The Bureaucracy by 2O1y0WE


									The Bureaucracy
          Chapter 9

                     Maxwell & Crain

    PPT by Teresa Nevárez
           The Texas Administration
The Executive Branch is the part of government that administers
  the law and implements public policy
• In Texas no one is really in charge of the administrative
   • The administration of laws is fragmented into several
      elective and numerous appointive positions
   • No single official bears the ultimate responsibility for the
      actions of the Texas bureaucracy
   • The Texas bureaucracy is composed of 220 separate
                  Elected Executive
• The Texas Constitution created a plural executive
   • Governor shares executive power with other elected
     executives and boards
   • This was a deliberate effort to decentralize administrative

               Plural Executive Official Requirements
               Age: 30 years
               Citizenship: U.S.
               Term: 4 years (no terms limit)
                 Elected Executive
• Attorney General:
   • Lawyer for all officials, boards, and agencies in state
   • In charge of child support enforcement, antitrust actions,
     Medicaid fraud investigations, crime victim compensation,
     consumer protection
• Comptroller of Public Accounts:
   • Chief tax collector
   • Chief pre-audit accounting officer
   • Certifies Texas’ approximate biennial revenue
             Elected Executive Cont.
• Commissioner of General Land Office:
   • Manages and collects rentals and leases for state-owned
   • Awards oil, gas, sulfur, and other hard mineral leases for
     exploration and production on state lands
   • Leases mineral interests in the state’s riverbeds and
   • Serves ex officio as chair of the Veterans’ Land and the
     School Land boards
       —Revenues from the management of public lands are dedicated to
        the Permanent School Fund
            Elected Executive Cont.
• Commissioner of Agriculture:
   • Oversees the Texas Department of Agriculture
   • Checks accuracy of scales in meat markets and gas pumps
   • Determines labeling procedures for pesticides
   • Promotes Texas agricultural products in national and world
   • Administers laws for consumer and labor protection
• Lieutenant Governor:
   • His source of power comes from being the President of the
   • Ex officio chair of the Legislative Budget Board, the
     Legislative Council and the Legislative Audit Board
              Appointed Executives
• Secretary of State:
   • Appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Senate
   • Keeper of the seal of the state
   • Chief election officer for Texas
      —Administers Texas’ election laws
      —Maintains voter registration records
      —Receives election results
      —Serves as a repository for official, business, and commercial
       records field with the office
• Adjutant General:
   • Appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate
     for a 2 year term
   • States’ top ranking military officer
              Appointed Executives
• Health & Human Services Commissioner:
   • Appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of
     the senate
   • Manages 4 major health and welfare departments
• Insurance Commissioner:
   • Appointed by the governor for a 2-year fixed term, subject
     to senate confirmation
   • Monitors and regulates the Texas insurance industry
                Boards and Commissions
There is about 220 boards and commissions
• Elective Boards
    • Texas Railroad Commission:
          —3 member commission
          —Regulates gas utilities, oil and gas pipelines, oil and gas drilling, pumping
            activities, and subsurface water supplies from oil or gas related residues
    • Texas Education Agency:
          —Oversees and regulates the Texas public school system below college level
          —Administers national and state education law
      Boards and Commissions Cont.

• Ex Officio Boards: Members are automatically assigned due to
  their holding some other position
   • Texas Bond Review Board:
       —It has 4 ex officio members: the governor, lieutenant governor,
        speaker, and comptroller of public accounts
       —Reviews and approves all bonds and other long term debt of state
        agencies and universities
• Appointed Boards:
   • Members of these boards are usually unsalaried
   • Board appointees are often representatives of groups that
     have an economic interest in the rules and policies of the
       Characteristics of Bureaucracy
• Size: Size has increased dramatically
   • Texas is turning to private sector for services
   • Texas has shifted much responsibilities to local
• Neutrality:
   • Texas has never implemented a statewide civil service or
      merit system
       —Texas is still based on the spoils system
• Hierarchy:
   • Texas is not arranged hierarchically since there is no
     centralized single executive
    The Bureaucracy and Public Policy
• Texas bureaucracy is deeply engaged in politics
• Policy formulation cannot be separated from policy
• Strong political support for an agency may result in increased
   size, jurisdiction, influence and prestige
Clientele Groups
• Most natural allies are its constituent or clientele interest
    • Agencies and clients share information, have common
       attitudes and goals, exchange employees and lobby the
       legislature together
    The Bureaucracy and Public Policy
The Legislature, the Lieutenant Governor & the Speaker
• Bureaucratic power is enhanced by the support of powerful
   • Agencies seek the support of lieutenant governor the
      speaker of the house and other important members of
      committees and boards
   • The revolving door is used by special interest groups to
      gain influence over public policy
       —The revolving door refers to the constant exchange of personnel
        between special interest groups and government
The Bureaucracy and Public Policy Cont.
The Legislature, the Lieutenant Governor & the Speaker
• The Governor:
   • The governor’s item veto can seriously affect an agency’s
   • The governor’s appointive power to policy making boards
      and commissions becomes an influential tool
• The Iron Triangle:
   • Relationship of mutual support and
      common interest that exists in the
      federal government between the
      legislature, interest groups and
The Bureaucracy and Public Policy Cont.
• The Iron Texas Star:
   • Relationship of mutual support and common interests that
     exists between interest groups, the lieutenant governor,
     the speaker, standing committees, the governor,
     administrators, and boars and commissions
The Bureaucracy and Public Policy Cont.
• Public Support:
   • Good public relations with the electorate are usually
     beneficial for any agency
• Expertise:
   • Professional bureaucrats gain much power from the
     knowledge and experience they have in the areas they
• Information:
   • Administrator gather information used by interest groups
     and the general public that is valuable to legislators
The Bureaucracy and Public Policy Cont.
• Administration of Law:
   • Bureaucrats use administrative review in the process of
     administering the law
       —Administrative review determines the meaning of a law and how
        rigidly it will be enforced
• Elective Accountability:
   • Accomplished through the election of the members of the
     plural executive
• Legislative Accountability:
   • Bureaucrats “should” be accountable to the legislature, the
     branch of government closes to the people
The Bureaucracy and Public Policy Cont.
• Accountability to the Chief Executive:
   • System should be reformed after the federal cabinet
       —Governor should be given the power to appoint and remove top
        administrators and control the budget
       —Unlike the legislature that is hardly ever in session, the governor is
        year round able to supervise the bureaucracy
       —Although the people are suppose to keep an eye on the
        bureaucracy, elected executives are relatively invisible to the
Elected Executives & Boards

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