, this extraordinary man successfully combined
in Mr. Hilton’s Last Will.                 world leaders could focus on inter-      a lifetime of professional achievement in the hospitality
     In tribute to Mr. Hilton who be-      national problems, as when the Nile      industry with a dedication to foster contributions in the
gan his hospitality career in Texas,       Hilton hosted the annual meetings of     fields of world peace, education, and medicine.
the Foundation continues its support       the Arab League in Cairo.
of training individuals to carry out his       When Mr. Hilton did take time
                                                                                         Of special value to this study are the corporate docu-
vocational traditions at the Conrad        out from corporate expansion to
                                                                                    ments for Hilton Hotels and Hilton International’s which
N. Hilton College of Hotel and Res-        measure his accomplishments, he
                                                                                    consist of correspondence and reports written by HHC/HI
taurant Management, University of          was always reminded that he could
                                                                                    President Conrad N. Hilton; HI Executive Vice-President John
Houston. The Foundation’s support          not have been successful without
                                                                                    Houser; J. Clifford Folger, a Washington, D.C. investment
enables the college to rank among          faith. “Faith”, he said, “was the
                                                                                    banker, member of the executive committee of the Commis-
the finest educational institutions in     most significant word of the English
                                                                                    sion for International Economic Reconstruction, and member
the world.                                 language...and the most powerful.”
                                                                                    of the HI Board of Directors; Dean Carpenter, HI vice presi-
                                           In a speech given June 7, 1973, in
Conclusion                                 Washington, DC, he went on to say,
                                                                                    dent and coordinator for Europe, and other HI executives.

     Faith in God, his belief in the                                                This collection is referred to as “CNH Archives” in citations.
                                               Faith is the bond between man
brotherhood of man, his patriotic                                                   Baird, C. (1994, May). Egypt’s Modern Hotels: From the His-
                                           and his maker . . . the strongest tie
confidence in the United States of                                                    toric Shepheard’s the Nile Hilton. Houston: Unpublished
                                           that can exist between members of          manuscript.
America, and his conviction that
                                           the human race and, as history con-      Baird, C. (1950, March). Spectacular luxury in the Caribbean-
there is a natural law that obliges all                                               -the Caribe Hilton Hotel at San Juan, Puerto Rico. The
                                           tinues to demonstrate, the only real
mankind to help relieve the suffer-                                                   Architectural Forum, 97-105. Retrieved from CNH Archives.
                                           basis for the true understanding and
ing, the distressed and the destitute                                               Baird, C. (1950, February). Hotel Accommodations at the
                                           peaceful existence between nations
... these virtues provided the cor-                                                   Crossroads of the Nation: How a Great New Hotel, the Cari-
                                           of the world.                              be Hilton, was created in San Juan, Puerto Rico, with New
nerstone, the mortar, and the bricks
                                               If, in our personal lives, the         Luxury for Guests and New Ideas for Alert-minded Hotel
with which Conrad Hilton dedicated                                                    Men. The Hotel Monthly, 58(63).
                                           strength of our faith has made pos-
the long and meaningful journey of                                                  Baird, C. (1949, November). General Kincaid Stresses Tourist
                                           sible a degree of success and brought
his ninety-one years.                                                                 Opportunities in Caribbean Due to    Packed European Ho-
                                           us monetary rewards, I can think of        tels. The Hotel Monthly, 57(680).
     Hilton was a man of vision
                                           no greater God given responsibility      Baird, C. (1948, May 29). Hilton Hotels Form Subsidiary Group
who built the largest hotel real                                                      to Operate Outside USA. Hotel Gazette. Retrieved from the
                                           we have . . . than that of extending
estate empire of his time and the                                                     Hilton International scrapbook in the CNH Archives.
                                           a helping hand to our fellowman.
first American international hotel                                                  Baird, C. (1948, September). C. N. Hilton Sees Important Pos-
                                               It is in that sense that I have        sibilities for US-European Cooperative Hotel Business. The
company. He never lost sight of his
                                           sought to serve youth, with the en-        Hotel Monthly, 56(6), 55.
responsibilities to his family, to his
                                           dowment of career opportunities at       Bird, M. (1957). Samuel Shepheard of Cairo. London: Michael
country, and to the world. Worried                                                     Joseph Ltd.
                                           the University of Houston, to serve
that the war-torn countries of Eu-                                                  Certificates of Awards, 1950-1977. Retrieved from CNH Ar-
                                           the arts with the endowment of
rope would not be able to maintain                                                    chives.
                                           Webster College in St. Louis, and to
the peace after World War II, Hilton                                                Comfort, M. H. (1964). Conrad H. Hilton Hotelier. Minneapo-
                                           serve mankind, with the endowment          lis: T.S. Denison & Company, Inc.
helped insure America’s participation
                                           of a research center at Mayo Clinic      Conrad N. Hilton Collection. Hospitality Industry Archives,
in the World Bank and the Interna-
                                           for the study of the human brain,          University of Houston.
tional Monetary Fund.
                                           and an understanding of the behavior     Conrad N. Hilton Foundation 1994-1995 Annual Report.
     Hilton Hotels extended Conrad                                                  Correspondence: Bretton Woods. Retrieved from CNH Ar-
                                           it controls (“Religious Heritage of
Hilton’s personal reach towards                                                       chives: biographical series.
                                           America” remarks, 1973).
international world peace and                                                       Correspondence files: letter from Dean Carpenter, V.P. - H.I.,
                                               Not only was Conrad Hilton an          to Abdala Naguib. (1953, June 30). Retrieved from CNH
economic prosperity by providing
                                           innkeeper in the modern meaning of         Archives.
accommodations for travelers in all
                                           the word, but in the biblical sense,     Cunningham, B. (1956, June 24). Hilton Spreading Right Type
the major capitals of the world. Trav-                                                of Aid. Boston Sunday Herald. Retrieved from CNH Archives.
                                           as he made truly significant contribu-
elers and local people could meet in                                                Dallas Morning News, (1925, August 2).
                                           tions to better understanding among
friendly surroundings and begin to
                                           people. An American patriot and
know one another. In addition, Hilton

16                                                                                                                         Volume 16, Number 3
Hamilton, S. (1954, March 1). Hilton’s     Lucas, T. (1964, October 5). Reports        Suzy. (1963, December). Happy Birthday, Dear Connie! Town
  International Expansion, Instrument        and a press release Director of Public      & Country, 117(4493), 104-105. Retrieved from the CNH
  in World Development. Hotel Ga-            Relations (Lucas), Caribbean area for       Archives.
  zette, pp. 16-22. Reprint retrieved        Hilton Hotels International. Retrieved    Telegram. (1945, May 8). Retrieved from CNH Archives.
  from the CNH Archives.                     from CNH Archives.
                                                                                       The ABC’s of Bretton Woods. Pamphlet. Retrieved from CNH
Hilton, C. N. (1973, June 7). Religious    Oppacher, H. (1964, February). World          Archives.
   Heritage of America. Remarks. Re-         Report, February 1964. Cornell Quar-
                                                                                       Today Show Broadcast. (1956, February 2). National Prayer
   trieved from CNH Archives.                terly, p. 37.
                                                                                         Breakfast, Mayflower Hotel Ballroom, Washington, D.C.
Hilton, C. N. (1969, October 28).          Public Relations Department, Hilton           film. Ray Scherer, reporter. Retrieved from CNH Archives.
   Speech given in Houston, Texas, at        Hotels Corporation. (1977, Decem-
                                                                                       Vital Speeches of the Day. (1962, January 15). Vol. XXVIII(7).
   the groundbreaking for the Conrad         ber). Biographical Sketch of Conrad
                                                                                          Retrieved from CNH Archives.
   N. Hilton College of Hotel & Restau-      Nicholson Hilton. Retrieved from CNH
                                                                                       Vital Speeches of the Day. (1957, May 15). Vol. XXIII(15). Re-
   rant Management. Retrieved from           Archives.
                                                                                          trieved from CNH Archives.
   CNH Archives.                           Schlentrich, U. (1993, July 14). Personal
                                                                                       Vital Speeches of the Day. (1951, January 15). Vol. XVII(7).
Hilton, C. N. (1957, January 17). Letter     interview at the Conrad N. Hilton
                                                                                          Retrieved from CNH Archives.
   to Vice-President Richard M. Nixon.       Archives and Library.
   Retrieved from CNH Archives.                                                        Wangeman, F. G. (1993). Personal Oral History Interview at
                                           Strand, C. (1951, May). How to Cut
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Journal of Hospitality &Tourism Education                                                                                                             17

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