BUILDING BACKGROUND by FzRRi8

VIEWS: 14 PAGES: 37

									BUILDING BACKGROUND
SIOP
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol



           Building Background
               NC DPI SIOP Model
Objectives
• Content Objectives:
Recognize the importance of connecting students’ personal
experiences and cultural background to lesson concepts
Identify strategies for linking past learning with new

information


•Language Objectives:
Discuss the features of building background



Incorporate a variety of vocabulary development activities

Building Background                     Features


  Link to                               Link
 Students’                           Past + New
Background         Develop Key        Learning
                    Vocabulary


Content Language   School Language   Multiple Meanings
Building Background

• Link concepts to students’ background experiences.




•             Bridge past learning to new concepts.



• Emphasize key vocabulary.
               Jean et Andre


Jean et André sont frères. Jean est l’aîné. Les
deux vont au lycée qui se trouve à moins de cinq
kilometers de leur maison à Paris. Bien qu’il y ait
une difference d’âge de trois ans entre les deux
frères, leurs niveaux scolaires ne sont séparés que
par deux années. André est en sixième. En
quelle classe est Jean?




                                              6
             Jean and Andre


Jean and Andre are brothers. Jean is older. The
two go to a school located fewer than five
kilometers from their home in Paris. Although
there is a difference in age of three years between
the two brothers, their grade levels are only two
years apart. Andre is in sixth grade.
What grade is Jean in?
Educational Systems:
   U.S. vs. France
   U.S.         France
grade level   grade level
    6              6
    7              5
    8              4
    9              3
    10             2
    11             1
    12          terminal
Cultural Comparisons
(Hofstede)

• Individualistic


• Collectivist


Geert Hostede Cultural Dimensions http://www.geert-hofstede.com
Hofstede, G (1986) 'Cultural differences in teaching and learning' International Journal
   of Intercultural Relations


 Link to Students’ Background
    An Example of Cultural
    Differences
•    Contrasting Beliefs, Values, and Practices (Lynch & Hanson, 1992)

•    Hispanic Culture:                Mainstream Culture:
•    collective orientation            individual orientation
•    interdependence                   independence
•    collective, group identity        individual identity
•    cooperation                       competition
•    saving face                       being direct
•    relaxed with time                 time sensitive
•    emphasis on interpersonal         emphasis on task orientation
•    spiritual/magical belief          rational/empirical
•     patriarchal family structure    democratic family structure
•    relaxed with child development   strong expectations for child development
•    overt respect for the elderly    less value/respect toward the elderly
•    extended family systems          nuclear family systems more pronounced

                                               Link to Students’ Background
                Hofstede’s Ratings
Individualism                                         USA     91
      │                                         Australia     90
      │                                     Great Britain     89
      │                                          Canada       80
      │                                               Italy   76
      │                                  France, Sweden       71
      │                                         Germany       67
      │                                             Israel    54
      │                                            Spain      51
      │                                              India    48
      │                                 Argentina, Japan      46
      │                                                Iran   41
      │                                   Arab countries      38
      │                                      Philippines      32
      │                                           Mexico      30
      │                                      East Africa      27
      │                              Singapore, Thailand      20
      │                                      West Africa      20
      │                                     South Korea       18
      │                                       Costa Rica      15
      │                              Indonesia, Pakistan      14
 Collectivism                                 Guatemala        6
Academic Differences
MATH

Mathematics

• Division may be done in a different way.
•
• In some Hispanic countries, a period is used to
  indicate thousands, 3.000 to indicate three
  thousand.

• A comma is used to separate a decimal from a whole
  number 0,5 instead of 0.5

                     Link to Students’ Background
             More Academic differences

• Dates are written differently:
  5/7/90 would mean July 5, 1990.

• Days of the week and months of the year are not
  capitalized in Spanish.

• The first day of the week is MONDAY, not Sunday.

                 Link to Students’ Background
Culturally imbedded:

•   Ground hog day
•   A day at the beach
•   Frosty the Snow Man
•   Babar the Elephant
•   Buffalo Calf Woman



Bridge Past Concepts to New Learning
Instructional Tips:

 • Discover and value the culture of your students.
 • Build background! Never make assumptions about
   what students know.
 • Provide culturally appropriate interaction.
 • Create a climate of acceptance
 • Design lessons to include cross cultural subject
   matter.
 • Know what you do not know.
 • Get to know parents and the community
               Link to Students’ Background
Thinking about your classroom activities

 Activity:
 Share with “eyeball” partner.

    Think of activities in your classroom that may have
    been effective/ineffective because of background of
    students. Write on sticky note. Share with another
    person.
Building Background



            Bridge past learning to new

            concepts.
Link to Past Learning

 How do you link to past learning…brainstorm
Link to Past Learning

• Refer to past notes
• Pull out old power points/overheads
• Establish routines that require students to “go
  back” into past lessons
• Identify notes by lesson
• Etc…
Building Background

• Emphasize key vocabulary.
 Emphasize Key Vocabulary

     • Vocabulary knowledge is important in
       comprehension
        Incidental learning




         Explicit Instruction

21                                       Emphasize key vocabular
Problematic areas:

idioms
words with multiple meanings
culturally embedded meanings
homophones
suffixes
prefixes
superlatives
false-cognates
content vocabulary


                               Emphasize key vocabulary
     Idioms and Sayings
     • Examples:
     “It’s raining cats and dogs out there!”
     “Don’t count your chickens before they hatch”
     “You need to buckle down!”
     “He talks out of both sides of his mouth!”
     ___________________________
     ___________________________



23                                          Emphasize key vocabulary
 Multiple Meanings
 What subject area might you find these words used with
 different meanings?



 Face          Tree         State         Plane




 What can the teacher do to help clarify content-specific
 vocabulary?
24                                          Emphasize key vocabulary
 Homophones

     •   Sweet/Suite
     •   Pair/Pear
     •   Allowed/Aloud
     •   Aunt/Ant
     •   Arc/Ark
     •   Their/There/They’re

     • And many more!

25                             Emphasize key vocabulary
Suffixes, Prefixes

• ISM - belief in - terrorism, socialism
• IST – one who believes in – terrorist, socialist

• ANTI – against – antipathy, antiwar
• A – not, without - amoral, asocial




                                       Emphasize key vocabulary
Comparatives and Superlatives
Why do we say?

•   More beautiful, most beautiful
•   Prettier, prettiest
•   Nice, nicer




                                     Emphasize key vocabulary
Cognates
   nacional          national
   atmosfera         atmosphere
   fotosintesis      photosynthesis
   clorofila         chlorophyll
   hemisferio        hemisphere
   protestar         protest
   satisfacción      satisfaction
   familia           family
   emoción           emotion
   disciplina        discipline
   diferente         different
Tiers of Language
Margarita Calderón




                     Emphasize key vocabular
Three Tiers
Tier 1    Basic       Sight            Multiple
          Vocabulary words,            Meanings
                      nouns,
                      adjectives
Tier 2    Used across High             Multiple
          curriculum frequency         meanings

Tier 3    Content     Low
          specific    frequency



                             Emphasize key vocabulary
Tier 1         Tier 2             Tier 3
Simple words   Process, Idioms,     Content Words,
               Sophisticated        Key Vocabulary


Wish           rule                 summoned

Gray           Take care            fortunate

Queen          replied              generation

Castle         No matter what       Persistently

               Elderly              faithful
                                  Margarita Calderón & Associates
Common Tier 2 Words on 7th and 8th grade
state tests (M. Calderón)
Absence, accuracy, additive, effect, affect, allow, apparent,
approach, arrange, assortment, assumption, basis, bases,
behavior, belief, body, boundary, core, criteria, crucial, depict,
deplete, device, display, distinct, generate, impact, illustrate…




                                                Emphasize key
                                                vocabulary
Common Tier 2 words on 11th and 12th
grade state tests:
vary, underlying, albeit, solely, successive, denote, crucial,
oddly, analogous, compiled, oddly, whereby,
notwithstanding, forthcoming, ultimately, assume,
coincide, hence, widespread, implicit…




                                              Emphasize key
                                              vocabulary
 Summing up vocabulary tips:
     •   Ensure multiple exposures
     •   Contextualize vocabulary
     •   Provide opportunities to use words
     •   Cultivate word awareness
     •   Consider cultural background
     •   Group words in categories
     •   Teach more than key vocabulary


34                                       Emphasize key vocabulary
 SIOP Classroom Video

     • 7th Grade Science SIOP Classroom

       How did the classroom teacher build background
       in this lesson?

       Did you see evidence of linking to students’
       background? Developing key vocabulary?
       Connecting to past learning?
35                                     Emphasize key vocabulary
Building Background

• Link concepts to students’ background experiences.




•             Bridge past learning to new concepts.



• Emphasize key vocabulary.
Objectives
• Content Objectives:
Recognize the importance of connecting students’ personal
experiences and cultural background to lesson concepts
Identify strategies for linking past learning with new

information


•Language Objectives:
Discuss the features of building background



Incorporate a variety of vocabulary development activities


								
To top