Health Belief Model (HBM)
Becker & Rosenstock (1984)
• The extent to which they believe they’re
susceptible to the associated behaviour.
• Their perception of the severity of the
consequences of getting the said ‘disease’
or in the case of food behaviour.
• Together these two functions determine the
perceived threat of the consequence, and in
addition become ‘cued to action’.
HBM in action..
I eat junk I will
always be obese
Belief in personal
Perceived Severity health threat
Obese people always
Perceived Benefit Eat healthy
If I eat healthier Belief in
I will live longer effectiveness
I enjoy junk food..
Cues to action
Social cognition models……
• So far we have focused on the use of cognition
models as a means of understanding individuals
• TRA and HBM.
• We now need to apply this to food...ask yourselves
• What cognitions do we have about food and how
do they affect what we eat?
Evaluation of the social
• Oversimplified used of cognitions
• Limited and ignore the multiplicity of meanings associated with food.
• Ignoring the role of emotions
• Assume that the decision made is rational, it ignores how powerful emotions can be
in the decision making process.
• The views of others
• Does not really impress the role of others in social behaviours such as eating.
• Emphasis on cognitions
• Useful basis for developing interventions & change how people think about food.
Factors influencing attitudes to
food & eating behaviour.
• Jews- No pork
• Hindus- No beef
• Vegetarians-No meat.
• Comfort eating-thrgh CC/OC/SLT a form of associative learning
• Start/end the day with a kick.
• Exposure to food
• Children can be neophobic but change over time.
The story so far…………….
• The work below covers the syllabus content:
• Factors influencing attitudes to food & eating behaviour e.g. Cultural
influences, mood & health concerns.
• You should be able to:
• Describe people’s attitudes to food & eating behaviour & discuss at least2
factors that affect people’s attitudes to food & eating behaviour: we focus on
cultural influences, mood & health concerns.
• Describe evaluate research that has investigated how these factors influence
attitudes to food & eating behaviour.
So...which cake would you choose
Did the following enter your
• Homemade vs. shop bought.
• High vs. low calories
The evaluation of
• Chocolate vs. no chocolate making a object
is also known as
• These attributes make up your attitude.
likelihood of object
outcomes vs. (2)
Value attached to
Eat 5 a day.
What outcomes are associated with this
Probably a few things ran
through your mind.
• Studies have shown the decision
process is not that straight forward.
• Ogden (2003) Sometimes we are
ambivalent e.g. naughty but nice or
tasty but fattening.
• Sparks et al (2001) Attitudes are less
likely to be intended action if you hols
both +/- views.
Over to you….
Food choice “take place within a network of social meetings” (Ogden 2003)
Research these particular groups and their attitude to food
How do I put this into
meaningful A02 & A03?
• You need to discuss factors...we have looked at:
• Health concerns Strengths & weaknesses of the research.
• Mood Individual differences… (factors are not
The research is correlation…you cannot
assume cause and effect there are likely
to be other factors involved.
Counter arguments using the different
One trial has proven itself to be a very adaptive trait and useful for survival
Don’t be scared to make statements just ensure you can support your argument.