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									        CHAPTER 26
        QING CHINA
From Empire to Nation: Ottoman
    Retreat and the Birth of Turkey
•   A succession of weak rulers led to an Ottoman
    –   Power struggles between rival ministers, religious
        experts, and the Janissaries were common
•   Officials in the provinces cheated the sultan
    out of as much taxes as possible
    –   Took as much from the already impoverished
        peasants as possible
•   Competition from Western European goods led
    to a decrease in position of the artisans.
•       Ottoman armies were unable to keep control of their
    –     Ottomans began to lose key land in Hungary and the Balkans to
          the Austrian Empire
•       Russians began to take Ottoman land as well.
•       Countries gain independence
    –     1830 – Greece
    –     1867 – Serbia
    –     1870s – the Balkans
•   Reform and Survival
    – The British repeatedly helped to prop up the
      failing Ottoman regime
      •   Concerned with the fact that the Russians might
          gain Istanbul
    – Ottomans began to initiate reforms to help
      them survive.
      •   Sultan Selim III tried to improve efficiency and
          build a new army and navy
          – The Janissaries revolted in 1807 and killed him
      •   Sultan Mahmud II built a secret army with the
          help of European advisors
          – Caused a mutiny of the Janissaries which ended in their
            and their families deaths
•   Reform and Survival
     •   Mahmud II then began to modernize and
         Westernize the military and the government.
     •   1839 – 1876: Tanzimat Reforms included
         Westernizing education, beginning postal and
         telegraph systems, building railways and
         distributing newspapers
         –   Constitution was formed which helped the minority
             religious groups
         –   Artisans and women gained little from the Tanzimat
•       Repression and Revolt
    –        The ayan (landed elite) and the ulama (religious
             scholars) wanted to return to the old order
         •     Clashed with the new elite that had benefitted from the
    –        Sultan Abdul Hamid tried to return to despotic
         •     Nullified the constitution and restricting civil liberties (like
               freedom of the press)
         •     Still westernized the military (with German help), and built
               a railway that linked Berlin with Baghdad.
         •     Western education continued and judicial reforms
•       Repression and revolt
    –        Exiled Turkish intellectuals and political
             agitators founded the ‘Ottoman Society for
             Union and Progress’ in Paris in 1889
         •     The Young Turks - wanted the 1876 constitution
         •     1908 - led a nearly bloodless revolution and a
               group of officers came to power
               –   Kept the sultan as a figurehead and as the highest
                   religious authority in Islam
               –   Rivalries between each other, the loss of Libya, and
                   conflict with Arabs took up much of the time before
                   WWI began.
Western Intrusions and the Crisis in
     the Arab Islamic Heartlands
• Arabs did not necessarily like being
  controlled by the Ottomans
  – They accepted it because of the common faith
• As the Ottomans declined, the Arabs were
  decreasingly able to be protected against
•       Muhammad Ali and the Failure of
        Westernization in Egypt
    –        Napoleon invaded Egypt, and the Mamluks
             tried to defend Egypt with spears and
             medieval armor
         •     Mamluks = slaves that had risen over the
               centuries to military commanders and rulers in
               their own name
    –        Napoleon was defeated by the British
             instead of Egypt’s military
         •     Arabs were concerned with how far they had
               fallen behind Europe.
•       Muhammad Ali, of Albanian origins, emerged
        as the ruler of Egypt and Westernized the
    –     Developed the most effective fighting force in the
          Middle East
    –     Successfully threatened the Ottoman Empire by
          invading Syria and threatened Istanbul
•       Muhammad Ali had the peasantry increase
        their production of cotton, hemp, indigo, and
        other crops that were in demand in Europe
    –     His attempts at industrialization were thwarted by
          competition from Europe
•       Fully aware that his possessions beyond
        Egypt were crumbling, Muhammad Ali
        died in 1848
    –        Successors intermarried with Turkish
             families and became known as khedives
             after 1867
         •     Ruled Egypt until they were overthrown by a
               military coup in 1952 which brought Gamel Abdul
               Nasser to power
•       Bankruptcy, European Intervention, and
        Strategies of Resistance
    –        Egypt became dependent on the export of
         •     Because Muhammad Ali had had the peasants
               develop mostly cotton
         •     Susceptible to fluctuations in the world price of
    –        The khedives wasted their revenue on the
             elite and on fruitless military campaigns to
             assert their control over the Sudan
•    Bankruptcy, European Intervention, and Strategies of
    – Europeans lent money to make sure they would
       have access to Egypt’s supply of cotton
      • The khedives built the Suez Canal with French
      • Europeans wanted control over the Canal
      • Britain and France fought for control until the
           British gained control in 1888.
    – Some people began to question the European’s
       influence on Muslim lands
      • Began to push to a return to the religious
           observance that occurred during the time of
•       Bankruptcy, European Intervention, and
        Strategies of Resistance
    –        Others thought that just as Muslims contributed to
             European knowledge at one time, Europeans
             should contribute to Muslim knowledge at present.
    –        A young officer upset by the khedive disbanding
             Egyptian military units began a revolt
         •     The khedive to sought British assistance
         •     British sent its navy and troops - crushed Orabi’s
               rebellion and led to the British domination of Egypt
               –   Not formally colonized; British dominated through their consuls
                   and officials that controlled political and economic affairs.
•       Jihad: The Mahdist Revolt in the Sudan
    –        Egypt had tried to conquer and control the
             Sudan, but Egyptian rule was resented.
         •     Egyptian rulers were corrupt and taxes heavy.
         •     Egypt wanted to outlaw the slave trade, which
               was a source of profit for the Sudanese
    –        Muhammad Achmad began to revolt against
             the British and the Egyptians
         •     People believed he was the promised deliverer,
               or Mahdi
         •     wanted to purge Islam of superstitious beliefs
               and degrading practices.
         •     He led his followers on a violent rebellion against
               the Egyptians and the Europeans using guerrilla
               –   Conquered an area similar to the size of modern Sudan
•   His successor, Khalifa Abdallahi, was
    capable and built a strong, expansive
    – Religious practices were enforced, and
      immoral activities punished.
    – Foreigners imprisoned or expelled – slavery
•   1898 - British General Kitchener attacked
    the Mahdist state
    – Army could not keep up with British artillery
      and guns
        The Last Dynasty: The Rise and
             Fall of the Qing Empire in
•   Nurhaci organized the
    quarreling Manchus
    into eight banner
    –   Brought much of
        Manchuria under his
•   Manchu’s organized their civilization
    along Chinese lines, and waited for the
    moment where they could conquer China
    – They were voluntarily brought south of the
      Great Wall to help the Ming against an
      internal rebellion
    – Once past the wall, the Manchu’s launched
      their campaign against the Ming
      •   Captured Beijing within the year and ending
          resistance within 20 years
•   The Manchu’s were able to subdue nomadic
    peoples and force tribute from Burma and
•   They took the dynastic name Qing and ruled
    an area larger than any dynasty besides the
•   Maintained the political system of the Ming
•   Allowed for ethnic Chinese to serve in the
    government alongside Manchu
•   Didn’t make many limitations for how high
    ranking an ethnic Chinese could rise in the
•       Retained the civil service exams and had their
        sons educated in Chinese classics, and
        patroned the Chinese arts
•       Economy and Society in the Early Centuries
        of Qing Rule
    –        Society remained much the same
         •     Hierarchy intact and extended family system with the
    –        Females remained confined to the household
         •     Female infanticide may have risen during this period,
               causing the population of males to be higher than
               females (opposite to industrial societies at the time)
              –   The best luck a woman could have was to be chosen as first
                  wife rather than concubine – and to bear sons
•       Lowered taxes and encouraged settling
        of abandoned lands
•       Repaired much of the infrastructure
•       The state and merchants profited
        immensely from the silver used to buy
        China’s tea, silk, and porcelain
    –    Compradors - new, wealthy group of
         merchants who specialized in the import-
         export trade on China’s south coast
•       Rot from Within: Bureaucratic Breakdown
        and Social Disintegration
    –        Cheating and favoritism on the exams began
             to take its toll
         •     Uneducated Chinese were taking positions in the
               bureaucracy and not paying attention to Confucian
    –        Revenue that was supposed to go to state
             projects instead went to families
         •     Left much of the country susceptible to floods
               (when dikes were not maintained) or other
    –        Bandits became widespread, and peasants
             were forced to migrate to the cities for work
•       Barbarians at the Southern Gates: The Opium
        War and After
    –        Manchus treated nations like Britain like other
             nomadic tribes
         •     Did not take into consideration the industrial technology
               and strength that the British possessed
    –        British exported many items from the Chinese
         •     The British paid large amounts of silver for
    –        British began to import Indian Opium into China’
         •     Chinese silver began to flow out of China in exchange
               for the opium
               –   Threatened the Chinese economy and social order
         •     Agricultural productivity declined, unemployment rose,
               and the wealthy Chinese spent their money on their
               opium habits
               –   Officials and peasants alike neglected their jobs.
•   Barbarians at the Southern Gates: The Opium
    War and After
    – The Chinese sent Lin Zexu to stamp out the
      opium trade
      •   Seized European warehouses - Europeans demanded
          military action
      •   Junks were no match for the European gunboats
          – Chinese were forced to give in to European demands.
      •   British were given Hong Kong as an additional center of
          British commerce as well as five other ports
      •   By the 1850s, Chinese commerce was overseen by
          British officials
          – Chinese were forced to take European ambassadors into their
•   A Civilization at Rise: Rebellion and Failed Reforms
    –   greatest challenge to the Qing rulers was the Taiping
        •   By 1853 - had captured much of south-central China and
            established a capital at Nanjing
    –   But, the Taiping Rebellion failed for several reasons
        •   Began to quarrel among themselves.
        •   Never enacted any of the reforms that they said they were going to
        •   Alienated the Europeans by banning opium and varying from
        •   Attacked the Confucian way of life – even though they claimed
            authority through Confucian learning
        •   Attacked the scholar-gentry which allied with the Manchus to begin
            Westernization – which focused on railways, factories, and modern
•       Even though the Manchus needed
        sweeping reforms to stay in power, they
    –        The last decades of the Qing Dynasty were
             dominated by Cixi who crushed any
             attempts at reform
         •     She relied on divisions between provincial lords
               and Europeans to maintain power
               –   Backed some rebellions against foreign rule, such as
                   the Boxer Rebellion in 1898 – which ultimately was
                   defeated and led to more foreign intervention in China
         •     In 1905, Cixi gave the civil service exams for the
               last time – ending 2500 years of government
               ruled by an educated scholar gentry in the
               Confucian classics
•       The Fall of the Qing: The End of a Civilization?
    –        Secret Societies began to form to challenge the
             Qing Dynasty.
         •     Many were Western educated
               –   Sought to build China into a new, modern state patterned after
                   Western countries
               –   Leaders such as Sun Yat-sen wanted to relieve some of the
                   suffering of the peasants and urban workers
    –        Uprisings frequently failed due to personal
             animosities or incompetence
    –        1911 - the govt’s reliance on Western loans for
             railway lines caused many uprisings, student
             protests, and troop mutinies
         •     February, 1912 - the boy emperor, Puyi, was deposed
               –   China became a republic

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