Health Belief Model (HBM) Becker & Rosenstock (1984)

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					        Health Belief Model (HBM)
       Becker & Rosenstock (1984)
• The extent to which they believe they’re
  susceptible to the associated behaviour.

• Their perception of the severity of the
  consequences of getting the said ‘disease’
  or in the case of food behaviour.

• Together these two functions determine the
  perceived threat of the consequence, and in
  addition become ‘cued to action’.
                       HBM in action..
  I eat junk I will
  always be obese
                        Belief in personal
  Perceived Severity      health threat
Obese people always
     die early
                                             Health Behaviour
  Perceived Benefit                            Eat healthy
 If I eat healthier       Belief in
 I will live longer     effectiveness
                          of health
  Perceived Barriers
I enjoy junk food..
   I’m addicted.

     Cues to action
  Internal: illness
  External: Media
 Social cognition models……
• So far we have focused on the use of cognition
  models as a means of understanding individuals
• TRA and HBM.

• We now need to apply this to food...ask yourselves

• What cognitions do we have about food and how
  do they affect what we eat?
             Evaluation of the social
               cognitive approach.
• Oversimplified used of cognitions
•   Limited and ignore the multiplicity of meanings associated with food.

• Ignoring the role of emotions
•   Assume that the decision made is rational, it ignores how powerful emotions can be
    in the decision making process.

• The views of others
•   Does not really impress the role of others in social behaviours such as eating.

• Emphasis on cognitions
•   Useful basis for developing interventions & change how people think about food.
 Factors influencing attitudes to
    food & eating behaviour.
• Culture
• Jews- No pork
• Hindus- No beef
• Vegetarians-No meat.
• Mood
• Comfort eating-thrgh CC/OC/SLT a form of associative learning

• Caffeine
• Start/end the day with a kick.

• Exposure to food
• Children can be neophobic but change over time.
     The story so far…………….
•   The work below covers the syllabus content:
•   Factors influencing attitudes to food & eating behaviour e.g. Cultural
    influences, mood & health concerns.

•   You should be able to:
•   Describe people’s attitudes to food & eating behaviour & discuss at least2
    factors that affect people’s attitudes to food & eating behaviour: we focus on
    cultural influences, mood & health concerns.

•   Describe evaluate research that has investigated how these factors influence
    attitudes to food & eating behaviour.
So...which cake would you choose
             and why?
    Did the following enter your
• Homemade vs. shop bought.
• High vs. low calories
                                             The evaluation of
• Chocolate vs. no chocolate                  making a object
                                             is also known as
                                             ‘attitude object’.

                                                (1) Perceived
• These attributes make up your attitude.
                                            likelihood of object
                                               having certain
                                              outcomes vs. (2)
                                              Value attached to
            Eat 5 a day.

What outcomes are associated with this
    Probably a few things ran
       through your mind.
• Studies have shown the decision
  process is not that straight forward.
• Ogden (2003) Sometimes we are
  ambivalent e.g. naughty but nice or
  tasty but fattening.
• Sparks et al (2001) Attitudes are less
  likely to be intended action if you hols
  both +/- views.
                              Over to you….
Food choice “take place within a network of social meetings” (Ogden 2003)
• Judaism



                                                                           Health Concerns

            Research these particular groups and their attitude to food
              How do I put this into
              meaningful A02 & A03?
    •   You need to discuss factors...we have looked at:
    •   Culture
    •   Health concerns      Strengths & weaknesses of the research.
    •   Mood                  Individual differences… (factors are not
                                The research is correlation…you cannot
                                assume cause and effect there are likely
                                      to be other factors involved.
                                 Counter arguments using the different

One trial has proven itself to be a very adaptive trait and useful for survival
Don’t be scared to make statements just ensure you can support your argument.

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