Why Does Aggression Occur in Sport? by u10JBP15


									Why Does Aggression
Occur in Sport?
Part II:
Theories & Research
“They were just getting even..”
   Reactive explanation
   “Violence precipitates violence”
   Research
    – Brice (1990)

    – Sanzole (1995)

    – Contact versus non-contact
   Annoyance = anger

   Annoyances
Social Learning Theory
   Learned behavior

   Learn how, when, and against whom

   When aggression is reinforced,
    it is repeated
Sport Aggression
The Result of Learning?
   Perceptions of approval
    – Smith (1974)

    – Clark et al. (1978)

    – Vaz (1972)

    – Houston & Widmeyer (1987)

   Perceptions of success
    – Smith (1978)
SLT: Vicarious Reinforcement?
   Cannot directly study vicarious

   Nash & Lerner (1981)

   Mungo and Feltz (1985)
Recap: Social Learning Theory
   Basic premise:

   Media

   Contact sports vs. non-contact
Achievement Motivation Theory
   Task-oriented

   Ego-oriented
Achievement Motivation Theory
   High ego-orientation
Achievement Motivation Theory
   Relationship between
    achievement orientation and
   High ego orientation
    positively associated with
    perceived legitimacy of
    aggressive behavior and
    cheating (Duda, Olsen, & Templin,

   Positively associated with
    acceptance of potentially
    injurious behaviors in sport
    (Huston & Duda, 1991)
Role Theory
   Proposes that individuals engage in certain
    behavior because they are fulfilling a role

   Formal roles

   Informal roles
Role Theory: Ice Hockey
   Policeman, Enforcer,

   Defensive positions more
    aggressive than

   Aggression, can be
    attributed, at least in part,
    to athletes fulfilling their
Minor League Hockey Team
Fayetteville, NC

                  “Fournier A New Attitude”
Double Standard?
“You know, if you have a fight on the street
 (on the streets of Vancouver) you are
 going to be thrown in jail, you know, but
 fighting is allowed in our sport. So where
 do you draw the line?”
                     Paul Kariya, NHL
                     Anaheim Mighty Ducks
Theory of Moral Reasoning
   Looks at athlete’s interpretations and
    evaluations of aggressive behavior

   Attempts to understand the occurrence of
    aggression as a moral issue

   Developmental approach

   Bredemeier
Theory of Moral Reasoning
   “…stepping out of “real life” into a temporary
    sphere of activity with a disposition all it’s own.”
    – Huizinga (1955)

   “…play, and by extension sport, exists in a
    unique sphere, framed apart from the rest of life,
    and that entry into that sphere involves cognitive,
    attitudinal, and value judgments.”
   Game frame
   Does sport have unique moral conditions?
Bracketed Morality
   Sport thought to encourage a temporary,
    partial adoption of an assimilative style of
    moral reasoning
Game Reasoning
   Game reasoning =

   What does the research tell us?
    Bracketed Morality in the NHL
   George                                   Jordin
    Laraque                                   Tootoo

     Edmonton                                 Nashville
      Oilers                                    Predators

     Voted Best Fighter in the NHL            At the age of 14 when he
      (The Hockey News, 2003)                   played AAA Bantam ice
                                                hockey, he beat up a player so
     “Me? I like fighting. People              bad he was suspended for
      who see me off the ice can’t              seven games
      believe I’m that kind of guy.
      Off the ice I don’t like trouble.        “I thought, what’s the big
      I’ll be the nicest guy around,            deal? I figured you could do
      talk to everybody. But on the             anything you wanted on the
      ice…it just gets in my blood.             ice.” (Sports Illustrated, 2003)
      It’s very hard to explain.”
Professionalization of Attitudes
   Harry Webb (1969)

   Relative priority people give to:

   Play orientation: children

   Professional orientation: as sport
    experience increases
Professionalization of Attitudes
   Research:
    – Athletes and males progress further and more
      rapidly towards a professional orientation than
      non-athletes and females
    – More elite athletes exhibit a more professional
      orientation than less-elite athletes
    – Young hockey players taught to perform
      illegitimate acts (Vaz, 1982)
                                                 Professionalization of
                                                  Ice Hockey Players
Mean Professionalization of Attitude Score





                                                 Youth   High School              Collegiate       Professional
                                                              Level of Competitive Play

                                                                                               Visek & Watson, 2005
Discussion of Hypothesis
   Results supported previous research that
    adolescents and young adults are more
    professionalized than pre-adolescents
    (Greer & Stewart, 1989; Webb, 1969)

     – Younger players:
     – High school and collegiate:
     – Professional:

   Post-hoc analyses

                                          Visek & Watson, 2005
Which Theory Do You Find Has
The Most Credence?
 Instinct Theory
 Rivalry Theory
 Frustration-Aggression
 Cognitive Neoassociation Model
 Role Theory
 Social Learning Theory
 Moral Reasoning
 Professionalization
NHL Case Study
Todd Bertuzzi vs. Steve Moore
        March 8, 2004
Bertuzzi Hit
   The attack appeared
    to be payback for
    Moore's Feb. 16 hit
    on Canucks captain
    Markus Naslund,
    who got a concussion
    and missed three

   Both teams were
    warned by the league
    not to retaliate.
Bertuzzi Penalized
   National Hockey League
    – Suspended: 13 games regular season games and Stanley Cup
    – Lost at least $502,000 salary
    – Team was fined $250,000 for the attack
    – Barred from playing in Europe by International Ice Hockey
    – 17-month suspension, most of which was served during the
      NHL's labor dispute that cost the 2004-05 season.

   Criminal Court
    – Pleaded guilty to criminal assault
    – Faced up to 18 months in jail; granted conditional discharge
           1 year probation, 80 hours community service
Don Cherry Comments…
   "If you have a beef with somebody, and you
    want to do something, [you settle it] face to face.
    Face to face and you settle it that way. You do
    not sucker punch ever from behind."

   While not defending Bertuzzi, Don Cherry says
    the incident might have been avoided if Colorado
    coach Tony Granato had taken steps to protect
    Steve Moore; like sending Peter Worrell out to
    police the situation.
Hockey Violence: The Debate
   What is your reaction to the
    punishment handed down
    by the NHL and criminal
   What theory best accounts
    for Bertuzzi’s aggressive
    and violent behavior?
   Is aggression and violence
    a vital part of the NHL?
   Do the bounds of criminal
    law end where the playing
    field begins? Why or why

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