Eisenhower and the 1950�s by EPBT23Rb


									Eisenhower and the
   The 1950s                               Civil rights movement
    A. Emergence of the modern civil             The Warren Court and Brown v.
    rights movement                               Board of Education
    B. The affluent society and “the             Montgomery bus boycott
    other America”                               Greensboro sit-in
    C. Consensus and conformity:            John Foster Dulles' foreign policy
    suburbia and middle class America            Crisis in Southeast Asia
    D. Social critics, nonconformists,           Massive retaliation
    and cultural rebels                          Nationalism in Southeast Asia, the
    E. Impact of changes in science,              Middle East, Latin America
    technology, and medicine                     Khrushchev and Berlin
                                            American people: homogenized
   Eisenhower and Modern
    Republicanism                                Prosperity: economic
   Domestic frustrations;                       Consumer culture
    McCarthyism                                  Consensus of values
                                            Space race
               Trends in the 1950’s
         Domestic                  Commercialism/Materialism-
        Developments                ”buy, buy, buy…”
                                   Popular culture-Rock and roll
   Republican Take the
    presidency                     Civil Rights Movement
                                    Desegregation of Schools-
   McCarthyism continues          Central High, Little Rock
    then dies                      Martin Luther King comes
   American Economy                on the scene with
    develops                        Montgomery Bus Boycott
   Baby Boom- more kids                    Cold War Develops
    are born than ever before      Korean War/Peace
   Housing boom-suburbs           Arms Race/Arms Build up (H-Bomb)
                                    Problems with Vietnam develop
    and Levvit begin a new      
                                    (Domino Theory)
    form of urban                  Cold War Moves to the Middle East-
    development                     Egypt and Iran
                                   Central America- Guatemala
                                   CIA grows as a Cold War institution
                   Affluent Society
   The 1950’s can be seen as a time of prosperity and grow for
    many Americans
   52 million jobs-return of defense spending
   New appliances
   Home buying/building explodes with easy credit
   Social Security covered more Americans
   Stock Market grew and attracted middle class investors
   Television/Advertising/Consumerism
   Family incomes rise 30% and GNP 37% increase
   3/4ths of Americans own automobiles- 1 in 6 own two
   Unemployment 4%
   Sports/Education/Magazines/Leisure activities explode
   Labor gains benefits and protections
   Women encouraged to be house wives and mothers
         Origins of Korean War
   1945 August the Soviet Union declared war on
   When Japan surrendered Soviets controlled
    North part of Korea- installed Communist
    government- Kim Ill Sung
   US forces controlled Southern part of Korea
   Installed pro-US government- corrupt- Syngman
Kim Ill Sung- wanted to unite the
peninsula and Soviets supported the
attack but would not send troops to help.
North Koreans Invade June 1950

South Korean forces are overwhelmed
US sends troops and equipment
Truman authorizes MacArthur to fight in
United Nations votes to support
assistance to Korean Aggression (Soviets
were boycotting proceedings)
•MacArthur lands at Inchon and
saves the South Korean Army
•US forces push north to the
Border of China, Yalu River

•Chinese do not want to see North
Koreans conquered-
•Send 200,000 troops and push
Americans back to the 38th parallel
and stalemate occurs
•MacArthur wants to bomb China
with nuclear weapons and widen the
war and Truman said no and
MacArthur is fired.
   Stalemate continues until
    Eisenhower is elected and
    threatens China with nuclear
   Armistice is agreed to: July
   1 million Americans served in
    Korea, 34,000 US casualties
   Good example of the Truman
    Doctrine and Containment
           Eisenhower and Modern
   Landslide Election      Popular
   Ike vs. Stevenson       War Hero
              IKE vs. Stevenson
   From Midwest                 Ike won 1952 and 1956
   “The Man from Abilene”       Landslides
   Vowed to go to Korea to      Against the same
    end the war                   candidate
   Promised to keep
    essential elements of
    New Deal
   1952 Republicans Won
    both houses of congress
          Ike and the Republicans
               “Middle Way”
   Balanced Budget           Limit federal power
   Keep some of the New      Return power to the
    Deal programs              states
   End war in Korea          Balance the Budget
   No deficit spending       Reduce defense
   Wanted to reduce the       expenditures
    size of the federal       Reduce agriculture
    government                 subsidies
                              Opened wild life
                               preserve to oil and gas
       The Rosenbergs
   HUAC followed up on a spy captured
    by the British Claus Fuchs (worked
    on the Manhattan project and was
    giving information to Soviets)
   Fuchs gave information regarding
    Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
   They were convicted of Treason and
    executed in 1953
             McCarthyism 1954
   McCarthy continued his abuse and reckless
    attacks until he goes against the Army
   He pushed too far and lost favor with the
    American public
   Because of the spectacle and atrocious behavior
    the Senate condemned his actions and he will
    later die in disgrace.
              IKE and Civil Rights
   Ike was not a great supporter      Life in the North
    of Civil Rights                        Crowded in cities
   Believed that law could not            “Ghettos”
    change people’s minds about            Whites moved to the suburbs
    race-                                  Discrimination in lending and
                                            housing practices limited
   Blacks continue to move                 opportunities
    North and West (2 million)             Federally organized housing
   By 1950’s; 40% of Blacks live           projects begin for the poor
    outside of the South                   “The Projects”
                                           Skilled labor unions
                                           Some progress is made in the
                                            United Auto Workers Union
Civil Rights Progress in Eisenhower
   Conditions were ready for change
   Returning veterans
   Black Urban Middle Class grows
   Educated black leaders
   Support the beginning of change
     Desegregation of the Schools
          Brown v. Board of Education (1954) (web site)
   Civil Rights attorneys wanted to end segregation in the schools
   Supreme Court ruled in 1896= Plessy v. Fergesun that
    segregation was constitutional if equal (Brown Case overturns
   Schools were clearly unequal (money per pupil and conditions)
   Thurgood Marshall- the lead attorney attacked the concept of
    “Separate but equal”
   Worked for NAACP- National Association for the
    Advancement of Colored People (created by W. E. B. Dubois
   Case was Brown v. Board of Education Topeka, Kansas
   Marshall argued “Segregation saddled blacks with
    permanent sense of inferiority.” Caused ambition and self
    esteem to drop
   Thurgood Marshall
   Will later be appointed
   First African American to
   Supreme Court
          1967 President
          Marshall for
          Supreme Court
                   Warren Court
   Earl Warren- moderate Republican
    Supreme Court Chief Justice
   Appointed by Eisenhower (Eisenhower
    later regrets this appointment)
   “We conclude that in the field of public
    education, the doctrine of “Separate but
    equal has no place. Separate educational
    facilities are inherently unequal.”
   Ordered the states to create public school
    systems free of racial discrimination with
    “All deliberate speed.”
    Central High, Little Rock Arkansas

   Court order in Little Rock
   Central High must be integrated
   Governor Orval Faubus-tried to
    prevent- citing public safety
   Angry white mobs try to prevent
    integration- some of the worst
    racial hatred displayed
   Eisenhower dispatches 101st Air
    Born to protect African
    American students
      1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott
   Everything was segregated in Alabama including buses
   Rosa Parks, a trained member of the NAACP, was on
    a bus and refused to move back and give up her seat to
    a white man.
   Action caused her arrest and a spontaneous boycott
    movement of the bus company
   Martin Luther King Jr. was a prominent leader in the
    Montgomery community, and takes the lead in the city
    bus boycott.
   Protested inequality of treatment and injustice with
    Non-Violent Resistance and Civil Disobedience
   SCLC
              MLK and Boycott
   Boycott lasts 13 months
   1956 Supreme court ruled that segregation of busses
    was unconstitutional under the 14th Amendment (Civil
   Through the boycott:
   MLK was Arrested, his house was bombed
   The leading African American Civil Rights group
    emerges: Southern Christian Leadership
    Conference (SCLC) MLK president 1957
Images of Montgomery
1960 Greensboro, North Carolina
   Students in North Carolina
   Stage a massive Sit in- at
    Woolworth Department
    store lunch counter in a
    effort to integrate this
    private establishment
   Student activists create
    Student Non-Violent
    Coordinating Committee
   Similar protests developed
    throughout the south.
           Civil Rights Bill 1957
   1957
   Congress Passed 1st Civil Rights Bill since
   Created Civil Rights Commission and Civil and
    Rights Division of Justice Department
   Focus was voting rights
     People Left Out of Affluence and
   Mexican Americans              Native Americans
   Hispanic population grows      1960 ½ million people still
   Puerto Ricans-move to NYC       lived on reservations
       1 million by 1960          Arizona and New Mexico
   Bracero Program temporary       now allowed Indians to vote
    workers from Mexico            Eisenhower supported a
   Illegal immigration grows       movement to terminate the
                                    reservations and relocate
   1950 5 million immigrants       Indians to urban areas
    deported to Mexico
                                   Many Indians didn’t want the
                                   The program was terminated
                                    in 1958
IKE’s Sec. of State
John Foster Dulles
  Strong,
  Wilsonian- moral leadership, anti-communist
  Created the idea of Massive Retaliation-
  Using Nuclear weapons instead of conventional forces
   to counter Communist threats throughout the world
  Supported the Arms Race- build up of Atomic weapons
   and the missile program to deliver weapons
  All used as a Deterrence to soviet Aggression and
   surprise attack (Idea was to deter any attack against
   the US)
            Ike and the Cold War
   Begun under Truman
   Ike continues containment
   Supported strengthening of Germany and Japan to
    counter communists- both countries begin to rebuild
    industry in this period.
   US Fleet protects Taiwan
   Supports anti-Communists
   Southeast Asia, Middle East
   Arms Research= Hydrogen bomb
                Hydrogen Bomb
   Part of the emerging             Weapon’s Gap
    arms race- each country          USA   Soviets
    develops an arms
                                1950 299   0
                                1951 438   0
   US detonates a
    Hydrogen Bomb-              1952 841   50
    November 1952
   August 1953, Soviets will
    detonate H-Bomb
      Examples of the Arms Race
   The United States after WWII collected German
    scientists working on rockets (V-2 bombs)
   US began to build missiles in order to fire against
   Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM)
  missiles able to reach Russia from US
 Atlas, Minuteman, and Polaris are developed
 Nuclear Submarines equipped with missiles are
  developed to sneak up on Russians
 U2-Survelliance Planes are developed to spy on
              The Nuclear Age
   Nuclear Tests cause fear of “Fallout” or
    radiation contamination
   Groups call for Test Bans- this results in some
    agreements (bans tests in the atmosphere but
    not underground)
                Southeast Asia
   Vietnam-French Conflict-post WWII
   American Support
   Ho Chi Minh- Communist Nationalist- sends
    insurgents into South Vietnam to unite country-
    “Viet Cong”
   1954 Dien Bien Phu battle- French are
    defeated and country is split in Two North
    (Communist) South Pro-American leader Ngo
    Dinh Diem
   Americans aid the South $ and military advisors
   South East Asia Treaty Organization
   Cold war defensive alliance for Asia
         Middle East-Cold War
   Iran-CIA-Shah
   Egypt-Nasser-Russians
   Israel is a

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