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									POLICIES FOR INFORMATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
                     SERVICES




             NATIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE




                   ROMANIA




                  Bucharest 2002
Note:
This questionnaire was completed by:
Mihai Jigău Ph.D.
Head of Educational and Vocational Guidance Department – Institute of Educational Sciences
Coordinator of National Resources Centre for Vocational Guidance – Euroguidance network
37, Stirbei Voda Street
RO 70732 Bucharest
Phone 40 21 315 89 30
Fax: 40 21 312 14 47
E-mail: jigau@ise.ro
Background

In Autumn 2000 the OECD’s Education Committee and its Employment, Labour and Social Affairs
Committee endorsed a new activity on policies for information, guidance and counselling services.
The principal objective of the activity is to understand how the organisation, management and delivery
of these services can help to advance some key public policy objectives: for example the provision of
lifelong learning for all and active labour market policies.

The activity will gather information in several ways: through this questionnaire; through national visits
by small teams of experts, in association with the OECD secretariat; through commissioned papers;
and through meetings of national experts and policy makers. The questionnaire thus forms an
important part of the activity and will provide important background and contextual material for the
national visits. It asks about key policy issues in information, guidance and counselling services and
about the types of policy initiatives that countries are taking. It seeks some basic information on how
countries organise, manage and provide information, guidance and counselling services, in order that
the context of policy initiatives can be better understood. It will provide a unique comparative
database to help understand how countries differ in their approaches to information, guidance and
counselling services and how they are trying to solve the challenges that they face. With the agreement
of participating countries completed questionnaires will be available on the OECD web site as a
common resource for OECD countries.

Completing this questionnaire

It will be unlikely that any one organisation, Ministry or group will have all of the information
required to complete this questionnaire. National co-ordinators in participating countries are therefore
asked to ensure collaboration between all relevant Ministries, as well as the involvement of
researchers, employers, trade unions, private sector organisations and information, guidance and
counselling professional associations in completing the questionnaire1. Forming a national steering
committee might be one way in which this can be done.

Involving a number of stakeholders in the completion of the questionnaire could result in several
perspectives being obtained for some questions. A key task of national co-ordinators will be to
consolidate these different perspectives in order to provide the OECD secretariat with a single,
integrated response.

In many cases countries will not have all the information asked for by the questionnaire. Where this is
the case, countries are asked to answer it to the best of their ability, using the best available
information. Countries are not expected to undertake original surveys or research in order to complete
the questionnaire. Where the information needed to answer a question is not available, please indicate
this in your response.

In completing the questionnaire, please try wherever possible to refer to the source(s) of any data:
research articles, literature reviews, surveys, publications, administrative data and similar.

Where possible, please provide copies of key documents, particularly those in English or in French.



1
      Countries in which National Resource Centres for Educational and Vocational Guidance have been
      established under the Leonardo da Vinci programme might like to include them among the stakeholders
      involved in the preparation of the questionnaire.


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Your responses to individual questions should not be lengthy. In general, please try to limit responses
to each question to no more than one page. Additional information can be provided in Annexes.

Countries should feel free to provide additional information, over and above the questions asked,
where they feel that this would be helpful in increasing understanding of their national arrangements.

Countries with Federal systems of government

Where countries have Federal systems of government it will be important for the information provided
to reflect differences between states or provinces, as well as differences that might exist between
policies and practices adopted by the national government and state or provincial governments.

A key definition

The term “information, guidance and counselling services” refers to services intended to assist
individuals, of any age and at any point throughout their lives, to make educational, training and
occupational choices and to manage their careers. It includes a wide range of activities. For example
activities within schools to help students clarify career goals and understand the world of work;
personal or group-based assistance with decisions about initial courses of study, courses of vocational
training, further education and training, initial job choice, job change, or work force re-entry;
computer-based or on-line services to provide information about jobs and careers or to help
individuals make career choices; and services to produce and disseminate information about jobs,
courses of study and vocational training. It includes services provided to those who have not yet
entered the labour force, services to job seekers and services to those who are employed.

The scope of this questionnaire

This questionnaire and the OECD activity of which it is a part, focuses upon career information,
guidance and counselling services: in other words services intended to assist individuals with their
career management. These often overlap with other forms of personal services. Job placement,
personal counselling, community-based personal mentoring, welfare advice and educational
psychology are examples. Frequently these other services are delivered by people who also deliver
career information, guidance and counselling. Where this overlap exists, please include these services
when answering this questionnaire. However where separate guidance services exist that do not
provide career information, guidance and counselling, these separate services should be ignored when
answering the questionnaire.

Organisation of the questionnaire

The questionnaire contains twelve sections:

 1:   Overview                                            7:   Delivery settings
 2:   Key goals, influences, issues and initiatives       8:   Delivery methods
 3:   Policy instruments for steering services            9:   Career information
 4:   The roles of the stakeholders                       10: Financing
 5:   Targeting and access                                11: Assuring quality
 6:    Staffing                                           12: The evidence base




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1.        OVERVIEW
Here we would like a brief overview of arrangements for information, guidance and counselling
services in your country.



1.1   Please provide a brief (no more than one page) overview of national arrangements for career
      information, guidance and counselling services in your country.

      In answering this please describe the principal service providers and indicate the extent to
      which the provision of career information, guidance and counselling overlaps with or is
      integrated with other services. Indicate how responsibility both for managing and for funding
      information, guidance and counselling services is divided: between different Ministries (for
      example Education and Labour); between different levels of government; and between
      governments and other providers. If possible, include as an Annex the contact details and
      homepages of key players and main providers of services. (Note: questions that allow more
      detailed descriptions of services can be found elsewhere in the questionnaire).


      The national system of information, guidance and counselling services is composed by the
      following networks, centres or services:

The Ministry of Education network (MoE):
      Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres (PPAC) are present in all counties of the country
       as well as in the capital and the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices
       (ISPPAC) organized in schools with more than 800 students or by groups of schools. The
       targeted population consists of pupils on all levels of pre-university education. Such
       territorial centres are subordinated to the county School Inspectorates and they are being
       funded from the state budget. Services offered: educational guidance, counselling,
       educational problems of students, information about professions etc.
      Information and Guidance Centres (IGC) for higher education students and graduates,
       organized in big university centres (in the MoE establishment Order they were originally
       denominated Guidance regarding vocational route choice and placement on the labour
       market Departments).
      Complex Expertise Commissions for the psycho-diagnosis and guidance for students with
       disabilities.


The Ministry of Labour network (MoL):
      Information and Vocational Counselling Centres (IVCC) in the framework of the
       National Employment Agency (NEA) located in all counties of the country and in the major
       cities. Population targeted: young graduates, people with an unemployed status, adults
       searching for employment etc.


The Ministry of Youth network (MoY):
      Information and Consultancy Centres for Youth (INFOTIN) in the framework of the
       National Agency for Supporting Youth Initiatives (NASYI). Population targeted: youth aged
       16-26.


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The Ministry of Health network (MoH):
      Educational and Vocational Guidance Medical Commissions and Prophylactic
       Medicine Centres that deal with the medical validation of educational and vocational
       guidance of students at all pre-university levels.
      Information and Consultancy Pilot Centres for Families dealing with offering
       information and consultancy in various domains to families.

      See Annex I (National Education and Training System)
      See Annex II (Educational and Vocational Guidance System)
All institutions above are funded by the state budget.


Some private initiatives focused on selection and placement of the workforce, mainly qualified
workforce.

Information, guidance and counselling programs developed through projects funded by Phare,
Tempus, Leonardo da Vinci, RICOP.


Additional details on the National Resources Centre for Vocational Guidance CNROP / NRCVG –
Euroguidance Romania web site: www.cnrop.ise.ro (available in Romanian, French and English).

      See Annex III (National Resources Centre for Vocational Guidance)




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2.       KEY GOALS, INFLUENCES, ISSUES AND INITIATIVES

Here we would like you to provide information about the broad goals for information, guidance and
counselling services, about the influences that are shaping these services, about the key issues in their
organisation, management and delivery and about important recent initiatives.


2.1   What are the key objectives and goals of national policies for information, guidance and
      counselling services in your country? Please describe differences in objectives and goals that
      might exist between Ministries. Where a legislative basis exists for these objectives and goals,
      please provide details.

      Objectives of the County Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres and the Inter-School
      Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices (the MoE network):
      a) Offer counselling for students, parents and educational staff on:
          Knowledge / self-awareness of students;
          Adapting students to school requirements and adapting school activities to students’
              requirements;
          Optimising parents-children / students-teachers / school-family relationships;
          Prevention / diminishing of factors leading to school risk or behaviour disorders;
          Prevention / diminishing of psychic discomfort;
          Career guidance for students;
      b) Examine students from a psychological point of view, upon request of parents, the school or
         the School Inspectorate, when there are problems that endanger the educational function of
         the school (educational failure, drop out, conflicts etc.);
      c) Produce, coordinate, organize and operate career guidance programs for students, upon
         request of schools and parents, according to specifics of the area and of the environment;
      d) Offer psycho-pedagogical counselling services to parents, for getting to know their own
         children and for the improvement of their behaviour towards the children;
      e) Coordinate and support with methodologies the activities of the Inter-School Psycho-
         Pedagogical Assistance Offices;
      f) Assemble data regarding the dynamics of professions and of the local and national
         economic and social development;
      g) Edit materials necessary to information regarding career guidance of students in
         publications issued by Houses of Educational Staff and by School Inspectorates;
      h) Cooperate with the hygienist of the Prophylactic Medicine County Centre and with the
         Local Employment Agencies;
      i) Support methodical-scientific research activities of educational staff and methodical
         commissions of the teachers and educators regarding knowledge and self-awareness of
         students.
      (Source: MoE Order no. 31315 of 10.05.1994. Organizational and functioning regulations for
      County Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres and the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical
      Assistance Offices).


      Objectives of the Information and Guidance Centres (Guidance regarding vocational route
      choice and placement on the labour market Departments) active at the higher education level:
         Offer to students and other interested people information regarding study programs and
           tracks existent in higher education institutions;



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  Offer to students information and consultancy regarding choosing / changing the
     individual vocational route in the context of the university curriculum and of the
     transferable credits system;
   Develop and facilitate access to self-awareness methodologies, including psychological
     assistance services for students;
   Encourage the creation of alumni associations meant to support university interests and
     interests of the new alumni generations in relation to economic, cultural and administrative
     communities, local and national;
   Explore constantly the needs of the labour market and promote within the campus
     activities specific to knowing companies and their needs for staff prepared at academic
     level (company day, job fair etc.);
   Offer consultancy, as well as methodological and pedagogical support in preparing
     students for the contact with the economic and business environment.
(Source: MoE Order No. 3277 of 16.02.1998 on Guidance regarding vocational route choice
and placement on the labour market Departments).

The MoE information, guidance and counselling networks / services are active in the area of
educational guidance, information and guidance of students so that they can benefit at a
maximum from educational and training opportunities at both national and local level.

Summing up, PPAC / ISPPAC develop activities regarding pedagogical and psychological
counselling, career development, skills and interests evaluation, information on the educational
network and on job searching techniques, organizing fairs on the local education and training
supply etc.), while IGC develop information, guidance and counselling activities for students.


Objectives of the Information and Vocational Counselling Centres in the framework of the
National Employment Agency (the MoL counselling, guidance, training and placement
network):
a) Institutionalising social dialogue in the area of vocational placement and training;
b) Applying vocational placement and training strategies;
c) Guidance for the unemployed and mediation between them and the employers, in order to
    acquire a supply-demand equilibrium on the labour market;
d) Offering information regarding:
      The labour market;
      The educational / training route;
      Evaluation and self-evaluation of personality;
e) Developing abilities and self-trust of students regarding decisions on careers in the context
    of present economic and social changes;
f)…
g) Creation and updating a database to contain:
     Information regarding occupations (occupational profiles, monographies, statistical
        annals, Occupational Classification in Romania, videos, posters, other publications);
     Information regarding educational / training opportunities (the local and national
        network of schools, entrance conditions for upper secondary, vocational, post-
        secondary and university level, local qualification opportunities etc.);
     Appropriate legislation (individual and collective employment contracts,
        unemployment benefit, education law, modalities to develop one’s own business etc.);
     Psychological tests for evaluation of interests, skills, personality features;
     Other evaluation and self-evaluation instruments (computer-assisted interactive system,
        career planning guide, job searching strategies guide etc.);
h) Creation of guidance programs for students / adults according to area and environment
    specifics;


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      i)  Individual and / or group counselling of students according to the professional deontology
          of the career guidance counsellor;
      j) Administering psychological tests to students / adults according to the professional
          deontology of the psychologist;
      k) Offering psycho-pedagogical counselling services to parents;
      l) Elaboration of information materials regarding career guidance for students / adults and
          including them in publications issued by the MoL, MoE, MoY or other institutions;
      m) Permanent improvement through specialization courses of career guidance counsellors, their
          participation to seminars, conferences or other professional events;
      n) Cooperation with homologues in units subordinated to other ministries, local administration,
          trade unions, educational staff, parents etc.
      Summing up, IVCC of NEA develops information, guidance and counselling regarding
      placement, job searching techniques and entrepreneurial education.
      (Sources:
          Law no. 145 of 9.07.1998 regarding the establishment, organization and functioning of
             the National Employment Agency, published in the Official Gazette no. 261 of
             13.07.1998.
          Common Order regarding the organizing and functioning of the Information and
             Vocational Counselling Centres network – MoL Order no. 921 of 24.12.1997, MoE Order
             no. 3102 of 15.01.1998 and MoY Order no. 59 of 22.01.1998).

      The information, guidance and counselling services of the MoL are primarily dealing with
      vocational guidance and placement, developing careers of individuals, proper socio-
      professional insertion.


      The INFOTIN centres in the framework of NASYI offer information and counselling for youth
      regarding various themes of interest for this age group: access to public information and
      associative environment, mobility, distance education, using ICT, leisure time, social rights of
      youth, vocational training and improvement. Such centres have been present in each county ever
      since 1994.
      (Source: Government Decision no. 198 of 28.02.2002 regarding the establishment of the
      National Agency for Supporting Youth Initiatives).


      The general picture of the guidance and counselling model functioning in Romania involves:
        Counselling integrated in the educational process (by having the “Counselling and
           Guidance” Curricular area integrated in the national, mainly as a group activity);
        Educational and vocational guidance (mainly individual, operated in the County Psycho-
           Pedagogical Assistance Centres and the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance
           Offices);
        Vocational counselling focused on career development and placement (mainly individual)
           in the Information and Guidance Centres and the Information and Vocational
           Counselling Centres (in the framework of the National Employment Agency).


2.2   What are the major social, educational and labour market influences that are currently shaping
      national policies for information, guidance and counselling services?

      Social: existence of disadvantaged groups, social, economic and cultural inequalities at the
      local, regional and national level determine the focusing of information, guidance and
      counselling on actions meant to improve social insertion chances of all social groups.




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      Education: improvement of participation in education and training of all youth categories, of
      choosing educational routes according to personal resources, interests and individual
      aspirations; reducing school drop out; improvement of self-image, career development etc.

      Labour market: improvement of work force insertion on the labour market; reducing the
      duration of unemployment; increasing the territorial and trans-occupational mobility of the work
      force, as well as the interest regarding ensuring domestic jobs for youth with substantial
      potential and performance, be it intellectual, management, sports etc. related.


2.3   What are the most important issues facing policy makers in your country in the organisation,
      management and delivery of information, guidance and counselling services?

      The main problems confronted by decision makers regarding information, guidance and
      counselling policies are related to:
        Human and material necessary resources deficit in relation to demand of such services;
        Insufficient decentralization of decision and information, guidance and counselling;
        Unsatisfactory network operation of various suppliers of information, guidance and
          counselling services;
        Still limited activity of private suppliers in the field;
        Lack of procedural continuity among educational and vocational guidance and of both with
          placement activities;
        Although there is visible progress, using ICT in information, guidance and counselling
          services is still limited or it is based on general information solely;
        The European dimension in information, guidance and counselling services is weakly
          represented when it comes to practices, instruments, techniques and working
          methodologies – in spite of public statements;
        Career guidance (in its wider meaning) for adults is focused on placement, not concerned
          with counselling on other life problems of adults;
        Associative life of counselling professionals is still weak or lacking completely at national,
          European and international level;
        The legislative framework of the field is still insufficiently centred on priorities of guidance
          and counselling, on clients’ demand and on the outcomes of the process.


2.4 Please describe any recent (last five years) initiatives and changes that are of particular
    significance for the organisation, management, funding, staffing, or delivery of information,
    guidance and counselling services.
       For example you might like to describe initiatives such as:
            Government reports that have recommended new approaches or new priorities.
            New methods and philosophies of providing services: for example within the context of
             lifelong learning.
            New or proposed legislation or regulations.
            New or upgraded services or the downsizing or elimination of existing services.
            Changed priorities for access to services.
            Changed responsibilities between agencies for the provision of services.
            New education and training requirements for staff.
            Initiatives to engage citizens in the planning and delivery of services.
            Initiatives to raise public awareness and use of services.
            Changes in the involvement of the private sector.
            Technological developments that have made a real difference to the ways in which
             services are delivered and / or accessed.


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1. Introduction of the “Counselling and Guidance” Curricular area in the national
curriculum. There are specific activities of Counselling and Guidance in pre-university
educational establishments focused on: self-awareness, realistic shaping of self-image,
communication, entrepreneurial education elements, learning methods and techniques, daily
environment, labour market, conflict resolution, career development.

2. Establishment in Romania (in 1999) of a National Resources Centre for Vocational
Guidance – Euroguidance Network.

3. Establishment of the Information and Vocational Counselling Centres in the framework of
the National Employment Agency (as a project co-funded by the Romanian Government and the
World Bank).

4. Organizing a Master degree in Counselling and Guidance at the University of Bucharest,
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, starting with university year 1996-1997.
There is also a Master degree in Psychological Counselling at the Babeş-Bolyai University in
Cluj, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, starting with university year 1999-2000.

5. Organizing in university years 1999-2001 of a Master degree in Public Policies at the
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Philosophy, with about 900 graduates having the major in
Career Information and Counselling (program co-funded by the Romanian Government and
the World Bank).

6. Designing of software dealing with self-evaluation of vocational interests, presentations of
pre-university education supply, data management on beneficiaries for counsellors etc.

7. Romania joining the ACADEMIA project – an European exchange program for counsellors
(administered by NRCVG).

8. The re-organization of the Romanian Psychologists Association, an Educational and
Vocational Guidance section was established.

9. Issuing of the Government Decision no. 204 of 26.03.2002 regarding the approval of the
Methodology for using the educational guidance expertise and evaluation set for children /
students. According to this document, the public service of complex evaluation within the local
administration structures and the internal commissions of continuous evaluation in the special
integrated or inclusive schools must use a set of nationwide standard instruments for the
psychological examination of children meant to help with their educational and vocational
guidance.




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3.       POLICY INSTRUMENTS FOR STEERING SERVICES

Here we wish to know about the key policy instruments that are used to steer information, guidance
and counselling services and about how policy goals are translated into service delivery.

3.1   How important is legislation in steering information, guidance and counselling services in your
      country? Please briefly describe the main pieces of legislation that directly affect information,
      guidance and counselling services. More complete details and examples can be provided in an
      Annex.

      The information, guidance and counselling activities operated by institutions subordinated to the
      MoE is regulated by the Education Law no. 84 / 1995.
      Article 49 of the Law states that:
      Art. 49. (1) In each county and in the municipality of Bucharest there are Psycho-Pedagogical
      Assistance Centres or Offices; these also ensure educational and vocational guidance
      activities.

      (Source: Education Law no. 84 / 1995, modified by Emergency Governmental Ordinance no.
      36 / 1997 and by Law no. 15 / 1999).


      Orders of the MoE regulate aspects related to the Statute of the Psycho-Pedagogical
      Assistance Centres for educational staff, students and parents, the Job description for the
      teacher (counsellor) and the Regulations regarding the Organizing and Functioning of the
      Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres and of the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical
      Assistance Offices.

      Other Orders of the MoE regarding the educational and vocational information, guidance and
      counselling activities:
         Order regarding the establishment and the Statute of the Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance
          Centres for educational staff, students and parents (MoE Order reg. no. 7895 / 18.09.1991).
         Job description for the teacher (counsellor) in the Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres
          and the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices (MoE Order reg. no. 31314 /
          10.05.1994).
         Regulations regarding the Organizing and Functioning of the Psycho-Pedagogical
          Assistance Centres and of the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices (MoE
          Order reg. no. 31315 / 10.05.1994).
         Order regarding the organizing and functioning of the Information and Vocational
          Counselling Centres network (MoL Order no. 921 / 24.12.1997, MoE Order no. 3102 /
          15.01.1998 and MoY Order no. 59 / 22.01.1998)
         Order regarding the Consultancy Departments on choosing the vocational route and on
          placement (MoE Order No. 3277 / 16.02.1998).
         Order regarding the methodological coordination of the Houses of Educational Staff and of
          the Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres (MoE Order no. 3370 / 03.09.1998).
         Notification regarding the “Counselling and Guidance” Curricular area in grades I-V in the
          school year 1998-1999 (MoE Order no. 12487 / 03.09.1998).
         Regulations regarding the organizing and functioning of the Psycho-Pedagogical
          Assistance County Centres and of the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices
          (MoE Order no. 4683 / 28.09.1998).
         Order regarding Educational and vocational guidance in Romanian education (MoE Order
          no. 3064 / 18.01.2000).

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        Order regarding guidance activities in pre-university education, in the school year 2000 /
           2001 (MoE Order no. 4405 / 31.08.2000). The Order brings clarifications regarding the
           school activities included in the “Counselling and Guidance” Curricular area).

      The information, guidance and counselling activities operated by institutions subordinated to the
      MoL is regulated by Law no. 145 / 9.07.1998 regarding the establishment, organizing and
      functioning of the National Employment and Vocational Training Agency (now the National
      Employment Agency). The Agency administers an Information and Vocational Counselling
      Centres network, with direct attributions regarding information, guidance and counselling,
      established by Common Order of the MoL (Order no. 921 / 24.12.1997), MoE (Order no. 3102 /
      15.01.1998) and MoY (Order no. 59 / 22.01.1998).

      The information, guidance and counselling activities operated in the INFOTIN Centres,
      subordinated to NASYI – MoY is regulated by Orders of this ministry.


3.2   What other instruments are normally used for the political steering of information, guidance and
      counselling services and to monitor implementation?

      For example you might like to describe the use of instruments such as outcomes targets,
      mandatory or voluntary service quality standards, mandatory or voluntary competency
      standards and qualification standards for staff, competitive tendering for services and the like.

      The activity of the information, guidance and counselling centres is monitored and evaluated by
      specialized departments in the respective ministries. To this end, checklists are used for
      evaluation, counselling activities are attended, working documents of counsellors are analysed
      etc.
      For the counsellors in the MoE network, as educational staff, there is the obligation of being a
      trainee for a minimum 40 hours annually, as well as of obtaining the definitive teaching
      credentials. Optionally, following a certain number of years in the job, teaching credentials II
      and I can be obtained, while positive outcomes in performance evaluation result in a merit
      salary and a merit degree ranking.


3.3   Please describe how government regulation, funding and provision of information, guidance and
      counselling services are related to one another. Is the same (government) body typically
      responsible for all three, or are they carried out by separate agencies?

      The three distinct activities (legislative regulation, funding, information services) are connected
      with the autonomy of each domain. Therefore, each ministry administering information,
      guidance and counselling activities impose a specific legislation, grants funding from the state
      budget and allows, in certain conditions, attracting extra-budgetary funds, organizes the services
      according to a certain staff structure and needs expressed by the target population etc.

      In MoE, the counselling activity is regulated at the central level, but coordinated and monitored
      at the county level, through the local School Inspectorates.

      In MoY there is an autonomous organism (NASYI) delegated to administer the information,
      guidance and counselling activities in the INFOTIN centres.

      The information, guidance, counselling and vocational re-conversion services offered to adults
      by the MoL are delivered by the Information and Vocational Counselling Centres and
      supervised locally by the County Employment Agencies.

      Similar information, guidance and counselling services operated by private institutions are
      charging fees paid by the client.

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3.4   What mechanisms, if any, exist for co-ordinating information, guidance and counselling
      services: between different Ministries; between different levels of government; between
      governments and other parties such as employers, trade unions, the private sector and
      community groups; between services for youth and for adults; and between the different
      agencies that provide services? What barriers exist to co-ordination of services and to
      networking among providers?

      The establishment of the working group meant to operate the Information and Career
      Counselling project appeared within the framework of a common protocol among the MoL, the
      MoE and the MoY.
      Even if there are Common Orders of these ministries (with information, guidance and
      counselling services targeted at youth and adults), practical cooperation and networking are
      conjunctural, sporadic and superficial. However, nothing hinders a person to resort to each of
      these services, simultaneously or consecutively.

      There are communication difficulties even between various levels of the same ministry
      structure, since sometimes decisions taken at the central level impose restrictions on practices
      already common among counsellors. There are situations in which minimal conditions for
      operating counselling activities are not met and this hinders quality.

      The private sector is rather weakly represented in the area of the information, guidance and
      counselling services in Romania, mainly due to the low financial resources of the potential
      clients, but also because of the large no-fee supply of the public institutions.

      There is no special relation between organisms administering counselling activities and trade
      union or employers’ structures.

      Counselling activities, whichever domain they target, do not have a good visibility for the
      public. The initiative of resorting to a counselling specialist is primarily of the client. There is
      no continuity of the influences counsellors in various domains are exercising on clients, nor an
      unitary concept to be approached from starting school until vocational insertion. Information
      regarding general educational-vocational problems is an aspect focused on by all services
      (through fairs, web sites, campaigns, specialized publications etc.), to the disadvantage of
      individual counselling.


3.5   What barriers exist to co-ordination of services and to networking among providers?

      Centralizing responsibilities and the hierarchy specific to each ministry, conceived without an
      appropriate networking vision, decentralized and flexible cooperation with other ministries and
      institutions, both at the national and local level.
      The funding procedure that assumes budgetary allocations by ministries, not by services
      categories offered to clients by various information, guidance and counselling suppliers.




                                                   12
4.       THE ROLES OF THE STAKEHOLDERS

Here we wish to know about the roles played some key stakeholders other than government Ministries
-- such as employer organisations and trade unions -- in information, guidance and counselling
services.


Employer organisations

4.1   What role do employer organisations play in regulating or funding information, guidance and
      counselling services?

      For example by participating in advisory and co-ordination bodies; by contributing to common
      funds for information, guidance and counselling services; through providing employee leave to
      take part in career guidance; or through participation in programme management committees.

      Traditional social partners are involved only sporadically and in a non-consistent manner in
      information, guidance and counselling activities. Data delivery by the information, guidance
      and counselling services is non-systematic, reserved and slow. Co-participation to funding such
      services appears only in exceptional circumstances.
      Funding the information, guidance and counselling services is effectively based on the state
      budget. The institutions are encouraged to get sponsorships, donations and other extra-
      budgetary funding, but without being offered know-how support in project management or fund
      raising.


4.2   What initiatives do employer organisations take to help provide information, guidance and
      counselling services?

      For example: involvement in career information programmes in schools and tertiary education;
      the provision of guidance and counselling; organising careers fairs and exhibitions; or the
      production of career information.

      Some employers’ organizations, strong banking, services or commercial companies have their
      own Human Resources services that deal with the information, guidance, counselling and
      selection of their own staff or the newly employed. However, their activities on matters related
      to information, guidance and counselling are strictly focused on their respective domains of
      interest.

      In schools and universities, headmasters / rectors can request the establishment of information,
      guidance and counselling services, in case their institution meets a series of criteria provided in
      the legislation (space, students number, a certain demand level for such services, community
      needs that can be better met with the help of such services). If that happens, counsellors are
      responsible with the design and scheduling a semestrial / annual management plan according to
      the institution’s strategy (information, guidance and counselling services, staff development,
      PR, community relations, fund raising).

      The information, guidance and counselling services in the universities are better connected with
      the high school and vocational schools network, as they organize information visits, debates,
      meetings, open-doors days for the youth interested in an academic route. Their aim is to attract
      candidates to university entrance exams. In order to support such initiatives, the respective
      offices are producing their own informative and / or promotional materials.


                                                  13
4.3   Does employer involvement in information, guidance and counselling services tend to be:

      Seldom                                  Occasional                                 Regular
         1                    2                   3                     4                   5

       Local          Mostly local, but          50-50          Mostly national,         National
                       some national                            but some local
         1                   2                     3                   4                     5

      In answering this question please tick the box that best applies. You might also like to add
      some descriptive material in support of your response.


Trade unions

4.4   Do trade unions play a role in regulating or funding information, guidance and counselling
      services?

      For example through participating in advisory and co-ordination bodies, or in programme
      management committees.

      Problems related to information, guidance and counselling services have been often discussed
      within social partnership mechanisms (government, patronage, trade unions). However, in
      practice, salary claims were always priorities, while career counselling matters remained
      collateral.


4.5   What initiatives do trade unions take in providing information, guidance and counselling
      services?

      For example involvement in career information programmes in schools; providing guidance
      and counselling; or producing career information. Here also describe any initiatives taken by
      trade unions to provide information, guidance and counselling services to their own members.

      However, there were some situations where trade unions supported information, guidance and
      counselling services, mainly in the case of restructured or privatised companies (which entailed
      massive personnel discharge). Specifically, information and vocational training activities were
      supported (training, re-training, re-conversion of redundant personnel in the case of economic
      agents undergoing restructuring, multi-training, further training, specialisation, initiation or
      instruction in a particular field of activity), entrepreneurial education, job searching techniques
      etc.


4.6    Does trade union involvement in information, guidance and counselling services tend to be:

      Seldom                                  Occasional                                 Regular
         1                    2                   3                     4                   5

       Local          Mostly local, but          50-50          Mostly national,         National
                       some national                            but some local
         1                   2                     3                   4                     5



                                                  14
      In answering this question please tick the box that best applies. You might also like to add
      some descriptive material in support of your response.


Other stakeholders

4.7   Please describe ways in which policies encourage other stakeholders -- such as parents,
      associations of students, alumni, community organisations, educational institutions or the end-
      users of services -- to play a role in information, guidance and counselling services.

      For example through roles that are expressed in legislation; through policies to contract
      service provision to non-government organisations; through membership of advisory bodies;
      through membership of programme management committees.

      The Regulations regarding the Organizing and Functioning of the Psycho-Pedagogical
      Assistance Centres and of the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices no.
      31315 / 10.05.1994 state that: “County Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres are educational
      institutions funded by the budget aiming at psycho-pedagogical assistance of students, parents
      and educational staff in solving problems occurred in the educational process and regarding
      the career counselling of the students”.

      This suggests both that these types of beneficiaries can resort to the services of these institutions
      and that they can have initiatives targeting the same aims.

      Otherwise, most social and economic development projects co-funded by the European Union
      have as a pre-condition the establishment of coordination committees that include
      representatives of all social partners.

      We must notice that some students’ associations offer information, guidance and counselling
      services, focused on supporting university graduates in finding jobs. Such services do not
      necessary involve counsellors, but teachers or the students.




                                                   15
5.       TARGETING AND ACCESS

Here we want to know about priorities for access to information, guidance and counselling services.
This section also asks about how services are provided for adults.


5.1   Please describe any priorities or target groups for information, guidance and counselling
      services, including how priority needs are established.

      For example target groups might include: school students; young people; adults; unemployed
      people; those receiving social welfare benefits; tertiary education students; employees; refugees
      and members of ethnic minorities.

      In the information, guidance and counselling institutions mentioned above, non-discriminatory
      access is unrestricted to all categories of clients, regardless of age, gender, ethnicity etc.
      Traditional categories of clients for the information, guidance and counselling services are:
                Pre-university students;
                University students;
                Graduates at all levels of education and training seeking a job;
                Employed adults seeking a better job;
                Unemployed;
                Any other minority: religious, ethnic etc. (e.g., Roma);
                People in danger of social / labour market exclusion (people living in socially,
                  economical and cultural disadvantaged environments, refugees, unemployed aged
                  over 45-50 and especially women, disabled people etc.)

      There must be mentioned some initiatives in the area of information, guidance, counselling and
      placement on behalf of various associations of the categories above mentioned (Association of
      the Blind, Roma Associations etc.).


      Ways of identifying the needs of these groups:
      For Adults:
               Inquiries, studies, investigations performed by the local information, guidance and
                  counselling services for people risking social, economic and cultural exclusion.
               Media alerts regarding trends of the population status in mono-occupational areas.
               NEA files regarding employment and the vocational re-conversion supply in the
                  area.
      For Students:
               Discussions with parents’ representatives in the school committees.
               Discussions of the counsellor with the class masters, the school physician and the
                  school management.
               Periodical meetings with civil society and NGOs representatives in order to
                  harmonize and complete the service supply for this category.
               Contact meetings during the class master’s hours in order to identify the students’
                  interests, concerns and needs.




                                                  16
5.2   How are any such priorities or targets expressed?

      For example give details of any legislation that provides rights or entitlements to services for
      particular groups.

      There are no special provisions for particular clients groups regarding the information, guidance
      and counselling services.
      Nonetheless their special assistance needs are mentioned, among the services provided by the
      various information, guidance and counselling networks.

      Unfortunately, Law no. 375 / 11.06.2002 regarding Adults vocational training has no special
      and clear references on adult information, guidance and counselling, access to such services or
      specific methods and forms of guidance and counselling focused on this category. However, art.
      3 of the Law states that among the objectives of adult vocational training there is also
      „Facilitating social integration of individuals according to their vocational aspirations and
      labour market requirements”.

      For school children with disabilities educated in special institutions there is a set of tools for
      psychological expertise in order to optimise their educational-vocational orientation, tools
      whose use became compulsory according to the Governmental Decision no. 204 / 26.03.2002.

      To encourage assuming ethnic identity (especially for Hungarians and Roma) there is a specific
      number of reserved entrance places for the respective ethnics.


5.3   Where such priorities exist, what active steps are taken to ensure that access to services is
      possible for target groups?

      For example “one-stop-shops”; drop-in services that do not require appointments; telephone
      help-lines; use of community organisations for service delivery; targeted advertising.

      Telephone help-lines for support psychological counselling for people in disadvantaged groups,
      pregnant girls, rape victims, drug addicts, suicidal individuals, victims of (domestic) violence.

      Counselling centres for drug addicts were founded in 2002, starting with Bucharest, in all the
      six sectors of the city.

      Advertising Campaigns on radio and television, free concerts, printed media, as well as
      educational programmes developed in special schools for preventing deviant behaviour of
      youths.


5.4   Typically, are different methods used to provide services for different target groups?

      For:
               Pre-university students: debates, exercises, role plays, simulation on educational
                and vocational guidance themes included in the school curriculum, psychological
                group or individual counselling, use of ICT, educational fairs;
               University students: mentoring or / and tutoring system, educational fairs, job fairs,
                group or individual psychological counselling, career information and counselling;
               Graduates at all levels of education and training seeking a job: labour market
                information, job seeking techniques, using ICT;



                                                  17
               Employed adults seeking a better job: re-qualification and vocational re-
                conversion training, labour market information, individual assistance for finding a
                job;
               Unemployed: individual assistance for social and vocational (re)insertion, self
                evaluation techniques, questionnaires, tests, labour market information, career
                counselling, follow-up;
               Any other minority: religious, ethnic etc. (e.g., Roma), people in danger of social /
                labour market exclusion: theme oriented programs, information, mentoring or / and
                tutoring system.


5.5   Do examples exist in which individuals are required to take part in guidance and counselling?

      For example to continue to receive social security benefits or pensions; or to avoid expulsion
      from school.

      The information, guidance and counselling services offered both in the MoE or MoL network
      are not conditioned by any situation, compulsory or consequences of some particular situations.
      However, counsellors, employers, teachers, parents and other competent authorities may
      recommend this kind of services. Refusal to follow such recommendations has not (negative)
      consequence whatsoever, both for the student and for the adult. The refusals are not mentioned
      in any official documents.

      Within the Social Re-integration Service (Ministry of Justice’s Probation Centre) there are
      experts dealing with counselling in various matters and surveillance of past offenders. The penal
      procedure requires counselling meetings on a regular basis for a while, focused on individual
      treatment regarding the cases that do not represent immediate social danger. The counsellor
      works within a communication network with NGOs, which undertake a series of counselling
      issues regarding human / child / family rights, follow-up, social work.


5.6   Do policies for information, guidance and counselling services favour:

           A comprehensive approach (so that services are universally accessible and meet a wide
            range of needs); or
           A targeted approach that favours those in greatest need; or
           Both of these approaches.

      As for the approach method, the services are adapting to the client’s problem / case, to the way
      he responds better to one way of intervention or another.
      The reality of this profession imposed a change for the role and status of the counsellors, in
      order for them to become more flexible, less restrictive and more open to the variety of
      situations encountered in practice.
      The recent counselling patterns have the tendency to make the client a more and more important
      factor in decision-making process, (self)information, building and re-building of the self-image,
      (self)evaluation etc. The practical methods developed by the counsellor are adapted on an ad-
      hoc basis to the client’s problem, to the gravity, emergency, priority and personal sensitiveness
      of the client in a certain situation. For this reason the counsellor must be in strong connection
      and in contact with other experts in related fields, with the local authorities, employers that offer
      jobs and other community actors.
      There are significant differences in this field between professionals who work in the educational
      system (that mostly offer educational counselling services) and those who work in the labour
      system (offering mainly information, guidance and counselling regarding placement).



                                                   18
5.7 Please describe the major gaps, if any, in the provision of information, guidance and counselling
    services. Are there any groups whose needs appear to be met less effectively than others?

       Individual activity of the various counselling networks, non-synchronization and
        discontinued services along the client’s career development.
       Communication and cooperation among counsellors in the various networks (MoE, MoL,
        MoY) is minimal, incidental, shallow, bureaucratically, frustrating for all parts (each
        counsellor category uses different specific professional codes).
       Many counsellors work using other standards, methods and priorities.
       People with special needs are the most disadvantaged group, because they do not receive
        properly adapted counselling service provided by the law. These groups are seen mainly as
        medical cases. Children with minor or medium disabilities tend to be integrated within the
        mass education. If this is happening or the people are active on the labour market, they can
        address to specialized institutions for information regarding the educational system and the
        labour market. There is no additional specialized training for counsellors in order to support
        the special efforts to integrate such individuals.


Services for adults

5.8   Please describe how information, guidance and counselling services are organised and provided
      for adults in your country.

      For example: which agencies (educational institutions, community organisation, the public
      employment service) typically provide services for adults; are these different from the agencies
      that provide services for youth; how are different agencies co-ordinated; what priority do
      services for adults have compared to services for youth; what recent initiatives have been taken
      to provide services to adults.

      The counselling services for adults are offered both by governmental and private institutions.
      The first category consists of:
        Counselling Centres in the framework of the National / County / Local Employment
           Agency - MoL;
        Specialized departments in the city halls – local public administration;
        Counselling centres within medical clinics - MoH;
        Offices for people with deviant behaviour – inter-ministry.

      The second category consists of private institutions that offer counselling services with charge,
      directly or online.

      The services offered to adults are different than those offered to the youth, especially regarding
      specific approach methods for the target group:

         Job seeking techniques: editing a CV and a Letter of intent, presentation in interviews,
           editing a personal ad to be published in a specialized newspaper;
         Information regarding vacancies offered by various employers, in various fields, including
          education requirements, practical experience, other special requirements, attributions,
          contact person, address, phone etc.;
         Information regarding the training courses supply;
         Clients assistance in self-evaluation of skills, interests, self-image improvement, positive
          thinking;
         Entrepreneurial information / training / education.


                                                  19
Coordination is made at the ministry level, within each ministry, without any collaboration
between the ministries. At best, there are cooperation protocols, one of the institutions or
department having the initiative, but without any regulation provided by a governmental policy.

Adult counselling services have priorities focused on information, mediation, reorientation and
vocational reinsertion, but less (group or individual) psychological counselling.

In this respect, while this should be a responsibility of the National Council for Vocational
Adult Training, special references regarding information, guidance and counselling services
are not to be found in the national development programs issued by the Council. The Council
designs governmental programs, sectorial strategies and national policies regarding the human
resources development.
However, art. 7 states that „Adult vocational training is distinctly organized by levels of
training, profession, occupation and expertise, taking into account the needs of the employers,
the basic adults’ skills, the requirements of the jobs they have and the promotion or
employment possibilities, as well as the requirements of the labour market and aspirations of
adults.” Accomplishment of these provisions of the law requires dynamic activities on behalf of
the counsellors who work in information, guidance and counselling services (unfortunately not
explicitly mentioned).




                                           20
6.       STAFFING

Here we wish to know about the types of staff that provide information, guidance and counselling
services in your country and about their qualifications and competencies.

In answering this section, please describe differences between staff in the different settings in which
information, guidance and counselling services are provided: for example schools, tertiary education,
community organisations, public employment services.


6.1   What types or categories of staff are employed to provide information, guidance and counselling
      services in your country?

      For example information librarian, classroom careers teacher, school counsellor, public
      employment service counsellor.

      The majority of the staff employed by the specialized institutions of the MoE network providing
      information, guidance and counselling services for pre-university education level are
      psychologists, pedagogues, sociologists and social workers. They are employed on positions
      such as teacher-psychologist / pedagogue / sociologist. They have all the rights and obligations
      set forth by this statute and can also perform specific “Counselling and Guidance” Curricular
      area activities with students. Their basic training is ensured by courses offered by the Faculty of
      Psychology and Educational Sciences and the Faculty of Sociology and Social Work. Many
      graduates followed post-graduate training modules (Advanced Studies or Master degrees)
      specializing in counselling and guidance, psychotherapy, management and school
      administration. Attending post-graduate courses is not a prerequisite of obtaining a counsellor
      position in pre-university education.

      Information and Guidance Centres within the higher education system employ two categories of
      personnel: graduates of faculties with social-humanistic profile and teachers of other specialties
      who undertake information, guidance and counselling tasks in the students’ benefit.

      The specialists in the MoL network offering information, guidance and counselling services for
      placement are people with a higher education background: sociologists, legal experts,
      economists, engineers, but also psychologists, pedagogues and social workers. Some of them
      attended the Public Policy Master courses within the Career Information and Guidance
      project and specialized in Career Counselling.


6.2   What is the best information that can be provided on the number of staff, by type or category,
      who are employed to provide information, guidance and counselling services in your country?
      Please indicate if information on their age, gender and equity group structure is available.

      The research done by the Institute of Educational Sciences, along with statistics of the MoE and
      the MoL, shows that approximately 650 and 450 counsellors respectively work within the
      ministries’ various networks; this means that there are 1100 counsellors working for the two
      ministries. Other about 100 counsellors work in the institutional structures of other ministries,
      associations and private companies.
      The general total, at national level is 1200 counsellors.
      Approximately 60% of the Romanian counsellors are aged 25-40, most of them female (more
      than 80%).


                                                  21
6.3   What education and training qualifications are the different types or categories of career
      information, guidance and counselling staff required to have? (Where qualifications are
      required, please indicate whether it is government or a professional association that requires
      them and describe relevant professional licensing bodies).

       For example teaching qualifications, university degrees in psychology, special diplomas in
       guidance and counselling, post-graduate qualifications, completion of in-service courses and
       so on. Please describe the length of the education and training and the type of qualification
       that it leads to. Please describe any differences in requirements between the different settings
       in which services are provided.

      Long-term university studies in psychology, pedagogy, sociology and social work are
      required for all categories of information, guidance and counselling staff. In most cases,
      graduate studies are followed by training / preparation / specialisation courses through Master
      level or other specialised courses organised by universities or within various programs. There
      are graduates from other specialities, taking a Master degree in Counselling and Guidance and
      aspiring to obtain a counsellor position. However, people with the above-mentioned higher
      education background have priority in occupying a position in the field.
      A PhD. or Master degree in Counselling and Guidance or special continuous education courses
      organised by educational institutions accredited by the ministries or professional associations in
      the field - such as the Psychologists’ Association or the National Centre for Secondary Teachers
      Training (NCSTT) - are assets helping career promotion or access to a management position.
      In Romanian universities there are no faculties / departments for training / specialisation in
      counselling and guidance. The students from psychology and educational sciences, sociology
      and social work faculties attend counselling and guidance training modules. It is not necessary
      to have a Master degree in Counselling and Guidance in order to become school counsellors.
      The faculties decide on the content of initial training modules in counselling and guidance
      offered to students in psychology and educational sciences, sociology and social work etc.
      Based on the university autonomy principle, each faculty decides on what curricula it will offer,
      however taking into account: the analysis of services required from practitioner counsellors,
      employers’ requirements, suggestions from experts in the field, the experience of other
      countries, requests from professional or employers’ associations.

       In answering this question, you might find a grid such as the example below to be a useful
       way to organise your response. Note: This is only an example to help guide your response.

                                                       Level of Education and Training
                              Teaching       University     Special diplomas     Post-       In-service   Other
                             qualification    degrees in     in guidance &     graduate       courses
                                             psychology       counselling    qualification
           Information
           librarian
           Classroom
           careers teacher
Type of    School
 staff     counsellor
position   Counsellor in
           government
           agency
           Counsellor in
           private agency
           Other



                                                       22
6.4     What, typically, are the types of competencies (or knowledge and skills) that these different
        types or categories of workers are required to have?

        For example communication skills, group facilitation skills, individual and group assessment
        skills, labour market knowledge, knowledge of career development theory.

        In answering this question, you might find a grid such as the example below to be a useful way
        to organise your response. Note: This is only an example to help guide your response.

                                                                      Competence

                               Communication         Group       Individual     Labour   Knowledge      Other
                                  skills           facilitatio   and group      market    of career
                                                    n skills     assessment   knowledge development   Financial
                                                                    skills                 theory   Administration

            Information
            librarian
            Classroom
            careers teacher
Type of     School
 staff      counsellor
position    Counsellor in
            government
            agency
            Counsellor in
            private agency
            Other



6.5     How are the competencies or knowledge and skills required of those who provide information,
        guidance and counselling changing and why? What is being done to meet these changing
        knowledge and skill needs?

        Basically, the competencies, knowledge, specialisation, attitudes and skills regarded as essential
        and which proved their effectiveness for the profession of counsellor are the following:

      Basic skills            Knowledge            Specializations           Attitudes            Skills
     Psychological         Labour market         Group                 Sincerity        Computer
      evaluation            European               facilitation          Empathy           literacy
     Career                 policies on            techniques            Flexibility      Effective
      counselling            human                 Advertising           Transparency      communication
     Self-                  resources             Working with          Respect for      Work in expert
      awareness             National social        the community          professional      teams
     Counselling            and economic           Psychotherapy         codes
      methods and            development           Career
      techniques             policies               development
     Cross-cultural        Counselling           Information
      approaches             theories               management
                            Continuous
                             adult education




                                                           23
      Initial training provides the counsellors with the foundation for adjusting their knowledge and
      skills to the requirements of contemporary society. Today, Romanian practitioner counsellors
      feel the need to be introduced to ICT, project management, networking, international
      cooperation, continuous training in their field of expertise as well as in related fields.


6.6   What opportunities exist for information, guidance and counselling service staff to update their
      knowledge and skills?

      For example: Do industrial agreements allow time for recurrent education and skills
      upgrading? What time and what programmes, do government agencies provide for the purpose?
      What recurrent education and skills upgrading courses do tertiary institutions provide?

      Beyond individual study as a continuous self-training method, the institutional system for
      continuous and professional updating of the teaching staff and implicitly of the counsellors is
      provided by the NCSTT – subordinated to the MoE. At the same time, the Centre accredits
      other offers for specialised training, if these meet certain quality standards.
      Training periods for school counsellors in pre-university and university educational system have
      been provided through the Information and Career Counselling, National Resources Centre for
      Vocational Guidance projects or other EU funded projects.
      The counsellors working in the MoE network have to attend 40 hours of training annually; the
      training courses have to be certified by the organising institution and validated by the NCSTT.
      There are other public and private training providers. However, in these cases the training fees
      are supported by the trainees themselves and hardly ever by the school to which the trainee is
      employed.


6.7   Please describe any policies that exist to systematically make use of groups such as alumni,
      parents and local employers in delivering services.

      For example by acting as mentors, or by visiting classes to provide information on careers.

      During classes dedicated to achieving the objectives of the "Counselling and Guidance"
      Curricular area, school counsellors and psychologists often invite parents (alumni), other
      members of the community or personalities in certain fields to address the students and answer
      students’ questions regarding their profession, stages in their career development, challenges
      and opportunities that should be taken into account etc. With the purpose of achieving the above
      objectives, visits are organised to the work place of such persons.
      Within the “Parents’ School” project initiated by the School Inspectorates, information sessions
      for parents on communication, conflict resolution, support for learning are organised.
      Counsellors in the County Employment Agencies cooperate with counsellors working at school
      level in organising visits for students in senior years, in order to present to them recent
      information about the labour market.
      In addition, there are web sites presenting success stories of graduates, specialized journals
      reporting on biographies of people who succeeded due to their education, training and creativity
      etc.




                                                 24
7.         DELIVERY SETTINGS

Here we would like to know about the delivery of services in different settings.


Schools

7.1     Are separate career education lessons a normal part of the school curriculum? If so, for each
        school grade, please indicate whether or not such lessons are required and the mandatory
        number of hours per year.

        Starting the 1998-1999 school year, the "Counselling and Guidance" Curricular area was
        included in the National Curriculum.
        According to the pre-university Curriculum published in 2001, this curricular area was allotted
        one hour per week starting the 5th to the final high school grades (12th / 13th).
        The activities of this curricular area covered within class headmaster’s classes, which are
        mandatory for the respective period.
        The Counselling and Guidance classes are taught mainly by psycho-pedagogues in school that
        have employed teaching staff with this speciality, or social sciences teachers or even teachers of
        another speciality (appointed by the School Board).

                Grade      Grade     Grade     Grade        Grade   Grade       Grade      Grade     Grade
                  5          6         7         8            9      10          11         12        13
 Required?

 Hours             1         1          1         1           1        1           1          1         1


        See Annex IV (“Counselling and Guidance” Curricular area)

7.2 If separate career education lessons are not provided, are policies in place to integrate career
    education into other subjects? Details can be provided in an Annex.

      Although there is a special "Counselling and Guidance" Curricular area, teaching staff specialised
      in other subjects are encouraged to use any opportunity to make connections between their subject
      and the labour environment, social life, vocational integration etc.
      In addition, the training activities for the teaching staff, especially of those in the "Counselling and
      Guidance" Curricular area, include separate modules on approaching this field with a special focus
      on those who do not have this speciality or are just beginning their work in information, guidance
      and counselling matters.

      Not all the educational institutions benefit from the services of a school counsellor. Therefore, it is
      the task of the class headmaster or the teacher responsible with educational activities to initiate
      debates with the students and their parents on information, guidance and counselling topics, during
      respective classes.




                                                       25
7.3   Are periods of work experience2 required as part of the secondary school curriculum? For each
      school grade please indicate whether or not such experience is required and how many hours per
      year are required.

                Grade 7       Grade 8      Grade 9        Grade 10    Grade 11      Grade 12     Grade 13
 Required?

 Hours

      The Romanian education system does not provide for special classes to spend in workplaces in
      order to assist their career decision-making and to understand the work environment.
      However, school counsellors and the teaching staff involved in meeting the provisions of the
      "Counselling and Guidance" Curricular area can organise (and they are strongly recommended
      to do so) various types of activities aimed at acquainting children with the activities undertaken
      in various fields of activity, either general or specific at the local level. Generally these activities
      aimed at informing and acquainting children with adults' work content are visits to various work
      places (trade or production units, banks, media outlets etc.), meetings in class with successful
      professionals from various fields of activity, simulations of work situations etc. We can also
      mention here students' mobility projects, study visits, watching videotapes on "most wanted" or
      vanishing occupations.


7.4   What other types of career information, guidance and counselling services are typically
      provided for school students (that is, apart from career education lessons and work experience)?

      For example careers fairs; personal counselling; access to career libraries; alumni
      programmes; parent involvement programmes; Internet or computer-based programmes.

      The MoE publicises the network of educational units of all levels, types and profiles, the
      admission and graduation requirements etc. in newsletters (printed and online – see
      http://www.portal.edu.ro/adlic), specialised newspapers.

      County School Inspectorates publish an annual newsletter regarding the territorial educational
      network, the profile of each high school, the entrance requirements, the number of places, the
      educational content etc.

      The Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres, in cooperation with the School Inspectorates
      organise annual fairs of educational offers, advertising campaigns in the local, national and
      international media concerning the educational network, the educational streams, types of
      courses offered in the various types of educational units.

      Most of the schools organise their own advertising campaigns on their educational offer
      (adjusting it to the needs of the local community or to the local / regional labour market).
      Information points focused on educational-vocational guidance are organised in schools (at the
      library or in the office of the school counsellor).
      Students, following their own initiative or encouraged by their teachers or parents, may request
      individual counselling from the Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres or the Inter-School
      Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices, respectively.

2.    This refers to periods that students are required to spend in workplaces in order to assist their career
      decision-making and in order to understand the world of work. It does not refer to those periods of
      workplace experience that are included in vocational education programmes in order to allow students to
      develop or practice the work-related skills and competencies included within the vocational education
      curriculum.


                                                     26
      Many schools consult themselves with the students' parents and ask them for suggestions
      regarding the educational and vocational needs of their children.



The public employment service

7.5   What information, guidance and counselling services are provided by the public employment
      service?

      For example: what is the relative balance between career and job information services and
      guidance and counselling; what types of clients typically seek and receive assistance; how are
      these services related to overall national labour market and employment policies?

      The counsellors working in the Information and Vocational Guidance Centres (a network of the
      Employment Agencies, subordinated to the MoL) provide information, guidance and
      counselling services aimed at finding employment.
      The share of information on jobs (at the regional and local level) and on the job seeking
      techniques prevail over requests for counselling and guidance services.
      The main categories of the Centres' clients are the following: unemployed, graduates of various
      levels of education and training that have never been employed, persons wishing to change their
      job, employees experiencing communication and adjustment difficulties in their work
      environment, certain categories disadvantaged on the labour market (disabled people, people
      belonging to national minorities, refugees, women, people aged over 45-50) etc.
      The information, guidance and counselling services provided by the Information and Vocational
      Counselling Centres are part of the system of active measures and employment policies
      promoted by the MoL.



Tertiary education

      In answering this section, please separately describe services in university-level tertiary
      institutions (those offering programmes at ISCED-97 levels 5A and 6) and in non-university-
      level tertiary institutions - such as community colleges and polytechnics (those offering
      programmes at ISCED-97 level 5B).

      If applicable, also describe services in post-secondary non-tertiary institutions (those offering
      programmes at ISCED-97 level 4) and in institutions offering continuing education or further
      education and training programmes.


7.6   Please describe information, guidance and counselling services that are provided within tertiary
      education.

      For example: Are they a normal and standard service within tertiary institutions or are they
      only provided in some institutions? Are they normally provided separately from or together with
      personal and study counselling services? Are they normally provided separately from or
      together with job placement and graduate recruitment services?

      The Project for the Reform of the Technical Vocational Training in on Romania, funded by the
      EU under the PHARE program (VET RO 9405) introduced in the post-secondary curriculum a
      new curricular area named Vocational Guidance and Counselling (in the first year) and
      Information and Vocational Guidance (in the second year).



                                                  27
The objectives of those curricular areas are:
  Building students' self-awareness and self-assessment skills;
  Developing their skills of exploring the information sources on available positions on the
    labour market;
  Stimulating personal resources to make decisions appropriate with own psycho-
    motivational structure;
  Improving self-image;
  Moving emphasis on effective behaviour;
  Building the spirit of initiative and a responsible attitude regarding own vocational future;
  Increasing personal efficiency by reaching a balance between individual aspirations and
    personal preferences on the one hand and external socio-economic requirements on the
    other;
  Designing an own strategy of approaching / adjusting to socio-professional and economic
    challenges.

More precisely, the topics covered within the Vocational Guidance and Counselling curricular
area in the first year of post-secondary education are the following: Labour market;
Requirements and counter-indications in practicing certain professions; Self-assessment - self-
awareness; Vocational training - continuous education - career guidance; Information sources
on vocational insertion and education / training; Career planning and decision-making;
Communication.

It is presumed that by covering these topics, the graduates will be able to:
   Choose appropriate optional modules during the training program;
   Be able to find a job after graduation;
   Have an advised opinion on their career (training, promotion, occupational and social
      change);
   Be able to cope autonomously in a vocational reconversion situation.

The second year of post-secondary education is also the graduation year for this type of
education. As most graduates of post-secondary education choose not to continue their
education and will therefore have to enter the labour market, the topics covered within the
Information and Vocational Guidance curricular area are primarily oriented towards
entrepreneurial education elements: From an idea to a business; How to start a business;
Business Plan; Material resources - controlling the business; Material resources; Marketing
policy; Organisations supporting or promoting the interests of small and medium enterprises.

The objectives of this curricular area are:
  Build effective communication skills;
  Build planning and decision-making skills;
  Build cooperation skills;
  Build negotiation skills;
  Focus on market demand;
  Encourage initiatives;
  Orientation towards an effective behaviour;
  Build the habit of looking for opportunities;
  Develop an innovative spirit;
  Develop the habit of taking risks;
  Develop self-confidence;
  Build responsibility toward own career.




                                           28
      The connection between the Information and Guidance Centres in universities and those of the
      MoL is more operational; therefore the interest in information and the one in counselling are
      pretty much balanced.

      The students are interested in the possibility of attending a second faculty, obtaining a
      scholarship abroad, having the opportunity of a training period in the private sector, being
      employed by certain companies, finding jobs on the Internet. Such information is delivered by
      the team of counsellors from the respective university working in cooperation with the
      personnel of other structures (employers' associations, employment agencies, foreign cultural
      centres, popular universities etc.).


The private (for-profit) sector 3

7.7   What is known about career guidance and counselling services provided by the private (for-
      profit) sector: such as management consultants, outplacement services or private practitioners?

      For example describe their client base, the level of their fees, the sorts of services that they
      provide and what is known about growth in these services over time.

      The private (for-profit sector) information, guidance and counselling services are focused
      mainly on the finding, selection and placement of personnel, generally highly qualified and
      specialised labour force. The work force thus found is placed in important and well-paid
      position in Romania or abroad, based on the request of clients paying a fee for such services.
      Some private institutions or companies contract these services or information, guidance and
      counselling centres to select, test and employ personnel, according to specific criteria and
      standards.
      The increasing rate of new such selection, information, guidance, counselling and placement
      services is relatively high, judging from indirect data such as announcements in media, informal
      discussions with certain clients etc.
      Moreover, recent initiatives offer online counselling and vocational training for adults in the
      field of counselling and guidance.
      We do not have the exact number of such services, nor specific information on the type of their
      clients or the level of the fees requested for services rendered.


7.8   Please describe any steps that governments have taken to try to encourage private (for-profit)
      organisations to provide guidance and counselling services or to regulate the ways in which
      such services are provided.

      For example by providing vouchers that can be used to purchase services; by changing
      legislation; by contracting out services; by setting staff qualification levels; by regulating fees
      that can be charged.

      There is a legal framework for the setting up and functioning of centres, foundations etc. that
      can offer information, guidance and counselling service, among others.
      There are no special provisions, however, specifically aimed at private information, guidance
      and counselling services.




3.    Section 8 asks about the role played by the private sector in producing educational and occupational
      information for use in information, guidance and counselling services.


                                                   29
Other organisations

7.9   What role do other organisations - for example in the community sector - play in providing
      information, guidance and counselling services? What types of clients do they serve? What
      types of needs do they attempt to meet?

      There is no official framework in force for community action in information, guidance and
      counselling. Some ad-hoc community initiatives generated by parents, teachers, alumni, local
      authorities are aimed at placing the local work force, encouraging participation in various
      projects or opening small businesses (as an effect of the high local unemployment rate, shutting
      down non-efficient enterprises, privatisation or changing the production profile etc.).

      It should be mentioned that the National Agency for the Development of Small and Medium
      Enterprises initiated entrepreneurial training programs which have counselling and guidance
      components.


7.10 Have governments attempted to increase their role (for example by contracting out services)? If
     so, why? Have they attempted to regulate the ways in which they provide services?

      There are no clear indications of any governmental action aimed at increasing the role of private
      services in the field of information, guidance and counselling. It is just private companies,
      generally companies with foreign capital, that contract these for the selection of personnel, if
      have their own human resources departments.




                                                  30
8.        DELIVERY METHODS

Here we would like to know about delivery methods, including the ways in which they are influenced
by government policies.

8.1    Career information, guidance and counselling services can be delivered in a variety of ways. In
       the last five years, how have these been influenced by government policies? (These might be
       policies to improve the use of resources, policies to increase access, policies to better meet
       client needs, policies to encourage equity, or other types of policies. To guide your answer, a list
       of some of the ways in which information, guidance and counselling services are delivered is
       given below).

     Batteries of psychological tests                       Group guidance and counselling sessions
     Telephone information, guidance and                    Individual face-to-face interviews
      counselling
     CD-ROM-based self exploration and job-search           The systematic use of community members such
      packages                                                as employers, parents or alumni: for example as
                                                              sources of career information or as mentors and
                                                              role models
     Internet-based self exploration and job-search         Career information libraries
      packages
     Careers fairs and exhibitions                          Paper-and-pencil self assessment techniques: for
                                                              example the Holland Self Directed Search
     Educational experiences such as transition years       Organised workplace experience or community
                                                              experience

       The Information and Career Guidance project is a governmental action specifically targeted
       towards increasing access to information, guidance and counselling and at insuring the equity to
       access on the labour market of all categories of clients.
       The funds necessary for this project are provided by the Romanian Government and the World
       Bank in amount of 6.2 million USD.
       The project is currently undergoing.

       Until now, the following project provisions have been met:
        Editing a newspaper "A Future for Everyone" (nine issues have already been published
          and distributed free of charge; published in several million copies, the newspaper contained
          basic information on information, guidance and counselling, self-awareness targeted at
          career development, job seeking techniques).
        Drawing up 450 occupational profiles (most sought for professions – trades - occupations).
        Designing and printing 16 advertising posters regarding career counselling; these have
          been distributed free of charge in schools and other information, guidance and counselling
          centres and networks.
        Designing and producing 12 videos on topics relevant for career guidance; the tapes have
          been distributed to the Information and Vocational Guidance Centres.
        The Centres for Information and Vocational Guidance have been endowed with 1280 TV
          and video equipment items and with 1050 computers.
        Software dealing with self-assessment of career interests, presentation of pre-university
          educational offer, data management on the beneficiaries of counselling services etc.



                                                         31
   Interoptions, the Canadian test of vocational interests has been translated, adapted and
    distributed to the Centres.
   Software for psychological evaluation of vocational abilities and interests is currently
    being developed.
   A short-term training program for the Centres’ counsellors and staff has been designed
    and organised in order to help them use the above-mentioned products; 1670 people
    attended these courses.
   A long term training program was designed and organised as a post graduate two year
    course, certified by a Master degree in Public Policy, specialisation in “Information and
    Career Guidance”. 900 de people attended these courses.

The Information and Vocational Counselling Centres have been established within the
Employment Agencies.

The MoE network for information, guidance and counselling had been previously established:
the Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres and the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical
Offices.
These bodies draw up materials to inform their clients, publish professional information
bulletins for counsellors and organize educational fairs. They also provide information on and
organize individual or group counselling sessions, provide test and questionnaires packages to
identify skills and abilities for those interested. The possibility to investigate certain occupations
based on occupational profiles and video materials is also available. Moreover, they invite
successful people from various fields to present success strategies. In addition, they offer
business consultancy, assistance in drawing up job seeking documents (CV, letter of intention),
interview presentation and provide information on relevant Internet-based sources on integration
in the labour market.

Through its Educational and Vocational Guidance Department, the Institute for Educational
Sciences ensures the coordination at methodological level of the Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance
Centres and the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices, undertakes research in the
field, designs working tools that meet the counsellor professional needs, organizes short term
information / training programs for the counsellors working in the information, guidance and
counselling network.
The researchers working in the Educational and Vocational Department initiated as
promoters information, guidance, counselling and continuous education projects and
participated as partners in European projects targeted at: distance counselling, use of ITC in
counselling activity, drawing up occupational profiles, designing open models of
counselling, entrepreneurial education and adult education, respectively, creating
information tools for disseminating - on a trans-national scale - information on education
and training opportunities etc.

Some of the activities of the National Resource Centre for Vocational Guidance also focus
on assisting the national counselling and guidance network with professional and
methodological resources.

NB. Counsellors' strong commitment to a particular theoretical position in their information,
guidance and counselling activity is unsystematic or empirical.
On the other hand we should take into account the fact that the process of career counselling
requires to be permanently updated with:
 The actual educational supply (in terms of number of places available at various educational
    levels, types of schools and their territorial distribution);
 The dynamics of the socio-economic on a local, national and European level;
 The dynamics of the labour market demand on a medium and long term and of the various
    professions within the various economy branches.



                                              32
8.2   Please describe any recent or current initiatives to develop Internet-based information, guidance
      and counselling services.

      The Educational and Vocational Guidance Department within the Institute of Educational
      Sciences developed the following ICT instruments for the counsellors’ use:
       Education 2000 - educational guidance software, aimed at facilitating the study stream
          choice in the pre-university level.
       PICC 2002 - career guidance software for primary registration of data on the beneficiaries
          of counselling and guidance services: school or university students, adults or other clients.
       Agenda - primary registration software on counsellors’ working data: institutions,
          individuals, publications etc.
       EUROSTAGE project - facilitates the mobility of students looking for an internship
          abroad.
       ESTIA - European platform containing information on education, labour market, world of
          occupations.
       Distance counselling - the objective of this project is to develop a specific methodology for
          distance counselling (through phone, letters, fax, e-mail), as a response to the increasing
          need for information on European opportunities of vocational training and employment.

      The private initiative is extremely active in producing electronic information materials and
      providing Internet-based guidance and counselling services.

      See Annex V (Employment Services on Internet)

8.3 Can examples be provided of the use of screening tools to match client needs or client type to the
    type of service provided? If such screening tools exist, please describe the reasons for developing
    them and describe where they are used.

      There is a set of software and other ICT tools aimed at matching the individual’s needs and
      characteristics and the various types of information, guidance and counselling services or
      personalised career development methods; some of them already mentioned.




                                                  33
9.       CAREER INFORMATION

Here we wish to know about the educational and occupational information that is used in information,
guidance and counselling services.


9.1   What is the public sector’s role in producing career information?

      For example indicate which Ministries are responsible for its production; how it is produced;
      whether it is produced on a national level or at the regional / provincial / state level. Also
      indicate if governments legislate to control how information is classified, distributed or stored.

      The MoE and its subordinated institutions (particularly the Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance
      Centres and the Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices, the Institute for
      Educational Sciences, Houses of Educational Staff, County School Inspectorates etc.) are
      responsible for producing and disseminating, on a national and local level, information
      regarding the offer in education and training at all levels of the education system.

      The MoL and its subordinated institutions (particularly the National / County / Local
      Employment Agency) are responsible for producing and disseminating information on
      placement, adult continuous education, re-training etc. – on a national, regional and local level.
      The categories of data on education, training and placement do not have a special treatment with
      respect to their dissemination. The only requirement is that related to the fiability and accuracy
      of information (for which the providing institution is responsible).


9.2   What forms does career information typically take?

      For example: printed guides containing information on a large number of jobs and courses;
      individual leaflets or information sheets; CD-ROMs; Internet-based services.

      The beneficiaries rather like to receive the printed information, such as: leaflets, guides,
      newspapers, job profiles, matching tests, evaluation forms, catalogues, CD-ROMs,
      announcements on job vacancies, training, retraining courses etc.
      Each counsellor is responsible for producing and distributing her own advertising materials
      (leaflets, posters, guides etc.) in the area where his / her practice is located. However, there are
      an increasing number of information sources on the Internet, some of them designed by
      governmental institutions.

      See also Annex V (Employment Services on Internet)

9.3   Typically, which client groups is it aimed at?

      For example school students; public employment service clients; tertiary students; the general
      public.

      The main categories of beneficiaries targeted by the information services and providers are:
      school and university students, people searching employment (unemployed, recent graduates,
      employees wishing / having to change employment), disadvantaged people (with physical,
      intellectual, sensorial disabilities, members of various ethnic groups, elderly people, women,
      residents in rural areas etc.).


                                                   34
9.4   What methods are used to gather it?

      Advertising through media, leaflets, posters in public places etc.
      Studies, research, surveys on the labour market undertaken following standard procedures
      (economic, sociological, statistical etc.) by specialized inspectors at the Employment Agencies.
      Counsellors also undertake analyses on the social, vocational and educational context relevant
      for their target group.


9.5   Please describe the steps that are taken to ensure that it is accurate and timely.

      Studies and surveys done by applying questionnaires to clients / beneficiaries on the impact of
      the information provided, undertaken by own services of assessing the effectiveness of their
      activity.


9.6   Please describe the steps that are taken to ensure that it is user-friendly and oriented to user
      needs.

      Surveying the clients on the effectiveness of the information received.
      Highlighting difficulties faced when using the information in real life situations.
      Modifying the content, the presentation form and the ways of addressing the information.


9.7   How is it typically distributed?

      For example through career information centres; through public libraries; through community
      organisations; to schools and tertiary institutions.

      Information are disseminated through centres having information, guidance and counselling
      assignments, public libraries, media, posters in public places, at the headquarters of particular
      institutions, in schools or universities.


9.8   What role does the private (both for-profit and not-for-profit) sector play in providing career
      information?
      For example: What is known about the size and nature of the market for privately published
      guides to jobs or to tertiary education? What examples can be provided of privately funded
      career information web sites? Are there examples of the media taking an active role in
      providing career information?

      The private sector providers translated into Romanian and published books, guides and other
      works on job searching techniques, CV editing, interview preparation, entrepreneurial education
      etc.
      The private sector also operates many of the web sites presented in Annex V, issues
      publications including employment supply and demand (Bursa, Anunţul telefonic, Munca
      de la A la Z, Munca în străinătate etc.) or provides large spaces in the pages of high
      circulation newspapers for announcements on job vacancies and job demands (România
      Liberă, Adevărul, Libertatea, Capital etc.); there are online with charge counselling services,
      as well as recent initiatives of private educational institutions regarding training offer for adults,
      in the field of counselling and guidance.



                                                    35
9.9   Have governments tried to increase the role of the private sector in providing career
      information?
      For example by contracting out the production of material.

      Until now, no particular steps have been noticed with concern to governmental bodies
      “delegating” towards other institutions the producing and disseminating information related to
      guidance and counselling to the public. However, private companies working in more
      dynamical fields (commerce, banking, computers) have their own services of producing and
      disseminating information aimed at stimulating education and training in these areas, in order to
      have a better choice of highly qualified work force.


9.10 Please describe the ways in which labour market data is typically included in career
     information.
      For example through inclusion of data on unemployment rates and earnings; through the
      inclusion of data on regional vareation in employment and unemployment for particular
      occupations; through inclusion of the results of graduate employment and course satisfaction
      surveys.

      The occupational profiles designed under the Information and Career Counselling project
      include a chapter regarding the labour dynamics in the area of the presented occupation /
      profession: unemployment rate, percentages of women and men in that profession, territorial
      distribution (in certain cases). (The other chapters of the occupational profiles are: the code and
      definition of the profession / trade according to the Occupational Classification in Romania;
      description of the occupation; activity content; specific tools; attributions and responsibilities;
      work schedule; work environment; risk situations; requirements (physical, psychical);
      transferable skills; education and training requirements; earnings, promotion, other benefits;
      dynamics of the occupation on the labour market; related occupations / specializations;
      additional information sources).
      Other categories of information from various information providers, especially those from the
      MoL area, also include specific data regarding the dynamics of the labour market in certain
      professional fields, by regions, economic branches, age range, educational background. This
      information is disseminated through regular reports submitted to County / National Employment
      Agencies, but also in the media (large circulation newspapers, TV broadcasts), on the event of
      initiatives such as: job fairs, new training courses, job vacancies.
      Some projects funded under EU programmes also develop a sets of information related to the
      labour market.

      See Annex VI (Educational and Vocational projects funded under the „Leonardo da Vinci”
      Programme)




                                                  36
10.      FINANCING

Here we wish to know about: the ways in which information, guidance and counselling services are
funded; the ways in which costs are shared; and the financial resources devoted to information,
guidance and counselling services.

10.1 What method(s) do governments use to fund information, guidance and counselling services?

      For example: direct service provision; contracting out / tendering; public-private partnerships.
      If possible indicate the percentage of total government funding of information, guidance and
      counselling services that flows through each of these methods.

      The information, guidance and counselling services network of the MoE, MoL and MoY or
      other governmental institutions are funded from the state budget. The public information,
      guidance and counselling structures can receive funding through projects, partnership and
      organization of continuous training for counsellors, donations.
      Similar private information, guidance and counselling services are self-funded based on fees,
      sponsorships, donations etc.


10.2 Are individuals required to meet some of the costs of government information, guidance and
     counselling services? If so, what sorts of clients are asked to pay and what is the typical level of
     fees charged?

      All governmental information, guidance and counselling services are free of charge. The costs
      of certain special services (psychological counselling / psychotherapy etc.) are covered by the
      beneficiary (i.e. the charge for an online counselling session is about 10 Euro).
      The purchase of publications containing special categories of information (usually books) or
      access to particular ICT services is also with charge.


10.3 Please describe what cost and expenditure data is available to government and to stakeholders --
     for example on the relative costs of different delivery methods, or the cost of achieving
     particular outcomes, or the costs of providing services to particular types of clients -- when
     making policies for information, guidance and counselling services. Describe the ways in which
     this information is used, providing specific examples if possible.

      See answer to question 10.2


10.4 Please provide the best available estimates of the cost (most recent year) to governments of
     providing information, guidance and counselling services.

      In answering this, where possible provide information on the ways in which this cost is divided
      between different Ministries and between different levels of government. Where possible,
      provide information on trends in costs over time. Where possible break costs down by type: for
      example staff costs; information production costs; capital and equipment costs.

      In answering this, it might be helpful to include an Annex describing the problems that are
      involved in providing expenditure and cost data for information, guidance and counselling
      services in your country.


                                                   37
      As we do not have even estimate data on the funding of information, guidance and counselling
      services, we cannot answer this question. All costs for running the information, guidance and
      counselling services are included in the budget of the coordinating institution: County School
      Inspectorates and Houses of Educational Staff for the County Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance
      Centres and the Employment Agencies for the Information and Vocational Counselling Centres,
      respectively etc.
      Based on informal discussions with representatives in responsible ministries, it can be inferred
      that the main share of the costs are personnel costs (over 75%).


10.5 Please provide an indication of the statutory salaries of information, guidance and counselling
     service workers. As a base, take the case of guidance officers / counsellors with a guidance or
     counselling qualification at ISCED-97 level 5 (i.e. a university degree or equivalent) and
     indicate:

           The starting salary for those with the minimum required training.

            Around 110 Euros

           The salary after 15 years experience.

            Around 260 Euros

           The number of years from the starting salary to the top salary.

            Over 20 years

           Where available, please provide equivalent information for other categories of guidance
            and counselling workers.

            300 - 500 Euros in the private sector (unofficial data)




                                                    38
11.      ASSURING QUALITY

Here we wish to know about the ways that the quality of information, guidance and counselling
services is evaluated, maintained and enhanced.

11.1 Please describe the steps that governments take to maintain and increase the quality of
     information, guidance and counselling services.

      The MoE agreed and expressed its support for a research project aimed at designing tools for
      the evaluation of activities developed by counsellors and counselling institutions (as a
      whole), to be developed by the Educational and Vocational Guidance Department of the
      Institute for Educational Sciences. The other ministries are also interested in assuring quality
      services by developing evaluation mechanisms, as well as promotion and rewarding
      mechanisms for quality activities in the field.
      Quality standards for the counsellors’ activity, as well as a ethical code for the activity
      developed by such specialists are currently elaborated within the National Association for
      Educational and Vocational Guidance.


11.2 Do standards exist for the delivery of information, guidance and counselling services? How and
     by who were these developed? What status do they have? Do they differ between providers?4

      Beyond recommendations and practice rules, there are no quality standards in the proper sense
      with concern to the quality of counsellors’ activity.
      In the past few years, certain questionnaires have been used as self-evaluation checklists,
      specialty inspectors observed the activities developed by councillors etc.
      The activity of the Educational and Vocational Guidance Medical Commissions dealing
      with the medical validation of educational and vocational guidance of students at all pre-
      university levels – has precise practice standards that have been developed by the MoH.

      In this sense we would like to recall the fact that new occupational standards are currently
      developed by the Council of Occupational Standards and Assessment (COSA). However,
      these standards do not specifically look at aspects regarding guidance and counselling activities,
      although their usage would be very useful for information, guidance and counselling activities.


11.3 Do standards exist for the competencies required by information, guidance and counselling
     services staff? If so, how and by who were these developed? What status do they have? Do they
     differ between providers?4

      The requirements for the practicing counsellors – including for those working in the MoE or
      MoL networks – are listed in the Job Description (see for example the MoE Order no. 31314 /
      10.05.1994 regarding the job description of counsellors working in County Psycho-
      Pedagogical Assistance Centres and Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance
      Offices).
      The requirements for counsellors working in the MoE and MoL networks are generally
      different.



4.    Please provide details in an Annex.


                                                  39
      Beyond fulfilling standard requirements for being a counsellor, the counsellors working in the
      field of labour for instance are also required to be knowledgeable on labour law, social
      services, employees’ and unemployed rights, institutions providing training in the field etc.


11.4 Are there formal requirements, for example expressed in regulations or legislation, for the
     education and training qualifications required by information, guidance and counselling staff?4

      While the MoE Order no. 31314 / 10.05.1994 on the Job Description of counsellors working in
      Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres states that „graduates of the Faculty of Pedagogy,
      Psychology, Sociology, Social Work with a work experience in the field of at least three years”
      can be employed, there is no limit as to the work experience for counsellors at the level of
      Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Offices.
      „The Coordinator of a County Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centre should have a PhD
      degree or a teaching credential I”.


11.5 Do guidelines exist on information quality standards to help groups such as tertiary institutions,
     industry associations and individual enterprises produce career information? 4

      We have no data to make specific comments on the quality of information, guidance and
      counselling services thus differentiated.


11.6 Please provide details of any professional groups, bodies or associations of information,
     guidance and counselling services workers in your country.

      In answering this please describe the extent to which such professional groups, bodies or
      associations: work to raise standards of professional practice, for example through the
      professional development and recurrent education of their members; are actively involved in
      lobbying governments on professional issues, for example relating to service quality; and have
      an industrial role to improve the employment conditions of their members.

      The National Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance (NAEVG) and the
      Psychologists’ Association of Romania – Educational and Vocational Guidance Section aim at
      offering quality services in the field, designing quality standards and ethical codes for
      professionals in the field, as mandatory guidelines for counsellors all around the country.


11.7 Please describe any ways in which career information, guidance and counselling professionals
     are involved in the development of policy: for example through formal roles for professional
     associations; or through providing feedback to service providers.

      Counsellors’ professional associations, the activity of practitioners in general, research projects
      and studies on counselling, specific literature, the involvement in European projects in the field
      created a favourable environment for information, guidance and counselling activities that are
      increasingly taken into account when developing policies in this area.
      Some counsellors are also involved in various decision-making bodies of various ministries or
      programs in the field.

      See Annex VII         (recent Romanian publications in the field of educational and vocational
      guidance)




                                                  40
12.      THE EVIDENCE BASE

Here we wish to know about the ways in which the delivery of information, guidance and counselling
services is evaluated and supported by data and research evidence. In answering this section please
refer in particular to national evidence where this is available, rather than to studies conducted in
other countries.


12.1 What information is available about the extent to which information, guidance and counselling
     services are used? What is known about differences in levels of use and access as a function of
     factors such as: socio-economic status or family background; geographical location; gender;
     age; educational level; and levels of disadvantage? Do regular national statistical collections
     monitor access? Have access and usage levels changed over time?

      There are no specific statistical data on access to and usage of information, guidance and
      counselling services.
      From informal discussions with counsellors and based on our own research we concluded that:
       Access to information, guidance and counselling is free and free of charge for all categories,
         but not all beneficiaries know that,
       The people addressing these services are mainly males, young people, people with
         secondary, vocational or higher education, coming from families with average socio-
         economic status,
       The request for information is predominant, while requests for individual counselling are
         rather rare,
       The preferred support of information is paper rather than electronic,
       It is people from urban environments rather then those in rural environments that access
         more frequently the information, guidance and counselling services,
       The categories disadvantaged on the labour market or those under social and vocational
         marginalization risks, do not have complete confidence in the possibility of solving their
         problems this way,
       Few people aged over 50 use the new ICT to approach their career problems.


12.2 How is the level of community need and demand for information, guidance and counselling
     services established (for example by use of surveys, rates of service usage, waiting lists)? What
     is known about the expectations that clients have of services?

      The information, guidance and counselling needs of certain communities or specific groups are
      determined by:
       Directly questioning the target group;
       Studies, surveys, analyses (data regarding customers’ expectations from providers of
         counselling and guidance services or of information are gathered on the same occasion);
       Media analysis, discussions with local authorities, social partners and employers;
       Analysing the main types of requests formulated by previous beneficiaries etc.;
       Needs assessment done when launching a local / regional project;
       Discussions with people trying to change jobs on motives and short / medium term
         expectations.




                                                 41
12.3 What criteria are normally used to judge the benefits or outcomes of information, guidance and
     counselling services?

      The basic criteria used in Romania to evaluate the results of the information, guidance and
      counselling services are quantitative and qualitative:
               Quantitative: number of people counselled, tested, guided etc. individually or in
                 groups (school and university students, adults); number of counselled persons who
                 found employment; number of information materials produced (information about
                 professions, brochures, posters, web sites); number of surveys, studies,
                 investigations, scientific papers etc.; additional financial resources attracted; drafting
                 of promotion materials on the Centre’s image, objectives and services; teaching
                 credentials and scientific degrees obtained by counsellors;
               Qualitative: beneficiaries’ satisfaction; efficient use of available resources
                 (working equipment, psychological equipment, ICT, tests, questionnaires);
                 involving other potential sources of counselling and guidance (the community,
                 representatives of administrative authorities, employers, trade unions); networking;
                 vocational self-education; engagement in professional associations in the field.

      These criteria are set by the counsellors’ community and reflect aspects they regard as relevant
      for the evaluated activity. Within the boundaries of formally imposed general norms, the expert
      has a certain degree of autonomy in measuring and evaluating one’s work. The tools used have
      a guiding role and provide the expert with feedback.


12.4 Please provide details of any recent (last five years) studies that have been conducted of:

            The costs of providing information, guidance and counselling services.
            How costs vary as a function of the type of service delivered and the characteristics of
             clients.
            How the outcomes or benefits of information, guidance and counselling services relate to
             their costs.
            How the benefits or outcomes of information, guidance and counselling services are
             related to the type of service provided and the characteristics of clients.
      
            No studies or research directly focused on the costs of information, guidance and
             counselling activities have ever been conducted.
      
            See as partial answer, the answer to question 12.6
      
      See Annex VII         (Recent Romanian publications in the field of educational and vocational
      guidance)
      
      
12.5 Please provide details of any recent (last five years) initiatives or pilot projects that have been
     designed to provide insight into: the impact of careers services on individuals’ career choices;
     the ability to use career information; the impact of services upon employers; the impact of
     services upon the development of a learning society.

      Leonardo da Vinci pilot project OSP-ZD: Educational and vocational guidance of youths
      resident in socio-economic and culturally disadvantaged areas (RO / 98 / 1 / 83551 / PI / I.1.1.c
      / FPC). Promoter: Romania; partners – France, Belgium, Hungary. Target group: teachers in
      disadvantaged areas; indirect beneficiaries: youths resident in such areas. Outputs: 27
      continuous (self)training modules set for teachers and school counsellors, disseminated in 2500

                                                   42
     disadvantaged schools nation wide; a web site; CD-ROMs where modules are available in
     Romanian, English, French. (Details at http://ospzd.ise.ro).

     Report on the counselling and guidance status quo in Romania (January 2002), as a preliminary
     contribution to the pilot project Distance Counselling – coordinator: Bundesanstalt für Arbeit,
     Germany.

     Grundtvig project: EGA – using ICT in adults counselling.

     Guide to the World of Occupations (GWO) – developing a database on occupations and multiple
     procedures for selecting information on the Internet, available in English and in the languages of
     the partners; the project is targeted at youths needing assistance in identifying a suitable
     profession.

     ACADEMIA – mobility of counsellors within the European space.

     ESTIA – European platform with information on education, labour market, world of professions.

     EUROSTAGE – facilitating mobility of students interested in internships abroad.

     REREAL - Project about Redistribution of Educational Opportunities by Evoking Richness of
     Experiences of Adult Learners.


12.6 Do any national research centres specialise in career information, guidance and counselling
     services? Do they specialise in evaluative and policy studies: or do they mainly focus upon
     guidance techniques and methods?

     Institute of Educational Sciences is a departmental research institute in the field of education,
     funded by the MoE. Within the institute there is an Educational and Vocational Guidance
     Department. The researchers working in this department are experts in the field of guidance and
     counselling. Their educational background is in psychology and educational sciences; most of
     them have a PhD. in Psychology or a Master degree in Educational Sciences, Guidance and
     Counselling.
     By the MoE Order no. 3370 / 03.09.1998, the Educational and Vocational Department of the
     Institute for Educational Sciences was granted the role of methodological authority for the
     MoE’s guidance and counselling network.
     Here are the titles of some of the research projects finalized in the past few years:
        Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres Activity Analysis: human resources, staff
            professional qualifications, ICT endowment, tests, questionnaires, beneficiaries etc.
        Career Counselling for Adults.
        Information and Communication Technology in Career Counselling.
        Evaluation of Career Counselling activities (counsellors’ and counselling institutions’
            activities).
        Computerised Career Guidance program.
        Educational Guidance interactive program.
        Guidance and Counselling. Methodological Guidelines.

     The Educational and Vocational Guidance Department, the Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance
     Centres, the Information and Guidance Centres undertake polls among the beneficiaries of their
     information, guidance and counselling services with concern to: educational and vocational
     choices, satisfaction / utility and quality of the services, employers’ requirements with regard to
     the labour force etc.


                                                 43
      Special consideration is granted to the national and European dimension of the information,
      guidance and counselling activity, without neglecting the technical and practical approaches of
      counsellors’ activity.


12.7 How useful have governments found the work of research centres in developing policy for
     information, guidance and counselling services?

      The above-mentioned research results are sent to the MoE (corresponding departments, schools,
      certain employers and their associations).
      Some of the materials are published as books or are presented at national scientific sessions.
      The studies on information, guidance and counselling represent reference material for the MoE
      in designing its policies in the field.


12.8 Have governments taken steps to increase the evidence base for information, guidance and
     counselling services through support for relevant research centres? Has such support been on
     the basis of individual commissioned studies, or are more on-going forms of support used?

      Partially, this is done by the research activity of the Institute of Educational Sciences –
      Educational and Vocational Guidance Department and the Evaluation, Prognosis and
      Development Department of the MoE.
      Recently the MoE, on the occasion of the Capacity and Baccalaureate exams in 2002, launched
      a portal featuring the education and training offer meant to facilitate informing the students
      willing to continue studies (http://www.portal.edu.ro/adlic/).




                                                 44
Annex I

                   NATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING SYSTEM


                           
                                                              KEY POINTS

          VI                                                         Entrance / exit point
          V                
          IV               
          III                                           
          II                                             

           I                                             
                                                   
  17/18   XII                                                              

  16/17   XI                                                                                   
  15/16   X                                                                                    
  14/15   IX                                                                                    
                                                                                         
  13/14   VIII                                                                                  

  12/13   VII

  11/12   VI

  10/11   V
                   
  9/10    IV

  8/9     III

  7/8      II

  6/7      I
                  
   3/6
  Age Grade       
      Year


                 Pre-school education                        Apprentice school
                 Primary school                              Long-term higher education
                 Lower secondary school                      Short-term higher education
                 High school                                 Post secondary school
                 Vocational school                           Post graduate studies




                                                45
Annex II

                EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM


                   Ministry of Education

                                                                Ministry of Labour

                IGC                   Institute of
         (higher education)       Educational Sciences
                                                                     N/C/LEA


              PPAC
       (secondary education)               EVG Dept                    IVGC



             ISPPAC
       (secondary education)




                                                            Ministry of Youth



      NRCVG
      NAEVG                                               NASYI - INFOTIN

      Psy. Assoc. (EVG)
      Private service I, G, C


       LEGENDA

       EVG Dept = Educational and Vocational Guidance Department
       IGC = Information and Guidance Centres
       PPAC = Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres
       ISPPAC = Inter-School Psycho-Pedagogical Assistance Centres

       N / C / LEA = National / County / Local Employment Agency
       IVGC = Information and Vocational Guidance Centres

       NASYI – INFOTIN = National Agency for Supporting Youth Initiatives

       NRCVG = National Resources Centre for Vocational Guidance
       NAEVG = National Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance
       Psy. Assoc. (EVG) = Psychologists’ Association – Educational and Vocational Guidance
       Section
       Private service I, G, C = Private Information, Guidance and Counselling Services



                                                      46
Annex III

        CENTRE NATIONAL DE RESSOURCES POUR L’ORIENTATION
                        PROFESSIONNELLE

      (NATIONAL RESOURCES CENTRE FOR VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE)




            UE - DG XXII                                        MINISTERE DE L’EDUCATION




 UNC - LEONARDO DA                                                  INSTITUT DES SCIENCES DE
        VINCI                                                           L’EDUCATION - OSP




                                                                   MINISTERE DU TRAVAIL
                                                                          ANOFT




                    CNROP - RO                                                         CAPP
                                                                                        CIO
                                                                                       CICP




             RESEAU CNROP                              POPULATION CIBLE - BENEFICIAIRES




                                            LEGENDE


                           CAPP - Centre d’Assistance Psychopédagogique
                           CIO – Centre d’Information et d’Orientation
                           CICP - Centre d’Information et de Conseil Professionnelle
                           ANOFT - Agence Nationale d’Emploi le Force de Travail
                           CNROP – Centre National de Ressources pour l’Orientation Professionnelle
                           OSP – Orientation Scolaire et Professionnelle


                                                  47
Annex IV



               “COUNSELLING AND GUIDANCE” CURRICULAR AREA


      The “Counselling and Guidance” Curricular area was introduced in the National Curriculum
      starting school years 1998-1999.


       The position of the “Counselling and Guidance” Curricular area in the National Curriculum at
                                      the compulsory education level

               Grade                          Number of hours allocated in the Curriculum
                I                                                0-1
                II                                               0-1
               III                                               0-1
               IV                                                0-1
                V                                                 1
               VI                                                 1
               VII                                                1
               VIII                                               1


       The position of the “Counselling and Guidance” Curricular area in the National Curriculum at
                             the secondary education level (all specializations)


       Grade                  Study track             Number of hours allocated in the Curriculum
                              Theoretical                                  1
         IX                 Technological*                                 1
                              Vocational                                   1
                              Theoretical                                  1
         X                  Technological*                                 1
                              Vocational                                   1
                              Theoretical                                  1
         XI                 Technological*                                 1
                              Vocational                                   1
                              Theoretical                                  1
        XII                 Technological**                                1
                              Vocational                                   1

* Vocational Guidance and Counselling

** Career Information and Counselling




                                                 48
Annex V



 ROMANIAN EMPLOYMENT AND COUNSELLING SERVICES ON INTERNET

    http://hercules.sibiu.ro/oosp/jobs.html
    http://jobtin.infotin.ro/
    http://www.1educat.ro
    http://www.1job.ro/
    http://www.aims.ro
    http://www.anunt.ro/job/romanian
    http://www.anunturi-concrete.co.ro/
    http://www.bestjobs.ro
    http://www.bia.ro/8x6/home.html
    http://www.bursamuncii.ro
    http://www.ciocp.ro
    http://www.cjnet.ro/n/rlocuridemunca.html
    http://www.cotidianul.ro/intermedieri/index.htm
    http://www.cvonline.ro/
    http://www.ejobs.ro
    http://www.hit.ro/
    http://www.humanresorces.ro
    http://www.job.ro/
    http://www.jobs2000.go.ro/
    http://www.jobs-consulting.ro/
    http://www.jobsite.ro/
    http://www.joburi.net/
    http://www.locuridemunca.ro
    http://www.munca.ro/
    http://www.myjob.ro/
    http://www.resurseumane.ro
    http://www.semm.ro
    http://www.siveco.ro
    http://www.topedge.ro/cerere-oferta
    http://www.trimitecv.go.ro/
    http://www.wa.ro/jobs.htm
    http://www.webinfo.ro/munca/munca.htm



                                              49
Annex VI



    EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE PROJECTS FUNDED
        THROUGH THE «LEONARDO DA VINCI» PROGRAMME


    RO / 98.83536: Vocational Guidance. Excellence in Career Office Activity.
    RO / 98.83539: Formation des professeurs pour conseille psychosociale et
    professionnelle des élèves et des jeunes.
    RO / 98.83543: CARAVELA – Projet pilot transnational portant sur l’orientation aux
    métiers du bâti ancien.
    RO / 98.83551: Orientation scolaire et professionnelle pour les jeunes résidents en
    zones défavorisées de point de vue socio-économique et culturelle.
    RO / 98.83553: Formation professionnelle, orientation et insertion des femmes.
    RO / 088: L’insertion professionnelle immédiate dans les PME, adaptée aux
    changements sociaux.
    RO / 99.83645: Experimental Occupational Guidance and Training Centre.
    RO / 99.83710: New Workers in professional Training.
    RO / 99.83713: Formation professionnelle multi-métiers.
    RO / 99.83760: Placements MARA en Services Touristique.
    RO / 99.83763: Placement des jeunes ouvrières pour formation en tourisme rural.
    RO / 99.83736: Formateurs en carrières professionnelles pour un avenir européen.
    RO / 99.2.13033: Careers for Women.



    Programmes funded from other sources:
    The educational programme „Decision is mine” focused on 7th grades (to be extended
    for the 8th grades), funded by British American Tobaccos and Philip Morris (school
    years 2000-2002).
    The educational programme „It’s your turn to change the world” focused on 11th
    grades, funded by the Coca-Cola Company (school years 2000-2002).
    The educational programme „I want a career” focused on 11th grades, funded by
    Balkan Children and Youth, Macedonia (2001-2002)
    The educational programme „Education 2000+” focused on students and teachers in
    the pre-university education, including intensive Counselling and Guidance modules.




                                           50
Annex VII


                RECENT ROMANIAN PUBLICATIONS REGARDING
                  EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE


Cariera: şansă sau planificare? In: Revista de pedagogie, nr. 1-12, 1997.
Centrul de consiliere în cariera profesională. Manual. Bucureşti, FIMAN, Editura Expert,
      1997.
Centrul de orientare şcolară şi profesională. Manual de înfiinţare şi operare. Bucureşti,
      PAEM, Editura Expert, 1997.
Consiliere şi Orientare. Ghid metodologic. Jigău, M. (coord.). Bucureşti, CNC, 2001.
Curriculum Naţional pentru învăţământul obligatoriu. Cadru de referinţă. MEN, CNC.
      Bucureşti, Editura Corint, 1998.
Dicţionar de psihologie. Şchiopu, Ursula (coord.). Bucureşti, Editura Babel, 1997.
Educaţia pentru sănătate în şcoală. Bucur, Gh.-E.; Popescu, O. (red.). Bucureşti, Editura
      „Fiat Lux”, 1999.
Elemente practice de medicină a orientării şcolare şi profesionale. Bucur, Gh.-E. (red.).
      Bucureşti, Editura medicală, 1986.
Ghid metodologic pentru orientarea şcolară şi profesională. Bucureşti, EDP, 1989.
JIGĂU, Mihai. Consilierea carierei. Bucureşti, Editura Sigma, 2001.
MANOLACHE, Ioana. Învăţare şi handicap. Bucureşti, Editura Licorna, 1997.
RADU, Gh. Psihopedagogia dezvoltării şcolarilor cu handicap. Bucureşti, EDP., 1999.
SALADE Dumitru. Om şi profesiune. Cluj-Napoca, Editura Dokia, 1998.
SALADE, Dumitru; DRĂGAN, Ion. Orientare şcolară şi profesională. Compendiu.
    Bucureşti, Editura Paco, 1998.
TOMŞA, Gheorghe. Orientarea şi dezvoltarea carierei la elevi. Bucureşti, Casa de editură
    şi presă Viaţa Românească, 1999.
TOMŞA, Gheorghe. Consilierea şi orientarea în şcoală. Bucureşti, Casa de editură şi presă
    Viaţa Românească, 1999.
VERZA, Emil; PĂUN, Emil. Educaţia integrată a copiilor cu handicap. Bucureşti, 1998.
ZĂPÂRŢAN, Mărioara. Eficienţa cunoaşterii factorilor de personalitate în orientarea
     şcolară şi profesională. Cluj, Editura Dacia, 1990.




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