Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 - May 28, 1937), an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist,
founder of the school of individual psychology.
Born in Penzing, Austria and raised in Vienna, he trained as a doctor at the University of Vienna
Medical School and qualified in 1895. He became interested in psychology as it related to
physical disorders. He met Sigmund Freud in 1902 and they formed the Vienna Psychoanalytic
Society with Adler as a president.
Adler was influenced by the mental construct ideas of Hans Vaihinger and developed a theory of
organic inferiority and compensation (hypertrophy, see inferiority complex), with the "masculine
protest" as the natural outcome in male-dominated society. Adler came to disagree with Freud's
theories: the divergence became public in 1911 at the Weimar Psychoanalytic Congress. Adler
contended with Sigmund Freud's belief in the dominance of the sex instinct and whether ego
drives were libidinal, he also attacked Freud's ideas over repression. Adler believed that the
repression theory should be replaced with the concept of ego-defensive tendencies - the neurotic
state derived from inferiority feelings and over compensation of the masculine protest, Oedipal
complexes were insignificant. Adler left the Vienna society and formed the Society of Free
Analytic Research, renamed the Society of Individual Psychology in 1912.
He wrote a book defining his key ideas in 1912: Über den nervösen Charakter. He argued that
human personality could be explained teleologically, separate strands dominated by the guiding
purpose of the individual's unconscious self ideal to convert feelings of inferiority to superiority
(or rather completeness). The desires of the self ideal were countered by social and ethical
demands. If the corrective factors were disregarded and the individual over-compensated then an
inferiority complex would occur, the individual would become egocentric, power-hungry and
aggressive or worse.
His efforts were halted by World War I, during which he served as a doctor with the Austrian
Army. Post-war his influence increased greatly into the 1930s, he established a number of child
guidance clinics from 1921 and was a frequent lecturer in Europe and the United States,
becoming a visiting professor at Columbia University in 1927. Therapeutically his methods
avoided the concentration on adult psyche by attempting to pre-empt the problems in the child by
encouraging and promoting social interest and but avoiding pampering and neglect. In adults the
therapy relied on the exclusion of blame or a superior attitude by the practitioner, the reduction
of resistance by raising awareness of individual behaviour and the refusal to become adversarial.
Common theraputic tools included the use of humour, historical instances and paradoxical
injunctions. Adler's popularity was related to the comparative optimisim and comprehensibility
of his ideas compared to those of Freud or Carl Jung. He famously commented The test of one's
behavior pattern; relationship to society, relationship to one's work, relationship to sex.
In 1934 the Austrian government closed most of Adler's clinics and in 1935 Adler left Austria
for a professorship at the Long Island College of Medicine. His death in Aberdeen, Scotland,
1937, was a blow to the influence of his ideas although a number of them were taken up by neo-
Freudians. Nonetheless, there exists presently several schools dedicated to carrying on the work
of Alfred Adler such as The Adler School of Professional Psychology which was founded as The
Alfred Adler Institute of Chicago by Adler's protoge, Rudolf Dreikurs. There are also various
organizations promoting Dr. Adler's orientation towards mental and social wellbeing. These
include ICASSI and the North American Society for Adlerian Psychology (NASAP).
His key publications were The Practice and Theory of Individual Psychology (1927) and
Understanding Human Nature (1927).
Robert Abbe (1851 - 1928), was an American surgeon and pioneer radiologist in New York
City. He was born April 13, 1851, at New York City and educated at the College of the City of
New York (S.B., 1871) and Columbia University (M.D., 1874).
Abbe was most known as a plastic surgeon, and between 1877 and 1884 he served as a surgeon
and professor of surgery at the New York Hospital, St. Luke's Hospital, and the New York
Babies Hospital. During this time, he would spend summers traveling, and he amassed a large
collection of Native American artifacts and archeological materials.
Dr. Abbe was a renowned surgeon and medical pioneer. He was an attending surgeon at St.
Luke's Hospital in New York, where the plastic surgical laboratory is named for him. He was a
lecturer and fellow of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia and Vice President of the
Academy of Medicine.
He befriended the Curies, and in particular Marie Curie. He collected many photographs of her,
documented the production of radium, and explored, with her, the medical uses of radiation and
x-rays. In 1904, he introduced the practice of using radiation to treat cancer and founded the
science of radiation oncology. In 1927, he founded the Abbe Museum of Native American
In 1904, after corresponding with Professor and Madame Curie, he visited their laboratories in
Paris. Joining in their groundbreaking research, he became the founder of radiation therapy in the
United States. He was a vigorous opponent of the use of tobacco which he considered a cause of
cancer and reported over 100 cases of smoker's cancer. In later years, at his Bar Harbor summer
home, "Brook End," Abbe created a garden in whose pool floated two swans – Pierre and Marie.
Dr. Abbe has been called "the best-loved summer resident of Bar Harbor." Those who knew him
recognized his unique spirit, and many who visit the Museum today feel the specialness of the
man and the museum.
While summering in Bar Harbor, Dr. Abbe was fascinated by the ancient Native American tools
found in nearby shell heaps. As he began collecting these artifacts, he realized the need for safe
permanent storage. Even during a long illness, probably a result of his exposure to radium, he
labored to establish the museum. His dreams of a museum became reality with the help of
friends such as George Dorr and Charles Eliot, the founding fathers of Acadia National Park.
The dedication of the museum on August 14, 1928 was also a memorial to Robert Abbe. He had
died just five months before.
Abbe amassed a sizeable collection of Native American archaeological material during his
summers on Mount Desert Island. Opened in 1928, the Abbe was one of the first museums built
in Maine. Its founding coincided with that of the national park, which was established as
Lafayette National Park in 1919 and became Acadia in 1929. The Abbe was conceived as a
trailside museum to complement the park’s offerings. Today it is one of only two remaining
private trailside museums in national parks, the other one being the Borax Museum in Death
Robert Abbe was a man of many talents and interests. He was a photographer and an artist, he
painted, created line drawings and molded maps. His large map "The Land of Dawn" is on
display in the museum. The watercolor sketch, on the right, of the museum was completed by
Dr. Abbe shortly before his death.
Dr. William Coley (1862–1936) was an American bone surgeon and cancer researcher, pioneer
of cancer immunotherapy. He developed a treatment based on provoking an immune response to
Dr. William Coley worked as a bone surgeon at New York Cancer Hospital (which later became
part of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center). He looked into the success rates of cancer
treatment in the past compared to his day. He found that surgery had been much more effective
in the past, before the use of antiseptics when infection was a normal side effect of surgery. For
example, one surgeon in the 1770s purportedly cured six out of every seven patients. Coley also
learned of the case of a patient at his own hospital seven years earlier, who had throat and tonsil
cancer. After surgery, there was not much hope for him. Then he came down with erysipelas, a
bacterial infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. His cancer disappeared, and Coley found
that he was still alive, seven years later.
He discovered that the human immune system could be stimulated through the administration of
killed bacterial infusions. Once stimulated, he observed, the immune system would capable of
tackling cancerous cells along with the infection. The cancerous cells would then slough off.
His clinical tests achieved a number of remissions, in patients with severe or terminal tumours.
His work was however marginalised, by the advent of radiology and radiation treatment.
The infusions of killed bacteria are now known as Coley's Toxins. They are currently not
generally available to patients suffering from cancer. One reformulation of Coley's Toxins
persists under the name Coley Fluid.
Coley developed the theory that it was the infections which had helped patients in the past to
recover from their cancer. So he began to treat patients by injecting a brew of Streptococcus
pyogenes directly into inoperable tumors. This met with much success, even after metastasis.
The treatment was most effective when it provoked a fever and a full-blown infection. Later,
Coley decided to use a mixture of dead Streptococcus pyogenes and dead Serratia marcescens
bacteria. According to Stephen Hoption Cann of the University of British Columbia, "He had
successes you simply couldn't hope for today, curing even extensive metastatic disease."
The first patient to receive Coley Vaccine was a sixteen-year-old boy with a massive abdominal
tumor. Every few days, Coley injected his vaccine directly into the tumor mass and produced the
symptoms of an infectious disease, but did not produce the disease itself. On each injection, there
was a dramatic rise in body temperature and chills. The tumour gradually diminished in size. By
May 1893, after four months of intensive treatment, the tumour was a fifth its original size. By
August, the remains of the growth were barely perceptible.
The boy received no further anticancer treatment and remained in good health until he died of a
heart attack 26 years later. Coley published his results and by the turn of the century 42
physicians from Europe and North America had reported cases of cancer that had been
successfully treated with Coley Vaccine.
Radiation therapy vs. Coley vaccine
By 1901, the development of x-rays as a cancer treatment showed great promise. In particular,
the therapy resulted in immediate tumor destruction and pain relief. Although Coley successfully
treated hundreds of patients, his superiors decided to put the emphasis on the newly invented
radiation therapy. At the time, it was thought that radiation therapy could be improved into an
effective cure for cancer. But, as we now know, radiation is not successful after metastasis.
Coley arranged for a wealthy friend to provide funds to purchase two x-ray machines for his use.
However, after several years of experience, Coley came to the conclusion that the effect of x-ray
therapy was localized, temporary and not curative. Others disagreed and cited the dangerous and
unpredictable effects, predominantly the fever caused by the bacteria, that the vaccine had upon
individuals weakened by cancer. Furthermore the creation of the vaccine had to be made to a
patient's exact needs, making the Coley Vaccine more labour intensive, time consuming and
Coley died in 1936, and his treatment method more or less died with him. There is only now a
renewed interest in his ideas.[verification needed]
The historical results of Coley Vaccine therapy are difficult to compare with modern results.
There were, however, many different formulations of Coley Vaccine. These varied greatly in
effectiveness, and there were many different treatment protocols that also varied greatly in
Michael E. DeBakey
Michael Ellis DeBakey (born Michel Dabaghi on September 7, 1908, in Lake Charles,
Louisiana, United States) is a pioneering cardiovascular surgeon and researcher. His motto is
"Strive for nothing less than excellence."
Dr. DeBakey's parents, Shaker Morris DeBakey and Raheehja Zorba, were Lebanese
immigrants. He received his bachelor's and M.D. degrees from Tulane University in New
Orleans. In 1937, Dr. DeBakey joined the Tulane faculty. He volunteered for military service
during World War II, becoming the Director of the Surgical Consultants' Division in the United
States Army Surgeon General's Office.
During his term in military service, Dr. DeBakey proposed a series of mobile field medical units
called Mobile Army Surgical Hospitals, or M.A.S.H. units, which allowed experienced medical
personnel quick access to the wounded. During the Korean War, the concept proved highly
successful, with the discovery that seriously wounded personnel who arrived at a M.A.S.H. unit
alive typically had a 97% chance of survival with prompt medical treatment.
Dr. DeBakey is best known for his pioneering work in cardiovascular surgery. In 1948, Dr.
DeBakey moved to Houston, Texas, and became chairman of the Cora and Webb Mading
Department of Surgery at the Baylor University College of Medicine. Dr. DeBakey was one of
the first to perform coronary artery bypass surgery, and in 1953 he performed the first successful
carotid endarterectomy. In recognition of his work, he received the Albert Lasker Award for
Clinical Medical Research in 1963. In 1965 Time Magazine featured Dr. DeBakey on its cover
for his pioneering work and innovations in cardiovascular surgery and the artificial heart. In
1971, he was placed on the master list of Nixon political opponents.
DeBakey worked together with Denton Cooley, while they both practiced at Baylor College of
Medicine. According to the April 18, 1969 issue of Time magazine, they had a disagreement.
Cooley implanted the first artificial heart without DeBakey, angering DeBakey.
To the amazement of his colleagues and patients, Dr. DeBakey continued to practice medicine
into an age well after most others have retired. In 1969, he received the Presidential Medal of
Freedom. During the same year, the Baylor College of Medicine separated from Baylor
University under his direction. In 1987, President Ronald Reagan awarded him the National
Medal of Science. Dr. DeBakey has operated on more than 60,000 patients, including Russian
President Boris Yeltsin, who called him "a magician of the heart" after Dr. DeBakey and a team
of American cardiothoracic surgeons, including Dr. George Noon, supervised quintuple bypass
surgery performed on Yeltsin by Russian surgeons in 1996.
Both the DeBakey High School for Health Professions and the Michael E. DeBakey Veterans
Affairs Medical Center in Houston in the Texas Medical Center in Houston are named after him.
Several atraumatic vascular surgical clamps and forceps that he introduced also bear his name.
Dr. DeBakey still practices medicine to this day. In 2008, Dr. Michael DeBakey will be 100
years old. His contributions to the field of medicine will have spanned the better part of 75 years.
He's a Health Care Hall of Famer and a Lasker Luminary. He's a recipient of The United Nations
Lifetime Achievement Award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction and The
National Medal of Science. He was given the Lifetime Achievement Award of the Foundation
for Biomedical Research and in 2000 was cited as a "Living Legend" by the Library of Congress
Recent health issues
On December 31, 2005, at age 97, Dr. DeBakey suffered an aortic dissection, the very condition
that his pioneering procedure was designed to treat. He was hospitalized at The Methodist
Hospital in Houston. Dr. DeBakey initially resisted the surgical option, but as his health
deteriorated, the Houston Methodist Hospital Ethics Committee approved the operation; on
February 9–February 10 he became the oldest patient ever to undergo the surgery for which he
was responsible. The operation lasted seven hours. After a complicated postoperative course that
required eight months in the hospital, at a cost of over one million dollars, Dr. DeBakey was
released in September 2006 and has returned to good health.
Charles R. Drew
Dr. Charles Richard Drew (June 3, 1904 – April 1, 1950) was an American physician and
medical researcher. He researched in the field of blood transfusions, developing improved
techniques for blood storage, and applied his expert knowledge in developing large-scale blood
banks early in World War II. He protested against the practice of racial segregation in the
donation of blood from donors of different races since it lacked scientific foundation. In 1943,
Drew's distinction in his profession was recognized when he became the first African American
surgeon to serve as an examiner on the American Board of Surgery.
Charles Drew was born in Washington, D.C. to Richard and Nora Drew, and was the oldest of
five children. In high school and at Amherst College, Drew excelled in athletics and became a
All-American in football as a halfback. Drew was a member of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity.
Two years after college, Drew worked as an athletic director, football coach, and science teacher
at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1928, he entered medical school at
McGill University in Montreal, Canada. Drew continued to excel in sports while at McGill, and
joined British professor Dr. John Beattie in blood research. He continued his research at
Montreal General Hospital, while there, he was an intern and resident.
Drew received a fellowship from Howard University's Medical School, enabling him to study at
Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. While at Columbia University, Dr.
Drew worked with the renowned Dr. Allen Whipple and with Dr. John Scudder on the problem
of blood storage.
The science and practice of blood transfusion had developed from early work including
preserving whole blood in refrigerated storage in World War I (see Oswald Hope Robertson) and
the practice of having hospital "blood banks" (see Bernard Fantus) in the mid-1930s. Drew
focused his own work on the challenge of separating and storing blood components, particularly
blood plasma, as this might extend storage periods. Dr. Drew earned his Doctor of Medical
Science degree from Columbia University in 1940 , with a doctoral thesis under the title Banked
Blood: A Study in Blood Preservation. While supervising this program, Drew was also able to
prove that water could help preserve blood too, thus helped lay the foundation for using "dry
plasma" in blood preservation .
Participation in Plasma For Britain
In late 1940, just after earning his doctoral thesis, Dr. Drew was called upon by John Scudder to
help set up and administer an early prototype program for collecting, testing, and distributing
blood plasma in Britain. Called Plasma for Britain, the group was organized around eight
hospitals in New York City, who would collect and test blood plasma, package it and ship it to
Britain, which by this time had a serious shortage of blood due to the effects of the Battle of
Dr. Drew created protocols and procedures for the collection, testing, and shipping of blood to
England. Total collections came to almost 15,000 people donating blood, and over 5,600 gallons
of blood plasma. However, due to racial tensions during the 1940's in America, there was a great
deal of controversy involving whether or not to use black peoples' blood plasma or to limit it to
white donors. Furthermore, when the project was turned over to the government in early 1941,
the military announced its policy of segregation, and would not mix blood from blacks and
whites, leading to segregated donation centers. Despite all his work on the project, and despite
the fact that he was the driving force behind its procedures and policies, they refused to offer him
leadership of the new project, over objection from Dr. Scudder and others, instead suggesting he
be 'assistant director' While no clear record exists of what Dr. Drew's thoughts were, it is known
he left his position there to accept the Chair of Surgery at Howard University that same year.
In 1941, Drew accepted the Chair of Surgery at Howard University in Washington, D.C. In
1943, Drew became the first African American surgeon to serve as an examiner on the American
Board of Surgery. He received the Spingarn Medal in 1944 for his contributions to medicine.
Charles R. Drew died at the age of 45 from injuries suffered in a car accident in North Carolina.
According to some reports, the nearest hospital refused to admit Dr. Drew because of his race,
and vital time was lost in taking him further away to a black hospital.
However, this conflicts with the account of Dr. John Ford, another black physician who was
traveling with Dr. Drew at the time of the accident: "We all received the very best of care. The
doctors started treating us immediately. ... I can truthfully say that no efforts were spared in the
treatment of Dr. Drew, and, contrary to popular myth, the fact that he was a Negro did not in any
way limit the care that was given to him." The nature of Dr. Drew's injuries excluded a blood
transfusion; it would have killed a man in his condition faster. A similar urban
legend circulates regarding jazz legend Bessie Smith.
Nevertheless, in M*A*S*H episode S2E09, "Dear Dad... Three", Hawkeye Pierce and Trapper
John McIntyre explain to a soldier (played by Mills Watson) who doesn't want "colored blood"
the history of blood plasma, and use the life and death of Charles Drew as an example to sway
his views on race. While there are statistically-significant correlations between
ethnicity/nationalities and blood type frequencies, all blood types are found in all ethnic/national
groups and blood can be safely transfused one person to another regardless of ethnicity if the
blood types are compatible. . The conventional 20th-century tests could not discern whether
an individual blood sample comes from an African American, a European American, or a "pure-
blooded" African.
Although racism played little direct part in Drew's death, sleep deprivation certainly did. Charles
Drew was characterized by colleagues as "tireless," which was high praise for any doctor and
reflects the standard training regimen of the profession: doctors were expected to live on less
sleep than lesser mortals, for days, weeks, or years at a time. His companions on the fatal trip (all
black doctors) reveal that they had all been working hard, with little time for sleep, and they had
been up most of the night before the crash; shortly before, they had stopped for donuts and
coffee. This problem was worsened by the lack of hotel accommodations for black doctors in the
segregated South: black doctors and other travelers stayed with families, who tended to keep
more practical hours than doctors did.
The fatal accident occurred when Drew had been driving another doctor's 1949 Buick
Roadmaster — the archetypal doctor's car in 1950 — for many sleepless hours. He apparently
fell asleep at the wheel briefly, then abruptly reawakened when the right wheels drifted off the
edge of the paved road and someone called out to him. He tried to get back on the road by
gradually steering left, but that caused the wheel rim to catch on the pavement's edge, flipping
the car. An expert stunt driver might know how to recover by moving further right and then
turning the wheel sharply left, but few drivers are taught this technique, and it is not easy to
remember when exhausted. The car rolled, the doors popped open, and Drew was hanging
halfway out the door as the car rolled over him. His injuries were extensive. Dr. John Ford was
thrown out, breaking his arm and injuring his knee.
Several motorists stopped to offer help. One white man who stopped said "It looks like you boys
are in some trouble," according to Dr. Bullock, the car's owner. Several ambulances arrived. The
first one on the scene (which was owned by a funeral parlor, as most ambulances were in 1950),
picked up Drew and Ford and took them five miles to Alamance County General Hospital. The
driver didn't try for Duke University Hospital, a much better hospital, because it was thirty miles
away. Drew was not officially admitted, because he died in the emergency room before he could
The car had no seat belt so injuries were predictably severe, although two passengers were
uninjured. When Drew and the other injured doctor were brought into the emergency room, the
doctors did not discriminate on the basis of their skin color, but soon figured out that they were
doctors and that one of them was famous. Despite the best care available in a small rural
hospital, Drew's injuries proved quickly fatal.
Luis F. Alvarez (April 1, 1853 – May 24, 1937) was a Spanish-U.S. physician and researcher
who practiced in both California and Hawaii.
Alvarez was born in La Puerta, a small village near Oviedo, Spain. His father was Eugenio
Fernandez, who was in charge of the business affairs and palace in Madrid of Don Francisco de
Paulaone, one of the Royal Princes. He was orphaned at an early age; his mother died when he
was three and his father at the age of seven. When he was 13, one of his brothers took him to
Havana where he secured a good education. He learned to speak English fluently and without an
In 1878, he was married Clementina Schutze and in 1887 graduated from Cooper Medical
College (now Stanford University) with a medical degree. After practicing in San Francisco, he
traveled to Hawaii as physician on the S.S. Australia. In Honolulu, he was asked by the
government to stay and become a government physician. Dr. Alvarez quickly learned to speak
the Hawaiian language.
In 1895, Dr. Alvarez resigned his position in Waialua to prepare himself for work as
Superintendent of a new experimental hospital for the treatment of leprosy which was to be
established in Kalihi, a suburb of Honolulu. In order to learn research bacteriology, Dr. Alvarez
went — at his own expense — for six months of intensive study at Johns Hopkins University.
On his return, he developed a method for the better diagnosis of macular leprosy. With a small
mouse-tooth forceps he would lift up a little piece of skin, snip it off with scissors, grind it into a
fluid in a small glass mortar, and then stain the fluid for Hansen's bacilli. This method or a
modification of it has been used ever since. Dr. Alvarez developed a serum by injecting Hansen's
bacilli into horses. He used this on a number of Hansen's disease patients with encouraging
Two of Dr. Alvarez' children would rise to national prominence: Mabel Alvarez became a well-
known artist and oil painter, and Walter C. Alvarez became a noted physician.
His grandson and great-grandson have also become well known: Luis Alvarez, a physicist and
Nobel Prize winner; and Walter Alvarez, Professor of Geology at the University of California,
Alvarez was a very great student of medicine throughout his entire life, and owned a large
practice up until his death from pneumonia at the age of 84.