The Holocaust by HC111118185816

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									   The
Holocaust
“Those who cannot remember the
past are condemned to repeat it…”
        What was The Holocaust?
   The Holocaust refers to a specific event in 20th
    century history where six million Jews were
    killed by the Nazi regime and their
    collaborators as a central act of state during
    World War II.
                 How it started
   Adolf Hitler and the Nazi
    party came to power
   1933 – 9 million Jews lived
    in 21 European countries
    that would become
    occupied by Germany
    during WWII
   By 1945 2 out of 3 Jews
    would be dead
             Who was Adolf Hitler?
   Served in German army during
    WWI in the front lines (decorated
    for bravery)
   Became involved in politics and
    tried to seize power by force
    (crushed by police 1923)
   Served time for high treason and
    then rose to power legitimately
   Hatred of Jews
   Worked to rid Germany of
    Versailles Treaty
   Started WWII invaded Poland
    Other figures in Nazi Regime
   Henrich Himmler – SS leader/Chief of German
    police – responsible for implementing the Final
    Solution
   Josef Mengele – ruthless/cruel doctor that
    conducted medical experiments on Jews
   Julius Streicher – Earliest/loyal supporter of
    Hitler, propaganda publisher “The Stormer”
            Under the Nazis…
   12, 000, 000 people, half of them Jews were
    murdered by the Germans because of hatred
    and the belief they were inferior
   These people were killed by: shooting,
    starvation, disease, gas, torture, and medical
    experiments
           Who was targeted?
   Jews
   People with mental/physical
    disabilities
   Gypsies
   Political/religious
    (Catholics/Jehovah
    Witnesses) dissidents,
    Socialists, Trade Unionists,
    Homosexuals, Communists
    The Holocaust had two main phases
   Phase I 1933-1939
   Saw Jews, Gypsies, People
    with handicaps as serious
    threat to purity of German
    “master race”
   Hatemongering propaganda
    – blaming Jews for
    Germany’s economic
    depression and defeat in
    WWI
New Laws enacted against Jews
   Forced to quit civil service
    jobs, boycott Jewish
    businesses
   Stripped of citizenship
    (Nuremburg Laws)
   Segregated – no public
    school, cinemas, vacation
    resorts, or even walking in
    certain German cities
   Took over Jewish businesses
   Band intermarriages
           Kristallnacht 1938
       “The night of broken glass”
   Organized riot of
    physical destruction
    of Jewish
    synagogues, arrest
    of Jews, destroying
    of Jewish homes and
    murders
First Organized Round up…
   Began after
    Kristallnacht of
    German/Austrian Jews
   30, 000 Jewish men
    were sent to Dachau and
    other concentration
    camps with several 100
    Jewish women sent to
    prison
Phase I – Possibility of fleeing dims
   During phase I approx. 1, 500, 000 Jews rounded up
    and shot
   Emphasis changing to extermination camps
    (murdered in gas chambers), concentration camps
    (where prisoners worked to death as slave labour)
   Jews attempting to flee to other areas (Palestine, Latin
    America, other European countries)
   Others hindered by lack of money, unable to obtain
    visas/sponsors, or unwilling to uproot selves
                Phase II 1939 - 1945
   September 1, 1939 Germany
    invades Poland – the beginning
    of WWII
   Hitler orders mass executions –
    creation of mobile killing sites –
    Most famous: Babi Yar where 33,
    000 people killed, mostly Jews
   Creation of Ghettos – confined
    spaces for Jews, & labour camps
    in addition to concentration
    camps “Night and Fog Decree”
                   Executions
   Jewish men dig own
    graves before being
    executed as SS and
    German labour service
    look on
   Last Jew on edge of
    grave before execution
                        Star of David
   September 1, 1941 – Jews ordered
    to wear the yellow star
   6 point star created from two
    interlocking triangles – each
    point represents trust in God, his
    rule over the universe and all six
    directions (N, S, E, W, & up/down)
   All Jews over 10 years of age had
    to wear the star – it served as a
    marker, isolation, failing to wear
    the star meant certain death
              The Final Solution
   1942-1944 – Elimination of ghettos as residents
    deported to concentration/extermination
    camps
   January 1942 – Decision to implement The Final
    Solution – a formal German state policy to
    exterminate the Jews
   Final Solution was carried out by the SS and the
    Gestapo
                    Killing Sites
   1. Belzec
   2. Sobibor
   3. Treblinka
   4. Chelmo
   5. Majdanek
   6. Auschwitz - Birkenau
   Sites chosen because close
    to rail line and rural
         Statistics – Killing Sites
   Belzec – 600, 000 gassed (May 1942)
   Sobibor – 200, 000 (May ’42-Oct.’43)
   Treblinka – 750, 000 (July ’42-Nov. ’43)
   Auschwitz-Bikenau – mass murder daily
    routine – 1.25 million killed (9/10 Jews)
    “The road to Auschwitz was built by
     hate, but paved by indifference.”
   Main camp gate to
    Auschwitz
   Motto: “Arbeit Macht
    Frei” meaning “Work
    Makes us Free”
   The Barrack City
                  Murder Methods
   Arrived by rail from across
    Europe
   Men & women separated
   Forced to undress and pass
    over valuables
   Sent to gas chambers
    disguised as shower rooms
   Small minority selected for
    labour (exposed to
    malnutrition, hard labour,
    disease, & medical
    experiments)
   Boys imprisoned in
    Auschwitz look out
    beyond barbed wire
   Approx. 40, 000 Polish
    children kidnapped and
    imprisoned for slave
    labour
                      Gas Chambers
     (Last gas chamber used in Auschwitz – October30, 1944)
   Zyklon B pellets (Hydrocyanic
    acid) – vaporizes when exposed
    to air, intended as
    insecticide/disinfectant
   Found could kill humans through
    experimentation
   Disguised shower rooms as gas
    chambers (air tight) pellets
    dropped through air shaft
   Bitter almond smell, deprived
    body of oxygen
   Left blue residue still inside
    intact gas chambers
Stash of gold wedding rings taken
   from victims at Buchenwald
Thousands of shoes taken from
 prisoners before their death
  Clothing from children gassed at Auschwitz
By February ’43 800 boxcars of confiscated goods left Auschwitz
Cremation oven
Mass graves
   Crematorium ovens in
    Buchenwald
    concentration camp
   Soldiers view pile of
    cremated remains
    outside crematorium in
    Buchenwald
  Starvation and disease due to
deplorable conditions in the camps
       Famous Photo – Tsvi Nussbaum
         Famous Diary – Anne Frank
   Captures essence of the
    horrors of the Holocaust
   Warsaw 1943, a little Jewish
    boy raises his arms in
    surrender with lowered eyes
    as a Nazi soldier trains his
    machine gun on him
   What happened to him?
   Anne Frank – hid from
    Germans, betrayed and died
    in concentration camp –
    father published her diary
                       Resistance
   Pockets of resistance
    existed
   White Rose – group of
    university students opposed
    to Nazis, leaflets on views,
    leaders executed
   Oskar Schindler – set up
    business employing Jews,
    prevented their departure to
    camps, protection through
    bribery of Nazis
       The end of the war in view…
   1944 War turning in
    favour of Allies
   Germans attempt to
    cover actions
   “Death Marches”
    bringing Jews into
    camps within Germany
    to prevent liberation
   1945 Nazi Germany
    collapsed
    What happened to the Jews after the
              Holocaust?
   Hundreds of thousands homeless seeking a
    new life
   Many wished to return to Palestine
    (only 10, 000 allowed)
   Sought remnants of families/fate of family and
    friends
   Many started new lives in Britain, U.S., France,
    Israel, etc.
       Canada and The Holocaust
   Canada’s record of accepting Jewish refugees
    one of the poorest
   1939 – 1945 – only 5, 000 Jewish immigrants
    allowed into Canada, compared to the U.S. –
    200, 000 or Britain – 195, 000
   Requests previously often denied
                 Famous Quote
                Martin Niemoller 1892 - 1984

   “First they came for the Communists, but I was
    not a Communist, so I did not speak out; they
    came for the Socialists and the Trade
    Unionists, but I was not one of them, so I did not
    speak out; Then they came for the Jews, but I
    was not Jewish, so I did not speak out. And
    when they came for me, there was no one left to
    speak out for me.”
May History never repeat itself…
May their voice never be silenced

								
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