Why Does Aggression Occur in Sport? Part II: Theories & Research Retaliation “They were just getting even..” Reactive explanation “Violence precipitates violence” Research – Brice (1990) – Sanzole (1995) – Contact versus non-contact Annoyance Annoyance = anger provoking? Annoyances Social Learning Theory Learned behavior Learn how, when, and against whom When aggression is reinforced, it is repeated Sport Aggression The Result of Learning? Perceptions of approval – Smith (1974) – Clark et al. (1978) – Vaz (1972) – Houston & Widmeyer (1987) Perceptions of success – Smith (1978) SLT: Vicarious Reinforcement? Cannot directly study vicarious reinforcement Nash & Lerner (1981) Mungo and Feltz (1985) Recap: Social Learning Theory Basic premise: Media Contact sports vs. non-contact Achievement Motivation Theory Task-oriented Ego-oriented Achievement Motivation Theory High ego-orientation Achievement Motivation Theory Relationship between achievement orientation and aggression High ego orientation positively associated with perceived legitimacy of aggressive behavior and cheating (Duda, Olsen, & Templin, 1991) Positively associated with acceptance of potentially injurious behaviors in sport (Huston & Duda, 1991) Role Theory Proposes that individuals engage in certain behavior because they are fulfilling a role Formal roles Informal roles Role Theory: Ice Hockey Policeman, Enforcer, Goon Defensive positions more aggressive than offense/forward positions Aggression, can be attributed, at least in part, to athletes fulfilling their jobs Fireantz Minor League Hockey Team Fayetteville, NC “Fournier A New Attitude” Double Standard? “You know, if you have a fight on the street (on the streets of Vancouver) you are going to be thrown in jail, you know, but fighting is allowed in our sport. So where do you draw the line?” Paul Kariya, NHL Anaheim Mighty Ducks Theory of Moral Reasoning Looks at athlete’s interpretations and evaluations of aggressive behavior Attempts to understand the occurrence of aggression as a moral issue Developmental approach Bredemeier Theory of Moral Reasoning “…stepping out of “real life” into a temporary sphere of activity with a disposition all it’s own.” – Huizinga (1955) “…play, and by extension sport, exists in a unique sphere, framed apart from the rest of life, and that entry into that sphere involves cognitive, attitudinal, and value judgments.” Game frame Does sport have unique moral conditions? Bracketed Morality Sport thought to encourage a temporary, partial adoption of an assimilative style of moral reasoning Game Reasoning Game reasoning = What does the research tell us? Bracketed Morality in the NHL George Jordin Laraque Tootoo Edmonton Nashville Oilers Predators Voted Best Fighter in the NHL At the age of 14 when he (The Hockey News, 2003) played AAA Bantam ice hockey, he beat up a player so “Me? I like fighting. People bad he was suspended for who see me off the ice can’t seven games believe I’m that kind of guy. Off the ice I don’t like trouble. “I thought, what’s the big I’ll be the nicest guy around, deal? I figured you could do talk to everybody. But on the anything you wanted on the ice…it just gets in my blood. ice.” (Sports Illustrated, 2003) It’s very hard to explain.” Professionalization of Attitudes Harry Webb (1969) Relative priority people give to: Play orientation: children Professional orientation: as sport experience increases Professionalization of Attitudes Research: – Athletes and males progress further and more rapidly towards a professional orientation than non-athletes and females – More elite athletes exhibit a more professional orientation than less-elite athletes – Young hockey players taught to perform illegitimate acts (Vaz, 1982) Professionalization of Ice Hockey Players 6 Mean Professionalization of Attitude Score 5 4 3 2 1 Youth High School Collegiate Professional Level of Competitive Play Visek & Watson, 2005 Discussion of Hypothesis Results supported previous research that adolescents and young adults are more professionalized than pre-adolescents (Greer & Stewart, 1989; Webb, 1969) – Younger players: – High school and collegiate: – Professional: Post-hoc analyses Visek & Watson, 2005 Which Theory Do You Find Has The Most Credence? Instinct Theory Rivalry Theory Frustration-Aggression Cognitive Neoassociation Model Role Theory Social Learning Theory Moral Reasoning Professionalization NHL Case Study Todd Bertuzzi vs. Steve Moore March 8, 2004 Bertuzzi Hit The attack appeared to be payback for Moore's Feb. 16 hit on Canucks captain Markus Naslund, who got a concussion and missed three games. Both teams were warned by the league not to retaliate. Bertuzzi Penalized National Hockey League – Suspended: 13 games regular season games and Stanley Cup playoffs – Lost at least $502,000 salary – Team was fined $250,000 for the attack – Barred from playing in Europe by International Ice Hockey Federation – 17-month suspension, most of which was served during the NHL's labor dispute that cost the 2004-05 season. Criminal Court – Pleaded guilty to criminal assault – Faced up to 18 months in jail; granted conditional discharge 1 year probation, 80 hours community service Don Cherry Comments… "If you have a beef with somebody, and you want to do something, [you settle it] face to face. Face to face and you settle it that way. You do not sucker punch ever from behind." While not defending Bertuzzi, Don Cherry says the incident might have been avoided if Colorado coach Tony Granato had taken steps to protect Steve Moore; like sending Peter Worrell out to police the situation. Hockey Violence: The Debate What is your reaction to the punishment handed down by the NHL and criminal court? What theory best accounts for Bertuzzi’s aggressive and violent behavior? Is aggression and violence a vital part of the NHL? Do the bounds of criminal law end where the playing field begins? Why or why not?
Pages to are hidden for
"Why Does Aggression Occur in Sport?"Please download to view full document