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					HOW TO MAKE PAKISTANI ELECTRONIC MEDIA AS EFFECTIVE AS FOREIGN MEDIA

By

Saqib Abbas

Acknowledgement
Firstly we like to thank Almighty Allah who give us all the resources which are compulsory for completing our research work. We sincerely wish to acknowledge our gratitude towards Mam. Farah Asim, who became a tremendous source of inspiration and guidance for this research. She encouraged us incessantly to translate our ambition into a tangible reality. We also want to thank all the people who gave us their valuable time in filing up the questionnaire and their valuable knowledge, which helped us a lot in completing our research work.

Abstract
The topic “Is Pakistani Media Effective or Not – If “No” Than How To Make It Effective” is a researchable topic because media is the important source of getting information, knowing the facts and listening to the truth. In our topic the effectiveness of media means “giving the truth to audiences and conveying neutral point view to the audiences”. The scope of the project is wide because the media is a vast topic and it is playing a vital role in the society. So this topic is very important in the eye of analysts, thinkers and writers. Hence the effectiveness of media is under scrutiny in all times. The globalization of communication creates both opportunities and threats at the same time. It creates new options for the individual to be informed, educated and entertained. It creates possibilities for cultures to be seen as well as to be enriched through a constructive cross-fertilization. However, if the enormous economic power wielded by the major transnational media groups is used in an unbalanced manner, we risk becoming a divided world between content producers and consumers. And that translates into a loss of cultural identity and the creation of excluded groups in countries with smaller or weaker economies, not to mention a leveling down and sapping of intellectual life as a whole. Analysis of the data indicates that about 60 percent of the respondents were women and 40 percent men. Most of them were over 21 years of age. Most of the people are not happy with the current performance of electronic media with in the country. People are badly damaged by the media. They become so depressed that they stop watching tv.

1 Introduction
1.1 Nature of research problem

The media have a vital role in producing, gathering and distributing quality content within the information society. Individual communication has its limits. Communication to the general public will continue to be essential for, inter alia, selecting and interpreting information and placing it in its proper context, and to serve as a platform for the exchange of information and ideas. Independent broadcasting services at the national and regional levels play a major role in providing unbiased information, safeguarding media pluralism and contributing to cultural diversity, particularly through the promotion of local/regional culture and audiovisual production, making full use of the various technical means offered by the information society. In many parts of the world, independent public service broadcasting has a special responsibility in this regard. Distanced from political and economic pressures, it has the role of ensuring access to information, knowledge, culture and entertainment for all citizens, including vulnerable and minority groups and of being a driving force for the creation of domestic content. Commercial broadcasting, whether funded by advertising or subscription, contributes to the delivery of key policy goals such as the production of original and varied content and the existence of a plurality of news sources. In addition, other forms of legally established and non-profit media, operated for local communities, can play an important part by serving women, youth, indigenous people, children and minority groups. After knowing the importance of electronic media and comparing our countries media with the foreign media, there is an essential need to improve our media from all the sides.

1.2

Why it is of interest

As it is said earlier that this topic is of huge interest for society and individual. If the electronic media is competent and professional and its aim is to provide true picture of the story to the audiences than it has a strong positive effect on the society but if the electronic media is not effective and efficient than the effect on the society could be negative.

1.3

Brief background information of the problem

Since 2001, Pakistan witnessed an immense boom as far as electronic media is concerned. Many channels popped up almost every month, which enabled population of Pakistani people not only living in Pakistan but also living abroad starting to enjoy them. But after the electronic industry matured, it also brought many disadvantages along with it, and it led to unethical practices being carried out in the news channels which nowadays are regularly being observed by the viewers.

1.4

Work previously accomplished

Previously no research has been done on this particular topic but lots of articles and columns are written on this topic. Some extract from these knowledge bank is given below:

ARTICLE - 1
Title: War on Terror and Electronic Media of Pakistan Source: http://www.chowk.com/ilogs/67545/38667 Posted: Jun 29, 2008 Sun 05:12 am There has been lot of discussion in the electronic media whether it is free or is still under the shackles of draconian measures like PEMRA Ordinance etc. What can be gathered from this discussion is that for both the parties (electronic media and government) the term freedom means two totally different things, and both stand at two totally different planes with no point of convergence except at not conveying the truth. When media speaks about freedom and objects about Government‟s interference, it basically wants unbound and unqualified access to the events, which it then wants to present again in the manner that is not underpinned by any interference from Government side. On the other hand when Government talks about media freedom and its attempt to regulate it, it is only concerned with media not meddling in the perceived national interests of country. What is conspicuously missing is the urge to present the unadulterated objective truth from the side of media and an urge to regulate the media from the Government side where regulatory objectives should be objectivity and professional ethical framework. Media does it because either it is incompetent to present it or if it does so will fall out with the general public. Government does it because for it truth is a sacrificial commodity when it weighs it against the sanctity of its

perceived national interests, which nowadays include the continuation of perhaps the most hated person in the office of President. The lack of any real professional ethical framework has rendered our electronic media in the hands of incompetent persons who lack the ability to present the current events in our country in its proper environmental context. This incompetence is at its zenith when it comes to talk shows regarding „war on terror‟ as what is presented in it is nothing but some popularly accepted notions and no effort is made by the so called experts to put these notions under the larger acceptable framework of international dealings between the sovereign states. In rare cases when the question of sovereignty is raised, only one side (sovereignty of Pakistan) is presented distorting the whole view sacrificing the objectivity, which should be the goal of news presenters or anchor persons of popular TV shows. It seems that instead of pursuing the objective of presenting the reality in its proper frame of reference, these presenters fall prey to the popular slogans, and subsequently act in reinforcing the popular and faulty point of view of masses, which has taken us to the verge of disaster instead of bending the public opinion to the objective ground realities. The million dollar question here is that: why do they do it? There are only two takes on this issue i.e. a) due to gross incompetence or b) because of urge of becoming the most popular in the wake of so many channels. Whatever it is, I leave the answer to this question to the readers. Due to this phenomenon of not holding to objective truth, we as a nation are still not able to decide whether the war on terror is our war or are we fighting someone else‟s war at our own peril. Frankly, the answer to this question is as easy as telling the difference between one‟s right hand from left hand provided that the framework of what is left and right, and what is a hand is put rightly in place. The framework of „war on terror‟ as it concerns Pakistan can be enumerated in following points, and these are the points that needs to asserted by these popular media persons if they want the objective truth to be known to the nation. Otherwise the situation can be summed up by a popular Urdu verse that, “her shaakh per ulloo baitha hay/anjaam e gulistan kiya hoga”. - A country has borders out of which neither it nor any of its citizens have any authority to meddle with unless allowed by the guest country. If it does then the country in whose borders it interferes has the full right to do the same. Pakistan is a country, and so is Afghanistan. - Whatever Government in Afghanistan does is none of the business of Pakistan unless and until it does not interfere in Pakistan. The question that NATO or ISAF are occupying forces or not is to be decided by Afghans and not by anyone in Pakistan. If Afghans in Pakistan are interfering in Afghanistan using Pakistan as base then it is responsibility of Pakistan not to allow it and throw them out of Pakistan.

- Every country has the responsibility to make sure that the use of force within its borders rests only with its own state operated legitimate forces. Only the legitimate and state ordained institutions are authorized to use the force. If there is any use of force by anyone which is not legitimate security forces, then this is failure of the state and responsibility of this failure rests on state and no one else. - Whatever trans-border world view of Islam may be, it is always subject to international covenants entered into with other sovereign powers. So, Islam does recognize borders. Case in point is the treaty of Hudaibya between Prophet (P.B.U.H) and Quraish of Makkah where it was agreed that, “If any one from the Quraish came to the Muslims and was converted to Islam he was to be returned to the Quraish. On the other hand, if a Muslim sought refuge with the Quraish, he was not to be delivered to the Muslims.” Every Islamic country is bound by international law as part of its UN membership, and has the responsibility of not interfering in other countries, even when Muslims in that country are subject to hardships. So, the militants‟ point of view that they do not recognize border between Afghanistan and Pakistan as the concept of borders is un Islamic is totally wrong and baseless. The only recourse is through the UN as this is what every Islamic country has agreed to when becoming member of UN. - The use of force against anyone who is outside the border of the country rests only and only with the state, and that needs to be done under compelling circumstances by state and state only and not by anyone with the gun or resources. - One cannot ask others to respect its sovereignty unless it respects the sovereignty of others. Hence, the question that our pride as a nation is at stake cannot be raised in case of ISAF attack within Pakistan‟s border unless we make sure that no one interferes in Afghanistan from our side. We cannot avoid our responsibility and raise the question of our sovereignty without linking the both. The above points need constant propagation for the objective analysis of our role in „war on terror‟. The sad part of the whole state of affairs in Pakistan is that not only the media of Pakistan but our popular politicians are not able to come in grip with it. Unless this happens, we will be regarded as a confused lot and laughing stock of the world as we are now, and the truth is that we deserve it by all means.

ARTICLE - 2
Title: Mapping media oppression in Pakistan Author: Sevanti Ninan Posted on: Monday, Mar 24, 11:50:01, 2008 Sources: www.intermedia.org.pk After their trial by fire during the last year of Musharraf's leadership, the media in Pakistan is expectant, hoping the elections will usher in a regime which will respect media freedom. Winners thrown up by the February 18 general election have already stated their commitment to lifting oppressive laws and bans that affect the media's freedom to function.The Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists (PFUJ) has welcomed statements of PML-N chief Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif and PPP co-chairman Asif Ali Zardari promising drastic changes in the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (Pemra). In a statement issued on February 21, the PFUJ also welcomed the decision to lift ban on six TV anchors and hoped that the future government would respect media freedom and abolish all 'black laws' against the media, including the two ordinances promulgated after November 3. According to the statement, four of the six TV anchors will be back on air from Friday and the two others a little later. A few days before the elections took place the Hoot completed a survey of three years of attacks on the Pakistani media in a effort to determine what the major constraints are to media practice in this country. It was an effort to seek patterns in the way press freedom was being eroded. The survey was based entirely on the daily documentation that the Pakistan Press Foundation does of attacks on the press and the electronic media. It took into account a total of 183 incidents relating to news media, and 78 attacks on music and film have been analyzed. It covers the period from January 2005 to December 2007, chronicles the growing oppression, and takes into account all incidents which occurred, which were not accidental, but acts of commission. For the purpose of this study perpetrators of incidents against the media have been classified in three categories: Fundamentalist, State, and Other. In 2005, the number of incidents were 48, at a conservative estimate.The break up of perpetrators is as follows: 32 were state agencies of various kinds, 4 have been categorized as fundamentalist, and 12 fall in the category of other.

In 2006 there were a total of 43 incidents, fundamentalist 4, state 26, and 14 other.In 2007 the total number of incidents was 92. Eleven fall in the category of fundamentalist, 54 are incidents in which the state figures as oppressor, and 27 are classified as other. In all three years the state and its various arms—the government, judiciary, intelligence, and army—were bigger perpetrators than the fundamentalists and others combined. And the police, who were the perpetrators in a total of 45 incidents, were by far the single biggest category of oppressors. Other major agents of censorship were the Pakistan Electronic Media Authority (PEMRA), Pakistan Telecommunication Authority(PTA), agencies imposing bans, departments which issued press advice, the suspension of government advertising to the media, closures and cancellation of declaration, denial of information, and the barring of journalists from collecting news. (See tables in full report.) Oppression by the fundamentalists was more to curb cultural products such as video and audio cds, and films, rather than aimed at news media. Its occurrence grew ferociously in the year 2007. Large number of unidentified oppressors makes it difficult to enumerate attacks by fundamentalists. Sindh most affected province Geographically incidents of news media oppression were the most frequent in Sindh province, followed by NWFP and Punjab, with Islamabad being the seat from where oppressive diktats originated. Karachi alone accounts for 42 out of the 183 incidents relating to the news media which were surveyed. In 2005, police got after the press for exposing their acts in Mirpur Khas, in Sindh, for violating the official secrets act in Karachi, and for covering People's Political Party leaders in Karachi. In three cases police sealed offices and conducted raids against publications on charges of publishing objectionable material, in Lahore, Karachi, and in Faisalabad. In 2006 several attacks on life and limb took place in Sindh. One scribe was shot dead in Larkana by armed tribes for covering their clashes. Another was kidnapped and tortured in Nawabshah by influential landlords. Yet another has his eyebrows removed, and was beaten and humiliated in Hyderabad. One went missing in Karachi, another disappeared after arrest in Karachi.Yet another was attacked by armed men in Mirpurkhas in Sindh. A journalist was beaten and arrested by railway police in Nawabshah, and another detained and beaten by railway police in Karachi. In 2007 a journalist is shot dead in Kingree in the same province allegedly by tribal chiefs, another shot dead in Mirpurkhas. There was a kidnapping from Karachi.

Incidents of cultural oppression were concentrated in the North West Frontier Province and FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas). Quite separately from the attacks on the media, in the last three years Pakistan saw a growing incidence of attacks on cinema, cable, audio and video, symptom of the growing influence of the Islamic fundamentalism of the Taliban, and geographically more or less concentrated in the areas bordering Afghanistan. As journalist Ashfaq Yusufzai reported for Inter Press Service from Peshawar, On Mar. 4, 2007 there were explosions inside two saloons, a music shop and four other shops in the adjoining Bajaur Agency, part of the Federally Administered Tribal Agencies (FATA) along the restive Afghan border. The Taliban have reportedly banned music in the tribal areas, and have started fining taxi drivers found listening to music. He added, according to news reports, a video shop in front of a police station in Bannu, the hometown of the NWFP chief minister Akram Durrani, was attacked by armed men suspected to be Taliban on Feb. 27, who destroyed CD players and CDs of Urdu, English and Indian films. Through the whole of 2005 there were no incidents. Then in November, there was the first one in the North West frontier province in Swat, reported in The News: "Faithful in Swat make bonfire of TV sets." Datelined Peshawar, the report says that following a sermon by an Imam of a mosque in Mingora in Swat district, people brought television sets, VCRs and audio and video tapes from their homes and publicly burnt them amid slogans of Allah-o-Akbar (Allah is Greatest). "Reports from Swat said more than 250 television sets were put to the fire in union council Malookabad, located within the limits of Mingora city. The television sets, along with VCRs, CDs and music and movies videos were piled up and burnt in a bonfire. The crowd, which included the union council Malookabad nazim Fazal Jalal, raised slogans of Allah-o-Akbar when the flames of fire leapt into the air and turned the heap into ashes." As the report puts it this act is a response to a local maulana linking the October 8 earthquake which devastated the region, as a "sign of Allah's displeasure with our sins and way of life." He urged the people to cleanse their homes of the instruments of obscenity and start living life in accordance with teachings of Islam. And, apparently almost everyone in the area heeded his advice. The News said similar incidents had also been reported from a few other places in the NWFP. In 2006 there are incidents in January, February, March June and August, a total of six. Three of these are reported from the North West Frontier Province, and one each from FATA, Punjab and Balochistan. In Dera Bugti a TV booster is blown up, as is one in Wana. In Peshawar and elsewhere in the NWFP activists of the banned religious

organisation, Tehrik-e-Nifaz Shariah Muhammade (TNSM) set TVs, CDs, and VCDs on fire during their campaign against obscenity and vulgarity in Manglawara and Charbagh. In Punjab cinemas are damaged. And in June there is a countrywide ban on the Da Vinci Code. In 2007, fundamentalist ire against sinful media picks up steam, beginning with no incidents in January and ending with 23 in December alone. Early in the year the Mujahadeen ban music on buses in the Bajaur agency in Fatah. Throughout the year thereafter there is a steady incidence of the burning of CD and video shops and attacks on cable operators. Ten in April seven in May and seven in June. In December there is an explosion of incidents. Both audio and video cassette shops are destroyed. The largest number of incidents are recorded in the North West Frontier Province, in some eighteen towns. The second largest number of attacks occur in the Federally Administered Tribal Area where eight locations recorded incidents, followed by four towns in the Punjab. BANS AND BLOCKS Bans ranged across all categories of media in Pakistan, were both political and social in nature, and were perpetrated by both the Government, politicians and fundamentalist forces. The bans covered advertising, TV channels, magazines, websites, films, and music on buses. In 2007 the culture minister banned portrayal of wicked characters as heroes.

ARTICLE - 3
Title: Pandora Box of Television in Pakistan Author: Shahnawaz Farooqui Posted on: February 21, 2008 Source: www.chowk.com Usually television is called the idiot‟s box. However in Pakistan this idiot‟s box has, within a few years, also got the status of a Pandora Box. In Greek mythology the notorious box was opened out of curiosity; however in Pakistan the fatal lid of the box has been opened with complete planning and all the „monsters‟ emerging from it are tame and domesticated.

It is the claim of General Musharruf that he has given freedom to the media and that the abundance of TV channels is its testimony. However the question is as to how can dozens of TV channels run profitably in a country, where the total volume of the advertising industry is not more that six to seven billion rupees? Does it mean that foreign money has secretly crept into the industry and the so-called „media boom‟ in the country has in fact become an advance of America, Europe and India? At present it is difficult to answer these questions with certainty. However what is obvious is that on these channels there is an evident onslaught of foreign content. The horrible thing in it is that even their local content is a second rate copy of the foreign programs, which are being imitated even in styles of presentation and names. This is the height of mental and moral bankruptcy. The result of this is that in our society these channels are playing the role of Porus‟ elephants. Now these elephants have entered each and every house. One of the media gurus of the twentieth century, Marshall McLuhan had once called automobiles an extension of human limbs. However Gerry Mander, in his classic book called, “Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television‟ criticized the comment of McLuhan and said that the automobile had not given extension to human limbs, it had rather replaced it. The same is the case with the abundance of television channels in Islamic Republic of Pakistan. These channels have also not extended the freedom of expression; they have rather created its replacement; i.e., the illusion of freedom. For otherwise the public opinion has become still more controlled. People will understand this reality; however it will take time.

Here on the pretext of entertainment, these channels have crossed all limits of freedom. This is the picture of a deluge. As in flood people are surrounded by water from all sides; yet they thirst for a glass of clean water; so in the same way people are yearning for true entertainment in the flood of entertainment.

In our national history it will always be remembered that when America and its local agents made up their minds to dismantle a Quranic law, they used TV as a weapon and dissolved centuries‟ old understanding in one month. By the way, in the medium of television anti-understanding element is in-built. Gerry Mander quotes the following words of John Birt in this connection; “There is a bias in television journalism. It is not against particular party of point of view. It is a bias against understanding”.

In response to this situation there is a reaction in our society; however only at personal level. At the collective level either there is no reaction; or that reaction is not active. But

what are its reasons? Unfortunately in our society, 11 September and the events following it, were seen only in military and political perspectives. Most of the people forgot that it is the history of the west that after using military power, it advances on the religious and cultural fronts and that the same will happen this time. Therefore it was not mere coincidence that when America was inventing aggression against Iraq, there was already a new syllabus for the Iraqi schools in the satchel of its soldiers. In Afghanistan that process was started a bit late as the objective conditions there were somewhat different. Then the flux of event is so fast that one needs a trained eye to see things in their proper context. When on the night of 9/11 President Musharruf surrendered the whole country to America; people thought that it was an strategy to avoid the US monster. This faulty understanding also acted as a veil between the various changes taking place within the country and their popular understanding. However the coming events proved it conclusively that the act of surrendering was not limited to the circles of military and foreign affairs and now every mentionable and noticeable thing of our personal and collective lives has come under its influence. Another great psychological problem of our collective life is that for a lot of our people their world is not their own. It is America‟s world, generals‟ world or at the most, a world belonging to them both. In this world their job is to try to adjust with whatever is taking place. For these people this adaptability is synonymous both to intelligence, political insight and wisdom. Although nobody proclaims; however from these patterns of thought and behavior, it appears as if there is no God and the world is working on the principles and orders of a few worldly powers. This way of thinking is continually making vices and distortions acceptable to us. Without doubt blind resistance is a folly and only an idiot can support it. However it is not only resistance that can be blind; the behavior of escaping from challenges and shutting one‟s eye to them can also be blind. And at present this is the prevalent behavior that we are witnessing. With regard to television, it is also an important issue that we are till still „habitual‟ of showing our reaction only to the national TV. However now what matters is not the PTV but the so-called new independent channels. This is a whole new experience and we are still to „learn‟ the process of changing it into a challenge. However the pace of change is so fast that by the time we will be able to learn it, the fabric of social values will already be disrupted. In this connection the problem with our religious classes is that they keep on making a clamor over obscenity and vulgarity and that their reaction is fitted into a ready-made compartment of neglect. That is, „the religious elements always sing the same tune‟.

However it is true that now the problem is not merely that of obscenity or vulgarity. All the media of mass communications including television are now being used for the reconstruction of the society, which is thousand time more dangerous than vulgarity. Then it is also important that now vulgarity and obscenity are being shown as the part of the normal experience of life and this concept is also a part of social transformation. Therefore the real problem is society‟s transformation. Gluttony is no new thing in our society; however the significance that is being given in our TV Channels to cooking programs is in it self creating a new concept of life and man. This is a conspiracy to systemize gluttony and is something much more dangerous than vulgarity as the majority of the people are thinking it harmless. All over the world there are associations of viewers, who keep an eye on the media content, object to the disagreeable programs and protest against them. But in our country people seldom protest even after eating poison; then the poison of television is after all an „entertaining poison‟; so who should care to identify it and make protest against its effects! In 70‟s, it had been said in the context of western societies, that the television was playing the role of an electronic parent. However the situation now is that TV is not only playing the role of the parents; it is also the teacher and the school of children. Once it was said that the TV makes children grow up too soon. Now we are witnessing how it is changing elderly into children. Mir had once said; „Maj‟ gan to khool shayher to sailab lay gia‟ Translation: Please open your eyes! the flood has wiped away the city. But now it seems that the flood has not only wiped away the city, it has also taken with it the eyes beholding it.

ARTICLE - 4
Title: Freedom of Expression Author: Yasir Abbasi Posted on: November 27, 2007 Source: http://Pfuj.info Freedom of expression is inherently valuable as part of the self-actualisation of the speakers and listeners. There have always been limitations to express freely and the threshold varies from country to country. But was the media really free in Pakistan prior to 3rd of November 2007? Is the media right to claim that it was being responsible and professional. With the power to beam into millions of homes around the globe comes the grave responsibility of being just and fair. By inviting ignorant and bewildered politicians in a talk show and to let them say what ever they feel like is not really freedom. When ever breaking news occurs instead of inviting specialised analysts, certain channels would interview their own senior journalists, who would present personal opinions as news items. e.g. (Translated in English from Urdu) S M: “Why do you think the emergency has been imposed?” (Interview over the phone) H M: “This is all a conspiracy hatched by the USA in the war on terror, where the deposed chief justice was releasing so called terrorists and this was unacceptable to the west therefore it was done under their patronage.” This might as well be a conversation of two lay people sitting by the roadside. I have no qualms, if they want to make such allegation, but it should be a part of a well researched and investigated documentary and not a frantic news statement. No where in the west are military operations covered live as they were in Pakistan. The USA learnt its lessons from the Vietnam War and since then journalists are embedded with the troops during wars and are shown only specific things. Ironically the media portrays that modernization means westernization and this has lead to the creation of completely distant and confused generation. The truth is not far from

the opposite. We see young TV hosts trying to speak English in an imitated foreign accent, while our soaps are cheap imitations of an already plagiarized media industry across the border.

How many journalists can report on the crimes by feudal lords in the rural areas of Pakistan and then continue to walk the planet? I have yet to see a single documentary of how criminally minded our political parties and politicians really are (all of them). The media was never really free in Pakistan and it will never be until we free ourselves from the feudal and colonial mindset. But, nevertheless, banning and subjugating fundamental rights is not the answer to anything. Naom Chomsky says in one of his documentaries “"Goebbels was in favor of free speech for views he liked. So was Stalin. If you're in favor of free speech, then you're in favor of freedom of speech precisely for views you despise. Otherwise, you're not in favor of free speech."

ARTICLE – 5
Title: Promoting media ethics Author: Zohra Yusuf Posted on: Monday, 20 October 2008 Source: http://www.dawn.com/2008/10/20/op.htm#2 When a government, unnerved by coverage of the lawyers‟ movement, imposed emergency rule and introduced curbs on the media last November, the protests by journalists received considerable public support. Journalists were also seen to be in the right when they rejected a „code of conduct‟ arbitrarily enforced by the government of Pervez Musharraf. However, it became clear that the people‟s definition of media freedom was at variance with that of journalists when the private electronic media began to telecast disturbing images of the violence that has struck Pakistan with increasing frequency and brutality. Criticism of certain undesirable aspects of media coverage prompted the Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists (PFUJ) to host a consultation in association with the International Federation of Journalists to debate the parameters of a voluntary code of ethics. The outcome was a 26-point code that the PFUJ has circulated for feedback and

suggestions. This code takes into account the public outrage over explicit coverage of acts of violence — particularly cases of suicide bombings in which scant respect is shown towards the deceased or the sentiments of their families. The coverage has become so gruesome that certain channels have run prior warning messages advising viewers about the unsuitability of the footage for children. Thus Point 20 of the proposed code states: “A journalist shall not publish or broadcast extreme images of violence, mutilation, corpses or victims of tragedy irrespective of the cause unless it is necessary in the public interest.” Here, one wonders how the visual projection of mutilated bodies can ever be in the „public interest‟. It is akin to clauses in the Constitution of Pakistan that add the proviso of „national interest‟ while guaranteeing fundamental freedoms. Giving the background to the development of the code of ethics, the communication from the PFUJ states: “The media adopted 26-points Code of Ethics and constituted a five member committee … to prepare a draft for Media Complaint Commission. The committee will take the other media stakeholders on board. The Commission will look into the public complaint against media [sic]”. The draft paper on the Media Complaints Commission is yet to be circulated. This first step in creating a voluntary code of ethics for the media is a commendable one. There are several points that demonstrate the concern of the framers regarding the pernicious role the media sometimes plays in instigating hatred — ethnic or racial. “A journalist shall strive to ensure that his writing or broadcast contains no discriminatory material or comment based on matters of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, age, sex, marital status or physical or mental handicap” (Point 16). This clause, however, has some gaping holes. In the context of Pakistan, it is imperative to include in its ambit issues of sectarianism and religious bigotry. Colour and race are not exactly the basis for discrimination in Pakistan and this clause seems to have been picked up from some other similar code. While other points in the code cover aspects of reporting on sectarian killings, it is necessary in this clause to specifically indicate the danger of prejudicial comments.The power of the media to incite faith-based hatred was amply demonstrated when, following the recent airing of a television programme, three Ahmadis were killed in different parts of Sindh, apparently in response to views expressed in the talk show. While the PFUJ condemned the killings and the role of the programme in instigating the murders, it should consider incorporating strict safeguards against such malicious broadcasts.

The proposed PFUJ-IFJ code rightly takes cognisance of discriminatory and damaging reporting against women. Women‟s rights groups have for long demanded an end to biased and stereotyped media coverage of women. The worst examples are from the field of crime reporting in which gender, age, looks and personal details are given coverage with barely concealed pleasure. Point 17 of the proposed code states:“A journalist shall respect and uphold principles of gender equality both in performance of his/her professional duties and in his/her relations with fellow journalists. A journalist shall not discriminate and shall avoid sex-role stereotyping and exploitation in his/her work.” Again, the proposed code doesn‟t go far enough in categorically discouraging sexist reporting, though read in conjunction with other points it does attempt to respect women‟s right to fair and equal treatment by the media. Rights groups need to look at those points of the code referring to coverage of women analytically and formulate their response to the PFUJ-IFJ document. One of the most significant issues the code of ethics rightly addresses is the media‟s attitude towards terrorism and the campaign (by Pakistani security forces or the US forces) to combat it. This is reflected in the following point: “A journalist shall not glorify the perpetrators of illegitimate acts of violence committed under any garb or cause, including honour and religion” (Point 14). Since the Lal Masjid operation last July, the objectivity of the media is becoming increasingly questionable when it comes to coverage of terrorism. After criticising the then government for inaction, a total turnaround in positions was seen when the security forces finally stormed the mosque to flush out armed militants. While the level of force used or the lack of planning on the government‟s part could be challenged, news channels and journalists — by and large — began to play a partisan role, leaving no doubt where their sympathies lay. Similarly, terrorists are often glorified in reporting on the current military operations in Fata and Swat. Commentators invited to give their opinion generally include hardliners such as Gen (retd) Hamid Gul whose pro-Taliban views are no secret. It has come to be believed that anti-Americanism means being anti-Pakistani military operations — and, consequently, pro-Taliban (or terrorists by any other name). The code, seeking to promote „responsible media‟, has proposed a crucial value system to ensure ethics-based journalism, both at personal and institutional levels. Through the

Media Complaints Commission it seeks to ensure “That there is credible and effective peer accountability through self-regulation by journalists and media professionals that will promote editorial independence and high standards of accuracy, reliability, and quality in media.” The PFUJ has circulated the draft code of ethics to media organisations and individuals to elicit comments and suggestions. This is an initiative long overdue and one that needs a broad spectrum of support.

Write Up
The theme of the articles is that our media is highly influenced by the foreign media. Our anchors are copying the style and patterns of foreign anchor personnel. The concept of programs being aired by the media has the shadow of foreign programs. It is observed that many times our media is portraying the interest of our bodies not of the national interests. Our media has no sense what so ever on what programs are to be shown on TVs. It is also important that now vulgarity and obscenity are being shown as the part of the normal experience of life and this concept is also a part of social transformation. Therefore the real problem is society‟s transformation. Our media generally invites people in talk shows who just know how to speak nonsense. They just know what the best way to insult the opposite party. They are just invited on the programs to highlight the negative thing, which leads to frustration among general public. It is felt that our media was never really free in Pakistan and it will never be until we free ourselves from the feudal and colonial mind set. Everybody is in favor of freedom of media but there should be professionalism in this industry. It should not be handed over to the business man whose just aim is to earn money.

1.5

Objective of the current research

The objectives are to find ways through which Pakistani electronic media can become more effective. So the people can get full information but which should be true and authentic.

2. Theoretical Frame Work
2.1 Variable Definition

The variables which are used in this research are as follows: a) Dependent Variables: The goal of the research in to make the electronic media effective, therefore we have made the media effectiveness our dependent variable b) Independent Variables: We selected the following variables which have the influence on dependent variables.     Biasness Information Professionalism Facts

c) Moderating Variable: We have selected Regulatory Authority as moderating value because it has a strong contingent effect on the independent variable dependent variable relationship. d) Intervening Variable: Satisfaction is chosen as intervening variable. In the initial phases you have no interest in any particular news channel but as you getting your desired information then you will stick to that particular channel

I N D E P E N D E N T V A R I A B L E S

BAISNESS

INFORMATION

SATISFACTION PROFESSIONALISM INTERVENING VARIABLE

MEDIA EFFECTIVENESS

DEPENDENT VARIABLE

FACTS

REGULATORY AUTHORITY

MODERATING VARIABLE

2.2

Relationship Description

- The independent variable has a great influence over dependent variable. As the
biasness exceeds the effectiveness of the media declines, as when the information is authentic and true the media effectiveness enhances. The more professional people in the team are the more effective role of the channel will be.

- Moderating variable i.e; regulatory authority influences over relationship of
independent variable and dependent variable. Whenever policies of the regulatory authority are strict the effectiveness of the media improves but the policies are soften the effectiveness will decline.

- As the time progresses the satisfaction of audiences increases.

3. Theoretical Analysis
We use questionnaire for gathering information from people as it is among the best tools in gathering data. We also use SPSS computer software as it provides a powerful statistical-analysis and data-management system in a graphical environment, using descriptive menus and simple dialog boxes to do most of the work for you. Most tasks can be accomplished simply by pointing and clicking the mouse.

3.1 Tabulation of data
Gender:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Male

69

46.0

46.0

46.0

Female

81

54.0

54.0

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Age:

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

15-20

44

29.3

29.3

29.3

21-25

70

46.7

46.7

76.0

26-30

17

11.3

11.3

87.3

Above 30

19

12.7

12.7

100.0

Total

150

100.0

100.0

Are you getting authentic and up-to-date info on your area of interest? Cumulative Frequency Valid yes no Total Missing Total System 38 108 146 4 150 Percent 25.3 72.0 97.3 2.7 100.0 Valid Percent 26.0 74.0 100.0 Percent 26.0 100.0

What News Channel You Watch?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

National

41

27.3

28.1

28.1

International

19

12.7

13.0

41.1

Both

86

57.3

58.9

100.0

Total Missing Total System

146 4 150

97.3 2.7 100.0

100.0

How much do you watch national news channels?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Never Watch Them

16

10.7

11.0

11.0

2

29

19.3

19.9

30.8

3

22

14.7

15.1

45.9

4

30

20.0

20.5

66.4

5

37

24.7

25.3

91.8

6

10

6.7

6.8

98.6

Most of the Time

2

1.3

1.4

100.0

Total Missing Total System

146 4 150

97.3 2.7 100.0

100.0

What Kind of NEWS you prefer to watch/listen?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

National Affairs

79

52.7

54.1

54.1

Business News

21

14.0

14.4

68.5

Sports News

15

10.0

10.3

78.8

Entertainment News

24

16.0

16.4

95.2

Others

7

4.7

4.8

100.0

Total

146

97.3

100.0

Missing Total

System

4 150

2.7 100.0

Which news channel you prefer the most?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Geo News

63

42.0

43.2

43.2

ARY News

18

12.0

12.3

55.5

Aaj News

18

12.0

12.3

67.8

Dawn News

35

23.3

24.0

91.8

Other

12

8.0

8.2

100.0

Total Missing Total System

146 4 150

97.3 2.7 100.0

100.0

What do you think your favorite channel is more focusing on?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

National Affairs

34

22.7

23.3

23.3

Business News

16

10.7

11.0

34.2

Sports News

7

4.7

4.8

39.0

Entertainment News

13

8.7

8.9

47.9

All Areas

76

50.7

52.1

100.0

Total Missing Total System

146 4 150

97.3 2.7 100.0

100.0

Do you think that most of Pakistani news channel become biased on the national affairs?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

2

1.3

1.4

1.4

Disagree

27

18.0

18.5

19.9

Neutral

47

31.3

32.2

52.1

Agree

50

33.3

34.2

86.3

Strongly Agree

20

13.3

13.7

100.0

Total Missing Total System

146 4 150

97.3 2.7 100.0

100.0

How would you rate the effort of Pakistani news channels in giving a good image of Pakistan to the world?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Very Poor

18

12.0

12.3

12.3

2

5

3.3

3.4

15.8

3

16

10.7

11.0

26.7

4

15

10.0

10.3

37.0

All Right

52

34.7

35.6

72.6

6

17

11.3

11.6

84.2

7

13

8.7

8.9

93.2

8

3

2.0

2.1

95.2

Excellent

7

4.7

4.8

100.0

Total Missing Total System

146 4 150

97.3 2.7 100.0

100.0

Do You think political talk shows on the Pakistani news channels help in decreasing political instability of the country?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

15

10.0

10.3

10.3

Disagree

34

22.7

23.3

33.6

Neutral

48

32.0

32.9

66.4

Agree

42

28.0

28.8

95.2

Strongly Agree

7

4.7

4.8

100.0

Total Missing Total System

146 4 150

97.3 2.7 100.0

100.0

Does government need to have more strict regulations related to the news channels?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Yes

93

62.0

63.7

63.7

No

53

35.3

36.3

100.0

Total Missing Total System

146 4 150

97.3 2.7 100.0

100.0

Do you think pakistani news channels helps in increasing depression in the minds of the viewers?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

10

6.7

6.8

6.8

Disagree

15

10.0

10.3

17.1

Neutral

30

20.0

20.5

37.7

Agree

50

33.3

34.2

71.9

Strongly Agree

41

27.3

28.1

100.0

Total Missing Total System

146 4 150

97.3 2.7 100.0

100.0

How would you rate the level of anarchy in people after watching negative news in the channels

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

No

15

10.0

10.3

10.3

2

1

.7

.7

11.0

3

7

4.7

4.8

15.8

4

14

9.3

9.6

25.3

5

62

41.3

42.5

67.8

6

17

11.3

11.6

79.5

7

12

8.0

8.2

87.7

8

12

8.0

8.2

95.9

9

1

.7

.7

96.6

Extremely High

5

3.3

3.4

100.0

Total Missing Total System

146 4 150

97.3 2.7 100.0

100.0

Do you depend on foreign channels in knowing any kind of news related to Pakistan?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Yes

105

70.0

71.9

71.9

No

41

27.3

28.1

100.0

Total Missing Total System

146 4 150

97.3 2.7 100.0

100.0

3.2 Charts and figures

3.3 Deduction  HA : National news don‟t show biasness in information being provided.
H o : National news show biasness in information being provided.

 HA : National news do provide up-to-date and authentic information regarding
various topic. H o : National news don‟t provide up-to-date and authentic information regarding various topic.

Are you getting authentic and up-to-date info on your area of interest? * What News Channel You Watch? Crosstabulation Count What News Channel You Watch? National International Both Total

Are you getting authentic and up-to-date info on your area of interest?

yes

22

9

42

73

no

19

10

44

73

Total

41

19

86

146

 HA : If appropriate measures are taken by the regulatory authority then
biasness can be eliminated . H o : If appropriate measures are taken by the regulatory authority then biasness cannot be eliminated .

Do you think that most of Pakistani news channel become biased on the national affairs? * Does government need to have more strict regulations related to the news channels? Crosstabulation Count Does government need to have more strict regulations related to the news channels? Yes No Total

Do you think that most of Pakistani news channel become biased on the national affairs?

Strongly Disagree

0

2

2

Disagree

15

12

27

Neutral

26

21

47

Agree

38

12

50

Strongly Agree

14

6

20

Total

93

53

146

 HA : Watching less news channel can decrease anarchy in citizens mind.
H o : Watching less news channel can increase anarchy in citizens mind .

3.4 Findings
While gathering data through questionnaire, it was found out that most of the respondents were females having age between 21-25. Most of them watch national news channels and in them national affairs are preferred. Geo news is most preferred in between viewers. Most of the people believe that national news channels become biased as far as national affairs is concerned. But most people are neutral when it comes that political talk shows help in decreasing political instability in Pakistan. Most of the people think that Government need to have more strict regulations on news channels. People have agreed that news channels helps in increasing depression and anarchy among people. On the other hand, viewers also depend on foreign channels for getting news even on Pakistani affairs.

3.5 Results
The result indicates that people wants to hear authentic and full information on their area of interest. They think that our media is influenced by the powerful personalities, they lack of professionalism and they show biasness in telecasting the news.

4 Discussion
4.1 What do the results mean?
Result implies that people are not satisfied with the level of service being provided by the news channels of Pakistan. They do have advance technologies but they are not honest to provide true information, they are spreading anarchy in people. The people after watching news channels become depressed, The only solution which is proposed by the general public are professionalism, true and authentic information, minimizing the influence of influential people.

4.2 How do they relate to the objectives of the project?
By adopting these few proposed solution media can play an effective role in providing information and also this will help in making good image among people. The relations of different variable are defined above in the paper.

Conclusion
The conclusion which is drawn after a long procedure is that electronic media is the best source of knowing the latest news of the world at the door step. If it is used in best possible way then it can also become a source of educating people. Our respondents also notified that if the regulatory authority i.e; PEMRA make their policies to make media more effective and they enforce these policies on the media then it could be a valuable tool in making media effective

References
The following links and sources helped us very much:

     

www.blurtit.com/q791363.html www.tojde.anadolu.edu.tr/tojde24/pdf/article_2.pdf www.wemfmedia.org/2005_broadcasters_declaration.html www.acm.org/ubiquity/views/s_klein_1.html www.ebu.ch/CMSimages/en/WEMF%20ITU%20report_tcm6-41264.pdf www.un.org/webcast/wemf


				
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posted:8/25/2009
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Description: this is a reseach report based on survey conducted on whether a pakistani media is baised or not..